WorldWideScience

Sample records for extreme island state

  1. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  2. A dependence modelling study of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Reis, Délia; Guerreiro Lopes, Luiz; Mendonça, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    The dependence between variables plays a central role in multivariate extremes. In this paper, spatial dependence of Madeira Island's rainfall data is addressed within an extreme value copula approach through an analysis of maximum annual data. The impact of altitude, slope orientation, distance between rain gauge stations and distance from the stations to the sea are investigated for two different periods of time. The results obtained highlight the influence of the island's complex topography on the spatial distribution of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island.

  3. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the US east coast and the Gulf of Mexico (1851 - 2009) and Japanese east coast (1951 -2009) form the basis for Weibull extreme value analyses to determine return period respective maximum wind speeds. Unidirectional generic sea state spectra are obtained by application of the empirical models...

  4. Floating Cities, Islands and States

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Many small countries are in need of additional territory. They build landfills and expensive artificial islands. The ocean covers 71 per cent of the Earth surface. Those countries (or persons of wealth) starting the early colonization of the ocean may obtain advantages through additional territory or creating their own independent state. An old idea is building a big ship. The best solution to this problem, however, is the provision of floating cities, islands, and states. The author idea is to use for floating cities, islands, and states a cheap floating platform created from a natural ice field taken from the Arctic or Antarctic oceans. These cheap platforms protected by air-film (bottom and sides) and a conventional insulating cover (top) and having a cooling system can exist for an unlimited time. They can be increased in number or size at any time, float in warm oceans, travel to different continents and countries, serve as artificial airports, harbors and other marine improvements, as well as floating c...

  5. Genetics of Rapid and Extreme Size Evolution in Island Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Melissa M; Parmenter, Michelle D; Hogan, Caley A; Ford, Irene; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ryan, Peter G; Broman, Karl W; Payseur, Bret A

    2015-09-01

    Organisms on islands provide a revealing window into the process of adaptation. Populations that colonize islands often evolve substantial differences in body size from their mainland relatives. Although the ecological drivers of this phenomenon have received considerable attention, its genetic basis remains poorly understood. We use house mice (subspecies: Mus musculus domesticus) from remote Gough Island to provide a genetic portrait of rapid and extreme size evolution. In just a few hundred generations, Gough Island mice evolved the largest body size among wild house mice from around the world. Through comparisons with a smaller-bodied wild-derived strain from the same subspecies (WSB/EiJ), we demonstrate that Gough Island mice achieve their exceptional body weight primarily by growing faster during the 6 weeks after birth. We use genetic mapping in large F(2) intercrosses between Gough Island mice and WSB/EiJ to identify 19 quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the evolution of 16-week weight trajectories: 8 QTL for body weight and 11 QTL for growth rate. QTL exhibit modest effects that are mostly additive. We conclude that body size evolution on islands can be genetically complex, even when substantial size changes occur rapidly. In comparisons to published studies of laboratory strains of mice that were artificially selected for divergent body sizes, we discover that the overall genetic profile of size evolution in nature and in the laboratory is similar, but many contributing loci are distinct. Our results underscore the power of genetically characterizing the entire growth trajectory in wild populations and lay the foundation necessary for identifying the mutations responsible for extreme body size evolution in nature. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...... for hurricane generates seas by Young (1998, 2003, and 2006), requiring maximum wind speeds, forward velocity and radius to maximum wind speed. An averaged radius to maximum sustained wind speeds, according to Hsu et al. (1998) and averaged forward speed of cyclonic storms are applied in the initial state...

  7. Searching for extremal PPT entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Kus, Marek; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a simple operational criterion allowing to judge if a given entangled state with positive partial transpose (PPTES) is extremal in the convex set of all PPTES. The criterion reduces the problem to the question of existence of solutions of a system of linear equations. We apply this criterion to search for extremal PPTES in qubit--ququart systems. We show that the only candidates for extremal PPTES have ranks of the state and its partial transposition (5,5) or (5,6) (equivalently (6,5)). While we show that in the case of (5,5) there do exist extremal states, we conjecture that there are no such states in the case of (5,6), and discuss possible ways to prove this statement.

  8. Islandness or Smallness? A Comparative Look at Political Institutions in Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Anckar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to explicate the relevance of the island dimension for political categories, for each of seven political institutions, a series of four comparisons are conducted on a global basis. The first is between small island states and all other states, the second is between small island states and larger island states, the third is between small island states and small mainland states, and the fourth is between island states and mainland states, regardless of size. The finding is that islandness links in many instances to the choice of institutional settings. Political scientists are therefore well-advised to include in their analyses islandness among the factors that shape institutional choices.

  9. Sustainable Energy Portfolios for Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Szabó

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a cost effective electricity generation portfolio for six island states for a 20-year period (2015–2035. The underlying concept investigates whether adding sizeable power capacities of renewable energy sources (RES options could decrease the overall costs and contribute to a more sustainable, indigenous electricity generation at the same time. Often, island states rely on fossil fuels which, apart from dependence on foreign resources, also includes an additional, significant transport cost. This is an extra motive to study the extent in which island states represent primary locations for RES technologies. For the aims of the present study an optimization model has been developed and following numerous runs the obtained results show that installing PV and battery capacities can delay-reduce the huge investments in fossil options in early periods. Thus, investment on RES can have a positive, long-term effect on the overall energy mix. This prompt development can happen without adding new subsidies but there is a need to address the existing socio-economic barriers with intelligent design of financing and economic instruments and capacity building as discussed in the conclusions.

  10. Caring for the Environment and the Mitigation of Natural Extreme Events in Gau Island, Fiji Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli Veitayaki

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, the villagers in Vanuaso Tikina, Gau Island, Fiji, have collaborated with the University of the South Pacific to manage their environmental resources to prepare them for difficult and challenging times ahead. This review essay seeks to publicize this island community-based experience by illustrating a range of resource management initiatives, and some of the challenges of their implementation. The experience is instructive to the rest of Fiji and other island and coastal societies where similar initiatives can be tried or further promoted.

  11. Modelling the extreme precipitation event over Madeira Island on 20 February 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Luna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the morning of the 20 February of 2010 an extreme precipitation event occurred over Madeira Island. This event triggered several flash floods and mudslides in the southern parts of the island, resulting in 42 confirmed deaths, 100 injured, and at least 8 people still missing. These extreme weather conditions were associated to a weather frontal system moving northeastwards embedded in a low pressure area centered in the Azores archipelago. This storm was one in a series of such storms that affected Portugal, Spain, Morocco and the Canary islands causing flooding and strong winds. These storms were bolstered by an unusually strong sea surface temperature gradient across the Atlantic Ocean.

    In this study, the WRF model is used to evaluate the intensity and predictability of this precipitation extreme event over the island. The synoptic/orographic nature of the precipitation is also evaluated, as well as the sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution and cumulus parameterization. Orography was found to be the main factor explaining the occurrence, amplitude and phase of precipitation over the Island.

  12. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-03

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development.

  13. Adult Continuing Education in Small States and Islands: Concept Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Small states and islands have strengths and weaknesses that affect adult continuing education: marginalization and threats to their legitimacy from economic globalization; educational globalization, with increasing credentialism and sectoralization; and limited resources for technology and teacher development. (SK)

  14. A method to characterize the different extreme waves for islands exposed to various wave regimes: a case study devoted to Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lecacheux

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a new approach devoted to the analysis of extreme waves in presence of several wave regimes. It entails discriminating the different wave regimes from offshore wave data using classification algorithms, before conducting the extreme wave analysis for each regime separately. The concept is applied to the pilot site of Reunion Island which is affected by three main wave regimes: southern waves, trade-wind waves and cyclonic waves. Several extreme wave scenarios are determined for each regime, based on real historical cases (for cyclonic waves and extreme value analysis (for non-cyclonic waves. For each scenario, the nearshore wave characteristics are modelled all around Reunion Island and the linear theory equations are used to back calculate the equivalent deep-water wave characteristics for each portion of the coast. The relative exposure of the coastline to the extreme waves of each regime is determined by comparing the equivalent deep-water wave characteristics.

    This method provides a practical framework to perform an analysis of extremes within a complex environment presenting several sources of extreme waves. First, at a particular coastal location, it allows for inter-comparison between various kinds of extreme waves that are generated by different processes and that may occur at different periods of the year. Then, it enables us to analyse the alongshore variability in wave exposition, which is a good indicator of potential runup extreme values. For the case of Reunion Island, cyclonic waves are dominant offshore around the island, with equivalent deep-water wave heights up to 18 m for the northern part. Nevertheless, due to nearshore wave refraction, southern waves may become as energetic as cyclonic waves on the western part of the island and induce similar impacts in terms of runup and submersion. This method can be easily transposed to other case studies and can be adapted, depending on the data

  15. 75 FR 44231 - Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia... Complex AGENCY: Department of Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...) Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia and...

  16. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  17. "Mosquitoes collected on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (Diptera : Culicidae)"

    OpenAIRE

    "NODA, Shinichi"

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito larval surveys were carried out on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island in August 2011. Larvae were collected from 133 natural and artificial habitats. A total of 1,761 larvae belonging to nine species including one unidentified species were collected. On Weno Island, eight species, Aedes hensilli, Ae. albopictus, Ae. lamelliferus, Aedes sp., Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. carolinensis, Cx. annulirostris and Lutzia vorax, were collected. On Romonum Island,  four sp...

  18. Extreme fluctuations and the finite lifetime of the turbulent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Gioia, Gustavo

    2010-03-01

    We argue that the transition to turbulence is controlled by large amplitude events that follow extreme distribution theory. The theory suggests an explanation for recent observations of the turbulent state lifetime which exhibit superexponential scaling behavior with Reynolds number.

  19. Peroneal island flap for wound coverage in complex injuries of the lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Akil Fazal1, Haroon-ur-Rashid1, Tahseen Cheema21Section of Orthopedics, Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USABackground: Complex injuries of the lower extremity pose a therapeutic challenge owing to limited availability of local soft tissue for coverage. One option in this region is the pedicled fasciocutaneous flap based on perforators of the peroneal artery. In this case series, we present our experience of the peroneal island pedicled flap for reconstruction of lower extremity wounds.Methods: Records of 18 cases of peroneal island flap admitted consecutively to the Section of Orthopedics at Aga Khan University Hospital from January 1996 to December of 2009 were studied and their outcomes determined.Results: The most common indication for coverage was open wounds due to a road traffic accident (n = 10, followed by burns (n = 3. The most common area exposed was the lower third of the leg followed by the middle third. The tibia was exposed in 11 patients. The flaps ranged in size from 35 cm2 to over 200 cm2. In 13 patients, the flaps healed uneventfully, while in the remaining five there was partial flap necrosis. In four of the latter patients, the residual wound healed with conservative measures only, but the fifth patient required further surgery to achieve acceptable coverage.Conclusion: The peroneal artery flap appears to be a simple, useful, and reliable flap in the armamentarium of the surgeon when planning soft tissue coverage of the lower extremity.Keywords: leg injuries, surgical flaps, lower extremity

  20. Sandy Point, Green Cay and Buck Island National Wildlife Refuges: United States Virgin Islands, Caribbean Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on United States Virgin Islands, Caribbean Islands NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This...

  1. Predicting extreme wind speeds on a tropical island for multi-peril catastrophe modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James; Moncoulon, David; Millinship, Ian; Raven, Emma

    2013-04-01

    Catastrophe models are important tools used by the reinsurance industry for assessing and managing risk. Here, we present the methods used to develop high-resolution wind hazard maps for the Indian Ocean island of La Réunion. As the recent Cyclone Dumile (January 2013) reminded us, the island is at considerable risk from the extreme weather associated with tropical cyclones. It also contains a significant proportion of the total value insured in French overseas territories. The wind maps, alongside flood and storm surge maps, were ultimately combined with exposure information in a multi-peril catastrophe model to provide probabilistic estimates of insured loss. Our wind mapping methodology used established extreme value theory statistics to estimate the annual probability of extreme wind speeds, including those exceeding the observed maxima of our 19 year record, at meteorological stations. This gave approximate wind speeds for a range of return periods at these specific locations. Since the spatial density of the stations was insufficient to resolve the numerous potential effects of the complex island topography, geographically weighted regression (GWR) models were then developed to interpolate these cyclonic wind speeds across the entire island. Factors known to affect local wind speed such as elevation, surface roughness and coastal proximity were explicitly accounted for. Using this advanced interpolation method, wind hazard maps were produced for six return periods between 1 in 10 and 1 in 1000 years. Our maps compared favourably with those of historical events, and also showed patterns of wind speed in agreement with the findings of other studies investigating the effects of topography. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) further confirmed the satisfactory performance of the models in providing a robust and comprehensive description of wind patterns during cyclone passage. Uncertainty increased with return period as more extrapolation of the limited

  2. The urban heat island dynamics during heat waves: a study of cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Leiqiu

    2016-04-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a common phenomenon describing that metropolitan areas are usually warmer than their rural surroundings. This effect is compounded by extreme heat events, which are a leading cause of weather-related human mortality in many countries worldwide. However, the spatial and diurnal variability of temperature and humidity in urban and adjacent rural areas during extreme heat events is not well measured and therefore not well understood. The recently developed dataset of near-surface air and dew temperature from MODIS atmospheric profiles and the new method for the UHI quantification--urban heat island curve are used to quantify the urban climatic changes during heat waves in cities of the United States. The enhanced and weakened UHIs are observed in various cities. The causes of UHI changes during heat waves are discussed, including climate region, vegetation type and amount, city geolocation, etc.

  3. Daily extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on rice yield—A case study over the tropical island in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Luo, Wei; Li, Hailiang; Liu, Enping; Li, Yuping

    2017-03-01

    Frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation events have significant impacts on agricultural production. Tropical agriculture has been playing an important role in national economy in China. A precise understanding of variability in extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on crop yields are of great value for farmers and policy makers at county level, particularly in tropical China where almost all agriculture is rainfed. This research has studied observed trends in extreme precipitation indices (a total of 10) during 1988-2013 over Hainan island, tropical China. Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was adopted for trend detection and the results showed that most of precipitation indices showed increasing trend. Since rice is the most important staple food in Hainan island, the impacts of extreme precipitation indices on rice yields were also analyzed through simple correlations. In general, the rainy days and rain intensity in late rice growing season showed increasing trend over Hainan island. The rice yield presented ninth-degree polynomial technological trend at all stations and increasing trend for early rice yield. Late rice yield showed a decreasing trend in some parts of Hainan island. Spearman rank correlation coefficient indicated that the correlation was more pronounced between extreme precipitation indices and yields at Haikou site for early rice, and Haikou, Sanya, and Qionghai stations for late rice, respectively. Further results also indicated that there were statistically significant positive trends of R10 and R20 (number of days with precipitation ≥10 mm and precipitation ≥20 mm, respectively) from July to November at Haikou (located in north of Hainan island), and this positive trend may be a disadvantage for late rice yield. The cut-off value of extreme precipitation indices and its correlation with rice yield anomaly indices for Hainan island provided a foundation for vulnerability assessment as well as a contribution to set up

  4. The Impact of a Barrier Island Loss on Extreme Events in the Tampa Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius eUlm

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Barrier islands characterize up to an eighth of the global coastlines. They buffer the mainland coastal areas from storm surge and wave energy from the open ocean. Changes in their shape or disappearance due to erosion may lead to an increased impact of sea level extremes on the mainland. A barrier island threatened by erosion is Egmont Key which is located in the mouth of the Tampa Bay estuary at the west-central coast of Florida.In this sensitivity study we investigate the impact a loss of Egmont Key would have on storm surge water levels and wind waves along the coastline of Tampa Bay. We first simulate still water levels in a control run over the years 1948-2010 using present-day bathymetry and then in a scenario run covering the same period with identical boundary conditions but with Egmont Key removed from the bathymetry. Return water levels are assessed for the control and the scenario runs using the Peak-over-threshold method along the entire Tampa Bay coastline. Egmont Key is found to have a significant influence on the return water levels in the Bay, especially in the northern, furthest inland parts where water levels associated with the 100-year return period increase between 5 cm and 15 cm.Additionally, wind wave simulations considering all 99.5th percentile threshold exceedances in the years 1980-2013 were conducted with the same control and scenario bathymetries. Assessing changes in return levels of significant wave heights due to the loss of Egmont Key revealed an increase of significant wave heights around today's location of the island.

  5. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

  6. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  7. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda A Pierce

    Full Text Available Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

  8. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain) using extreme value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; Gómez, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 yr, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. This is done in three steps: First, we analyze the historical eruptive series to assess independence and homogeneity of the process. Second, we perform a Weibull analysis of the distribution of repose

  9. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain using extreme value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sobradelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 yr, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. This is done in three steps: First, we analyze the historical eruptive series to assess independence and homogeneity of the process. Second, we perform a Weibull analysis of the

  10. 2015 State Geodatabase for Rhode Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  11. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  12. Spatial Bayesian hierarchical modelling of extreme sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Colm; O'Sullivan, John; Sweeney, Conor; Dias, Frédéric; Parnell, Andrew C.

    2016-11-01

    A Bayesian hierarchical framework is used to model extreme sea states, incorporating a latent spatial process to more effectively capture the spatial variation of the extremes. The model is applied to a 34-year hindcast of significant wave height off the west coast of Ireland. The generalised Pareto distribution is fitted to declustered peaks over a threshold given by the 99.8th percentile of the data. Return levels of significant wave height are computed and compared against those from a model based on the commonly-used maximum likelihood inference method. The Bayesian spatial model produces smoother maps of return levels. Furthermore, this approach greatly reduces the uncertainty in the estimates, thus providing information on extremes which is more useful for practical applications.

  13. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  14. Extreme states of matter on earth and in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2011-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures. Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview.  

  15. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Christopher; Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-09-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the 'dollar a day' measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda.

  16. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Lee

    Full Text Available Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc. are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress, self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale. Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers and in participants adopting other roles.

  17. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen M; Klement, Kathryn R; Ambler, James K; Loewald, Tonio; Comber, Evelyn M; Hanson, Sarah A; Pruitt, Bria; Sagarin, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc.) are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984)-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress), self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers) and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders) showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale). Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers) and in participants adopting other roles.

  18. A Method for Recruiting Participants from Isolated Islands of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) for Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…

  19. State of the Field: Extreme Precision Radial Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra; Arriagada, Pamela; Baluev, Roman V; Bean, Jacob L; Bouchy, Francois; Buchhave, Lars A; Carroll, Thorsten; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Dawson, Rebekah I; Diddams, Scott A; Dumusque, Xavier; Eastman, Jason D; Endl, Michael; Figueira, Pedro; Ford, Eric B; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Fournier, Paul; Furesz, Gabor; Gaudi, B Scott; Gregory, Philip C; Grundahl, Frank; Hatzes, Artie P; Hebrard, Guillaume; Herrero, Enrique; Hogg, David W; Howard, Andrew W; Johnson, John A; Jorden, Paul; Jurgenson, Colby A; Latham, David W; Laughlin, Greg; Loredo, Thomas J; Lovis, Christophe; Mahadevan, Suvrath; McCracken, Tyler M; Pepe, Francesco; Perez, Mario; Phillips, David F; Plavchan, Peter P; Prato, Lisa; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Reiners, Ansgar; Robertson, Paul; Santos, Nuno C; Sawyer, David; Segransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Tilo; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Udry, Stephane; Valenti, Jeff A; Wang, Sharon X; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Extreme Precision Radial Velocities defined circa 2015 the state of the art Doppler precision and identified the critical path challenges for reaching 10 cm/s measurement precision. The presentations and discussion of key issues for instrumentation and data analysis and the workshop recommendations for achieving this precision are summarized here. Beginning with the HARPS spectrograph, technological advances for precision radial velocity measurements have focused on building extremely stable instruments. To reach still higher precision, future spectrometers will need to produce even higher fidelity spectra. This should be possible with improved environmental control, greater stability in the illumination of the spectrometer optics, better detectors, more precise wavelength calibration, and broader bandwidth spectra. Key data analysis challenges for the precision radial velocity community include distinguishing center of mass Keplerian motion from photospheric velocities, and the proper ...

  20. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkov Boris

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI, and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale.

  1. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkov, Boris, E-mail: boris.sharkov@fair-center.eu [FAIR GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Varentsov, Dmitry [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforshung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale.

  2. Low rank extremal PPT states and unextendible product bases

    CERN Document Server

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Sollid, Per Øyvind

    2010-01-01

    It is known how to construct, in a bipartite quantum system, a unique low rank entangled mixed state with positive partial transpose (a PPT state) from an unextendible product basis (a UPB), defined as an unextendible set of orthogonal product vectors. We point out that a state constructed in this way belongs to a continuous family of entangled PPT states of the same rank, all related by non-singular product transformations, unitary or non-unitary. The characteristic property of a state $\\rho$ in such a family is that its kernel $\\Ker\\rho$ has a generalized UPB, a basis of product vectors, not necessarily orthogonal, with no product vector in $\\Im\\rho$, the orthogonal complement of $\\Ker\\rho$. The generalized UPB in $\\Ker\\rho$ has the special property that it can be transformed to orthogonal form by a product transformation. In the case of a system of dimension $3\\times 3$, we give a complete parametrization of orthogonal UPBs. This is then a parametrization of families of rank 4 entangled (and extremal) PPT ...

  3. 75 FR 43478 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... Island has applied to EPA for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to grant final authorization to Rhode Island...

  4. Extreme tsunami runup simulation at Babi Island due to 1992 Flores tsunami and Okushiri due to 1993 Hokkido tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chule Kim, Dong; Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2014-05-01

    This study is based on a series of three dimensional numerical modeling experiments to understand the tsunami run-up and inundation process at the circular shape Babi Island in the Indonesia caused by 1992 Flores earthquake tsunami and at Monai valley in Okushiri Island, west part of East (Japan) Sea caused by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. The wave field in the coastal area is modeled within the framework of fully nonlinear dispersive Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations solved using the FLOW3D code. Boundary conditions for this model were extracted from computed wave characteristics obtained from the 2D tsunami propagation model based on the shallow water equations. This model has shown it effectivity to explain extreme runup characteristics during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami (Kim et al, 2013). In case of the 1992 Flores Island tsunami the results of numerical simulation run-up results are compared with field measured run-up heights. It has good agreement with measurement and computational run-up heights. The particle velocity distribution is also computed. In the case of 1993 Okushiri tsunami the numerical simulation reproduces extreme run-up at the Monai valley (31.7 m).

  5. Theory of multivariate compound extreme value distribution and its application to extreme sea state prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Defu; WANG Liping; PANG Liang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of distribution,multivariate compound extreme value distribution(MCEVD), is introduced by compounding a discrete distribution with a multivariate continuous distribution of extreme sea events. In its engineering application the number over certain threshold level per year is fitting to Poisson distribution and the corresponding extreme sea events are fitting to Nested Logistic distribution, then the Poisson-Nested logistic trivariate compound extreme value distribution (PNLTCED) is proposed to predict extreme wave heights, periods and wind speeds in Yellow Sea. The new model gives more stable and reasonable predicted results.

  6. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain) using extreme value theory, and the recent volcanic eruption of El Hierro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; Gómez, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 years, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterise the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. Shortly after the publication of this method an eruption in the island of El Hierro took place for the first time in historical times, supporting our method and contributing towards the validation of

  7. 3000 years of solitude: extreme differentiation in the island isolates of Dalmatia, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitart, Veronique; Biloglav, Zrinka; Hayward, Caroline; Janicijevic, Branka; Smolej-Narancic, Nina; Barac, Lovorka; Pericic, Marijana; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Skaric-Juric, Tatjana; Barbalic, Maja; Polasek, Ozren; Kolcic, Ivana; Carothers, Andrew; Rudan, Pavao; Hastie, Nick; Wright, Alan; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2006-04-01

    Communities with increased shared ancestry represent invaluable tools for genetic studies of complex traits. "1001 Dalmatians" research program collects biomedical information for genetic epidemiological research from multiple small isolated populations ('metapopulation') in the islands of Dalmatia, Croatia. Random samples of 100 individuals from 10 small island settlements (n<2000 inhabitants) were collected in 2002 and 2003. These island communities were carefully chosen to represent a wide range of distinct and well-documented demographic histories. Here, we analysed their genetic make-up using 26 short tandem repeat (STR) markers, at least 5 cM apart. We found a very high level of differentiation between most of these island communities based on Wright's fixation indexes, even within the same island. The model-based clustering algorithm, implemented in STRUCTURE, defined six clusters with very distinct genetic signatures, four of which corresponded to single villages. The extent of background LD, assessed with eight linked markers on Xq13-21, paralleled the extent of differentiation and was also very high in most of the populations under study. For each population, demographic history was characterised and 12 "demographic history" variables were tentatively defined. Following stepwise regression, the demographic history variable that most significantly predicted the extent of LD was the proportion of locally born grandparents. Strong isolation and endogamy are likely to be the main forces maintaining this highly structured overall population.

  8. Climate Change and Caribbean Small Island States: The State of Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that climate change is likely to have dramatic negative effects for Caribbean small island developing states. This article considers the main economic effects that climate change is anticipated to have in these vulnerable states, charts the progress of international negotiations at the 2009 Copenhagen conference, and provides a brief analysis of the impact of the Copenhagen Accord on Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS.Although climate change has traditionally been seen solely as an environmental issue, its economic effects on vulnerable developing nations, such as Caribbean SIDS, forces a re-definition of climate change to that of a more complex union of environmental and developmental issues for these states. By highlighting some of the anticipated economic effects of climate change for Caribbean SIDS, the author aims to provide a broader context for the issue of climate change for Caribbean SIDS.

  9. NAO and extreme ocean states in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Emily; Gallagher, Sarah; Clancy, Colm; Dias, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Large scale atmospheric oscillations are known to have an influence on waves in the North Atlantic. In quantifying how the wave and wind climate of this region may change towards the end of the century due to climate change, it is useful to investigate the influence of large scale oscillations using indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO: fluctuations in the difference between the Icelandic low pressure system and the Azore high pressure system). In this study a statistical analysis of the station-based NAO index was carried out using an ensemble of EC-Earth global climate simulations, where EC-Earth is a European-developed atmosphere ocean sea-ice coupled climate model. The NAO index was compared to observations and to projected changes in the index by the end of the century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. In addition, an ensemble of EC-Earth driven WAVEWATCH III wave model projections over the North Atlantic was analysed to determine the correlations between the NAO and significant wave height (Hs) and the NAO and extreme ocean states. For the most part, no statistically significant differences were found between the distributions of observed and modelled station-based NAO or in projected distributions of the NAO. Means and extremes of Hs are projected to decrease on average by the end of this century. The 95th percentile of Hs is strongly positively correlated to the NAO. Projections of Hs extremes are location dependent and in fact, under the influence of positive NAO the 20-year return levels of Hs were found to be amplified in some regions. However, it is important to note that the projected decreases in the 95th percentile of Hs off the west coast of Ireland are not statistically significant in one of the RCP4.5 and one of the RCP8.5 simulations (me41, me83) which indicates that there is still uncertainty in the projections of higher percentiles.

  10. Future wave and wind projections for United States and United-States-affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Shope, James B.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christine A.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in future wave climates in the tropical Pacific Ocean from global climate change are not well understood. Spatially and temporally varying waves dominate coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of the islands throughout the tropical Pacific. Waves also impact coastal infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, and coastal-related economic activities of the islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast through the year 2100 using wind parameter outputs from four atmosphere-ocean global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project, Phase 5, for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 that correspond to moderately mitigated and unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. Wind fields from the global climate models were used to drive a global WAVEWATCH-III wave model and generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific for the years 1976–2005 (historical), 2026–2045 (mid-century projection), and 2085–2100 (end-of-century projection). Although the results show some spatial heterogeneity, overall the December-February extreme significant wave heights, defined as the mean of the top 5 percent of significant wave height time-series data modeled within a specific period, increase from present to mid-century and then decrease toward the end of the century; June-August extreme wave heights increase throughout the century within the Central region of the study area; and September-November wave heights decrease strongly throughout the 21st century, displaying the largest and most widespread decreases of any season. Peak wave periods increase east of the International Date Line during the December-February and June-August seasons under RCP4.5. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, wave periods decrease west of the International Date Line during December-February but increase in the eastern half of the study area. Otherwise, wave periods decrease

  11. Sensitivity of the WRF model to the lower boundary in an extreme precipitation event - Madeira island case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, J. C.; Carvalho, A. C.; Carvalho, M. J.; Luna, T.; Rocha, A.

    2014-08-01

    The advances in satellite technology in recent years have made feasible the acquisition of high-resolution information on the Earth's surface. Examples of such information include elevation and land use, which have become more detailed. Including this information in numerical atmospheric models can improve their results in simulating lower boundary forced events, by providing detailed information on their characteristics. Consequently, this work aims to study the sensitivity of the weather research and forecast (WRF) model to different topography as well as land-use simulations in an extreme precipitation event. The test case focused on a topographically driven precipitation event over the island of Madeira, which triggered flash floods and mudslides in the southern parts of the island. Difference fields between simulations were computed, showing that the change in the data sets produced statistically significant changes to the flow, the planetary boundary layer structure and precipitation patterns. Moreover, model results show an improvement in model skill in the windward region for precipitation and in the leeward region for wind, in spite of the non-significant enhancement in the overall results with higher-resolution data sets of topography and land use.

  12. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Erikson, Li; Hegermiller, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976–2005), mid-, and end-of-century time periods. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-of-century June–August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December–February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions often rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June–August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds’ influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell or eastern shift of storm tracks. The projected changes in extreme wave heights, directions of extreme events, and frequencies at which extreme events occur will likely result in changes to the morphology and sustainability of island nations.

  13. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2010-08-01

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. Using a large suite of climate model experiments, we find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2°C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. We also find that the intensification of hot extremes is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2°C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  14. Extreme Violation of Local Realism in Quantum Hypergraph States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachechiladze, Mariami; Budroni, Costantino; Gühne, Otfried

    2016-02-19

    Hypergraph states form a family of multiparticle quantum states that generalizes the well-known concept of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and more broadly graph states. We study the nonlocal properties of quantum hypergraph states. We demonstrate that the correlations in hypergraph states can be used to derive various types of nonlocality proofs, including Hardy-type arguments and Bell inequalities for genuine multiparticle nonlocality. Moreover, we show that hypergraph states allow for an exponentially increasing violation of local realism which is robust against loss of particles. Our results suggest that certain classes of hypergraph states are novel resources for quantum metrology and measurement-based quantum computation.

  15. Extremal Entangled Four-Qubit Pure States with Respect to Multiple Entropy Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ying; LIU Dan; ZENG Gui-Hua; ZHAO Xin; Moon Ho Lee; LONG Gui-Lu

    2008-01-01

    Four-qubit entanglement has been investigated using a recent proposed entanglement measure, multiple entropy measures (MEMS). We have performed optimization for the nine different families of states of four-qubit system. Some extremal entangled states have been found.

  16. Extreme changes to barrier islands along the central Gulf of Mexico coast during Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 5C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, Asbury; Wright, Wayne; Lillycrop, Jeff; Howd, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary; Guy, Kristy K.; Morgan, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused extreme changes to the barrier islands of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Dauphin Island, Ala., migrated landward and stranded the remains of its oceanfront row homes in the sea. Chandeleur Islands, La., were completely stripped of their sand, leaving only marshy outcrops in the storm's wake.

  17. Extreme ("pathological") demand avoidance in autism: a general population study in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Gillberg, I Carina; Thompson, Lucy; Biskupsto, Rannvá; Billstedt, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Research into Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA), which has been suggested to be a subgroup within the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is almost nonexistent in spite of the frequent reference to the condition in clinical practice. The total population of 15 to 24-year-olds in the Faroe Islands was screened for ASD, and 67 individuals were identified who met diagnostic criteria for ASD (corresponding to a general population prevalence of ASD of almost 1 %). Of these 67, 50 had parents who were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-11) which contains 15 "PDA-specific" items. Nine individuals met criteria for "possible clinical diagnosis of PDA", meaning that almost one in five of all with ASD also had indications of having had PDA in childhood, and that 0.18 % of the total population had had the combination of ASD and PDA. However, at the time of assessment, only one of the 9 individuals with possible PDA still met "full criteria". PDA possibly constitutes a considerable minority of all cases with ASD diagnosed in childhood, but criteria for the condition are unlikely to be still met in later adolescence and early adult life.

  18. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie A.

    2016-06-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976-2005), mid-century, and end-century time periods for the December-February and June-August seasons. The December-February regional wave climate is dominated by strong winds and large swell from extratropical cyclones in the north Pacific while the June-August season brings smaller waves generated by the trade winds and swell from Southern Hemisphere extratropical storms. Extreme significant wave heights decreased ( 10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing RCP 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing RCP 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-century June-August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December-February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June-August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds' influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell. The results of this study underscore that December-February large wave events will become smaller and less frequent in most regions, reducing the likelihood and magnitude of wave

  19. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  20. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  1. Distribution of mosquito larvae on kosrae island, kosrae state, the federated States of micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Sota; Toma, Takako; Taulung, Livinson

    2013-12-01

    Surveys of mosquito larvae were carried out in six areas of Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, the Federated States of Micronesia in December 2009 and June 2012. A total of 962 larvae of six species were collected from 106 natural and artificial habitats. They were identified as Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. marshallensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. annulirostris, and Cx. kusaiensis. This is the first report from Kosrae Island for three of these species-Ae. marshallensis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. annulirostris. The most abundant species was Ae. albopictus, followed by Ae. marshallensis, and these two species were found in all areas. Relatively large numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. kusaiensis were found in five areas. Fewer Cx. annulirostris were found, and only in three areas. Aedes aegypti larvae were collected from a single habitat at Tafunsak in 2009. To prevent the outbreak of dengue fever, environmental management should focus on the destruction, alteration, disposal and recycling of containers that produce larger numbers of adult Aedes mosquitoes.

  2. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Nasir [Climate Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  3. Forecasting extreme wave events in moderate and high sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Anne Karin; Reistad, Magnar; Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta Maria

    2013-04-01

    Empirical studies on measurements have not yet come to conclusive relations between occurrence of rogue waves and - parameters which could be forecasted . Theoretical and tank experiments have demonstrated that high spectral peakedness and low spectral width combined (high Benjamin-Feir instability index, Onorato et al., 2006) give higher probability of rogue wave occurrence. Directional spread seems to reduce the probability of occurrence of rogue waves in these studies. Many years of experience with forecasting and discussions with people working in ocean environment indicate that rogue waves may as well occur in crossing seas. This was also indicated in a study in the Maxwave project (Toffoli et al., 2003) and the EXTREME SEAS project (Toffoli et al., 2011). We have here experimented with some indexes describing both high BFI and crossing seas and run the WAM model for some North Sea storm cases. Wave distributions measured at Ekofisk are analysed in the different cases. References • Onorato, M., Osborne, A., Serio, M., Cavaleri, L., Brandini, C., and Stansberg, C.: Extreme waves, modulational instability and second order theory: wave flume experiments on irregular waves,Europ. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 25, 586-601, 2006. • Toffoli, A., Lefevre, J.M., Monbaliu, J., Savina, H., and Bitner-Gregersen, E., "Freak Waves:Clues for Prediction in Ship Accidents?", Proc. ISOPE'2003 Conf. Hawai, USA, 2003. • Toffoli A., Bitner-Gregersen E. M., Osborne A. R., Serio M. Monbaliu J., Onorato M. (2011) Extreme Waves in Random Crossing Seas: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06605, 5 pp. doi: 10.1029/2011.

  4. Extremal quantum correlations: Experimental study with two-qubit states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiuri, A.; Mataloni, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), L.go E. Fermi 6, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Vallone, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Via Panisperna 89/A, Compendio del Viminale, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Paternostro, M. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    We explore experimentally the space of two-qubit quantum-correlated mixed states, including frontier states as defined by the use of quantum discord and von Neumann entropy. Our experimental setup is flexible enough to allow for high-quality generation of a vast variety of states. We address quantitatively the relation between quantum discord and a recently suggested alternative measure of quantum correlations.

  5. Entanglement and extreme spin squeezing of unpolarized states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, Giuseppe; Apellaniz, Iagoba; Kleinmann, Matthias; Lücke, Bernd; Klempt, Carsten; Tóth, Géza

    2017-01-01

    We present criteria to detect the depth of entanglement in macroscopic ensembles of spin-j particles using the variance and second moments of the collective spin components. The class of states detected goes beyond traditional spin-squeezed states by including Dicke states and other unpolarized states. The criteria derived are easy to evaluate numerically even for systems of very many particles and outperform past approaches, especially in practical situations where noise is present. We also derive analytic lower bounds based on the linearization of our criteria, which make it possible to define spin-squeezing parameters for Dicke states. In addition, we obtain spin squeezing parameters also from the condition derived in (Sørensen and Mølmer 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 4431). We also extend our results to systems with fluctuating number of particles.

  6. Start-up Success in a Small Island State: A Study among Entrepreneurs in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on entrepreneurs in the small island state of Malta and investigates whether starting up and running an enterprise is facilitated or hindered by being in a small island environment. Specifically it asks (1 whether being on a small island, on the periphery of a major market facilitates or hinders entrepreneurship and start-up success; (2 whether Malta’s cultural context and enterprise environment affect entrepreneurship and start-up success; (3 what the key success factors among Maltese start-ups are; and (4 how are creativity and innovation reflected in Maltese start-ups. Qualitative research among 13 start-ups is supported by telephone-based research among a sample of 90 respondents. Findings contribute to the pool of business expertise and context-specific information from small island states that is often missing from the international literature.

  7. 75 FR 57188 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... and Customer Assistance, tel: (401) 222-6822 and (ii) EPA Region I Library, 5 Post Office Square, 1st..., if a commenter wants a State not to adopt a Federal rule such as the Zinc Fertilizer Rule but rather... Island must meet in order to obtain authorization for these particular rules. While States need not...

  8. Extreme flux states of NGC 4151 observed with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Lubinski, P; Walter, R; Paltani, S; Beckmann, V; Soldi, S; Ferrigno, C; Courvoisier, T J -L

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral analysis of all INTEGRAL data obtained so far for the X-ray-bright Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. We also use all contemporaneous data from RXTE, XMM-Newton, Swift and Suzaku. We find a linear correlation between the medium and hard-energy X-ray fluxes measured by INTEGRAL, which indicates an almost constant spectral index over six years. The majority of INTEGRAL observations were made when the source was either at a very bright or very dim hard-X-ray state. We find that thermal Comptonization models applied to the bright state yields the plasma temperature of ~ 50-70 keV and its optical depth of ~ 1.3-2.6, depending on the assumed source geometry. For the dim state, these parameters are in the ranges of ~ 180-230 keV and ~ 0.3-0.7, respectively. The Compton parameter is y ~ 1 for all the spectra, indicating a stable geometry. Using this result, we can determine the reflection effective solid angles associated with the close and distant reprocessing media as ~ 0.3x2pi and 0.2x2pi...

  9. Extreme genetic heterogeneity among the nine major tribal Taiwanese island populations detected with a new generation Y23 STR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaoshu; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-09-01

    The Taiwanese aborigines have been regarded as the source populations for the Austronesian expansion that populated Oceania to the east and Madagascar off Africa to the West. Although a number of genetic studies have been performed on some of these important tribes, the scope of the investigations has been limited, varying in the specific populations examined as well as the maker systems employed. This has made direct comparison among studies difficult. In an attempt to alleviate this lacuna, we investigate, for the first time, the genetic diversity of all nine major Taiwanese aboriginal tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou and Yami) utilizing a new generation multiplex Y-STR system that allows for the genotyping of 23 loci from a single amplification reaction. This comprehensive approach examining 293 individuals from all nine main tribes with the same battery of forensic markers provides for the much-needed equivalent data essential for comparative analyses. Our results have uncovered that these nine major aboriginal populations exhibit limited intrapopulation genetic diversity and are highly heterogeneous from each other, possibly the result of endogamy, isolation, drift and/or unique ancestral populations. Specifically, genetic diversity, discrimination capacity, fraction of unique haplotypes and the most frequent haplotypes differ among the nine tribes, with the Tsou possessing the lowest values for the first three of these parameters. The phylogenetic analyses performed indicate that the genetic diversity among all nine tribes is greater than the diversity observed among the worldwide reference populations examined, indicating an extreme case of genetic heterogeneity among these tribes that have lived as close neighbors for thousands of years confined to the limited geographical area of an island.

  10. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin

    2009-09-01

    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  11. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-04-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed.

  12. Modified Inverse First Order Reliability Method (I-FORM) for Predicting Extreme Sea States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-09-01

    Environmental contours describing extreme sea states are generated as the input for numerical or physical model simulation s as a part of the stand ard current practice for designing marine structure s to survive extreme sea states. Such environmental contours are characterized by combinations of significant wave height ( ) and energy period ( ) values calculated for a given recurrence interval using a set of data based on hindcast simulations or buoy observations over a sufficient period of record. The use of the inverse first - order reliability method (IFORM) i s standard design practice for generating environmental contours. In this paper, the traditional appli cation of the IFORM to generating environmental contours representing extreme sea states is described in detail and its merits and drawbacks are assessed. The application of additional methods for analyzing sea state data including the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data under consideration is proposed. A reexamination of the components of the IFORM application to the problem at hand including the use of new distribution fitting techniques are shown to contribute to the development of more accurate a nd reasonable representations of extreme sea states for use in survivability analysis for marine struc tures. Keywords: In verse FORM, Principal Component Analysis , Environmental Contours, Extreme Sea State Characteri zation, Wave Energy Converters

  13. Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Júnior, D. S., E-mail: damiao.vieira@ifsudestemg.edu.br [Departamento Acadêmico de Matemática, Física e Estatística, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais - Câmpus Rio Pomba, Rio Pomba, Minas Gerais 36180-000 (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil); Leonel, S. A., E-mail: sidiney@fisica.ufjf.br; Dias, R. A., E-mail: radias@fisica.ufjf.br; Toscano, D., E-mail: danilotoscano@fisica.ufjf.br; Coura, P. Z., E-mail: pablo@fisica.ufjf.br; Sato, F., E-mail: sjfsato@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2014-09-07

    In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurations—vortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned states—type C—as a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortex—type C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.

  14. Engineering extremal two-qubit entangled states with maximally entangled Gaussian light

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Paternostro, M

    2010-01-01

    We study state engineering induced by bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and light fields prepared in two-mode Gaussian states. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-vs-global-purity plane. We show that two-mode Gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. The target two-qubit entanglement is determined quantitatively only by the purities of the two-mode Gaussian resource. Thus, a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode Gaussian states is sufficient to control completely the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic scenarios of cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  15. Reflections on small island states and the international climate change negotiations (COP21, Paris, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hoad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest and most significant round of multilateral climate negotiations (COP21 takes place in Paris (30/11 to 11/12/2015. Like other participants and signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, small island states have submitted contributions (INDCs towards reducing emissions as a precursor to the creation of a post-Kyoto global emissions framework. This reflection outlines their contributions and examines the underlying dynamics of small island INDCs as they attempt to engage with the process of international negotiation. Preliminary findings confirm the need for small island states to be supported financially and technically by global institutional mechanisms in order to develop the capacity to deal with climate change.

  16. Historical changes in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands and the roles of extreme storms, sea level, and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    An historical analysis of images and documents shows that the Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are undergoing rapid land loss and translocation. The barrier island chain formed and grew at a time when there was a surplus of sand in the alongshore sediment transport system, a condition that no longer prevails. The islands, except Cat, display alternating wide and marrow segments. Wide segments generally were products of low rates of inlet migration and spit elongation that resulted in well-defined ridges and swales formed by wave refraction along the inlet margins. In contrast, rapid rates of inlet migration and spit elongation under conditions of surplus sand produced low, narrow, straight barrier segments. Since the mid 1800s, average rates of land loss for all the MS islands accelerated systematically while maintaining consistency from island to island. In contrast, Dauphin Island, off the Alabama coast, gained land during the early 20th century and then began to lose land at rates comparable to those of the MS barriers. There is an inverse relationship between island size and percentage of land reduction for each barrier such that Horn Island lost 24% and Ship Island lost 64% of its area since the mid 1800s. Ship Island is particularly vulnerable to storm-driven land losses because topographic and bathymetric boundary conditions focus wave energy onto the island. The three predominant morphodynamic processes associated with land loss are: (1) unequal lateral transfer of sand related to greater updrift erosion compared to downdrift deposition, (2) barrier narrowing resulting from simultaneous erosion of the Gulf and Soundside shores, and (3) barrier segmentation related to storm breaching. The western three fourths of Dauphin Island are migrating landward as a result of storms that erode the Gulf shore, overwash the island, and deposit sand in Mississippi Sound. Petit Bois, Horn, and Ship Islands have migrated westward as a result of predominant

  17. The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement: outcomes and their impacts on small island states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hoad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This update reflects upon the outcomes of the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations held in Paris in December 2015 (COP21. As the dust settles, this update explores the temperature targets, loss and damage, climate justice and what the agreement might mean for small island states.

  18. TOURISM MULTIPLIERS FOR A SMALL CARIBBEAN ISLAND STATE; THE CASE OF ARUBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Albert E.; Van De Steeg, Annemieke M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the importance of tourism for Aruba, a small Caribbean island state within the Kingdom of The Netherlands. We present an input-output table based on the National Accounts and the Tourism Satellite Account for Aruba, with inbound tourism explicitly included, for the year 1999.

  19. TOURISM MULTIPLIERS FOR A SMALL CARIBBEAN ISLAND STATE; THE CASE OF ARUBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Albert E.; Van De Steeg, Annemieke M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the importance of tourism for Aruba, a small Caribbean island state within the Kingdom of The Netherlands. We present an input-output table based on the National Accounts and the Tourism Satellite Account for Aruba, with inbound tourism explicitly included, for the year 1999.

  20. State-space geometry, non-extremal black holes and Kaluza-Klein monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We examine the statistical nature of the charged anticharged non-extremal black holes in string theory. From the perspective of the intrinsic Riemannian Geometry, the first principle of the statistical mechanics shows that the stability properties of general nonextremal nonlarge charged black brane solutions are divulged from the positivity of the corresponding principle minors of the space-state metric tensor. Under the addition of the Kaluza-Klein monopoles, a novel aspect of the Gaussian fluctuations demonstrates that the canonical fluctuations can be ascertained without any approximation. We offer the state-space geometric implication for the most general non-extremal black brane configurations in string theory.

  1. Reforms for the expansion of electricity access and rural electrification in small island developing states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small island developing states face unique constraints to the provision of electricity services in rural areas, given their geographical features, and the small scale of government bureaucracies and markets. In small island developing states situated in the Pacific Ocean, these factors have resulted in some of the lowest electrification rates in the world. Seventy percent of Pacific islanders are without access to power; a figure that is equivalent to access rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, despite higher income levels in the Pacific. Past efforts by government and aid organizations to expand electricity access in rural areas have achieved negligible success, given regulatory frameworks that do not encourage grid extension, and the absence of effective institutional frameworks for operation and maintenance of decentralized systems. This paper argues that the binding constraint to rural electrification in Pacific small island developing states is the failure of regulatory frameworks to establish a viable business model for investment. Regulatory reform is needed that creates commercial incentives for private and public sector power utilities to provide power in rural areas, both through extension of electricity networks and decentralized power provision. Regulatory reform could also address past problems with the operation and maintenance of decentralized systems.

  2. Universality in the flooding of regular islands by chaotic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcker, Arnd; Ketzmerick, Roland; Monastra, Alejandro G

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the structure of eigenstates in systems with a mixed phase space in terms of their projection onto individual regular tori. Depending on dynamical tunneling rates and the Heisenberg time, regular states disappear and chaotic states flood the regular tori. For a quantitative understanding we introduce a random matrix model. The resulting statistical properties of eigenstates as a function of an effective coupling strength are in very good agreement with numerical results for a kicked system. We discuss the implications of these results for the applicability of the semiclassical eigenfunction hypothesis.

  3. Wind and Wave Setup Contributions to Extreme Sea Levels at a Tropical High Island: A Stochastic Cyclone Simulation Study for Apia, Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Karl Hoeke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind-wave contributions to tropical cyclone (TC-induced extreme sea levels are known to be significant in areas with narrow littoral zones, particularly at oceanic islands. Despite this, little information exists in many of these locations to assess the likelihood of inundation, the relative contribution of wind and wave setup to this inundation, and how it may change with sea level rise (SLR, particularly at scales relevant to coastal infrastructure. In this study, we explore TC-induced extreme sea levels at spatial scales on the order of tens of meters at Apia, the capitol of Samoa, a nation in the tropical South Pacific with typical high-island fringing reef morphology. Ensembles of stochastically generated TCs (based on historical information are combined with numerical simulations of wind waves, storm-surge, and wave setup to develop high-resolution statistical information on extreme sea levels and local contributions of wind setup and wave setup. The results indicate that storm track and local morphological details lead to local differences in extreme sea levels on the order of 1 m at spatial scales of less than 1 km. Wave setup is the overall largest contributor at most locations; however, wind setup may exceed wave setup in some sheltered bays. When an arbitrary SLR scenario (+1 m is introduced, overall extreme sea levels are found to modestly decrease relative to SLR, but wave energy near the shoreline greatly increases, consistent with a number of other recent studies. These differences have implications for coastal adaptation strategies.

  4. Estimating the freshwater-lens thickness of atoll islands in the Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. T.; Jenson, J. W.; Taboroši, D.

    2013-03-01

    The water resources of the 32 atolls of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) are under continual threat from El Niño-induced droughts and other natural hazards. With government policies emphasizing sustainable development of atoll-island communities, local managers are in need of tools for predicting changes in the availability of fresh groundwater, which communities depend upon during droughts that incapacitate rain-catchment systems. An application of a recently developed, readily portable algebraic model is demonstrated here, to estimate the freshwater-lens thickness of atoll islands in the FSM, a key component of FSM groundwater resource assessment. Specifically, the model provides estimates of the lens thickness of atoll islands in the FSM during normal and drought conditions. The model was tested for use in the FSM through comparison with available lens data under both average rainfall conditions and intense drought conditions, and then applied to major islands of each atoll within the FSM. Results indicate that out of 105 major islands on FSM atolls, only six would likely retain sufficient groundwater to sustain the local community during an intense drought.

  5. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  6. Extreme Appraisals of Internal States and Bipolar Symptoms: The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal states. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…

  7. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A; Madoff, David C

    2015-07-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  8. Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States: year-end update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasek, P; Goree, L J

    1993-12-21

    A brief description is given of the background behind the Small Island States Global Conference scheduled for March 1994. Preliminary meetings led to the formation of a draft program of action pertaining to climatic change and sea level increases, natural and environmental disasters, freshwater resources, management of wastes, coastal and marine resources, land and energy resources, tourism and biodiversity resources, regional institutions and technical cooperation, and a variety of other topics. Little agreement was reached on implementation, monitoring, and review among member states, which called for additional meetings. The World Coast Conference, held in November 1993, focused on progressive sustainable development and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). Participants agreed on the necessity to 1) strengthen state's capabilities for ICZM, 2) identify priorities, 3) set up comprehensive and flexible assessment mechanisms, 4) coordinate activities at all levels, and 5) address longterm concerns. Only two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) sent reports on donor activities. Host country meetings were held in Barbados in preparation for the planned 1994 Conference and settlement of logistics. CNN will provide television coverage of the Conference and produce documentaries on small island states. General Assembly highlights included summary statements by Belgium, Vanuatu, Maldives, the Caribbean community, Korea, and Australia members. The Barbados Declaration, which is in process and will be adopted in some form at the 1994 Conference, may incorporate elements from the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The Ecojournalism workshop scheduled for Jamaica in January 1994 is aiming to instill awareness of the 1994 Conference and small island issues. 157 NGOs have received accreditation for the 1994 Conference, of which 50 are from small island states, 50 from developed countries, and 53 from nonisland developing countries. The NGO Liaison Committee

  9. Sharpness-induced energy shifts of quantum well states in Pb islands on Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wen-Yuan; Lu, Shin-Ming; Su, Wei-Bin; Liao, Chun-Chieh; Hoffmann, Germar; Tsai, Tsong-Ru; Chang, Chia-Seng

    2017-03-01

    We elucidate that the tip sharpness in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can be characterized through the number of field-emission (FE) resonances. A higher number of FE resonances indicates higher sharpness. We observe empty quantum well (QW) states in Pb islands on Cu(111) under different tip sharpness levels. We found that QW states observed by sharper tips always had lower energies, revealing negative energy shifts. This sharpness-induced energy shift originates from an inhomogeneous electric field in the STM gap. An increase in sharpness increases the electric field inhomogeneity, that is, enhances the electric field near the tip apex, but weakens the electric field near the sample. As a result, higher sharpness can increase the electronic phase in vacuum, causing the lowering of QW state energies. Moreover, the behaviors of negative energy shift as a function of state energy are entirely different for Pb islands with a thickness of two and nine atomic layers. This thickness-dependent behavior results from the electrostatic force in the STM gap decreasing with increasing tip sharpness. The variation of the phase contributed from the expansion deformation induced by the electrostatic force in a nine-layer Pb island is significantly greater, sufficient to effectively negate the increase of electronic phase in vacuum.

  10. A First-Principles Multi-phase Equation of State of Carbon under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, A A; Benedict, X L; Young, D A; Schwegler, E; Bonev, S A

    2008-02-01

    We describe the construction of a multi-phase equation of state for carbon at extreme pressures based on ab initio electronic structure calculations of two solid phases (diamond and BC8) and the liquid. Solid-phase free energies are built from knowledge of the cold curves and phonon calculations, together with direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of the equation of state, which are used to extract anharmonic corrections to the phonon free energy. The liquid free energy is constructed based on results from molecular dynamics calculations and constraints determined from previously calculated melting curves, assuming a simple solid-like free energy model. The resulting equation of state is extended to extreme densities and temperatures with a Thomas Fermi-based free energy model. Comparisons to available experimental results are discussed.

  11. Modeled changes in extreme wave climates of the tropical Pacific over the 21st century: Implications for U.S. and U.S.-Affiliated atoll islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, J.B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast for 2081–2100 using output from four coupled atmosphere–ocean global climate models for representative concentration pathway scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Global climate model wind fields were used to drive the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific. December–February 95th percentile extreme significant wave heights under both climate scenarios decreased by 2100 compared to 1976–2010 historical values. Trends under both scenarios were similar, with the higher-emission RCP8.5 scenario displaying a greater decrease in extreme significant wave heights than where emissions are reduced in the RCP4.5 scenario. Central equatorial Pacific Islands displayed the greatest departure from historical values; significant wave heights decreased there by as much as 0.32 m during December–February and associated wave directions rotated approximately 30° clockwise during June–August compared to hindcast data.

  12. Serological study of brucellosis and leptospirosis in equines of island Maiandeua (Algodoal) state of Para

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the seroepidemiological profile of brucellosis and leptospirosis in horses traction Island Maiandeua, state of Pará. In two distinct periods, blood samples were collected from 52 animals of both sexes and different ages (2 to 17 years), totaling 104 samples. For the research of antibodies anti-Brucella abortus were used in rapid agglutination test in plate. In the first harvest, none animal was positive, however in the second harvest there were three animals...

  13. Properties and construction of extreme bipartite states having positive partial transpose

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the set E of extreme points of the compact convex set of PPT states (i.e., the states having positive semidefinite partial transpose) of a bipartite MxN quantum system. Let E(M,N,r) denote the subset of E consisting of states of rank r which are supported on MxN. We show that for M,N>2 the sets E(M,N,M+N-2) are nonempty. On the other hand we show that for M,N>3 the sets E(M,N,N+1) are empty. It is known that the set E(M,N,MN) is empty, and we show that also the set E(M,N,MN-1) is empty. We divide the set of all states into the good and the bad states (the definition is too technical to be given here). We show that the good states have many good properties.

  14. Extreme Vortex States and the Growth of Enstrophy in 3D Incompressible Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Diego

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation we study extreme vortex states defined as incompressible velocity fields with prescribed enstrophy $E_0$ which maximize the instantaneous rate of growth of enstrophy $dE/dt$. While in the limit of vanishing enstrophy these vortex states can be found analytically, for finite enstrophy values they are computed numerically by solving a constrained variational optimization problem using a suitable gradient method. We provide a thorough characterization of these extreme vortex states and, in particular, show that the Taylor-Green vortex, which was used as the initial condition suspected of triggering singular behavior in a number of earlier studies, is in fact a local maximizer of $dE/dt$ in the limit of vanishing enstrophy $E_0$. We also confirm the findings of the seminal study by Lu & Doering (2008) that these extreme vortex states saturate (up to a numerical prefactor) the fundamental bound $dE/dt 0$. Using an estimate of the constant $C$ obtained numerically we demarcate sets of ini...

  15. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohee, Romeela [University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Mauthoor, Sumayya, E-mail: sumayya.mauthoor@umail.uom.ac.mu [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  16. Heat-related deaths after an extreme heat event--four states, 2012, and United States, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    On June 29, 2012, a rapidly moving line of intense thunderstorms with high winds swept across the midwestern and eastern United States, causing widespread damage and power outages. Afterward, the area experienced extreme heat, with maximum temperatures exceeding 100°F (37.8°C). This report describes 32 heat-related deaths in Maryland, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia that occurred during the 2 weeks following the storms and power outages. Median age of the decedents was 65 years, and most of the excessive heat exposures occurred within homes. During 1999-2009, an annual average of 658 heat-related deaths occurred in the United States. Heat-related deaths are preventable, and heat response plans should be in place before an extreme heat event (EHE). Interventions should focus on identifying and limiting heat exposure among vulnerable populations.

  17. Sri Lanka: An Ethnocratic State Endangering Positive Peace in the Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmanusan Balasundaram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although proclaimed as a democratic republic, the Sri Lankan state is strongly controlled and ruled by Sinhala Buddhist influence due to a deep engrained belief that the island belongs to the Sinhala Buddhists. The modus operandi of the Sri Lankan state apparatus outlines the ethnocratic characteristics of the state. This mono-ethnic and mono-religious attitude has led to the widening and deepening of the discrimination against a particular ethnic group known as the Tamils who traditionally inhabit the North and East of the island. Ethnocracy continues to be defended and justified by the state in the name of sovereignty, territorial integrity and national security and has led to further polarization of the already divided ethnic groups. As a consequence and outcome of the ethnocratic nature of the Sri Lankan state, a bloody war erupted between successive governments of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. After nearly 38 years the prolonged war came to a brutal end in May 2009 amidst blatant violations of international law. However, the root causes of this conflict, which occurred due to ethnocratic nature of the state, have not yet been addressed resulting in the continuation of the ethnic conflict despite the end of the war.

  18. Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons....

  19. Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons....

  20. Bailey's Ecoregions and Subregions of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is commonly called Bailey's ecoregions and shows ecosystems of regional extent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Four...

  1. C-CAP United States Virgin Islands, St. Thomas 2003-2007-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 2003-era and 2007-era classifications of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands and can be used to analyze change. This data set...

  2. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  3. Validation of the SF-6D Health State Utilities Measure in Lower Extremity Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Gundle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Health state utilities measures are preference-weighted patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments that facilitate comparative effectiveness research. One such measure, the SF-6D, is generated from the Short Form 36 (SF-36. This report describes a psychometric evaluation of the SF-6D in a cross-sectional population of lower extremity sarcoma patients. Methods. Patients with lower extremity sarcoma from a prospective database who had completed the SF-36 and Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS were eligible for inclusion. Computed SF-6D health states were given preference weights based on a prior valuation. The primary outcome was correlation between the SF-6D and TESS. Results. In 63 pairs of surveys in a lower extremity sarcoma population, the mean preference-weighted SF-6D score was 0.59 (95% CI 0.4–0.81. The distribution of SF-6D scores approximated a normal curve (skewness = 0.11. There was a positive correlation between the SF-6D and TESS (r=0.75, P<0.01. Respondents who reported walking aid use had lower SF-6D scores (0.53 versus 0.61, P=0.03. Five respondents underwent amputation, with lower SF-6D scores that approached significance (0.48 versus 0.6, P=0.06. Conclusions. The SF-6D health state utilities measure demonstrated convergent validity without evidence of ceiling or floor effects. The SF-6D is a health state utilities measure suitable for further research in sarcoma patients.

  4. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development for small island developing states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Cohen, Madeline A.; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Espinel, Zelde; McLean, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In contrast to continental nations, the world's 52 small island developing states (SIDS) are recognized as a collective of countries that experience disproportionate challenges for sustainable development related to their geography, small size, and physical isolation. These same states also face elevated risks for disaster incidence and consequences particularly in the realms of climate change, sea level rise, natural disasters (tropical cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes), and marine hazardous materials spills. Cyclone Winston's direct impact on Fiji in 2016 and Cyclone Pam's landfall over Vanuatu in 2015 provide case examples illustrating the special vulnerabilities of the SIDS.

  5. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States in the next three decades (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2010-12-01

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. One important source of climate change impact is extreme heat, which can cause substantial damage, including to human health, agricultural systems, food security, and energy and water supply and delivery. Because the atmospheric conditions that cause hot extremes can result from both large- and fine-scale climate processes, we quantify the risk of extreme heat in the United States using a high-resolution, transient, multi-decadal, ensemble climate model experiment, along with a large suite of global climate model experiments. We find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2 degrees C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. This intensification of hot extremes includes substantial increases in the occurrence of the hottest season and longest heat wave of the second half of the 20th century. We find that the intensification is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. Further, the sign of soil-moisture change and coupling with temperature and precipitation is robust across the climate model ensembles. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2 degrees C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  6. The vulnerability of small island States to sea level rise: the need for holistic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J

    1990-09-01

    There is uncertainty about climate change and its socioenvironmental implications, but the vulnerability of small island states to hazardous events is likely to become increasingly significant. It will not be a normally benign sea that rises but the incidence of storms and cyclones can be assumed to increase with tropical sea-surface temperatures. The proportional socioeconomic impact of tropical cyclone disasters makes these of crucial significance to small islands and small island states. Sea-defences are of little use (and may not be feasible at all) against the damage caused by tropical cyclones and some sea-surges. Social and economic adjustments are also required to parallel erosion control; and disaster preparedness "longstops" must be further developed as a matter of urgency. Apparently small measures must not be displaced by images of ultimate, massive catastrophe; adjustments may serve other functions in society as well. International and bilateral measures are required to take account of migration and"ecological refugees" and national administrations may require modification to take appropriate account of this most crucial of environmental phenomena.

  7. Fostering renewable energy in small developing island states through knowledge and technology transfer: the - DIREKT Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Walter; Schulte, Veronika; Gottwald, Julia

    2010-07-01

    Full text: It is widely acknowledged that the use of renewable energy may assist developing countries as a whole and Small Island States in particular, in addressing their energy needs and at the same time reducing their dependence on fossil fuels. In order to support these efforts, the project Small Developing Island Renewable Energy Knowledge and Technology Transfer Network (DIREKT) is being undertaken. DIREKT is a cooperation scheme involving universities from Germany, Fiji, Mauritius and Trinidad et Tobago with the aim of strengthening their science and technology capacity in the field of renewable energy, by means of technology transfer, information exchange and networking. Developing countries are especially vulnerable to problems associated with climate change and much can be gained by raising their capacity in the field of renewable energy, which is a key area. This paper introduces the project DIREKT, its aims and the partnership. It will also show how sustainable cooperation between the science and technology communities of ACP and EU institutions in the key area of Renewable Energy may be achieved, which is of great relevance for the socio-economic development of small island developing states. One of features of the project, namely the establishment of Research and Technology Transfer Centres within each of the partner countries, will be presented. (Author)

  8. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana... States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and... are vectors of said disease exist in the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  9. Field-free long-lived alignment of molecules in extreme rotational states

    CERN Document Server

    Milner, A A; Milner, V

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new optical tool - a "two-dimensional optical centrifuge", capable of aligning molecules in extreme rotational states. Unlike the conventional centrifuge, which confines the molecules in the plane of their rotation, its two-dimensional version aligns the molecules along a well-defined axis, similarly to the effect of a single linearly polarized laser pulse, but at a much higher level of rotational excitation. The increased robustness of ultra-high rotational states with respect to collisions results in a longer life time of the created alignment in dense media, offering new possibilities for studying and utilizing aligned molecular ensembles under ambient conditions.

  10. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakhov V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  11. DETERMINATION OF THE TIME LIMITS OF ELIGIBILITY IN A STATE OF EXTREME NECESSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Victorovich Naumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to now the limits of eligibility of extreme necessity were not the subject of independent research.The problems of definition of the time limits of p eligibility are considered in this article based on the scientific and monographic literature analysis. Relevance of the considered matter is defined by the fact that the correct establishment of time limits of eligibility of act is of great importance in the law enforcement activity in order to establish the non-delinquency of act in state of extreme necessity. The purpose of this research is the analysis of definition of time limits of extreme necessity eligibility and drawing proposals on this basis for improvement of legislative regulations and existing laws enforcement efficiency with regards to extreme necessity. Research methods: dialectic, formal-logical, system. The author empha-sizes the eligibility limits of admissible harm and the temporary limits. When determining the time limits the author emphasizes the following criteria: the value of danger, intensity of actions, and also identifies an "initial" and "final" moments in the defense of legally protected interests. The improvement of the existing legisla-tion was proposed based on the carried-out analysis.

  12. Spectral Energy Distribution of Markarian 501: Quiescent State Versus Extreme Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Paneque, D.; Hayashida, M.

    2011-03-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  13. Large Scale Influences on Drought and Extreme Precipitation Events in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, A.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Koster, R. D.; Eichmann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations indicate that extreme weather events are increasing and it is likely that this trend will continue through the 21st century. However, there is uncertainty and disagreement in recent literature regarding the mechanisms by which extreme temperature and precipitation events are increasing, including the suggestion that enhanced Arctic warming has resulted in an increase in blocking events and a more meridional flow. A steady gradual increase in heavy precipitation events has been observed in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, while the Southwestern United States, particularly California, has experienced suppressed precipitation and an increase in consecutive dry days over the past few years. The frequency, intensity, and duration of heavy precipitation events in the Midwestern United States and Northeastern United States, as well as drought in the Southwestern United States are examined using the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version-2 (MERRA-2). Indices developed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices representing drought and heavy precipitation events have been calculated using the MERRA-2 dataset for the period of 1980 through 2014. Trends in these indices are analyzed and the indices are compared to large scale circulations and climate modes using a composite and statistical linkages approach. Statistically significant correlations are present in the summer months between heavy precipitation events and meridional flow despite the lack of enhanced Arctic warming, contradicting the suggested mechanisms. Weaker, though still significant, correlations are observed in the winter months when the Arctic is warming more rapidly than the Midlatitudes.

  14. Protecting an island nation from extreme pandemic threats: Proof-of-concept around border closure as an intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matt; Baker, Michael G; Mansoor, Osman D; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Wilson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Countries are well advised to prepare for future pandemic risks (e.g., pandemic influenza, novel emerging agents or synthetic bioweapons). These preparations do not typically include planning for complete border closure. Even though border closure may not be instituted in time, and can fail, there might still plausible chances of success for well organized island nations. To estimate costs and benefits of complete border closure in response to new pandemic threats, at an initial proof-of-concept level. New Zealand was used as a case-study for an island country. An Excel spreadsheet model was developed to estimate costs and benefits. Case-study specific epidemiological data was sourced from past influenza pandemics. Country-specific healthcare cost data, valuation of life, and lost tourism revenue were imputed (with lost trade also in scenario analyses). For a new pandemic equivalent to the 1918 influenza pandemic (albeit with half the mortality rate, "Scenario A"), it was estimated that successful border closure for 26 weeks provided a net societal benefit (e.g., of NZ$11.0 billion, USD$7.3 billion). Even in the face of a complete end to trade, a net benefit was estimated for scenarios where the mortality rate was high (e.g., at 10 times the mortality impact of "Scenario A", or 2.75% of the country's population dying) giving a net benefit of NZ$54 billion (USD$36 billion). But for some other pandemic scenarios where trade ceased, border closure resulted in a net negative societal value (e.g., for "Scenario A" times three for 26 weeks of border closure-but not for only 12 weeks of closure when it would still be beneficial). This "proof-of-concept" work indicates that more detailed cost-benefit analysis of border closure in very severe pandemic situations for some island nations is probably warranted, as this course of action might sometimes be worthwhile from a societal perspective.

  15. The Impact of State Intervention on Social Capital of Fishermen Community in Small Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaria J Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the impact of state intervention on social capital of fishermen community in small islands. The research was conducted in Barrang Lompo Island, Makassar. The data was collected through in-depth interview and limited observation from twelve informants determined by snowball sampling. Questionnaires were also spread to about 40 respondents. The data was then analyzed qualitatively to explain research’s data and facts. The results of the research show that state intervention for the last ten years on small islands communities has impact on various aspects such as the diminishing loyalty and trust among locals to the government. Therefore, the intervention reduce the community’s participation, individually and collectively, in development activities. The situation, in turn, could affect the diminishing political capacity of the locals and government in the implementation of development in the islands. The state intervention, however, strengthened social solidarity, local value practices and the enthusiasm to understand religious values which in turn could tighten the internal bond of a community. This bond can become a potential strength to build communities in small islands. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendiskusikan dampak intervensi negara pada kapital sosial komunitas nelayan di pulau-pulau kecil. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pulau Barrang Lompo, Makassar. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dan observasi terbatas dari dua belas informan ditentukan oleh snowball sampling. Kuesioner juga menyebar ke 40 responden. Data tersebut kemudian dianalisis secara kualitatif untuk menjelaskan data penelitian dan fakta. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intervensi negara selama sepuluh tahun terakhir pada masyarakat pulau-pulau kecil memiliki dampak pada berbagai aspek seperti, mengurangi loyalitas dan kepercayaan di antara penduduk setempat kepada pemerintah. Oleh karena itu, partisipasi mereka, secara

  16. Kalman-Filter-Based State Estimation for System Information Exchange in a Multi-bus Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Tian, Yanjun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2014-01-01

    State monitoring and analysis of distribution systems has become an urgent issue, and state estimation serves as an important tool to deal with it. In this paper, a Kalman-Filter-based state estimation method for a multi-bus islanded microgrid is presented. First, an overall small signal model wi...

  17. Spectral Energy Distribution of Markarian 501: Quiescent State vs. Extreme Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Acciari, V A; Aune, T; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Böttcher, M; Boltuch, D; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Cannon, A; Cesarini, A; Ciupik, L; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Finley, J P; Finnegan, G; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Godambe, S; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Huang, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Moriarty, P; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Pichel, A; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Thibadeau, S; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Weisgarber, T; Williams, D A; Wood, M; Zitzer, B; Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Tridon, D Borla; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bose, D; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Errando, M; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Hadasch, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Jogler, T; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Kranich, D; Krause, J; La Barbera, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Orito, R; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Pasanen, M; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sánchez-Conde, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Struebig, J C; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Vankov, H; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Paneque, D; Hayashida, M

    2010-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Markarian 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Markarian 501 was coordinated in March 2009, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including {\\gamma}-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Markarian 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of April 16, 1997, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution between the two states. The derived broadband spectral energy distribution shows the characteristic doub...

  18. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.

  19. The history of mammal eradications in Hawai`i and the United States associated islands of the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Jacobi, J.D.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Townsend, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Many eradications of mammal taxa have been accomplished on United States associated islands of the Central Pacific, beginning in 1910. Commonly eradicated species are rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rats (Rattus spp.), feral cats (Felis catus), and several feral ungulates from smaller islands and fenced natural areas on larger Hawaiian Islands. Vegetation and avifauna have demonstrated dramatic recovery as a direct result of eradications. Techniques of worldwide significance, including the Judas goat method, were refined during these actions. The land area from which ungulates have been eradicated on large Hawaiian Islands is now greater than the total land area of some smaller Hawaiian Islands. Large multi-tenure islands present the greatest challenge to eradication because of conflicting societal interests regarding introduced mammals, mainly sustained-yield hunting. The difficulty of preventing reinvasion poses a persistent threat after eradication, particularly for feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on multi-tenure islands. Larger areas and more challenging species are now under consideration for eradication. The recovery of endangered Hawaiian birds may depend on the creation of large predator-proof exclosures on some of the larger islands. Large scale eradications of small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) would be beneficial to ground-nesting birds such as nēnē (Branta sandvicensis), but this has been achieved only in small exclosures.

  20. Persistent and extreme outliers in causes of death by state, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscoe, Francis P

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, state-specific mortality rates that are high relative to national rates can result from legitimate reasons or from variability in coding practices. This paper identifies instances of state-specific mortality rates that were at least twice the national rate in each of three consecutive five-year periods (termed persistent outliers), along with rates that were at least five times the national rate in at least one five-year period (termed extreme outliers). The resulting set of 71 outliers, 12 of which appear on both lists, illuminates mortality variations within the country, including some that are amenable to improvement either because they represent preventable causes of death or highlight weaknesses in coding techniques. Because the approach used here is based on relative rather than absolute mortality, it is not dominated by the most common causes of death such as heart disease and cancer.

  1. Characterising the influence of atmospheric mixing state on Urban Heat Island Intensity using Radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott D.; Podstawczyńska, Agnieszka; Williams, Alastair G.; Pawlak, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Characterisation of the effects of varying atmospheric mixing states (stability) in urban climate studies has historically been hampered by problems associated with the complexity of the urban environment, representativity of measurement techniques, and the logistical and financial burdens of maintaining multiple long-term comprehensive measurement sites. These shortcomings, together with a lack of a consistent measurement approach, have limited our ability to understand the physical processes contributing to the urban heat island effect. In this study, we analyse 4 years of continuous hourly near-surface meteorological and atmospheric radon data from an urban-rural site pair in central Poland. A recently-developed radon-based stability classification technique, previously developed for urban pollution characterisation, is employed to characterise the Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) and other climatic factors over the full diurnal cycle by season and atmospheric mixing state. By characterising the UHII over a range of atmospheric mixing states in a statistically robust way, this technique provides an effective tool for assessing the efficacy of mitigation measures for urban climate effects in a consistent way over timescales of years to decades. The consistency of approach, ease of application, and unprecedented clarity of findings, provide a strong argument for atmospheric radon observations to be included as part of the 'standard measurement suite' for urban climate monitoring networks for non-coastal cities.

  2. Nucleosome dynamics and maintenance of epigenetic states of CpG islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneppen, Kim; Dodd, Ian B.

    2016-06-01

    Methylation of mammalian DNA occurs primarily at CG dinucleotides. These CpG sites are located nonrandomly in the genome, tending to occur within high density clusters of CpGs (islands) or within large regions of low CpG density. Cluster methylation tends to be bimodal, being dominantly unmethylated or mostly methylated. For CpG clusters near promoters, low methylation is associated with transcriptional activity, while high methylation is associated with gene silencing. Alternative CpG methylation states are thought to be stable and heritable, conferring localized epigenetic memory that allows transient signals to create long-lived gene expression states. Positive feedback where methylated CpG sites recruit enzymes that methylate nearby CpGs, can produce heritable bistability but does not easily explain that as clusters increase in size or density they change from being primarily methylated to primarily unmethylated. Here, we show that an interaction between the methylation state of a cluster and its occupancy by nucleosomes provides a mechanism to generate these features and explain genome wide systematics of CpG islands.

  3. Addiction in Extreme Sports: An Exploration of Withdrawal States in Rock Climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirene, Robert M; Shearer, David; Roderique-Davies, Gareth; Mellalieu, Stephen D

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Extreme sports athletes are often labeled "adrenaline junkies" by the media, implying they are addicted to their sport. Research suggests during abstinence these athletes may experience withdrawal states characteristic of individuals with an addiction (Celsi, Rose, & Leigh, 1993; Franken, Zijlstra, & Muris, 2006; Willig, 2008). Despite this notion, no research has directly explored withdrawal experiences of extreme sports athletes. Methods Using semi-structured interviews, we explored withdrawal experiences of high (n = 4) and average-ability (n = 4) male rock climbers during periods of abstinence. We investigated the psychological and behavioral aspects of withdrawal, including craving, anhedonia, and negative affect; and differences in the frequency and intensity of these states between groups. Results Deductive content analysis indicated support for each of the three categories of anhedonia, craving, and negative affect. Consistent with existing substance addiction literature, high-ability climbers recalled more frequent and intense craving states and negative affect during abstinence compared with average-ability climbers. No differences in anhedonic symptoms between high and average-ability participants were found. Conclusions Rock climbing athletes appear to experience withdrawal symptoms when abstinent from their sport comparable to individuals with substance and behavioral addictions. The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  5. Extreme Hydrological Changes in the Western United States Drive Reductions in Water Supply by Mid Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Brianna; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi; Mei, Rui; Kendall, Donald; Pal, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    The Western United States has a greater vulnerability to climate change impacts on water security due to a reliance on snowmelt driven imported water. The State of California, which is the most populous and agriculturally productive in the United States, depends on an extensive artificial water storage and conveyance system primarily for irrigated agriculture, municipal and industrial supply and hydropower generation. This study provides an integrated approach to assessing climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle and hydrologic extremes for all water supplies to Southern California including the San-Joaquin River, Tulare Lake, Sacramento River, Owens Valley, Mono Lake, and Colorado River basins. A 10-member ensemble of coupled global climate models is dynamically downscaled forcing a regional and hydrological model resulting in a high-resolution 4-km output for the region. Greenhouse gas concentrations are prescribed according to historical values for the present-day (1965-2005) and the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for the near to mid term future (2010-2050). While precipitation is projected to remain the same or slightly increase, rising temperatures result in a shift in precipitation type towards more rainfall, reducing cold season snowpack and earlier snowmelt. Associated with these hydrological changes are substantial increases in both dry and flood event frequency and intensity, which are evaluated by using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution, Standardized Precipitation Index and ratio of daily precipitation to annual precipitation. Daily annual maximum runoff and precipitation event events significantly increase in intensity and frequency. Return periods change such that extreme events in the future become much more common by mid-century. The largest changes occur in the Colorado River where the daily annual maximum runoff 100-year event, for example, becomes approximately ten times more likely and twice as likely in the other

  6. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Areas quarantined in the...

  7. 76 FR 38360 - Workshop-Monitoring Changes in Extreme Storm Statistics: State of Knowledge; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Workshop--Monitoring Changes in Extreme Storm Statistics: State of Knowledge; Notice of Open Public Workshop AGENCY: National Environmental Satellite, Data,...

  8. Heterogeneous stress state of island arc crust in northeastern Japan affected by hot mantle fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Okada, Tomomi; Muto, Jun; Matsumoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Yoshida, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    By considering a thermal structure based on dense geothermal observations, we model the stress state of the crust beneath the northeastern Japan island arc under a compressional tectonic regime using a finite element method with viscoelasticity and elastoplasticity. We consider a three-layer structure (upper crust, lower crust, and uppermost mantle) to define flow properties. Numerical results show that the brittle-viscous transition becomes shallower beneath the Ou Backbone Range compared with areas near the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Japan Sea. Moreover, several elongate regions with a shallow brittle-viscous transition are oriented transverse to the arc, and these regions correspond to hot fingers (i.e., high-temperature regions in the mantle wedge). The stress level is low in these regions due to viscous deformation. Areas of seismicity roughly correspond to zones of stress accumulation where many intraplate earthquakes occur. Our model produces regions with high uplift rates that largely coincide with regions of high elevation (e.g., the Ou Backbone Range). The stress state, fault development, and uplift around the Ou Backbone Range can all be explained by our model. The results also suggest the existence of low-viscosity regions corresponding to hot fingers in the island arc crust. These low-viscosity regions have possibly affected viscous relaxation processes following the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

  9. Spatially inhomogeneous electron state deep in the extreme quantum limit of strontium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anand; Skinner, Brian; Khalsa, Guru; Suslov, Alexey V

    2016-09-29

    When an electronic system is subjected to a sufficiently strong magnetic field that the cyclotron energy is much larger than the Fermi energy, the system enters the extreme quantum limit (EQL) and becomes susceptible to a number of instabilities. Bringing a three-dimensional electronic system deeply into the EQL can be difficult however, since it requires a small Fermi energy, large magnetic field, and low disorder. Here we present an experimental study of the EQL in lightly-doped single crystals of strontium titanate. Our experiments probe deeply into the regime where theory has long predicted an interaction-driven charge density wave or Wigner crystal state. A number of interesting features arise in the transport in this regime, including a striking re-entrant nonlinearity in the current-voltage characteristics. We discuss these features in the context of possible correlated electron states, and present an alternative picture based on magnetic-field induced puddling of electrons.

  10. Extremal Optimization for Ground States of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Spin Glass with Levy Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Using the Extremal Optimization heuristic (EO),[3] ground states of the SK-spin glass are studied with bonds J distributed according to a Levy distribution P (J) ~ 1 /| J | 1 + α with | J | > 1 and 1 model with Gaussian bonds.[4] We find that the energies attain universally the Parisi-energy of the SK when the second moment of P(J) exists (α > 2). They compare favorably with recent one-step replica symmetry breaking predictions well below α = 2 . Near α = 2 , the simulations deviate significantly from theoretical expectations. The finite-size corrections exponent ω decays from the putative SK value ωSK =2/3 already well above α = 2 . The exponent ρ for the scaling of ground state energy fluctuations with system size decays linearly from its SK value for decreasing α and vanishes at α = 1 . Supported through NSF grant DMR-#1207431

  11. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang

    2016-09-06

    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980-2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management.

  12. Early prediction of extreme stratospheric polar vortex states based on causal precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Marlene; Runge, Jakob; Coumou, Dim

    2017-08-01

    Variability in the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) can influence the tropospheric circulation and thereby winter weather. Early predictions of extreme SPV states are thus important to improve forecasts of winter weather including cold spells. However, dynamical models are usually restricted in lead time because they poorly capture low-frequency processes. Empirical models often suffer from overfitting problems as the relevant physical processes and time lags are often not well understood. Here we introduce a novel empirical prediction method by uniting a response-guided community detection scheme with a causal discovery algorithm. This way, we objectively identify causal precursors of the SPV at subseasonal lead times and find them to be in good agreement with known physical drivers. A linear regression prediction model based on the causal precursors can explain most SPV variability (r2 = 0.58), and our scheme correctly predicts 58% (46%) of extremely weak SPV states for lead times of 1-15 (16-30) days with false-alarm rates of only approximately 5%. Our method can be applied to any variable relevant for (sub)seasonal weather forecasts and could thus help improving long-lead predictions.

  13. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Buden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females

  14. Small-scale manjuba fishery around Cardoso Island State Park, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, T A; Nordi, N

    2006-11-01

    This work was carried out in the Enseada da Baleia and Vila Rápida communities. Data was provided by the Co-Management Committee of the Cardoso Island State Park (PEIC) on manjuba fishery management, technique and strategies used by the fishermen, as well as locally accumulated knowledge. Based on the results, social, ecological, and economic aspects of this type of fishing were analyzed. The importance of the accumulated knowledge and experience of this community, as well as the limitations imposed by local fishing gear, was concluded to be essential in conserving manjuba fishery conditions in the area. Industrial fishing, relevant state legislation, and market conditions were found to be the main obstacles to local fishery. Various proposals are suggested for manjuba fishery management, with emphasis on the need for fishing community participation in whatever measures are ultimately implemented.

  15. Detection of Historical and Future Precipitation Variations and Extremes Over the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce T. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2015-12-11

    Problem: The overall goal of this proposal is to detect observed seasonal-mean precipitation variations and extreme event occurrences over the United States. Detection, e.g. the process of demonstrating that an observed change in climate is unusual, first requires some means of estimating the range of internal variability absent any external drivers. Ideally, the internal variability would be derived from the observations themselves, however generally the observed variability is a confluence of both internal variability and variability in response to external drivers. Further, numerical climate models—the standard tool for detection studies—have their own estimates of intrinsic variability, which may differ substantially from that found in the observed system as well as other model systems. These problems are further compounded for weather and climate extremes, which as singular events are particularly ill-suited for detection studies because of their infrequent occurrence, limited spatial range, and underestimation within global and even regional numerical models. Rationale: As a basis for this research we will show how stochastic daily-precipitation models—models in which the simulated interannual-to-multidecadal precipitation variance is purely the result of the random evolution of daily precipitation events within a given time period—can be used to address many of these issues simultaneously. Through the novel application of these well-established models, we can first estimate the changes/trends in various means and extremes that can occur even with fixed daily-precipitation characteristics, e.g. that can occur simply as a result of the stochastic evolution of daily weather events within a given climate. Detection of a change in the observed climate—either naturally or anthropogenically forced—can then be defined as any change relative to this stochastic variability, e.g. as changes/trends in the means and extremes that could only have occurred

  16. Dynamic fracture development in response to extreme summer temperatures: 27/7/2014, Långören Island, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Perras, Matthew; Siren, Topias; Rantanen, Tuomas; Heinonen, Suvi; Loew, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Long periods of exceptionally high temperatures in Finland and California during the summer of 2014 were associated with the formation of large 'exfoliation' or 'sheeting' fractures in bedrock surfaces. Videos taken at both locations show sharp fractures forming along the edge of thin (15,000 years ago), hinting at the rarity of the recent events on the otherwise undamaged surface. In order to uncover the mechanisms driving this remarkable event, we installed a unique low-cost monitoring system to track the behavior of the new Långören Island fracture through the summer of 2016. This included a local meteorological station, Arduino-based rock temperature profiles, acoustic emission measurements, and a 3G-enabled all-in-one PC for live data communication. Coupled with GPR data, field mapping, and a local DEM derived from a 'Go-Pro on a stick' structure from motion capture, we generate a unique insight into the conditions at the time of the 2014 event, and potential active micro-fracturing during a hot period in 2016. Our models suggest rock surface temperatures approached 40°C during 2014, almost ten degrees above the peak air temperature. The mid- to late-afternoon timing of fracturing was associated with peak thermal stress in the upper 1 m of bedrock, consistent with 2016 observations, where measured surface temperatures of around 35°C generate a thermal front that coincides with a series of acoustic emission events on a sensor installed in a borehole near the crest of the fracture.

  17. Erosion under extreme climatic events in tropical climates : the case of the storm Helena (1963) in the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles Arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, P.; Lajeunesse, E.; Devauchelle, O.; Delacourt, C.

    2012-04-01

    he volume of sediment exported from a tropical watershed is dramatically increased during extreme climatic events, such as storms and tropical cyclones (Dadson et al. 2004; Hilton et al. 2008). Indeed, the exceptionally high rainfall rates reached during these events generate runoff and trigger landslides which accumulate a significant amount of sediments in flooded rivers (Gabet et al., 2004; Lin et al., 2008). We estimate the volume of sediments mobilized by the storm Helena (26 to 28 October 1963) on Basse-Terre Island in the archipelago of Guadeloupe. This is achieved using images acquired by IGN (Institut Géographique National) a few weeks after the storm which produced numerous landslides. All the available images from this campaign have been pseudo-orthorectified and included in a GIS with a Digital Elevation Model with a resolution of 10 m. Two hundred fifty three landslides have been identified and mapped. Most of them are located in the center of the island, where the highest slopes are. The cumulated surface of the landslides is 0.5 km2. Field observations on Basse-Terre show that landslides mobilized the whole regolith layer, which is about 1m thick. Assuming an average landslide thickness of 1m, we find that the total volume of sediment mobilized by the storm Helena is 0.5 km3. The associated denudation averaged over all watersheds affected by landslides is 1.4 mm with a maximum of 5 mm for the watersheds of Vieux-Habitants and Capesterre. The impact of the storm Helena is then discussed with respect to 1) the erosion induced on the Capesterre catchment by the highest flood available in a two years survey record (less than 0.1 mm/y); 2) the long term denudation rate of the major watersheds of Basse-Terre estimated by reconstructing the initial volcanic topography (between 0.1 and 0.4 mm/y).

  18. Hydrometeorological Extremes and Food Security: Lessons from the 2011 and 2012 harvests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D. B.; Roberts, M.; Schlenker, W.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is both a major global producer of grain and a relatively variable production region. As such, it is an important driver of volatility in global food supply and food prices, which in turn affects food security in many regions. This fact was underscored by the 2012 season, in which a major drought caused production losses, which in turn led to international price increases. However, 2011 also was unusually hot and thus a good illustration of many of the issues surrounding climate change. This paper will discuss progress in modeling the impacts of extreme heat and drought on U.S. corn production, which comes from a combination of empirical and process-based approaches. One important lesson is that drought from the perspective of corn is different than traditional measures of drought, and in particular extreme heat plays a more direct role via effects on vapor pressure deficit. Implications for future impacts, interactions with carbon dioxide, and potential adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  19. Climate change impacts on rainfall extremes and urban drainage: state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Beecham, Simon; Pathirana, Assela; Bülow Gregersen, Ida; Madsen, Henrik; Nguyen, Van-Thanh-Van

    2013-04-01

    Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic climate change. Current practises have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend/impact results. The review considers the following aspects: Analysis of long-term historical trends due to anthropogenic climate change: influence of data limitation, instrumental or environmental changes, interannual variations and longer term climate oscillations on trend testing results. Analysis of long-term future trends due to anthropogenic climate change: by complementing empirical historical data with the results from physically-based climate models, dynamic downscaling to the urban scale by means of Limited Area Models (LAMs) including explicitly small-scale cloud processes; validation of RCM/GCM results for local conditions accounting for natural variability, limited length of the available time series, difference in spatial scales, and influence of climate oscillations; statistical downscaling methods combined with bias correction; uncertainties associated with the climate forcing scenarios, the climate models, the initial states and the statistical downscaling step; uncertainties in the impact models (e.g. runoff peak flows, flood or surcharge frequencies, and CSO frequencies and volumes), including the impacts of more extreme conditions than considered during impact model calibration and validation. Implications for urban drainage infrastructure design and management: upgrading of the urban drainage system as part of a program of routine and scheduled replacement and renewal of aging infrastructure; how to account for the uncertainties; flexible and sustainable solutions

  20. Equation of state density models for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at extreme temperature and pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; McHugh, Mark A.

    2013-10-01

    The necessity of exploring ultradeep reservoirs requires the accurate prediction of hydrocarbon density data at extreme temperatures and pressures. In this study, three equations of state (EoS) models, Peng-Robinson (PR), high-temperature high-pressure volume-translated PR (HTHP VT-PR), and perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS are used to predict the density data for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at temperatures to 523 K and pressures to 275 MPa. The calculated values are compared with experimental data. The results show that the HTHP VT-PR EoS and PC-SAFT EoS always perform better than the regular PR EoS for all the investigated hydrocarbons.

  1. Extremality of Translation-Invariant Phases for a Three-State SOS-Model on the Binary Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuelske, C.; Rozikov, U. A.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the solid-on-solid model, with spin values , on the Cayley tree of order two (binary tree). We treat both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling, with interactions which are proportional to the absolute value of the spin differences. We present a classification of all translation-invariant phases (splitting Gibbs measures) of the model. These measures are labeled by solutions to a nonlinear vector-valued functional equation. We show uniqueness in the case of antiferromagnetic interactions, and existence of up to seven phases in the case of ferromagnetic interactions, where the number of phases depends on the interaction strength. Next we investigate whether these states are extremal or non-extremal in the set of all Gibbs measures, when the coupling strength is varied, whenever they exist. We show that two states are always extremal, two states are always non-extremal, while three of the seven states make transitions between extremality and non-extremality. We provide explicit bounds on those transition values, making use of algebraic properties of the models, and an adaptation of the method of Martinelli, Sinclair, Weitz.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamrah, Sapna; Desmond, Edward; Ghosh, Smita; France, Anne Marie; Kammerer, J Steve; Cowan, Lauren S; Heetderks, Andrew; Forbes, Alstead; Moonan, Patrick K

    2014-01-01

    The United States-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) are part of the US National Tuberculosis (TB) Surveillance System and use laboratory services contracted through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2004, the CDC established the National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service, a system to genotype 1 isolate from each culture-confirmed case of TB. To describe the molecular epidemiology of TB in the region, we examined all Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates submitted for genotyping from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008. Over this time period, the USAPI jurisdictions reported 1339 verified TB cases to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System. Among 419 (31%) reported culture-confirmed TB cases, 352 (84%) had complete genotype results. Routine TB genotyping allowed, for the first time, an exploration of the molecular epidemiology of TB in the USAPI.

  3. Determinants of Outward Foreign Direct Investments from Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Densil A. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although there is a burgeoning literature on the rise of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs from developing economies, comparatively less work exists on MNEs from small, developing economies. Given the precipitous rise in the level of outward foreign direct investments from small, economies, it is still not clear in the academic literature and for policy purposes, those factors in the home environment which influence the rise of these multinational enterprises from these smaller economies. This study aimed to determine those economic and social factors at home that are most important in influencing the level of outward foreign direct investments from Small, Island Developing States (SIDS? Approach: To achieve the research objective, a literature review was first conducted to identify those factors that were commonly cited as critical for motivating domestic firms to be engaged in outward foreign direct investments. To test which of these factors were most influential in the case of small island developing economies, secondary data on each of the variables identified from the literature were collected from sources such as: International financial statistics, the world investment report, the world economic outlook, transparency international and, the world development indicators. These data were used to build a 5 year panel dataset. The panel data set consisted of 5 years of data from 1998-2002, for 15 small economies which are defined as SIDS by the United Nations classifications. These data were analyzed using the multivariate regression model. The results from the model were used to determine which factors was most influential in motivating domestic firms to get involved in outward foreign direct investments. Results: The results revealed that the level of corruption at home (p = 0.01, the per capita income (p = 0.00 and, level of economic growth at home (p = 0.00 were most influential in motivating domestic firms to be involved

  4. [Thigh and leg musculo-cutaneous island flap for giant bilateral trochanteric and perineal pressure sores coverage: Extreme treatment in spinal cord injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A; Crouzet, C; De Boissezon, X; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-06-01

    Surgical treatment of perineal pressure sores could be done with various fascio-cutaneous or musculo-cutaneous flaps, which provide cover and filling of most of pressure sores after spinal cord injuries. In rare cases, classical solutions are overtaken, then it is necessary to use more complex techniques. We report a case of a made-to-measure lower limb flap for coverage of confluent perineal pressure sores. A 49-year-old paraplegic patient developed multiple pressure sores on left and right ischial tuberosity, inferior pubic bone and bilateral trochanters with hips dislocation. Surgical treatment involved a whole right thigh flap to cover and fill right side lesions, associated to a posterior right leg musculo-cutaneous island flap to cover and fill the left trochanteric pressure sore. The surgical procedure lasted 6.5 hours and required massive blood transfusion. Antibiotics were adapted to bacteriological samples. There were no postoperative complications; complete wound healing occurred after three weeks. A lower limb sacrifice for coverage of a giant perineal pressure sores is an extreme surgical solution, reserved to patients understanding the issues of this last chance procedure. A good knowledge of vascular anatomy is an essential prerequisite, and allows to shape made-to-measure flaps. The success of such a procedure is closely linked to the collaboration with the rehabilitation team (appropriate therapeutic education concerning transfers and positioning). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. 21st century increases in the likelihood of extreme hydrologic conditions for the mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Carrillo, Carlos A.; McIntosh, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Extreme hydrologic conditions, such as floods, droughts, and elevated stream temperatures, significantly impact the societal fabric and ecosystems, and there is rising concern about increases in the frequency of extreme conditions with projected climate changes. Here we ask what changes in the occurrence of extreme hydrologic conditions can be expected by the end of the century for the important water-generating, mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States, namely the Sierra Nevada and Upper Colorado River Basins. The extreme conditions considered are very high flows, low flows, and elevated stream temperature as derived from historic and future simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model and downscaled output from a General Circulation Model ensemble. Results indicate noteworthy differences in the frequency changes of extremes based on geographic region, season, elevation, and stream size. We found wide-spread increases in the occurrence of stream flows exceeding 150% of historic monthly averages for winter by the end of the century, and extensive increases in the occurrence of both extreme low flows (representing 3 °C of monthly averages) during the summer months, with some basins expecting extreme conditions 90-100% of the time by the end of the century. Understanding the differences in the changes of extreme conditions can identify climate-sensitive regions and assist in targeted planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

  6. Decision-support tools for Extreme Weather and Climate Events in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Lowery, M.; Whelchel, A.

    2013-12-01

    Decision-support tools were assessed for the 2013 National Climate Assessment technical input document, "Climate Change in the Northeast, A Sourcebook". The assessment included tools designed to generate and deliver actionable information to assist states and highly populated urban and other communities in assessment of climate change vulnerability and risk, quantification of effects, and identification of adaptive strategies in the context of adaptation planning across inter-annual, seasonal and multi-decadal time scales. State-level adaptation planning in the Northeast has generally relied on qualitative vulnerability assessments by expert panels and stakeholders, although some states have undertaken initiatives to develop statewide databases to support vulnerability assessments by urban and local governments, and state agencies. The devastation caused by Superstorm Sandy in October 2012 has raised awareness of the potential for extreme weather events to unprecedented levels and created urgency for action, especially in coastal urban and suburban communities that experienced pronounced impacts - especially in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut. Planning approaches vary, but any adaptation and resiliency planning process must include the following: - Knowledge of the probable change in a climate variable (e.g., precipitation, temperature, sea-level rise) over time or that the climate variable will attain a certain threshold deemed to be significant; - Knowledge of intensity and frequency of climate hazards (past, current or future events or conditions with potential to cause harm) and their relationship with climate variables; - Assessment of climate vulnerabilities (sensitive resources, infrastructure or populations exposed to climate-related hazards); - Assessment of relative risks to vulnerable resources; - Identification and prioritization of adaptive strategies to address risks. Many organizations are developing decision-support tools to assist in the urban

  7. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on health impacts of extreme weather events in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, G; McGeehin, M; Bernard, S M; Trtanj, J; Riad, J; Engelberg, D

    2001-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as precipitation extremes and severe storms cause hundreds of deaths and injuries annually in the United States. Climate change may alter the frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of these events. Increases in heavy precipitation have occurred over the past century. Future climate scenarios show likely increases in the frequency of extreme precipitation events, including precipitation during hurricanes, raising the risk of floods. Frequencies of tornadoes and hurricanes cannot reliably be projected. Injury and death are the direct health impacts most often associated with natural disasters. Secondary effects, mediated by changes in ecologic systems and public health infrastructure, also occur. The health impacts of extreme weather events hinge on the vulnerabilities and recovery capacities of the natural environment and the local population. Relevant variables include building codes, warning systems, disaster policies, evacuation plans, and relief efforts. There are many federal, state, and local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in planning for and responding to natural disasters in the United States. Future research on health impacts of extreme weather events should focus on improving climate models to project any trends in regional extreme events and as a result improve public health preparedness and mitigation. Epidemiologic studies of health effects beyond the direct impacts of disaster will provide a more accurate measure of the full health impacts and will assist in planning and resource allocation.

  8. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Rhode Island. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  9. How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergert, Leslie F.; Gleason, Sonia Caus; Urbano, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the report, "How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts." This larger report describes and analyzes how eight state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New…

  10. Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard H. DeBano; Peter H. Ffolliott; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Gerald J. Gottfried; Robert H. Hamre; Carleton B. Edminster

    1995-01-01

    This conference brought together scientists and managers from government, universities, and private organizations to examine the biological diversity and management challenges of the unique "sky island" ecosystems of the mountains of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Session topics included: floristic resources, plant ecology,...

  11. From microjoules to megajoules and kilobars to gigabars: Probing matter at extreme states of deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, Bruce A.; Rudd, Robert E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wark, Justin S. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Over the past 3 decades, there has been an exponential increase in work done in the newly emerging field of matter at extreme states of deformation and compression. This accelerating progress is due to the confluence of new experimental facilities, experimental techniques, theory, and simulations. Regimes of science hitherto thought out of reach in terrestrial settings are now being accessed routinely. High-pressure macroscopic states of matter are being experimentally studied on high-power lasers and pulsed power facilities, and next-generation light sources are probing the quantum response of matter at the atomic level. Combined, this gives experimental access to the properties and dynamics of matter from femtoseconds to microseconds in time scale and from kilobars to gigabars in pressure. There are a multitude of new regimes of science that are now accessible in laboratory settings. Examples include planetary formation dynamics, asteroid and meteor impact dynamics, space hardware response to hypervelocity dust and debris impacts, nuclear reactor component response to prolonged exposure to radiation damage, advanced research into light weight armor, capsule dynamics in inertial confinement fusion research, and the basic high energy density properties of matter. We review highlights and advances in this rapidly developing area of science and research.

  12. The critical role of extreme heat for maize production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.; Hammer, Graeme L.; McLean, Greg; Messina, Carlos; Roberts, Michael J.; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2013-05-01

    Statistical studies of rainfed maize yields in the United States and elsewhere have indicated two clear features: a strong negative yield response to accumulation of temperatures above 30°C (or extreme degree days (EDD)), and a relatively weak response to seasonal rainfall. Here we show that the process-based Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) is able to reproduce both of these relationships in the Midwestern United States and provide insight into underlying mechanisms. The predominant effects of EDD in APSIM are associated with increased vapour pressure deficit, which contributes to water stress in two ways: by increasing demand for soil water to sustain a given rate of carbon assimilation, and by reducing future supply of soil water by raising transpiration rates. APSIM computes daily water stress as the ratio of water supply to demand, and during the critical month of July this ratio is three times more responsive to 2°C warming than to a 20% precipitation reduction. The results suggest a relatively minor role for direct heat stress on reproductive organs at present temperatures in this region. Effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration efficiency should reduce yield sensitivity to EDD in the coming decades, but at most by 25%.

  13. Neocolonialism and Health Care Access among Marshall Islanders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U.S.-based Marshall Islanders face in receiving medical treatment. Calling on an expansive and inclusive notion of neocolonialism, I argue that Marshallese structural vulnerability with regard to health and health care treatment derives from their status as neocolonial subjects and from their limited claims to health-related deservingness associated with this status. [Marshall Islanders, health care access, neocolonialism, radiation exposure, immigrant health] L̗ōmn̗ak ko rōttin̗o: Ilo M̗ajel̗, juon bwebwenato kōn kōmmālmel im nuclear baam̗ ko im ekkatak ko rōttin̗o̗ kōn wāwein an baijin ko jelōt armej, barāinwōt an to an ri tarinae ro an Amedka pād ilo aelōn̄ kein, em̗ōj an jelōt ājmour an armej ro ilo aelōn̄ kein. Men̄e alikkar bwe Amedka in ear jino nan̄inmej kein im ej un eo armej rein rej em̗m̗akūt jān āne kein āne er n̄an ioon Amedka, elōn̄ iaan ri M̗ajel̗ rein rej jelm̗ae elōn̄ apan̄ ko n̄an aer del̗o̗n̄e jikin ājmour ko. Jān ekkatak eo ej bōk jikin kiō, jerbal in ej etali kabōjrak rak kein rōlōn̄ im armej in M̗ajel̗ ro ioon Amedka in rej jelm̗ae ilo aer jibadōk lo̗k jikin taktō. Ilo an kar Amedka jibadōk juon jea eo eutiej imejān lal̗ in, ij kwal̗ok juon aō akweelel bwe apan̄ ko an armej in M̗ajel̗ ikijjeen ājmour im jikin taktō ej itok jān aer kar ri kōm̗akoko ilo an kar

  14. Water-quality reconnaissance of ground water in the inhabited outer islands of Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, 1984-85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Takasaki, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    A reconnaissance of ground-water quality in 24 inhabited outer islands in Chuuk State was made between January 1984 and October 1985. Most of the islands are part of low-lying coral atolls within the Western, Namonuito, Hall, and Mortlock Island Groups. A total of 648 wells were located and sampled for temperature and specific conductance. A few miscellaneous sites such as taro patches also were sampled. The nitrate concentration was determined for 308 water samples. To develop a relation between specific conductance and chloride concentration, the chloride concentration was determined for 63 water samples. In addition, 21 water samples were analyzed for major and trace constituent ion concentrations. Chloride and nitrate are the primary constituents affecting the potability of ground water in the inhabited outer islands of Chuuk State. The source of chloride in ground water is seawater, whereas nitrate is derived fro plant and animal waste materials. The chloride concentrations in many well waters exceed the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water, particularly in wells near the shoreline or on small islands. In addition, the nitrate concentrations in some well waters exceeded the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water.

  15. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 13, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Whitehead, R.L.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Olcott, Perry G.

    1997-01-01

    Alaska is the largest State in the Nation and has an area of about 586,400 square miles, or about one-fifth the area of the conterminous United States. The State is geologically and topographically diverse and is characterized by wild, scenic beauty. Alaska contains abundant natural resources, including ground water and surface water of chemical quality that is generally suitable for most uses.The central part of Alaska is drained by the Yukon River and its tributaries, the largest of which are the Porcupine, the Tanana, and the Koyukuk Rivers. The Yukon River originates in northwestern Canada and, like the Kuskokwim River, which drains a large part of southwestern Alaska , discharges into the Bering Sea. The Noatak River in northwestern Alaska discharges into the Chukchi Sea. Major rivers in southern Alaska include the Susitna and the Matanuska Rivers, which discharge into Cook Inlet, and the Copper River, which discharges into the Gulf of Alaska . North of the Brooks Range, the Colville and the Sagavanirktok Rivers and numerous smaller streams discharge into the Arctic Ocean.In 1990, Alaska had a population of about 552,000 and, thus , is one of the least populated States in the Nation. Most of the population is concentrated in the cities of Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau, all of which are located in lowland areas. The mountains, the frozen Arctic desert, the interior plateaus, and the areas covered with glaciers lack major population centers. Large parts of Alaska are uninhabited and much of the State is public land. Ground-water development has not occurred over most of these remote areas.The Hawaiian islands are the exposed parts of the Hawaiian Ridge, which is a large volcanic mountain range on the sea floor. Most of the Hawaiian Ridge is below sea level (fig. 31) . The State of Hawaii consists of a group of 132 islands, reefs, and shoals that extend for more than 1 ,500 miles from southeast to northwest across the central Pacific Ocean between about 155

  16. The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.

  17. Generation of extreme state of water by spherical wire array underwater electrical explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, O.; Gilburd, L.; Efimov, S.; Bazalitski, G.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel)

    2012-10-15

    The results of the first experiments on the underwater electrical explosion of a spherical wire array generating a converging strong shock wave are reported. Using a moderate pulse power generator with a stored energy of {<=}6 kJ and discharge current of {<=}500 kA with a rise-time of {approx}300 ns, explosions of Cu and Al wire arrays of different diameters and with a different number and diameter of wires were tested. Electrical, optical, and destruction diagnostics were used to determine the energy deposited into the array, the time-of-flight of the shock wave to the origin of the implosion, and the parameters of water at that location. The experimental and numerical simulation results indicate that the convergence of the shock wave leads to the formation of an extreme state of water in the vicinity of the implosion origin that is characterized by pressure, temperature, and compression factors of (2 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} Pa, 8 {+-} 0.5 eV, and 7 {+-} 0.5, respectively.

  18. The impact of an extreme case of irrigation on the southeastern United States climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Christopher; Misra, Vasubandhu

    2017-02-01

    The impacts of irrigation on southeast United States diurnal climate are investigated using simulations from a regional climate model. An extreme case is assumed, wherein irrigation is set to 100 % of field capacity over the growing season of May through October. Irrigation is applied to the root zone layers of 10-40 and 40-100 cm soil layers only. It is found that in this regime there is a pronounced decrease in monthly averaged temperatures in irrigated regions across all months. In non-irrigated areas a slight warming is simulated. Diurnal maximum temperatures in irrigated areas warm, while diurnal minimum temperatures cool. The daytime warming is attributed to an increase in shortwave flux at the surface owing to diminished low cloud cover. Nighttime and daily mean cooling result as a consequence repartitioning of energy into latent heat flux over sensible heat flux, and of a higher net downward ground heat flux. Excess heat is transported into the deep soil layer, preventing a rapidly intensifying positive feedback loop. Both diurnal and monthly average precipitations are reduced over irrigated areas at a magnitude and spatial pattern similar to one another. Due to the excess moisture availability, evaporation is seen to increase, but this is nearly balanced by a corresponding reduction in sensible heat flux. Concomitant with additional moisture availability is an increase in both transient and stationary moisture flux convergences. However, despite the increase, there is a large-scale stabilization of the atmosphere stemming from a cooled surface.

  19. 26 CFR 1.932-1 - Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the Virgin Islands, for the taxable year... connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the Virgin Islands. (b) U.S. individuals with... nonresident alien individual with respect to such corporation. While such an election is in effect,...

  20. E-Government Attempts in Small Island Developing States: The Rate of Corruption with Virtualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Arif

    2016-12-19

    In recent years, many Small Island Developing State (SIDS) governments have worked to increase openness and transparency of their transactions as a means to enhance efficiency and reduce corruption in their economies. In order to achieve a cost-effective and efficient strategy to implement a transparent government, Information Communication Technologies offer an opportunity of virtualization by deploying e-government services to promote transparency, accountability and consistency in the public sector and to minimize corruption. This paper explores the potential impact of government virtualization by SIDS and against corruption by comparing the corruption perception index (CPI) rates of 15 SIDS countries. The CPI relates to the degree by which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians by business people and country analysts. In order to reveal the long-term impact of virtual deployment and its consequences on corruption, an in-depth case analysis based on the CPI index rates was conducted on the deployment of the e-government system in Cyprus.

  1. Six New Agelas Species (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae from Kosrae Island, The Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim, Chung Ja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes six new species of sponges in the genus Agelas from Kosrae Island, The Federated States of Micronesia. Most Agelasid sponges are known from only tropical regions. All the new Agelas species; A. fragum n. sp., A. kosrae n. sp., A. purpurea n. sp., A. bakusi n. sp., A. vansoesti n. sp. and A. incrustans n. sp. are compared with other valid species that were studied. Six new species differ from the other species by morphology, growth form, skeletal fibres, habitats and spicule size. Agelas fragum n. sp. is characterized by its tuberculate surface and primary fibres with brush-like spicules. Agelas kosrae n. sp. is differs in skeletal structure and have tertiary fibres. Agelas purpurea n. sp. is characterized by primary, secondary and tertiary fibres are all cored with spicules. Agelas bakusi n. sp. is similar to Agelas clathrodes in shape, but differs in the primary fibres. Agelas vansoesti n. sp. is characterized by having acanthostrongyles. Agelas incrustans n. sp. is distinguished by its encrusting and not cavernous interior.

  2. Communicating astronomy in a small island state: The unique role of the Mauritius Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddul-Hauzaree, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT) is a 2 km x 1 km T-shaped aperture synthesis array that can generate radio images of the southern sky at 151.6 MHz. The sky surveyed can be in the declination range of -70o to -10o. It is located at Bras d'Eau, northeast of Mauritius at latitude 20oS and longitude 60oE. The MRT is a joint project of the University of Mauritius, the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and the Raman Research Institute. One of the main objectives of the MRT is to generate public interest in astronomy. Thus, it is involved in a wide range of onsite outreach activities for young school children. More mature students visiting the telescope learn about sky observation with a radio telescope, get to explore some sets of data, interact with the scientific personnel, get the opportunity to have hands-on experience with image manipulation and can ask a lot of questions on astronomy. This poster gives an overview of the Mauritius Radio Telescope and the attempts of MRT ito communicate astronomy to students as a process and not just as a vast expanse of knowledge. The challenges and dilemmas faced by MRT in conveying astronomy to the general public in a small island state are investigated and presented.

  3. Evaluating legitimacy and marginalization: Campus policing in the State of Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Wilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity and legitimacy of campus police officers is often difficult to define, largely due to their obvious connection to the educational environment. With the lack of research on campus police in general, and their legitimacy as a law enforcement entity in specific, how these officers perceive themselves and, just as importantly, how they believe others perceive them, becomes questionable and may have a distinct impact on their performance of duties and their interactions with the campus community and other law enforcement personnel. This study considers self-perceived levels of legitimacy of campus police officers employed at four statutorily defined campus police departments in the State of Rhode Island from a review of various issues of perceptual self-worth, their effects on officer morale, and their impact on levels of service to the campus community. Findings indicate that while they are, indeed, granted legislative police authority that is comparable to their more public counterparts, campus law enforcement officers perceive a lack of legitimization and support from their community; have high levels of self-perceived feelings of marginalization; and face an ever uphill battle in their efforts to obtain the same levels of legitimacy as their traditional counterparts.

  4. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  5. Insurance mechanisms for tropical cyclones and droughts in Pacific Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Baarsch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One group of locations significantly affected by climate-related losses and damage is the Small Island Developing States (SIDS. One mechanism aiming to reduce such adverse impacts is insurance, with a wide variety of products and models available. Insurance for climate-related hazards affecting Pacific SIDS has not been investigated in detail. This article contributes to filling this gap by exploring how insurance mechanisms might be implemented in the Pacific SIDS for tropical cyclones and droughts. The study examines opportunities and constraints or limitations of some existing insurance mechanisms and programmes as applied to the Pacific SIDS. Eight insurance mechanisms are compared and discussed regarding the premium cost compared to the gross domestic product per capita, the amount of payout compared to the damage cost, the reserve and reinsurance, and the disaster risk reduction incentives. As such, this article offers a decision-making tool on insurance development for the Pacific SIDS. Ultimately, implementing disaster insurance for the Pacific SIDS depends on political will and external technical and financial assistance.

  6. Maximally localized states and quantum corrections of black hole thermodynamics in the extreme case with an improved exponential GUP

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Ying-Jie

    2016-01-01

    We have introduced an improved exponential GUP, derived the maximally localized states, calculated quantum corrections to the thermodynamic quantities of the Schwardzschild black hole in our previous work. In this paper we continue to investigate how the maximally localized states and thermodynamic quantities such as Hawking temperature, the entropy, the heat capacity, the evaporation rate, and the decay time change in the extreme case that the integer n in our GUP rises to infinity.

  7. How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergert, Leslie F.; Gleason, Sonia Caus; Urbano, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This report describes and analyzes how eight state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and Vermont) identify and support low-performing schools and districts under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Data collection for the report…

  8. Islands and the offshoring possibilities and strategies of contemporary states: insights on/for the migration phenomenon on Europe’s southern flank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands have transitioned from being conceived as prototypes of idealised polities to being deliberately engineered as offshore enclaves where the rules of the parent state need not fully apply. With their manageable size, separation and distance from the mainland, small islands are rendered as convenient laboratories for entrepreneurial political engineering, and equally handy sites for research on the same. Island migration policies manifest this contemporary flexibility and creative governance of states. As we approach the 500th anniversary of Thomas More’s Utopia (1516, this paper explores these ideas in relation to the migration phenomenon on Europe’s southern flank. Using an island studies approach, it discusses the problematique of island spaces caught in this dynamic but which cannot be ‘offshore’ because, as unitary island states (Cyprus and Malta and unlike larger states with small outlying and peripheral island components (Italy and Australia, they must somehow be ‘both inside and outside’. The paper goes on to critique such facile binarisms, arguing for a more nuanced appreciation of islands as well as a recognition that what may be, at face value, an expression of a state’s authority is as much a manifestation of its limitations.

  9. Summary of significant floods in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1970 through 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Charles A.; Aldridge, Byron N.; Ross, Heather C.

    2001-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of significant floods that occurred throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands during 1970 through 1989. A summary of most devastating floods according to amount of damage and lives lost is provided for each year. State-by-state compilations include a description of the general hydroclimatology and conditions that produce significant floods, a description of climate and basin characteristics that significantly affect maximum flows, tables of data that compare each significant flood during 1970 through 1989 with the maximum flood for the entire period of record at selected streamflow-gaging stations, and maps showing the location of the streamflow-gaging stations.

  10. Climate change impacts on extreme events in the United States: an uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extreme weather and climate events, such as heat waves, droughts and severe precipitation events, have substantial impacts on ecosystems and the economy. However, future climate simulations display large uncertainty in mean changes. As a result, the uncertainty in future changes ...

  11. Development and implementation of a climate data management system for western Pacific small island developing states

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, David J; Howard, Andrew; Hutchinson, Rod; McGree, Simon; Jones, David A

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the development and deployment of a new climate data management system aimed at improving climate data management and associated climate services in Pacific island countries and East Timor...

  12. 75 FR 43409 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ..., 1994: Rules 2.2 C and 2.2 C.13; Consolidated Checklist for Bevill Exclusion for Mining Wastes, covering... contain mercury switches, mercury relays, nickel-cadmium batteries or lithium batteries. Rhode Island...

  13. The Current State of Head and Neck Injuries in Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinay K; Rango, Juan; Connaughton, Alexander J; Lombardo, Daniel J; Sabesan, Vani J

    2015-01-01

    Since their conception during the mid-1970s, international participation in extreme sports has grown rapidly. The recent death of extreme snowmobiler Caleb Moore at the 2013 Winter X Games has demonstrated the serious risks associated with these sports. To examine the incidence and prevalence of head and neck injuries (HNIs) in extreme sports. Descriptive epidemiological study. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was used to acquire data from 7 sports (2000-2011) that were included in the Winter and Summer X Games. Data from the NEISS database were collected for each individual sport per year and type of HNI. Cumulative data for overall incidence and injuries over the entire 11-year period were calculated. National estimates were determined using NEISS-weighted calculations. Incidence rates were calculated for extreme sports using data from Outdoor Foundation Participation Reports. Over 4 million injuries were reported between 2000 and 2011, of which 11.3% were HNIs. Of all HNIs, 83% were head injuries and 17% neck injuries. The 4 sports with the highest total incidence of HNI were skateboarding (129,600), snowboarding (97,527), skiing (83,313), and motocross (78,236). Severe HNI (cervical or skull fracture) accounted for 2.5% of extreme sports HNIs. Of these, skateboarding had the highest percentage of severe HNIs. The number of serious injuries suffered in extreme sports has increased as participation in the sports continues to grow. A greater awareness of the dangers associated with these sports offers an opportunity for sports medicine and orthopaedic physicians to advocate for safer equipment, improved on-site medical care, and further research regarding extreme sports injuries.

  14. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling.

  15. Use of oyster reef and salt marsh habitat by estuarine macrofauna and infauna at Confederate Reef and Galveston Island State Park (Texas) during December 1988 and July 1989.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In December 1988 and July 1989, samples were collected at Confederate Reef and at Galveston Island State Park to assess an oyster reef and adjacent areas as nursery...

  16. Coevolution of topography, hydrology, soil development, and vegetation in sky islands of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Breshears, D. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Kurc, S. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Swetnam, T.; Troch, P. A.; University Of Arizona Czo

    2010-12-01

    , in turn, promote greater biomass in a positive feedback. To test this hypothesis, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples soil development, the partitioning of rainfall into runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration, vegetation growth, and geomorphic processes (colluvial and fluvial transport) over geologic time scales. Numerical experiments with this model can be run for a range of input data for climate, tectonics, and rock type. Across a climate gradient similar to that of the sky islands of the southwestern U.S., the model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno ranges, i.e. higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water storage potential, lower relief, and lower valley density at higher elevations/north-facing slopes. The model exhibits similar nonlinear relationships among landscape variables across the elevation/climate gradient, lending support to the hypothesis that positive feedback mechanisms contribute to the observed nonlinearity.

  17. Climate Change Impacts on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage: a State-of-the-Art Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    .g. runoff peak flows, flood or surcharge frequencies, and CSO frequencies and volumes), including the impacts of more extreme conditions than considered during impact model calibration and validation. Implications for urban drainage infrastructure design and management: upgrading of the urban drainage......Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due...... from physically-based climate models, dynamic downscaling to the urban scale by means of Limited Area Models (LAMs) including explicitly small-scale cloud processes; validation of RCM/GCM results for local conditions accounting for natural variability, limited length of the available time series...

  18. Historical changes in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier-island chain and the roles of extreme storms, sea level, and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Barrier-island chains worldwide are undergoing substantial changes, and their futures remain uncertain. An historical analysis of a barrier-island chain in the north-central Gulf of Mexico shows that the Mississippi barriers are undergoing rapid systematic land loss and translocation associated with: (1) unequal lateral transfer of sand related to greater updrift erosion compared to downdrift deposition; (2) barrier narrowing resulting from simultaneous erosion of shores along the Gulf and Mississippi Sound; and (3) barrier segmentation related to storm breaching. Dauphin Island, Alabama, is also losing land for some of the same reasons as it gradually migrates landward. The principal causes of land loss are frequent intense storms, a relative rise in sea level, and a sediment-budget deficit. Considering the predicted trends for storms and sea level related to global warming, it is certain that the Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands will continue to lose land area at a rapid rate unless the trend of at least one causal factor reverses. Historical land-loss trends and engineering records show that progressive increases in land-loss rate correlate with nearly simultaneous deepening of channels dredged across the outer bars of the three tidal inlets maintained for deep-draft shipping. This correlation indicates that channel-maintenance activities along the MS-AL barriers have impacted the sediment budget by disrupting the alongshore sediment transport system and progressively reducing sand supply. Direct management of this causal factor can be accomplished by strategically placing dredged sediment where adjacent barrier-island shores will receive it for island nourishment and rebuilding.

  19. Engineering geology considerations for park planning, Antelope Island State Park, Davis County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Case, William F.; King, Jon K.; Willis, Grant C.

    2000-01-01

    Report: 00-1 In the mid-1980s, historically high levels of Great Salt Lake caused damage to park facilities on Antelope Island and destroyed the causeway linking the park to the mainland. Information on the engineering geology of Antelope Islandcan be used to improve park facilities and reduce the risk from geologic hazards and poor construction conditions. Certain characteristics of the geologic environment need to be considered in park planning. During wet cycles, Great Salt Lake may reach static levels of 4,217 feet (1,285.3 m), and wave- and wind-elevated levels locally may reach 6.5 feet (2 m) higher. A probabilistic assessment of the earthquake ground-shaking hazard along the Wasatch Front indicates that peak ground accelerations of approximately 0.20 to 0.30 g have a one-in-ten chance of being exceeded in 50 years on the island. A slope-failure hazard exists locally in colluvial and Lake Bonneville deposits, along the modern shore, and beneath cliffs. Flash-flood and debris-flow hazards exist on alluvial fans. Areas in the southern two-thirds of the island may have a relatively high potential for radon emission. Particular soil types on the island may be expansive, compressible, erodible, impermeable, or susceptible to liquefaction or hydrocompaction. The distribution of most geologic hazards can be defined, and many locations on the island have conditions suitable for construction. Lacustrine sand and gravel deposits are wide-spread and have engineering characteristics that are generally favorable for foundations. However, facilities and roads built close to the modern shoreline may be susceptible to lake flooding and erosion, slope failures, shallow ground water, and burial by active sand dunes. Well-graded (poorly sorted) alluvial-fan deposits are generally most suitable for wastewater disposal, although they may be subject to flooding or be underlain by low-permeability, fine-grained lacustrine deposits.

  20. Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism dependent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyarra, M.C.; Cote, I.M. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; Gill, J.A. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich (United Kingdom); Tinch, R.T. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Viner, D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climate Research Unit; Watkinson, A.R. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-03-15

    Climate change may affect important environmental components of holiday destinations, which might have repercussions for tourism-dependent economies. This study documents the importance of environmental attributes in determining the choice and holiday enjoyment of tourists visiting Bonaire and Barbados, two Caribbean islands with markedly different tourism markets and infrastructure. Three hundred and sixteen and 338 participants from Bonaire and Barbados, respectively, completed standardized questionnaires. Warm temperatures, clear waters and low health risks were the most important environmental features determining holiday destination choice. However, tourists in Bonaire thereafter prioritized marine wildlife attributes (i.e. coral and fish diversity and abundance) over other environmental features, whereas tourists in Barbados exhibited stronger preferences for terrestrial features, particularly beach characteristics. The willingness of tourists to revisit these islands was strongly linked to the state of the preferred environmental attributes. More than 80% of tourists in Bonaire and Barbados would be unwilling to return for the same holiday price in the event, respectively, of coral bleaching as a result of elevated sea surface temperatures and reduced beach area as a result of sea level rise. Climate change might have a significant impact on Caribbean tourism economy through alteration of environmental features important to destination selection. Island-specific management strategies, such as focusing resources on the protection of key marine or terrestrial features, may provide a means of reducing the environmental and economic impacts of climate change. (author)

  1. Determining the polarization state of an extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser beam using atomic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, T; Ilchen, M; Rafipoor, A J; Callegari, C; Finetti, P; Plekan, O; Prince, K C; Richter, R; Danailov, M B; Demidovich, A; De Ninno, G; Grazioli, C; Ivanov, R; Mahne, N; Raimondi, L; Svetina, C; Avaldi, L; Bolognesi, P; Coreno, M; O'Keeffe, P; Di Fraia, M; Devetta, M; Ovcharenko, Y; Möller, Th; Lyamayev, V; Stienkemeier, F; Düsterer, S; Ueda, K; Costello, J T; Kazansky, A K; Kabachnik, N M; Meyer, M

    2014-04-16

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers are set to revolutionize many domains such as bio-photonics and materials science, in a manner similar to optical lasers over the past two decades. Although their number will grow steadily over the coming decade, their complete characterization remains an elusive goal. This represents a significant barrier to their wider adoption and hence to the full realization of their potential in modern photon sciences. Although a great deal of progress has been made on temporal characterization and wavefront measurements at ultrahigh extreme ultraviolet and X-ray intensities, only few, if any progress on accurately measuring other key parameters such as the state of polarization has emerged. Here we show that by combining ultra-short extreme ultraviolet free electron laser pulses from FERMI with near-infrared laser pulses, we can accurately measure the polarization state of a free electron laser beam in an elegant, non-invasive and straightforward manner using circular dichroism.

  2. Creating a Learning Organization for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement to Combat Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std . 239-18 ii THIS PAGE...Connecticut State Police Connecticut Bureau of Investigation Connecticut Intelligence Center Delaware Delaware State Police Delaware Information...Pennsylvania State Police Pennsylvania Criminal Intelligence Center Delaware Valley Intelligence Center (Philadelphia) Southwestern Pennsylvania

  3. The influence of vegetation on the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of a tree island in Everglades National Park (Florida, United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Pamela L.; Engel, Victor C.; Ross, Michael S.; Price, René M.

    2013-01-01

    Transpiration-driven nutrient accumulation has been identified as a potential mechanism governing the creation and maintenance of wetland vegetation patterning. This process may contribute to the formation of nutrient-rich tree islands within the expansive oligotrophic marshes of the Everglades (Florida, United States). This study presents hydrogeochemical data indicating that tree root water uptake is a primary driver of groundwater ion accumulation across one of these islands. Sap flow, soil moisture, water level, water chemistry, and rainfall were measured to identify the relationships between climate, transpiration, and groundwater uptake by phreatophytes and to examine the effect this uptake has on groundwater chemistry and mineral formation in three woody plant communities of differing elevations. During the dry season, trees relied more on groundwater for transpiration, which led to a depressed water table and the advective movement of groundwater and dissolved ions, including phosphorus, from the surrounding marsh towards the centre of the island. Ion exclusion during root water uptake led to elevated concentrations of all major dissolved ions in the tree island groundwater compared with the adjacent marsh. Groundwater was predominately supersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite in the lower-elevation woody communities, indicating the potential for soil formation. Elevated groundwater phosphorous concentrations detected in the highest-elevation woody community were associated with the leaching of inorganic sediments (i.e. hydroxyapatite) in the vadose zone. Understanding the complex feedback mechanisms regulating plant/groundwater/surface water interactions, nutrient dynamics, and potential soil formation is necessary to manage and restore patterned wetlands such as the Everglades.

  4. Alternation in F-wave parameters of median nerve from unaffected extremity in stroke patients with hemiplegia under dynamic state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang Zhao; Yong Lin; Wenhua Qi; Shuping Yin; Jiachun Feng

    2006-01-01

    state were detected in order. The amplitude and appearance percentage of F wave were recorded.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of F-wave parameters of median nerve between the unaffected extremity of stroke patients with hemiplegia and the extremity of control subjects under different status.RESULTS: All the patients accomplished the detection, and all of them participated in the final analysis. ①Under dynamic status, the amplitude and appearance percentage of F wave of unaffected extremity of patients in BRSS Ⅲ-Ⅳ group were significantly higher than those in the normal control group, respectively [(0.803 9±0.157 3) mV vs. (0.406 7±0.170 3) mV; (0.856 1±0.266 8)% vs. (0.650 0±0.197 6)%, P< 0.05]. Under static status, there were no significant differences in F-wave parameters of median nerve in the unaffected extremity of patients between BRSS Ⅰ -Ⅱ group and BRSS Ⅴ-Ⅵ group (P> 0.05). ②F-wave parameters of median nerve of unaffected extremity of patients in BRSS Ⅰ - Ⅱ group and BRSS Ⅴ -Ⅵ group under dynamic statewere higher than those under static status, without significant difference (P>0.05),while the amplitude and appearance percentage of F wave of median nerve of unaffected extremity of patients in BRSS Ⅲ- Ⅳ group under dynamic statewere significantly higher than those under static state [(0.803 9±0.157 3) mV vs.(0.391 7±0.131 6) mV; (0.856 1±0.266 8 )% vs.(0.639 1 ±0.259 4)%,P< 0.05]. ③ There was no significant difference in F wave parameters among groups under static state(P>0.05). However, under dynamic status,the amplitude and appearance percentage of F wave parameters of median nerve of unaffected extremity of patients in BRSS Ⅲ-Ⅳ group [(0.803 9±0.157 3) mV, (0.856 1±0.266 8)%] were significantly lower than those in the other two groups [(0.395 1±0.1488),(0.437 1±0.157 6) mV;(0.612 5±0.232 8)%,(0.657 1±0.232 5)%,P< 0.05].CONCLUSION: With the development of disease condition and the increase of

  5. Role of Anomalous States of Upper Tropospheric Circulation on Extremely Dry and Wet Summer Monsoon Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.; Shrestha, M.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal changes in wind pattern, monsoon, sometimes result in severe droughts and intense flooding in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. The livelihood of a vast population in Pakistan depends on agriculture and land use is strongly influenced by water-based ecosystems that depend on the monsoon rains. Furthermore, climate change studies undertaken so far reveal that action is essential in order to prevent long term damage to water cycle and thus of great concern to the community and stakeholders. Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) is affected by both the disturbances from the tropical and the extratropical regions; however there is lack of understanding of physical mechanisms of PSM compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM). In our study, we applied heat and vorticity budgets, and wave train analysis to reveal the mechanisms of the extremely dry and wet PSM events associated with the anomalous upper tropospheric conditions. We found that the extremely dry (wet) PSM events were closely related with the anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) upper-tropospheric circulation around northwest of Pakistan, and mid-upper tropospheric cooling (warming) anomaly around Pakistan and to its north/northwest. We also found in addition to Rossby wave response due to the suppressed (enhanced) convective activities around monsoon regions, the midlatitude wave energy propagation emanating around cyclonic/anticyclonic anomaly around northwestern Atlantic, northeastern Atlantic, Europe or Mediterranean regions induced/reinforced/maintained the anomalous upper tropospheric cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation around northwest of Pakistan during extremely dry (wet) PSM events. Therefore, devastating drought (flood) events over the PSM region resulting from weak (strong) convection anomalies are induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes.

  6. Hair on non-extremal D1-D5 bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pratik; Srivastava, Yogesh K.; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-09-01

    We consider a truncation of type IIB supergravity on four-torus where in addition to the Ramond-Ramond 2-form field, the Ramond-Ramond axion ( w) and the NS-NS 2-form field ( B) are also retained. In the ( w, B) sector we construct a linearised perturbation carrying only left moving momentum on two-charge non-extremal D1-D5 geometries of Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. The perturbation is found to be smooth everywhere and normalisable. It is constructed by matching to leading order solutions of the perturbation equations in the inner and outer regions of the geometry.

  7. Hair on non-extremal D1-D5 bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Pratik; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    We consider a truncation of type IIB supergravity on four-torus where in addition to the Ramond-Ramond 2-form field, the Ramond-Ramond axion (w) and the NS-NS 2-form field (B) are also retained. In the (w, B) sector we construct a linearised perturbation carrying only left moving momentum on two-charge non-extremal D1-D5 geometries of Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. The perturbation is found to be smooth everywhere and normalizable. It is constructed by matching to leading order solutions of the perturbation equations in the inner and outer regions of the geometry.

  8. Final state of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOLECKE,MARTIN A.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents the decommissioning and abandonment activities at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site, Iberia Parish, Louisiana, that were concluded in 1999. These activities required about six years of intense operational, engineering, geotechnical, and management support efforts, following initiation of site abandonment plans in 1994. The Weeks Island SPR mine stored about 72.5 million bbl of crude oil following oil fill in 1980--1982, until November 1995, when the DOE initiated oil drawdown procedures, with brine refill and oil skimming, and numerous plugging and sealing activities. About 98% of the crude oil was recovered and transferred to other SPR facilities in Louisiana and Texas; a small amount was also sold. This document summarizes recent pre- and post-closure: conditions of surface features at the site, including the sinkholes, the freeze wall, surface subsidence measurements and predictions; conditions within the SPR mine, including oil recovery, brine filling, and the Markel Wet Drift; risk assessment evaluations relevant to the decommissioning and long-term potential environmental impacts; continuing environmental monitoring activities at the site; and, an overview on the background and history of the Weeks Island SPR facility.

  9. Final state of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOLECKE,MARTIN A.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents the decommissioning and abandonment activities at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site, Iberia Parish, Louisiana, that were concluded in 1999. These activities required about six years of intense operational, engineering, geotechnical, and management support efforts, following initiation of site abandonment plans in 1994. The Weeks Island SPR mine stored about 72.5 million bbl of crude oil following oil fill in 1980--1982, until November 1995, when the DOE initiated oil drawdown procedures, with brine refill and oil skimming, and numerous plugging and sealing activities. About 98% of the crude oil was recovered and transferred to other SPR facilities in Louisiana and Texas; a small amount was also sold. This document summarizes recent pre- and post-closure: conditions of surface features at the site, including the sinkholes, the freeze wall, surface subsidence measurements and predictions; conditions within the SPR mine, including oil recovery, brine filling, and the Markel Wet Drift; risk assessment evaluations relevant to the decommissioning and long-term potential environmental impacts; continuing environmental monitoring activities at the site; and, an overview on the background and history of the Weeks Island SPR facility.

  10. Interdisciplinary paleovegetation study in the Fernando de Noronha Island (Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C.R. Pessenda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to reconstruct vegetation changes (with climate inferences that occurred during the Holocene in the Fernando de Noronha Island, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The research approach included the use of geochemical (mineralogy, elemental, carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C and pollen analyses in soil organic matter (SOM and sediments collected in Lagoa da Viração and Manguezal do Sueste. The carbon isotopes data of SOM indicated that there was no significant vegetation changes during the last 7400 BP, suggesting that the climate was not the determinant factor for the vegetation dynamics. The pollen analysis of the sediment of a core collected in the Lagoa da Viração showed the absence of Quaternary material in the period between 720 BP and 90 BP. The mineralogical analysis of deeper layer showed the presence of diopside indicating this material was developed "in situ". Only in the shallow part of the core were found pollen of similar plant species of the modern vegetation. The geochemistry and isotope results, in association with the sediment type and pollen analyses of sediment samples of Manguezal do Sueste, indicated variations in the vegetation and in its location since the middle Holocene. Such variations can be associated with climatic events and sea level oscillations and also with anthropogenic events considering the last five hundred years.Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de reconstruir trocas de vegetação (com referências climáticas que ocorreram durante o Holoceno na ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa utilizou-se de análises geoquímicas (minerais, elementar, isótopos do carbono (δ13C, 14C e análises polínicas em solos e sedimentos coletados na Lagoa da Viração e no manguezal do Sueste. Os isótopos do carbono dos solos indicaram que não houve trocas significativas de vegetação durante os últimos 7400 anos AP, sugerindo

  11. Climate Change Impacts on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage: a State-of-the-Art Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    to anthropogenic climate change. Current practices have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend or impact results. The review (Willems et al., 2012) considers the following aspects: analysis of long-term historical trends...... due to anthropogenic climate change, analysis of long-term future trends due to anthropogenic climate change, and implications for urban drainage infrastructure design and management. A summary is provided in this paper.......Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due...

  12. Serological study of brucellosis and leptospirosis in equines of island Maiandeua (Algodoal state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Vilhena Beckman Pinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the seroepidemiological profile of brucellosis and leptospirosis in horses traction Island Maiandeua, state of Pará. In two distinct periods, blood samples were collected from 52 animals of both sexes and different ages (2 to 17 years, totaling 104 samples. For the research of antibodies anti-Brucella abortus were used in rapid agglutination test in plate. In the first harvest, none animal was positive, however in the second harvest there were three animals reactive serum. The research of antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. was performed with the use of the microscopic agglutination test (MAT, the first harvest was 23.07% reacting animals and 15.38% at the second harvest, for one or more Leptospira spp. with titers ranging from 100 to 200. The predominant serotype at first and second harvest was the Autumnalis 40% and 37.5% respectively. According to age, it was observed in group 1 (2 to 7 years 27.78% and 13.89% respectively in the two samples and the second group (> 7 years was found 12.50% and 18 75% of reactive serum. The results observed in this study demonstrated that the island of Maiandeua, state of Pará, there is the presence of Leptospira spp, with the most frequent serovar autumnalis and possible exposure of animals to brucella smooth, suggesting low risk of infection in the population of horses examined.

  13. State-of-the-Art of Extreme Pressure Lubrication Realized with the High Thermal Diffusivity of Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijiang; Tian, Pengyi; Lu, Hongyu; Jia, Wenpeng; Du, Haodong; Zhang, Xiangjun; Li, Qunyang; Tian, Yu

    2017-02-15

    Sliding between two objects under very high load generally involves direct solid-solid contact at molecular/atomic level, the mechanism of which is far from clearly disclosed yet. Those microscopic solid-solid contacts could easily lead to local melting of rough surfaces. At extreme conditions, this local melting could propagate to the seizure and welding of the entire interface. Traditionally, the microscopic solid-solid contact is alleviated by various lubricants and additives based on their improved mechanical properties. In this work, we realized the state-of-the-art of extreme pressure lubrication by utilizing the high thermal diffusivity of liquid metal, 2 orders of magnitude higher than general organic lubricants. The extreme pressure lubrication property of gallium based liquid metal (GBLM) was compared with gear oil and poly-α-olefin in a four-ball test. The liquid metal lubricates very well at an extremely high load (10 kN, the maximum capability of a four-ball tester) at a rotation speed of 1800 rpm for a duration of several minutes, much better than traditional organic lubricants which typically break down within seconds at a load of a few kN. Our comparative experiments and analysis showed that this superextreme pressure lubrication capability of GBLM was attributed to the synergetic effect of the ultrafast heat dissipation of GBLM and the low friction coefficient of FeGa3 tribo-film. The present work demonstrated a novel way of improving lubrication capability by enhancing the lubricant thermal properties, which might lead to mechanical systems with much higher reliability.

  14. Extremal properties of conditional entropy and quantum discord for XXZ, symmetric quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurischev, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    For the XXZ subclass of symmetric two-qubit X states, we study the behavior of quantum conditional entropy S_{cond} as a function of measurement angle θ \\in [0,π /2]. Numerical calculations show that the function S_{cond}(θ ) for X states can have at most one local extremum in the open interval from zero to π /2 (unimodality property). If the extremum is a minimum, the quantum discord displays region with variable (state-dependent) optimal measurement angle θ ^*. Such θ -regions (phases, fractions) are very tiny in the space of X-state parameters. We also discover the cases when the conditional entropy has a local maximum inside the interval (0,π /2). It is remarkable that the maxima exist in surprisingly wide regions, and the boundaries for such regions are defined by the same bifurcation conditions as for those with a minimum.

  15. Short-Term Distribution System State Forecast Based on Optimal Synchrophasor Sensor Placement and Extreme Learning Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-11-14

    This paper proposes an approach for distribution system state forecasting, which aims to provide an accurate and high speed state forecasting with an optimal synchrophasor sensor placement (OSSP) based state estimator and an extreme learning machine (ELM) based forecaster. Specifically, considering the sensor installation cost and measurement error, an OSSP algorithm is proposed to reduce the number of synchrophasor sensor and keep the whole distribution system numerically and topologically observable. Then, the weighted least square (WLS) based system state estimator is used to produce the training data for the proposed forecaster. Traditionally, the artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector regression (SVR) are widely used in forecasting due to their nonlinear modeling capabilities. However, the ANN contains heavy computation load and the best parameters for SVR are difficult to obtain. In this paper, the ELM, which overcomes these drawbacks, is used to forecast the future system states with the historical system states. The proposed approach is effective and accurate based on the testing results.

  16. Sea state observation in island-sheltered nearshore zone based on in situ intermediate-water wave measurements and NCEP/CFSR wind data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    In this study, wind-seas, swells, and the coastal wind pattern are examined to interpret the temporal diversity of the sea state in the island-sheltered nearshore zone off Karwar on the west coast of India. The sea state is analyzed based on the sea...

  17. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  18. Solid Lubricants and Coatings for Extreme Environments: State-of-the-Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to survey anticipated requirements for solid lubricants in lunar and Martian environments, as well as the effects of these environments on lubricants and their performance and durability. The success of habitats and vehicles on the Moon and Mars, and ultimately, of the human exploration of and permanent human presence on the Moon and Mars, are critically dependent on the correct and reliable operation of many moving mechanical assemblies and tribological components. The coefficient of friction and lifetime of any lubricant generally vary with the environment, and lubricants have very different characteristics under different conditions. It is essential, therefore, to select the right lubrication technique and lubricant for each mechanical and tribological application. Several environmental factors are hazardous to performance integrity on the Moon and Mars. Potential threats common to both the Moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings (thermal cycling), solar flux, cosmic radiation, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars has the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Solid lubricants and coatings are needed for lunar and Martian applications, where liquid lubricants are ineffective and undesirable, and these lubricants must perform well in the extreme environments of the Moon, Mars, and space, as well as on Earth, where they will be assembled and tested. No solid lubricants and coatings and their systems currently exist or have been validated that meet these requirements, so new solid lubricants must be designed and validated for these applications.

  19. Expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extreme clinical and immunological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, David; Chang, Junlei; Lartigue, Lydia; Bolen, Christopher R; Haddad, François; Gaudilliere, Brice; Ganio, Edward A; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K; Spitzer, Matthew H; Douchet, Isabelle; Daburon, Sophie; Moreau, Jean-François; Nolan, Garry P; Blanco, Patrick; Déchanet-Merville, Julie; Dekker, Cornelia L; Jojic, Vladimir; Kuo, Calvin J; Davis, Mark M; Faustin, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Low-grade, chronic inflammation has been associated with many diseases of aging, but the mechanisms responsible for producing this inflammation remain unclear. Inflammasomes can drive chronic inflammation in the context of an infectious disease or cellular stress, and they trigger the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Here we find that the expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extremes: those with constitutive expression of IL-1β, nucleotide metabolism dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, high rates of hypertension and arterial stiffness; and those without constitutive expression of IL-1β, who lack these characteristics. Adenine and N4-acetylcytidine, nucleotide-derived metabolites that are detectable in the blood of the former group, prime and activate the NLRC4 inflammasome, induce the production of IL-1β, activate platelets and neutrophils and elevate blood pressure in mice. In individuals over 85 years of age, the elevated expression of inflammasome gene modules was associated with all-cause mortality. Thus, targeting inflammasome components may ameliorate chronic inflammation and various other age-associated conditions. PMID:28092664

  20. Geology and water-resources reconnaissance of Lenger Island, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.; Spengler, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Lenger is a small (less than 0.2 square miles) volcanic island located within the lagoon of Pohnpei Island. Ground water on Lenger moves as shallow subsurface flow through weathered bedrock slopes into low-lying areas near the coast before discharging into the surrounding lagoon. Estimated ground-water recharge to the island from rainfall is 506,000 gallons per day on the basis of a mean annual rainfall of 140 inches. The basal part of Lenger is composed of a relatively low- permeability post-shield-building lava flow. This flow is overlain by a more permeable conglomerate of stream deposits which is in turn overlain by a relatively low-permeability columnar-jointed lava flow. The limited land mass and relatively low-permeability lava flows that form the bedrock of Lenger are not favorable to the formation of well-defined drainage basins or large basal ground-water bodies. Numerous springs and seeps discharge shallow subsurface flow at the contact between water-bearing weathered bedrock and underlying less-permeable bedrock. Because the amount of water stored in these shallow subsurface ground-water bodies is limited, springflow and seepflow rates are directly related to rainfall. Barbosa Pond, the largest surface-water body on Lenger, contained 162,000 gallons of water on June 19, 1991. On June 20, 1991, springflow into the pond increased from 0.6 gallons per minute during base-flow conditions to 21 gallons per minute during a 4-hour period of rain that totaled 0.74 inches. The water from Barbosa Pond contains iron and manganese in concentrations that may cause problems in a water-supply system. Small-scale development of ground water, such as was done at Barbosa Pond by the Japanese, is possible by tapping water stored in colluvial talus deposits that flank the base of Mosher hill. The source of water in these deposits is from seeps and springs that have low base flows; however, additional quantities of water could be obtained from these deposits by widening or

  1. From liberal extremity to safe mainstream? The comparative controversies of witness preparation in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution examines the idea that partisan witness preparation in criminal trials in the United States amounts to a comparative anomaly in the common law context. In American procedure, parties are not constrained by straightforward rules and ethical canons in their choice and deployment of p

  2. New York State's Extreme School Segregation: Inequality, Inaction and a Damaged Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucsera, John

    2014-01-01

    The fight for equal educational opportunity in New York has followed a pattern similar to other diverse or racially transforming states. From the 1950s to 1980s, the issue of school desegregation was an important issue. Local civil rights pressure, the courts, and legislation attempted to desegregate large urban school systems through both…

  3. Promoting the Contributions of Willing and Able States: Australia’s Response to Transnational Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Terrorism: The Threat to Australia (Australia: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2004), viii. 33 Greg Fealy and Aldo Borgu , “Local Jihad...Walid Phares, Future Jihad: Terrorist Strategies Against America (United States: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005), 202-203. 36 Aldo Borgu , “Understanding...Butts and Reynolds, 126. 108 Rolfe, 7. 109 Australian Government, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, xi. 110 Borgu , 9. 111 Eric G. John., “The

  4. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga.

  5. Field-induced expansion deformation in Pb islands on Cu(111): evidence from energy shift of empty quantum-well states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W Y; Huang, H S; Su, W B; Lin, W H; Jeng, H-T; Wu, M K; Chang, C S

    2012-04-06

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to measure the energy shift of empty quantum-well (QW) states in Pb islands on the Cu(111) surface. It is found that, with an increase of the electric field, the behavior of the energy shift can be grouped into two different modes for most QW states. In the first mode, the state energy moves toward high energy monotonically. In the second mode, the state energy shifts to a lower energy initially and then turns around to a higher energy. Moreover, we have observed that the QW states of higher energy behave in preference to the first mode, but they gradually change to the second mode as the Pb island becomes thicker. This thickness-dependent behavior reflects the existence of local expansion in the Pb islands, due to the electric field, and that the expansion is larger for a thicker island. QW states can thus be used for studying the localized lattice deformation in the nanometer scale.

  6. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  7. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Intense shock waves and extreme states of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.

    2007-04-01

    The physical properties of hot dense matter over a broad domain of the phase diagram are of immediate interest in astrophysics, planetary physics, power engineering, controlled thermonuclear fusion, impulse technologies, enginery, and several special applications. The use of intense shock waves in dynamic physics and high-pressure chemistry has made the exotic high-energy-density states of matter a subject of laboratory experiments and enabled advancing by many orders of magnitude along the pressure scale to range into the megabars and even gigabars. The present report reviews the latest experimental research involving shock waves in nonideal plasmas under conditions of strong collective interparticle interaction. The results of investigations into the thermodynamic, transport, and optical properties of strongly compressed hot matter, as well as into its composition and conductivity, are discussed. Experimental techniques for high energy density cumulation, the drivers of intense shock waves, and methods for the fast diagnostics of high-energy plasma are considered. Also discussed are compression-stimulated physical effects: pressure-induced ionization, plasma phase transitions, the deformation of bound states, plasma blooming ('transparentization' of plasma), etc. Suggestions for future research are put forward.

  8. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Kiyama, S; Fujiwara, Y; Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H

    2015-11-01

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm(2)) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E(ib) ≈ 150-200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E(ib) is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  9. Kilo-hertz QPO in Island State of 4U1608-52 as Observed with RXTE/PCA

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, W; Harmon, B A; Paciesas, W S; Robinson, C R; Grindlay, J E; Bloser, P F; Barret, D; Ford, E C; Tavani, M; Kaaret, P E

    1997-01-01

    We report RXTE/PCA observations of 4U 1608-52 on March 15, 18 and 22 immediately after the outburst in early 1996. The persistent count rates ranged from 190 to 450 cps (1-60 keV). During this period of time, 4U 1608-52 was in the island state. We detected QPO features in the power density spectra (PDS) at 567-800 Hz on March 15 and 22, with source fractional root-mean-square (rms) amplitude of 13%-17% and widths of 78-180 Hz. The average rms amplitude of these QPO features is positively correlated with the energy. Our results imply that the neutron star spin frequency is possibly between 300 Hz and 365 Hz.

  10. On the Interaction of Extreme-Low-Frequency Radiation with Living Matter's Coherent Spiral States

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, Konstantin

    1996-01-01

    Conventional physics cannot explain bioeffects caused by ELF fields [1]. A (double) resonance interaction of ELF radiation with the highly sub-thermal coherent motion of spiral waves in living matter (LM) is suggested. The (geo)magnetic cyclotron resonance (CR) absorption by the constituent ions can drastically change their non-thermal degrees of freedom in the spiral state, destroying their pattern, which is heuristically assumed to be part of the cell signaling. Combining ELF irradiation with calcium imaging to unravel the suggested mechanism, a new instrument in biomedicine might emerge. These fascinating waves, being part of the bio-machinery, might provide insight in cancer, embryogenesis, etc., as they are affected by ELF radiation in an as yet unknown manner [2-6].

  11. Equation of state and transport properties of silicates under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, T.; Hamel, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the physical properties of silicates under high temperature and pressure is fundamental to an accurate description of planetary interiors and evolution models. For example, earth's mantle is a rocky silicate shell constituting about 84% of Earth's volume. Possible chemical compositions include SiO2 and some other silicates such as MgSiO3 and CaSiO3. Moreover, Moon forming scenarios often invoke giant impacts between silicate-rich objects.Similarly, the existence of a rocky core or mantle with silicate as the major component is frequently assumed in models of giant planets, such as Jupiter or Saturn and Uranus and Neptune.Consequently, constructing planetary interior and evolution models requires knowledge of silicate's equation of state and its optical and transport properties at high pressures and temperatures.

  12. LDRD ER Final Report: Recreating Planetary Cores in the Laboratory: New Techniques to Extremely High Density States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, G; Celliers, P; Hicks, D; Cauble, R; Bradley, D; MacKinnon, A; Moon, S; Young, D; Chau, R; Eggert, J; Willi, P; Pasley, J; Jeanloz, R; Lee, K; Bennedetti, R; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Batani, D; Loubeyre, P; Hubbard, W

    2003-02-07

    An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, very few materials have their high pressure (>few Mbar) EOS experimentally validated, and even then, only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isotropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the hydrogen phase space composing Jupiter and one particular Brown Dwarf is shown. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and low temperature fusion. High density experiments on Earth are achieved with either static compression techniques (i.e. diamond anvil cells) or dynamic compression techniques using large laser facilities, gas guns, or explosives. The ultimate goal of this multi-directorate and multi-institutional proposal was to develop techniques that will enable us to understand material states that previously only existed at the core of giant planets, stars, or speculative theories. Our effort was a complete success, meeting all of the objectives set out in our proposals. First we focused on developing accurate Hugoniot techniques to be used for constraining the equation of state at high pressure/temperature. We mapped out an accurate water EOS and measured that the ionic->electronic conduction transition occurs at lower pressures than models predict. These data and their impact are fully described in the first enclosed paper ''The Equation of State and Optical Properties of Water Compressed by Strong Shock Waves.'' Currently models used to construct planetary isentropes are constrained by only the planet radius, outer atmospheric spectroscopy, and space probe gravitational moment and magnetic field data. Thus these data, which provide rigid constraints

  13. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  14. Advancing Best Practices for the Formulation of Localized Sea Level Rise/Coastal Inundation Extremes Scenarios for Military Installations in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    and Discussion Extreme Value Analysis: Figure 6 presents a synthesis of the results of the analysis described above. It shows the percent variance...SLR and Coastal Inundation in the Pacific Islands”, January 10-11, 2012 Honolulu, HI. (http://www.noaaclimatepacis.org/slr/phase1. php ) Sweet, W.V...among experts from across the globe, and a broad review and synthesis of existing literature. Area 1. Continue the Historical Diagnosis of Location

  15. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  16. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Ngatik Island, Sapwuahfik Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Ngatik Island contains about 509 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 990,000 gallons per day on the basis of an estimated mean annual rainfall of 160 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 280,000 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 30,000 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube-wells or horizontal-infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow-water-table wells and deep driven wells. The ground-water resource on Ngatik can be used in conjunction with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking and ground water can be used for sanitary purposes. When rainwater- catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  17. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Pingelap Island, Pingelap Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Pingelap Island, Pingelap Atoll contains about 384 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 230,000 gallons per day on the basis of an average annual rainfall of 160 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 69,000 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 50,000 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube wells or horizontal-infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow-water-table wells and deep driven wells. The ground-water resource on Pingelap can be used in conjunction with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking, and ground water can be used for sanitary uses. When rainwater-catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  18. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Kahlap Island, Mwoakilloa Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Kahlap Island contains about 21.3 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 125,000 gallons per day on the basis of a mean annual rainfall of 120 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 17,300 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 13,500 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube wells or horizontal- infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow- water-table and deep driven wells. The ground- water resource on Kahlap can be used in conjunc- tion with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking, and ground water can be used for sanitary uses. When rainwater-catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  19. Atmospheric river influence on the intensification of extreme hydrologic events over the Western United States under climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Brianna; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Nayak, Munir; Rastogi, Deeksha; Margulis, Steven; Pal, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The Western United States shares limited snowmelt driven water supplies amongst millions of people, a multi-billion dollar agriculture industry and fragile ecosystems. The climatology of the region is highly variable, characterized by the frequent occurrences of both flood and drought conditions that cause increasingly challenging water management issues. Although variable year to year, up to half of California's total precipitation can be linked to atmospheric rivers (ARs). Most notably, ARs have been connected to nearly every major historic flood in the region, establishing its critical role to water supply. Numerous prior studies have considered potential climate change impacts over the Western United States and have generally concluded that warmer temperatures will reduce snowpack and shift runoff timing, causing reductions to water supply. Here we examine the role of ARs as one mechanism for explaining projected increases in flood and drought frequency and intensity under climate change scenarios, vital information for water resource managers. A hierarchical modeling framework to downscale 11 coupled global climate models from CMIP5 is used to form an ensemble of high-resolution dynamically downscaled regional climate model (via RegCM4) simulations at 18-km and hydrological (via VIC) simulations at a 4-km resolution for baseline (1965-2005) and future (2010-2050) periods under RCP 8.5. Each ensemble member's ability to capture observational AR climatology over the baseline period is evaluated. Baseline to future period changes to AR size, duration, seasonal timing, trajectory, magnitude and frequency are presented. These changes to the characterizations of ARs in the region are used to determine if any links exist to changes in snowpack volume, runoff timing, and the occurrence of daily and annual cumulative extreme precipitation and runoff events. Shifts in extreme AR frequency and magnitude are expected to increase flood risks, which without adequate multi

  20. EEG classification for motor imagery and resting state in BCI applications using multi-class Adaboost extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jue

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems provide an alternative communication and control approach for people with limited motor function. Therefore, the feature extraction and classification approach should differentiate the relative unusual state of motion intention from a common resting state. In this paper, we sought a novel approach for multi-class classification in BCI applications. We collected electroencephalographic (EEG) signals registered by electrodes placed over the scalp during left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, and resting state for ten healthy human subjects. We proposed using the Kolmogorov complexity (Kc) for feature extraction and a multi-class Adaboost classifier with extreme learning machine as base classifier for classification, in order to classify the three-class EEG samples. An average classification accuracy of 79.5% was obtained for ten subjects, which greatly outperformed commonly used approaches. Thus, it is concluded that the proposed method could improve the performance for classification of motor imagery tasks for multi-class samples. It could be applied in further studies to generate the control commands to initiate the movement of a robotic exoskeleton or orthosis, which finally facilitates the rehabilitation of disabled people.

  1. Development of a high-resolution apparatus to monitor physiological state of a person undergoing extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodermyatov Radik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research has shown that ECG recordings and parameters of the body functional state are crucial for all kinds of the astronaut pre-flight preparations (centrifuge, thermal chamber, pressure chamber, pressure chamber with special equipment. It is, therefore, important to develop methods and tools for early detection of the preclinical forms of the functional state disorders in patients undergoing high-intensity loads of mixed character. The method based on the hardware-software compleх (HSC with nanosensors of high resolution has been proposed to measure the electrophysiological characteristics and bioelectrical impedance of the body tissues directly exposed to loading. The hardware-software compleх is subjected to clinical trials in Tomsk Research Institute for Cardiology. The obtained results show that the use of nanosensors of high resolution in the HSC without standard filters allows elimination of the power-line interference in ECG recordings. Monitoring of the tissue bioimpedance parameters under test loads enables the detection of preclinical (latent forms of various diseases. After clinical trials in Tomsk Institute for Cardiology the developed apparatus will be proposed for in-depth study of the cardiovascular system and the functional state of the body of astronauts and other persons exposed to extreme loads.

  2. Groundwater Deductions from Geoelectric Survey in Burutu Island, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omamode S. Marere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A resistivity survey was carried out in order to study the groundwater conditions in Burutu Island, the thickness, depth, location of aquifer and type of aquifer were determined utilizing the surface Schlumberger electrode array with maximum current electrode spacing of 300 m. A total of 4 VES stations were sounded and seven geoelectric layers were delineated in the survey area. The first layer was top soil with resistivity values ranging from (54-893 Ωm and thickness between (0.5-1.4 m. The second layer had a resistivity ranging from (24.82-2768.0 Ωm and thickness of (2.03-3.71 m consisting of fine to medium sand. The third to fifth geoelectric layers consist of sandy clay sand with thickness varying from (3.12-17.23 m and resistivity values of (1.21-163.91Ωm which indicates saline intruded water zone. The results of the VES interpretation shows that a good source of aquifer was encountered at a depth of 49 m with a thickness of 19m which extends into the seventh layer. The results of the resistivity survey revealed that the parameters obtained through the interpretation of the VES curve using Win Resist software corresponds to the litholog of the borehole close to VES 4.

  3. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  4. The nature of the Island and Banana States in Atoll sources and a Unified Model for Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Church, M J; Balucinska-Church, M

    2013-01-01

    We propose an explanation of the Island and Banana states and the relation between Atoll and Z-track sources, constituting a unified model for Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXB). We find a dramatic transition at a luminosity of 1 - 2.10^{37} erg/s above which the high energy cut-off E_CO of the Comptonized emission in all sources is low at a few keV. There is thermal equilibrium between the neutron star at ~2 keV and the Comptonizing accretion disk corona (ADC) causing the low E_CO in the Banana state of Atolls and all states of the Z-track sources. Below this luminosity, E_CO increases towards 100 keV causing the hardness of the island state. Thermal equilibrium is lost, the ADC becoming much hotter than the neutron star via an additional coronal heating mechanism. This suggests a unified model of LMXB: the Banana state is a basic state with the mass accretion rate Mdot increasing, corresponding to the Normal Branch of Z-track sources. The Island state has high ADC temperature, this state not existing in the Z-t...

  5. Climate variability and change and their potential health effects in small island states: information for adaptation planning in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L; Lewis, Nancy D; Corvalan, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Small island states are likely the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and longterm climate change. Climate models suggest that small island states will experience warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall, soil moisture budgets, prevailing winds (speed and direction), and patterns of wave action. El Niño events likely will strengthen shortterm and interannual climate variations. In addition, global mean sea level is projected to increase by 0.09-0.88 m by 2100, with variable effects on regional and local sea level. To better understand the potential human health consequences of these projected changes, a series of workshops and a conference organized by the World Health Organization, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, addressed the following issues: the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive diseases in small island states, the potential future health impacts of climate variability and change, the interventions currently used to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive diseases, additional interventions that are needed to adapt to current and future health impacts, and the health implications of climate variability and change in other sectors. Information on these issues is synthesized and key recommendations are identified for improving the capacity of the health sector to anticipate and prepare for climate variability and change in small island states.

  6. Community Extreme Tonnage User Service (CETUS): A 5000 Ton Open Research Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.

    2016-01-01

    proposal to the NASA Emerging Worlds solicitation for the full cost of a press, with competitive bids submitted from Sumitomo, Rockland Research, and Voggenreiter. Additional funding is currently being sought from industry sources through the Strategic Partnerships Office at NASA JSC, External Pursuits Program Office on the JETS contract, and Jacobs corporate in the United States. Internal funding is available for JETS contract personnel to travel to large press locations worldwide to study set-up and operations. We also anticipate a fortuitous cost savings in installation of the large press because plans are already underway for major renovations to the entire experimental petrology suite within the next 2 years in order to accommodate our growing user base. Our focus as contract staff is on serving the scientific needs of our users and collaborators. We are seeking community expert input on multiple aspects of this proposed facility, such as the press type and design, access management, immediate projects, and future innovation initiatives.

  7. Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM), This data set contains a digital terrain model of the State of Rhode Island presented in TIN format. The TIN was derived from individual point locations and associated elevation values orignally developed for the orthographic retification of aerial photog, Published in 2001, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM) dataset current as of 2001. This data set contains a digital terrain model of the State of Rhode Island presented in TIN...

  8. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson County Central Library, Lopez Island Public Library, North Olympic Public Library, Oak Harbor Public...

  9. Voltage and Current Regulators Design of Power Converters in Islanded Microgrids based on State Feedback Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitations...... introduced by system delays. Moreover, a proportional resonant voltage controller is designed according to Nyquist criterion taking into account application requirements. Experimental tests performed in compliance with the UPS standards verify the theoretical analysis....

  10. An efficient method for evaluation of post-dynamic quasi-stationary states during the island operation of power system parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D.P.; Mijailovic, S.V. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the development and practical examples of an efficient method for the simultaneous solution of post-dynamic quasi-stationary states in each of the islands, using a unique numerical procedure, retaining the same node numeration which existed in the power system before its disintegration. At the same time, the developed method enables a simple incorporation of the effects of primary frequency and voltage control, emergency control devices and a series of possible dispatch actions, both during the monitoring of the disintegration process and during power system restoration with island synchronization, if the necessary conditions are met. 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On June 9, 2011, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Beechcraft BE90 King Air (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) (152 meters (m)) and approximately 1,200 ft (366 m) offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  12. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state's health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta.

  13. Decoupling Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation: Reviewing Progress to Date in the Small Island State of Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Conrad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the challenge of decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation; in contrast to several large-scale cross-country analyses that focus on limited indicators of environmental degradation, we analyze in some depth the experience of a single small-scale island state setting (Malta. We use available statistical data to derive decoupling factors, in order to consider the extent to which decoupling has been achieved in four sectors: (i energy intensity, climate change, and air quality; (ii water; (iii waste; and (iv land. Results indicate relative decoupling between economic growth and several indicators considered, and to a lesser extent, relative decoupling between population growth and the same indicators of environmental pressure. Absolute decoupling has been achieved in at least one instance but there has been no decoupling of land development from either economic or population growth. Land use and population thus appear to be notable sources of pressure. The results suggest that decoupling analyses that present environmental degradation in terms of single variables (e.g., carbon emissions may misrepresent somewhat the state of the environment at local level. Furthermore, the study highlights the need for methodologies that factor in the “embedding” of small-scale settings within much larger trade networks, for a more accurate estimation of environmental impact, and points to some limitations of solely quantitative analyses of environment-ecology relationships.

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart T; Midwinter, Robyn G; Coupland, Lucy A; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Chong, Beng H; Parish, Christopher R; Stocker, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119(+)-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119(+)-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes.

  15. Competition between normal and intruder states inside the "Island of Inversion"

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, V; Mantica, P F; Utsuno, Y; Bender, P; Cook, J; Hoffman, C R; Lee, S; Otsuka, T; Pereira, J; Perry, M; Pepper, K; Pinter, J; Stoker, J; Volya, A; Weisshaar, D; Tripathi, Vandana; Lee, Sangjin

    2007-01-01

    The beta decay of the exotic 30Ne (N=20) is reported. For the first time, the low-energy level structure of the N=19, 30Na (Tz = 4), is obtained from beta-delayed gamma spectroscopy using fragment-beta-gamma-gamma coincidences. The level structure clearly displays "inversion", i.e., intruder states with mainly 2p2h configurations displacing the normal states to higher excitation energies. The good agreement in excitation energies and the weak and electromagnetic decay patterns with Monte Carlo Shell Model calculations with the SDPF-M interaction in the sdpf valence space illustrates the small d3/2 - f7/2 shell gap. The relative position of the "normal dominant" and "intruder dominant" excited states provides valuable information to understand better the N=20 shell gap.

  16. On the equilibrium of a extremely extended and diluted magneto-matter state subject to its weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, Daniel

    Solutions to the force relationship between the magnetic stresses and the self-gravitational force are discussed for a simple homogeneous distribution of matter coalescent to a magnetic field in a cylindrical geometry. Consideration are given to the needed permeability of the medium to make it capable of supporting many times the mass of the Sun, on an extension of several parsecs to kiloparsec. This state of self organization of matter and magnetic field (magneto-matter state) has proven useful interpretation for the explanation of anomalous thermodynamic of the gas of electrons contained in flux-tubes with a twist, low-beta, often observed at 1 AU in the interplanetary medium, Berdichevsky and Shefers, 2015. This state of matter, which most basic property, the freezing in the magnetic field, see e.g., Chew et al, 1956, has proved to exist in the regions where robotic observations in the near and far space perform detailed observations of magnetic fields, and extreme dilute plasma (commonly about 1000 to 0.1 or less ionized particles per cubic cm). This work is in many ways an extension of Alfven work on magnetized space plasmas, Alven, 1942. Berdichevsky, D.B., and K., Schefers, ApJ, 803, 70, 2015, doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/70 Chew, G.F., M.L., Goldberger, and F.E. Low, 1956, the Royal Soc. London, section Math & Phys Sc., 236, pp. 112. Alfv'e n, H (1942). ``Existence of electromagnetic-hydrodynamic waves.'' Nature 150, 405 doi:10.1038/150405d0

  17. Characteristics of the spatiotemporal distribution of daily extreme temperature events in China: Minimum temperature records in different climate states against the background of the most probable temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Zhong-Hua; Hu Jing-Guo; Feng Guo-Lin; Cao Yong-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the skewed function,the most probable temperature is defined and the spatiotemporal distributions of the frequencies and strengths of extreme temperature events in different climate states over China are investigated,where the climate states are referred to as State Ⅰ,State Ⅱ and State Ⅲ,i.e.,the daily minimum temperature records of 1961-1990,1971-2000,and 1981-2009.The results show that in space the frequency of high temperature events in summer decreases clearly in the lower and middle reaches of the Yellow River in State Ⅰ and that low temperature events decrease in northern China in State Ⅱ.In the present state,the frequency of high temperature events increases significantly in most areas over China except the north east,while the frequency of low temperature events decreases mainly in north China and the regions between the Yangtze River and the Yellow River.The distributions of frequencies and strengths of extreme temperature events are consistent in space.The analysis of time evolution of extreme events shows that the occurrence of high temperature events become higher with the change in state,while that of low temperature events decreases.High temperature events are becoming stronger as well and deserve to be paid special attention.

  18. Assessing the potential impacts of climate change on return periods of hydrological extremes in the Illinois River watershed of the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Knouft, J.

    2014-12-01

    As the Earth's climate is predicted to change significantly in terms of warmer temperature and higher precipitation extremes during this century due to the increased combustion of fossil fuels, accurate estimations of the frequencies of future hydrological extremes are important to understanding the potential impacts of changes in climate on water resources management, particularly in accessing flood risk. The goal of this study is to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed landscape-scale hydrological model, to predict current streamflow and the potential impacts of climate change on future stream flows in the Illinois River watershed in the Midwestern United States. Subsequently Gumbel distribution (Extreme Value Type Ⅰ) is fitted to the annual maxima simulated streamflow to derive a number of return periods of future hydrological extremes. The question in this study is: How do the return periods of future hydrological extremes change under future climate change scenarios and what factors cause the change? Daily simulated future streamflow from 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 are simulated using SWAT model based on nine separate downscaled global climate models (GCM) with three emissions scenarios. SWAT model predictions generally indicate that annual streamflow will likely decrease due to warmer temperatures. Based on the simulated daily streamflow, probability models for annual maxima flows frequency analysis are developed using Gumbel distribution and the values of hydrological extremes for different return periods including 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 years are derived. The change of return periods of hydrological extremes and the implications will be discussed.

  19. Identifying the Drivers and Occurrence of Historical and Future Extreme Air-quality Events in the United States Using Advanced Statistical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D. S.; Russell, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Episodes of air-quality extremes are known to be heavily influenced by meteorological conditions, but traditional statistical analysis techniques focused on means and standard deviations may not capture important relationships at the tails of these two respective distributions. Using quantile regression (QR) and extreme value theory (EVT), methodologies specifically developed to examine the behavior of heavy-tailed phenomena, we analyze extremes in the multi-decadal record of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. We investigate observations from the Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks for connections to meteorological drivers, as provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) product. Through regional characterization by quantile behavior and EVT modeling of the meteorological covariates most responsible for extreme levels of O3 and PM2.5, we estimate pollutant exceedance frequencies and uncertainties in the United States under current and projected future climates, highlighting those meteorological covariates and interactions whose influence on air-quality extremes differs most significantly from the behavior of the bulk of the distribution. As current policy may be influenced by air-quality projections, we then compare these estimated frequencies to those produced by NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM) identifying regions, covariates, and species whose extreme behavior may not be adequately captured by current models.

  20. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  1. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  2. Excited State s-cis Rotamers Produced by Extreme Red Edge Excitation of all-trans-1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Møller, Søren; Goldbeck, Robert A.;

    1993-01-01

    The shapes of the fluorescence emission and lowest excited singlet-state absorption spectra of all-trans-1,4- diphenylbutadiene (DPB) in hydrocarbon solvents vary with excitation wavelength when exciting on the extreme red edge of the ground-state absorption spectrum. This contrasts with the wave......The shapes of the fluorescence emission and lowest excited singlet-state absorption spectra of all-trans-1,4- diphenylbutadiene (DPB) in hydrocarbon solvents vary with excitation wavelength when exciting on the extreme red edge of the ground-state absorption spectrum. This contrasts...... changes in DPB can be explained in terms of an excitation wavelength-dependent production of s-cis and s-trans rotamer populations in the excited state. The DPB fluorescence emission spectrum was resolved into s-cis and s-trans components. The vibronic structure of the s-cis fluorescence spectrum...

  3. Synthesis of marine ecosystem monitoring activities for the United States Virgin Islands: 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The ecological integrity of coral reef ecosystems in the U.S. Caribbean is widely considered to have deteriorated in the last three decades due to a range of threats and stressors from both human and non-human processes Rothenberger 2008, Wilkinson 2008). In response to the threats to Caribbean coral reef ecosystems and other regions around the world, the United States Government authorized the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 to: (1) preserve, sustain, and restore the condition of coral r...

  4. Unraveling the Edge Structures of Platinum(111)-Supported Ultrathin FeO Islands: The Influence of Oxidation State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Helene; Kudernatsch, Wilhelmine; Merte, Lindsay Richard

    2015-01-01

    reaction environments we studied pristine, oxidized, and reduced FeO islands. Oxidation of the FeO islands by O2 exposure led to the formation of two types of O adatom dislocations and to a restructuring of the FeO islands, creating long O-rich edges and few short Fe terminated edges. In contrast, reducing...... FeO films and geometrical considerations we unraveled the atomic structure of the predominant FeO boundaries of pristine, oxidized, and reduced FeO islands. The results indicate an astonishing flexibility of the FeO islands on Pt(111), since the predominant edge termination and the island shape......We used high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy to study the structure of ultrathin FeO islands grown on Pt(111). Our focus is particularly on the edges of the FeO islands that are important in heterogeneous catalysis, as they host the active sites on inversed catalysts. To imitate various...

  5. An XMM-Newton Observation of the Seyfert Galaxy 1H0419-577 in an Extreme Low State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; O'Brien, P. T.

    2003-01-01

    Previous observations of the luminous Seyfert galaxy 1H 0419-577 have found its X-ray spectrum to range from that of a typical Seyfert 1 with 2-10 keV power law index Gamma approx. 1.9 to a much flatter power law of Gamma approx. 1.5 or less. We report here a new XMM-Newton observation which allows the low state spectrum to be studied in much greater detail than hitherto. We find a very hard spectrum (Gamma approx. 1.0) which exhibits broad features that can be modelled with the addition of an extreme relativistic Fe K emission line or with partial covering of the underlying continuum by a substantial column density of near-neutral gas. Both the EPIC and RGS data show evidence for strong line emission of OVII and OVIII requiring an extended region of low density photoionised gas in 1H 0419- 577. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was X-ray bright indicates the dominant spectral variability occurs via a steep power law component.

  6. An XMM-Newton Observation of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0419-577 in an Extreme Low State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; OBrien, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    Previous observations of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 have found its X-ray spectrum to range from that of a typical Seyfert 1 with 2-10 keV power law index Gamma approx. 1.9 to a much flatter power law of Gamma approx. 1.5 or less. We report here a new XMM-Newton observation which allows the low state spectrum to be studied in much greater detail than hitherto. We find a very hard spectrum (Gamma approx. 1.0), which exhibits broad features that can be modelled myth the addition of an extreme relativistic Fe K emission line or with partial covering of the underlying continuum by a substantial column density of near-neutral gas. Both the EPIC and RGS data show evidence for strong line emission of OVII and OVIII requiring an extended region of low density photoionised gas in 1H 0419-577. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was 'X-ray bright' indicates the dominant spectral variability occurs via a steep power law component.

  7. Adaptation Strategies to Combating Climate Variability and Extremity among Farmers in Selected Farm Settlements in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOROKINI T.I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of climate variability and extremities on agriculture in Africa have been widely reported. This calls for adaptive strategies in farming so as to reduce vulnerability and ensure food security. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the awareness of farmers to climate variability and their adaptation strategies in four selected farm settlements in Oyo State, Nigeria. . Structured questionnaires were administered to 120 farmers using a stratified random sampling method. The results showed very high awareness of climate variability among the farmers. However, majority of the farmers acquired their land by lease, while local farm tools are still used by most of the farmers. Sole cropping, mixed cropping and crop rotation were mostly practiced by the farmers. The farmers reported prevalence of crops pests and diseases, flooding, disappearance of bi-modal rainfall, increased temperature and drought in their farmlands, leading to increase in poverty, higher production costs and poor crop harvests as evidences of harsh climatic conditions. Adaptation strategies used by the farmers were changing planting dates, planting new varieties, intercropping and alternative income generating activities. The farmers are encouraged to acquire more efficient farming system and equipment, while they should strongly consider other adaptation strategies such as agricultural insurance, agroforestry, water conservation methods, soil conservation farming, irrigation farming, organic farming and mechanized farming. Furthermore, land tenure policy that could constrain the farmers should be reviewed, while they should be given proper training.

  8. Strength of metals in liquid and solid states at extremely high tension produced by femtosecond laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitkov, Sergey I.; Inogamov, Nail A.; Komarov, Pavel S.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.; Oleynik, Ivan I.; Agranat, Mikhail B.; Kanel, Gennady I.; Fortov, Vladimir E.

    2012-07-01

    We will discuss results of combined experimental and theoretical investigations of ablation and laser-driven shock-wave phenomena in metal films irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The femtosecond interferometric microscopy technique was used to make time-resolved measurements of optical properties as well as record the deformation dynamics at both the rear and frontal surfaces during initial two-temperature electron-ion relaxation and subsequent hydrodynamic expansion. In conjunction with experiment, the formation and propagation of strong tensile and compression waves were investigated by a combination of two-temperature hydrodynamic modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental tensile strengths of aluminum and nickel in solid and liquid states at extremely high strain rates in range 108÷109s-1 were obtained from the time evolution of rear and frontal surface velocities. Theoretical tensile strengths calculated by atomistic simulations of ablation and spallation using micron-sized films agree well with experiment. Elastic-plastic response of metallic films to shock compression investigated by both experiment and theory/modeling will also be discussed.

  9. Strength of metals in liquid and solid states at extremely high tension produced by femtosecond laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitkov, Sergey I.; Inogamov, Nail A.; Komarov, Pavel S.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.; Oleynik, Ivan I.; Agranat, Mikhail B.; Kanel, Gennady I.; Fortov, Vladimir E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-30

    We will discuss results of combined experimental and theoretical investigations of ablation and laser-driven shock-wave phenomena in metal films irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The femtosecond interferometric microscopy technique was used to make time-resolved measurements of optical properties as well as record the deformation dynamics at both the rear and frontal surfaces during initial two-temperature electron-ion relaxation and subsequent hydrodynamic expansion. In conjunction with experiment, the formation and propagation of strong tensile and compression waves were investigated by a combination of two-temperature hydrodynamic modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental tensile strengths of aluminum and nickel in solid and liquid states at extremely high strain rates in range 10{sup 8} Division-Sign 10{sup 9}s{sup -1} were obtained from the time evolution of rear and frontal surface velocities. Theoretical tensile strengths calculated by atomistic simulations of ablation and spallation using micron-sized films agree well with experiment. Elastic-plastic response of metallic films to shock compression investigated by both experiment and theory/modeling will also be discussed.

  10. Developing a global health diplomacy supply chain--a viable option for the United States to curb extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Honkanen, Erik J; Karl, Chad C

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the idea of developing a global health diplomacy supply chain as an important foreign policy approach with the aim of improving the lives of vulnerable populations and serving the best interests of the United States. The study was based on the review of academic literature, news events, and military communiques, and historical writings were studied to determine the feasibility of the idea and the extent of costs and benefits of such an endeavor. An integrated strategic business model, supported by a medical care delivery process, was developed to create a framework for a feasible global health diplomacy supply chain. The findings indicate that extremism can be contained by creating and efficiently executing an effective supply chain to get medical care units to those that need them. The limitations are the potential exit strategies required, the tactical abilities, and diplomatic techniques needed in order to create positive diplomatic change in aid distribution. Managers must consider how supply chains will affect other organizations giving aid and the potential public response. Moreover, determining the level of care necessary to achieve the greatest positive health diplomacy continues to require vigilant scrutiny over the potential cost/benefit analysis. The analysis is valuable to policymakers considering the impacts of health diplomacy by utilizing supply chain management.

  11. Extremal states of energy of a double-layered thick-walled tube - application to residually stressed arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waffenschmidt, Tobias; Menzel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Various biological tissues are designed to optimally support external loads for complex geometries and mechanobiological structures. This results in complex microstructures of such materials. The design of, for instance, (healthy) arteries, which are in the focus of this work, is characterised by a residually stressed fibre-reinforced multi-layered composite with highly non-linear elastic response. The complex interaction of material properties with the geometry and residual stress effects enables the optimal support under different blood pressures, respectively blood flow, within the vessel. The fibres reinforcing the arterial wall, as well as residual stresses present in the vessel, strongly influence its overall behaviour and performance. Turn-over and remodelling processes of the collagenous fibres occurring in the respective layers - either resulting from natural growth phenomena or from artificially induced changes in loading condition such as stent deployment - support the optimisation of the multi-layered composite structure of arteries for the particular loading conditions present in the artery. Within this contribution, the overall energetic properties of an artery are discussed by means of the inflation, bending and extension of a double-layered cylindrical tube. Different states of residual stresses and different fibre orientations are considered so that, for instance, representative fibre angles that result in extremal states of the total potential energy can be identified. In view of turn-over and remodelling processes, these orientations are considered to constitute preferred directions of fibre alignment. In summary, the main goal of this work is to calculate optimal material, structural and loading parameters by concepts of energy-minimisation. Several numerical studies show that the obtained values - such as the fibre orientations, the residual axial stretch and the opening angle - are in good agreement with respective physiological parameters

  12. Evaluation of NASA's MERRA Precipitation Product in Reproducing the Observed Trend and Distribution of Extreme Precipitation Events in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, Hamed; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Lee, Jaechoul; Wehner, Michael F.; Collow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) precipitation product in reproducing the trend and distribution of extreme precipitation events. Utilizing the extreme value theory, time-invariant and time-variant extreme value distributions are developed to model the trends and changes in the patterns of extreme precipitation events over the contiguous United States during 1979-2010. The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S.Unified gridded observation data are used as the observational dataset. The CPC analysis shows that the eastern and western parts of the United States are experiencing positive and negative trends in annual maxima, respectively. The continental-scale patterns of change found in MERRA seem to reasonably mirror the observed patterns of change found in CPC. This is not previously expected, given the difficulty in constraining precipitation in reanalysis products. MERRA tends to overestimate the frequency at which the 99th percentile of precipitation is exceeded because this threshold tends to be lower in MERRA, making it easier to be exceeded. This feature is dominant during the summer months. MERRA tends to reproduce spatial patterns of the scale and location parameters of the generalized extreme value and generalized Pareto distributions. However, MERRA underestimates these parameters, particularly over the Gulf Coast states, leading to lower magnitudes in extreme precipitation events. Two issues in MERRA are identified: 1) MERRA shows a spurious negative trend in Nebraska and Kansas, which is most likely related to the changes in the satellite observing system over time that has apparently affected the water cycle in the central United States, and 2) the patterns of positive trend over the Gulf Coast states and along the East Coast seem to be correlated with the tropical cyclones in these regions. The analysis of the trends in the seasonal precipitation extremes indicates that

  13. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C.; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta. PMID:27683658

  14. Eight New Species of Genus Coscinoderma (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida: Spongiidae from Chuuk Island, The Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim, Chung Ja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes eight new species of the genus Coscinoderma from Chuuk Island, the Federated States of Micronesia. This genus is characterized by very fine, meandering uncored secondary fibres. All the new Coscinoderma species are compared with eight other valid species from tropical regions. Coscinoderma folium n. sp. is characterized by its large thickly foliate shape, and cored primary fibres are easily found between secondary fibres in choanosome. Coscinoderma lacium n. sp. differs in having round conules and no cored primary fibres. Coscinoderma cavernosa n. sp. is distinguished from other species by its cavernous shape and long sharp conules. Coscinoderma wenoa n. sp. is characterized by long conules and primary fibres. Coscinoderma mappula n. sp. differs in having a thick sand crust in the choanosome. Coscinoderma bakusi n. sp. is characterized by having several oscules at the top of the sponge and color changed grey to dark brown in alcohol. Coscinoderma pollax n. sp. is characterized by having a small thumb shape. Coscinoderma truki n. sp. similar to C. pollax in shape but differs in cored primary fibres with many spicules.

  15. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saketa, Salanieta; Durand, Alexis; Vaai-Nielsen, Saine; Leong-Lui, Tile Ah; Naseri, Take; Matalima, Ailuai; Amosa, Filipina; Mercier, Alize; Lepers, Christelle; Lal, Vjesh; Wojcik, Richard; Lewis, Sheri; Roth, Adam; Souares, Yvan; Merilles, Onofre Edwin; Hoy, Damian

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa’s weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the e-mail alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network) together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%). No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1) the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2) the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3) having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response. PMID:28409055

  16. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Caribbean Small Island Developing States: Integrating Local and External Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Kurvits

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS are vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise, invasive species, ocean acidification, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and changing hazard regimes including hurricanes, floods and drought. Given high dependencies in Caribbean SIDS on natural resources for livelihoods, a focus on ecosystems and their interaction with people is essential for climate change adaptation. Increasingly, ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches are being highlighted as an approach to address climate change impacts. Specifically, EbA encourages the use of local and external knowledge about ecosystems to identify climate change adaptation approaches. This paper critically reviews EbA in Caribbean SIDS, focusing on the need to integrate local and external knowledge. An analysis of current EbA in the Caribbean is undertaken alongside a review of methodologies used to integrate local and external expertise for EbA. Finally key gaps, lessons learnt and suggested ways forward for EbA in Caribbean SIDS and potentially further afield are identified.

  17. Value chains of public and private health care services in a small EU Island State: A SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Buttigieg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and macro-economic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private healthcare sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care, as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health care systems in Malta, a small EU island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT. The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health care services in Malta.

  18. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa’s weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the email alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%. No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1 the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2 the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3 having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response.

  19. State-of-the-art 3DCT angiography assessment of lower extremity trauma: typical findings, pearls, and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jan; Efron, David T; Fishman, Elliot K

    2013-06-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) of the lower extremities is an integral part of the decision-making process of lower extremity trauma. MDCTA can be integrated into multiphasic whole-body trauma MDCT and has replaced the traditional gold standard of catheter-based angiography as the preferred technique for the initial assessment of lower extremity trauma in many institutions worldwide. Advances in MDCT technology enable high speed simultaneous evaluation of both complete lower extremities, rapid image reconstruction, and advanced image visualization for the noninvasive and accurate diagnosis of vascular, including hematoma, active extravasation, vasospasm, stenosis, external compression, occlusion, intimal injury and dissection, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysm formation. In this exhibit, we outline the role of MDCTA in the management of lower extremity trauma, review current MDCT protocols and the practical use of advanced visualization techniques, and illustrate typical MDCTA findings, pearls, and pitfalls, which help to accurately characterize vascular injury and guide management.

  20. Weather and Climate Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Antarctica’s highest (New Zealand Antarctic Society, 1974). This extreme exceeded the record of 58°F (14.4°C) that occurred on 20 October 1956 at Esperanza ... Esperanza (also known as Bahia Esperanza , Hope Bay) was in operation from 1945 through the early 1960s. Meteorological/Climatological Factors: This extreme...cm) Location: Grand Ilet, La R’eunion Island [21°00’S, 55°30’E] Date: 26 January 1980 WORLD’S GREATEST 24-HOUR RAINFALL 72 in (182.5 cm

  1. Response to the challenges of pandemic H1N1 in a small island state: the Barbadian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having been overwhelmed by the complexity of the response needed for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic, public health professionals in the small island state of Barbados put various measures in place to improve its response in the event of a pandemic Methods Data for this study was collected using Barbados’ National Influenza Surveillance System, which was revitalized in 2007. It is comprised of ten sentinel sites which send weekly notifications of acute respiratory illness (ARI and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI to the Office of the National Epidemiologist. During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, meetings of the National Pandemic Planning Committee and the Technical Command Committee were convened. The pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs implemented as a result of these meetings form the basis of the results presented in this paper. Results On June 3, 2009, Barbados reported its first case of 2009 H1N1. From June until October 2009, there were 155 laboratory confirmed cases of 2009 H1N1, with one additional case occurring in January 2010. For the outbreak period (June-October 2009, the surveillance team received reports of 2,483 ARI cases, compared to 412 cases for the same period in 2008. The total hospitalization rate due to SARIs for the year 2009 was 90.1 per 100,000 people, as compared to 7.3 per 100,000 people for 2008. Barbados’ pandemic response was characterized by a strong surveillance system combining active and passive surveillance, good risk communication strategy, a strengthened public and private sector partnership, and effective regional and international collaborations. Community restriction strategies such as school and workplace closures and cancellation of group events were not utilized as public health measures to delay the spread of the virus. Some health care facilities struggled with providing adequate isolation facilities. Conclusions The number of

  2. Musgos (Bryophyta na Ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, PA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta in Trambioca Island, Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula da Silva Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos em diferentes ecossistemas da Ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, PA. Foram encontradas 40 espécies, pertencentes a 20 gêneros e 13 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp. e Leucobryaceae (5 spp., as quais destacaram-se também quanto ao número de indivíduos. As espécies mais comuns foram Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr. e Trichosteleum papillosum (Hornsch. A. Jaeger. Evidenciou-se maior diversidade de espécies na mata de terra firme, confirmando a preferência das briófitas por este ecossistema. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. é citada como primeira referência para o Estado do Pará.This work presents a survey of mosses from different ecosystems of Trambioca Island, municipality of Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil. Forty taxa of mosses were found, belonging to 20 genera and 13 families. The families with highest number of species were Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp., and Leucobryaceae (5 spp., which also presented the highest number of individuals. The most common species were Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr., and Trichosteleum papillosum (Honrsch. A. Jaeger. It was observed a higher richness of species in the primary low land rainforest, confirming the preference of bryophytes for this ecosystem. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. is mentioned as the first report to Pará State.

  3. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. In these studies, direct and indirect indicators of space weather influence are used: 1) Indirect indicators are essentially epidemiological data showing the temporal and spatial distribution of defined events or health disturbances involving considerable numbers of test subjects over several years. The indirect indicators used in this paper are: temporal distribution of emergency calls and hospital admissions (sudden cardiac deaths, acute myocardial infarction mortality and morbidity, so on), dynamics of traffic accidents, epidemics, etc.; 2) Direct indicators. They are physiological parameters, which can be objectively verified and which are acquired either in vivo, directly on the subject (heart rate and its variability, blood pressure, human brain's functional state, human psycho-emotional state, so on), or in vitro by laboratory diagnostics or tissue investigations. The potential co-factors, e.g. terrestrial (tropospheric) weather, seasons, demographic factor, working environment, etc., were also considered in the interpretation of the indicators. Spectral analyses have revealed certain chronobiological periodicities in the considered data. There are also provided results of daily medical-physiological experiments (acupunctural studies of conductivity of the biologically active points of human body in days with different geomagnetic activity levels) conducted in the Laboratory of Heliobiology, Baku, Azerbaijan, as a part of collaborative studies with Russian institutions such as IZMIRAN and Space Research Institute. They show on the latitudinal and longitudinal dependence of space weather influence. Our complex studies enabled to conclude that not only extremely high, but also very low levels of geomagnetic activity may have signifi- cant influence on human health state, especially, in the cardio-vascular health state and human brain's bioelectrical activity.

  4. Leading In Context: A Review Of Leadership Styles To Inform School Effectiveness In Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryselda Caesar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines different models and theories of leadership with a view to discern relevance, meaning and applicability to a small state, St Lucia. It reviews the evolution and distinguishing features of leadership and compares selected models in order to determine significance to St. Lucia context for achieving effective schools. Different school leadership models evolved to suit societal changes, educational reforms and demands and perceptions of educational researchers who viewed schools as organizations based on corporate -organization models, but exhibited greater complex and dynamism. Other researchers viewed schools as communities with a network of interconnecting people and relationships, with varying degrees of commitments and conflicting expectations, thus creating a unique environment in each school.  Apprehension about the degree of applicability of these models with regard to outcomes and the quality of schooling that students require in this challenging era, led to the development of new leadership theories. These new leadership models suggest that school leaders should to be driven by a noble and morale purpose.  However the literature seems to indicate that transformational models and new leadership concepts are theoretical and have not been empirically tested in schools. Then again, if available, the few empirically based theories are context specific; they are researched in developed and different countries with completely different circumstances and may not be easily transferable. Adoption and application of these models are dependent on the prevailing circumstances and environment.

  5. The nature of the island and banana states in atoll sources and a unified model for low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M. J.; Gibiec, A.; Bałucińska-Church, M.

    2014-03-01

    We propose an explanation of the island and banana states and the relation between atoll and Z-track sources, constituting a unified model for low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB). We find a dramatic transition at a luminosity of 1-2 × 1037 erg s-1 above which the high-energy cut-off ECO of the Comptonized emission in all sources is low at a few keV. There is thermal equilibrium between the neutron star at ˜2 keV and the Comptonizing accretion disc corona (ADC) causing the low ECO in the banana state of atolls and all states of the Z-track sources. Below this luminosity, ECO increases towards 100 keV causing the hardness of the island state. Thermal equilibrium is lost, the ADC becoming much hotter than the neutron star via an additional coronal heating mechanism. This suggests a unified model of LMXB: the banana state is a basic state with the mass accretion rate dot{M} increasing, corresponding to the normal branch of Z-track sources. The island state has high ADC temperature, this state not existing in the Z-sources with luminosities much greater than the critical value. The Z-track sources have an additional flaring branch consistent with unstable nuclear burning on the neutron star at high dot{M}. This burning regime does not exist at low dot{M} so this branch is not seen in atolls (except GX atolls). The horizontal branch in Z-track sources has a strong increase in radiation pressure disrupting the inner disc and launching relativistic jets.

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Soil Polygons for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — 2013 VERSION 6 Spatial: This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative...

  7. Size-dependent superconducting state of individual nanosized Pb islands grown on Si(111) by tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jiepeng; Wu Xuefeng; Ming Fangfei; Zhang Xieqiu; Wang Kedong; Xiao Xudong [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong); Wang Bing, E-mail: xdxiao@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscales, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-07-06

    By measuring the temperature-dependent tunneling spectroscopy of a set of flat-top Pb islands from 3.2 to 15 K, the limiting size of a nine-monolayer-thick Pb island with superconductivity above 3.2 K was determined to be {approx} 30 nm{sup 2}, in good agreement with the Anderson criterion. Further analysis indicates that the zero-temperature energy gap decreases significantly faster than the transition temperature when the Pb island size approaches this limit. This leads to a decrease of 2{Delta}(0)/k{sub B}T{sub C} from 4.5 to 3.3, thus showing that the Pb island superconductors undergo a change from strong to weak electron-phonon coupling.

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Special Point Features for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Special Line Features for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Libraries, The locations and contact information for academic, private and public libraries in Rhode Island. The intention of this dataset was to provide an overview of data. Additional information pertinent to the state is also available from the RI Department of, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Libraries dataset current as of 2007. The locations and contact information for academic, private and public libraries in Rhode Island. The intention of this dataset...

  11. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  12. GIS Map of Mosaicked LandSat 7 ETM+ Satellite Imagery of the Marshall Islands, Micronesia Federated States, and the Republic of Palau from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2003 (NODC Accession 0067475)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These maps show for the first time an accurate georeferenced mosaic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau and their...

  13. A new state-of-the-art tool to investigate rock friction under extreme slip velocities and accelerations: SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, André; di Toro, Giulio; Nielsen, Stefan; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Romeo, Gianni; di Stefano, Giuseppe; Smith, Steven; di Felice, Fabio; Mariano, Sofia

    2010-05-01

    Despite considerable effort over the past several decades, the mechanics of earthquakes rupture remain largely unknown. In order to complement fault drilling projects and field and seismological observations, recent friction experiments strive to reproduce as closely as possible in-situ (natural) conditions of slip velocity and acceleration on intact and fault rocks. In this contribution, we present a novel state-of-the-art experimental rotary shear apparatus (SHIVA or Slow to HIgh Velocity Apparatus) capable of shearing samples at sliding velocities up to 10 m/s, accelerations of ~ 40 m/s2 and normal stresses up to 50 MPa. In comparison with existing high speed friction machines, this apparatus extends the range of sliding velocities, normal stresses, sample size and, more importantly, accelerations. The apparatus consists of a pair of brushless electric motors (a low velocity motor, 10-6-10-3 m/s, power 5 kW, and a high velocity motor, 10-3 - 10 m/s, power 270 kW), that are connected by a gear system that allows a switch between motors without loss of velocity and force. The motors drive a rotary shaft which clamps ring-shaped samples (diameter 40- 50 mm). On the other side of the rotary shaft, a stationary shaft holds the other half of the sample assembly. The shaft is held stationary by a pair of stainless steel arms, one of which is attached to the side of the concrete-filled base where torque is measured by a tension cell. Axial force (maximum 37 kN) is applied on this side by a piston-cylinder couple with an arm to increase the force. The entire machine measures by 3.5 by 1.2 meters and weighs 3700 kg. We aim to perform experiments on rock samples of a variety of compositions using slip velocities and accelerations that simulate slip velocity functions that occur during earthquakes. In addition, we plan to develop a pore fluid system and a pressure vessel in order to perform experiments that include the physical-chemical processes that occur during slow

  14. Riding the globalization wave (1974-2004: islandness and strategies of economic development in two post-colonial states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Karides

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1974, the Republic of Cyprus and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, both former British colonies, experienced significant events that permanently altered their economic and social realities. The coincidence of these occurrences offers an opportunity for a historical comparison of island development. In effect, this paper argues that the economic paths of these islands were shaped largely by their responses to neo-liberalism. Cyprus’ support for domestic enterprises and resistance to neo-liberal policies throughout the early 1990s compared to Trinidad and Tobago’s forced acquiescence to them and reliance on its energy sector explain the difference in their economic trajectories. Analytically, I argue that island nations can chart a course for economic strategies that benefit more of the population despite neo-liberal pressure to adopt policies that advantage global capital. This comparison supports the island studies position that islands have distinct place-based and/or historical capacities for resourceful and creative tactics towards economic autonomy and development.

  15. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  16. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  17. Spatial and temporal trends of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingale, Santosh M.; Khare, Deepak; Jat, Mahesh K.; Adamowski, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Trend analysis of the mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature at the spatial and temporal scales was carried out for all the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Statistical trend analysis techniques, namely the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, were used to examine trends (1971-2005) at the 10% level of significance. Both positive and negative trends were observed in mean and extreme events of rainfall and temperature in the urban centers of Rajasthan State. The magnitude of the significant trend of monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 6.00 mm/hydrologic year at Nagaur to (-) 8.56 mm/hydrologic year at Tonk. However, the magnitude of the significant negative trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 0.66 mm/hydrologic year at Dungarpur to (-) 1.27 mm/hydrologic year at Chittorgarh. The magnitude of positive trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from 0.93 mm/hydrologic year at Churu to 1.70 mm/hydrologic year at Hanumangarh. The magnitude of the significant negative trends of annual rainfall varied from (-) 6.47 mm/year at Nagaur to (-) 10.0 mm/year at Tonk. The minimum, average and maximum temperature showed significant increasing warming trends on an annual and seasonal scale in most of the urban centers in Rajasthan State. The magnitude of statistically significant annual extreme daily rainfall varied from 2.00 mm at Jhalawar to (-) 1.64 mm at Tonk, while the magnitude of statistically significant extreme annual daily minimum and maximum temperature varied from 0.03 °C at Ganganagar to 0.05 °C at Jhalawar, respectively. The spatial variations of the trends in mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature were also determined using the inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. IDW results are helpful to identify trends and variability in mean and extreme rainfall and temperature in

  18. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  19. Contribution of large-scale circulation anomalies to changes in extreme precipitation frequency in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Pei, Lisi; Bian, Xindi; Heilman, Warren E.

    2016-04-01

    The mean global climate has warmed as a result of the increasing emission of greenhouse gases induced by human activities. This warming is considered the main reason for the increasing number of extreme precipitation events in the US. While much attention has been given to extreme precipitation events occurring over several days, which are usually responsible for severe flooding over a large region, little is known about how extreme precipitation events that cause flash flooding and occur at sub-daily time scales have changed over time. Here we use the observed hourly precipitation from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 forcing datasets to determine trends in the frequency of extreme precipitation events of short (1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h) duration for the period 1979-2013. The results indicate an increasing trend in the central and eastern US. Over most of the western US, especially the Southwest and the Intermountain West, the trends are generally negative. These trends can be largely explained by the interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with the AMO making a greater contribution to the trends in both warm and cold seasons.

  20. Features of the extreme events observed in the all-solid state laser with a saturable absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Bonazzola, Carlos R; Kovalsky, Marcelo G; Tredicce, Jorge R

    2015-01-01

    Extreme events (sometimes also called optical rogue waves), in the form of pulses of extraordinary intensity, are easily observed in its chaotic regime if the Fresnel number of the cavity is high. This result suggests that the nonlinear interaction among transverse modes is an essential ingredient in the formation of extreme events in this type of lasers, but there is no theoretical description of the phenomenon yet. We report here a set of experimental results on the regularities of these extreme events, to provide a basis for the development of such a description. Among these results, we point out here: i) the decay of the correlation across the transversal section of the laser beam, and ii) the appearance of extreme events even if the time elapsed since the previous pulse is relatively short (in terms of the average inter-pulse separation), what indicates the existence of some unknown mechanism of energy storage. We hypothesize that this mechanism is related with the imperfect depletion of the gain by some...

  1. NuSTAR and SWIFT joint view of neutron star X-ray binary 4U 1728-34 : Disc reflection in the island and lower banana states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Pahari, Mayukh; Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze two simultaneous NuSTAR and SWIFT data of the Atoll type neutron star (NS) X-ray binary 4U 1728-34 observed on 1 and 3 October, 2013. We infer that the first and the second observations belong to the island state and the lower banana state respectively. During island state, four type-I X-ray bursts are observed within 60 ks exposure. From the time-resolved spectral analysis of each burst with NuSTAR, the blackbody temperature kTbb are found to vary between 1.3 to 3.0 keV while the blackbody normalizations (km/10 kpc)2 vary in the range 20 to 200, which translates to blackbody radii of 3.5 - 7.4 km for an assumed distance of 5 kpc. The persistent, joint energy spectra from SWIFT and NuSTAR for both observations in the energy band 1 - 79 keV are well described with thermal emission from the NS surface (kTbb ≃ 1 - 2.5 keV), Comptonized emission of thermal seed photons from the hot boundary layer/corona and the strong reflection component from the accretion disc. We detect a broad Iron line in the 5 - 8 keV band and reflection hump in the 15 - 30 keV band modelled by the relxill reflection model. Joint spectral fitting constrains the inclination angle of the binary system and inner disc radius to be 22 - 40 and (2.0 - 4.3) × RISCO, respectively. We estimate the magnetic field to be (1.8 - 6.5) × 108 Gauss. The X-ray luminosity of the source during the island and lower banana states are found to be LX = 1.1 and 1.6 × 1037 erg s-1 respectively which correspond to ˜6% and ˜9% of the Eddington luminosity.

  2. NuSTAR and Swift joint view of neutron star X-ray binary 4U 1728-34: disc reflection in the island and lower banana states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Pahari, Mayukh; Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2017-04-01

    We analyse two simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift data of the Atoll-type neutron star (NS) X-ray binary 4U 1728-34 observed on 2013 October 1 and 3. We infer that the first and the second observations belong to the island state and the lower banana state, respectively. During island state, four type-I X-ray bursts are observed within 60 ks exposure. From the time-resolved spectral analysis of each burst with NuSTAR, the blackbody temperature kTbb are found to vary between 1.3 and 3.0 keV, while the blackbody normalizations (km/10 kpc)2 vary in the range 20-200, which translates to blackbody radii of 3.5-7.4 km for an assumed distance of 5 kpc. The persistent, joint energy spectra from Swift and NuSTAR for both observations in the energy band 1-79 keV are well described with thermal emission from the NS surface (kTbb ≃ 1-2.5 keV), Comptonized emission of thermal seed photons from the hot boundary layer/corona and the strong reflection component from the accretion disc. We detect a broad iron line in the 5-8 keV band and reflection hump in the 15-30 keV band modelled by the relxill reflection model. Joint spectral fitting constrains the inclination angle of the binary system and inner disc radius to be 22°-40° and (2.0-4.3) × RISCO, respectively. We estimate the magnetic field to be (1.8-6.5) × 108 G. The X-ray luminosity of the source during the island and lower banana states are found to be LX = 1.1 and 1.6 × 1037 erg s-1, respectively, which correspond to ˜6 per cent and ˜9 per cent of the Eddington luminosity.

  3. Shape coexistence in the "island of inversion": Search for the $0^{+}_{2}$ state in $^{32}$Mg applying a two-neutron transfer reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Blazhev, A A; Nardelli, S; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Hadinia, B; Kalkuehler, M; Clement, E; Habs, D; Diriken, J V J; Wady, P T; Angus, L J

    2008-01-01

    We aim to study the structure of neutron-rich nuclei in the "island of inversion" where intruder $\\textit{fp}$-orbitals favouring deformed states compete with the normal spherical $\\textit{sd}$-orbitals. In particular, we search for the spherical 0$^{+}_{2}$ state in $^{32}$Mg which should coexist with the deformed ground state but has not been observed so far. We propose to populate this state by a (t,p) two-neutron transfer reaction with a $^{30}$Mg beam at around 2 MeV/u from REX-ISOLDE impinging on a tritium-loaded Ti target. The $\\gamma$-rays are detected by MINIBALL and the particles by our new set-up of segmented Si detectors. The results will shed new light on the breaking of the shell closure at $\\textit{N}$ = 20 in this region.

  4. Synthesis of the state of knowledge about species richness of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates and fishes in coastal and oceanic waters of Easter and Salas y Gómez islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Fernández

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 19th century on, several small sampling trips as well as large national and international scientific expeditions have been carried out to Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI. The objective of this study is to compile, synthesize and analyze published information about the biodiversity of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates and fishes associated with EI-SGI, updating the state of knowledge and making it available for the development of conservation plans. We searched all the available sources of information, such as scientific publications, scientific expeditions, fisheries data, technical reports, books, databases and online sources. We found 964 species reported within EI-SGI (143 species of macroalgae, 605 macroinvertebrates and 216 fishes, the majority for EI (923; for SGI 171 species have been reported. Species richness has increased over time, without leveling off, as sampling effort increases. However, seamounts and hydrothermal vents have been poorly studied in Chile's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. A high percentage of endemism has been determined for the majority of the taxonomic groups, with mollusks and poriferans exhibiting the highest levels of endemism (33 -34%. Thus, the Rapanuian biogeographic province can be clearly identified, but information to differentiate between EI and SGI, and direct island-specific conservation efforts, is lacking. Nevertheless, the most vulnerable yet unprotected habitats (hydrothermal vents, higher diversity of seamounts size are located towards the western limit of the EEZ.

  5. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Descriptions of two new species of Eunice Cuvier, 1817 (Polychaeta: Eunicidae from coastal islands of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M.M. Nogueira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Eunice from coastal islands of the state of São Paulo are described, both of them living in colonies of the coral Mussismilia hispida. One species was also collected from a sandy beach. Eunice insularis has short palps and antennae in a horseshoe, without articulations; most of the specimens studied are abranchiate, but some have one branchial filament in a few parapodia. Eunice marconii also has palps and antennae without articulations, in a horseshoe, and 1-3 long slender branchial filaments from the anterior to posteriormost chaetigers. These new species are compared with the morphologically closest congeners.

  7. Preliminary Use of Uric Acid as a Biomarker for Wading Birds on Everglades Tree Islands, Florida, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Anne L.; Orem, William H.; Newman, Susan; Gawlik, Dale E.; Lerch, Harry E.; Corum, Margo D.; Van Winkle, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of organic biomarkers and concentrations of phosphorus in soil cores can potentially be used as proxies for historic population densities of wading birds on tree islands in the Florida Everglades. This report focuses on establishing a link between the organic biomarker uric acid found in wading bird guano and the high phosphorus concentrations in tree island soils in the Florida Everglades. Uric acid was determined in soil core sections, in surface samples, and in bird guano by using a method of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) developed for this purpose. Preliminary results show an overall correlation between uric acid and total phosphorus in three soil cores, with a general trend of decreasing concentrations of both uric acid and phosphorus with depth. However, we have also found no uric acid in a soil core having high concentrations of phosphorus. We believe that this result may be explained by different geochemical circumstances at that site.

  8. The Malta Primary Literacy Value-Added Project: A Template For Value-Added in Small Island States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Dougal; Mifsud, Charles; Morrison, Jo; Grech, Rowena; Rudd, Peter; Hanson, John

    2005-01-01

    The Malta Primary Literacy Value-Added study was the outcome of a process of testing and matching at ages 9-10, the pupils in Maltese primary schools who were tested three years earlier, at ages 6-7. All primary schools in the island took part at both stages. Pupils were tested in both Maltese and English at both ages. In addition extensive data…

  9. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German S Fox-Rabinovich, Kenji Yamamoto, Ben D Beake, Iosif S Gershman, Anatoly I Kovalev, Stephen C Veldhuis, Myram H Aguirre, Goulnara Dosbaeva and Jose L Endrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality

  10. Factors restricting the range expansion of the invasive green anole Anolis carolinensis on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Ohno, Yukari; Morita, Kenjiro; Nagata, Nobuaki; Mori, Hideaki; Abe, Shintaro; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2017-06-01

    The green anole Anolis carolinensis invaded the Ogasawara Islands in Japan, drove various native species to extinction, and its distribution expanded 14 years after initial establishment. A. carolinensis invaded Okinawa Island, but it has not expanded its distribution in more than 25 years, although its density is extremely high in the southern region. To determine whether A. carolinensis has the potential to expand its distribution on Okinawa Island, we performed phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND2 DNA sequences to study the origin of A. carolinensis that invaded Okinawa Island. We further used a species distribution model (MaxEnt) based on the distribution of native populations in North America to identify ecologically suitable areas on Okinawa Island. Nucleotide sequence analysis shows that the invader A. carolinensis originated in the western part of the Gulf Coast and inland areas of the United States and that a portion of the anoles on Okinawa was not introduced via the Ogasawara Islands. The MaxEnt predictions indicate that most areas in Okinawa Island are suitable for A. carolinensis. Therefore, A. carolinensis may have the potential to expand its distribution in Okinawa Island. The predictions indicate that habitat suitability is high in areas of high annual mean temperature and urbanized areas. The values of precipitation in summer in the northern region of Okinawa Island were higher compared with those of North America, which reduced the habitat suitability in Okinawa Island. Adaptation to low temperatures, an increase in the mean temperature through global warming, and an increase in open environments through land development will likely expand the distribution of A. carolinensis in Okinawa Island. Therefore, we must continue to monitor the introduced populations and be alert to the possibility that city planning that increases open environments may cause their range to expand.

  11. The state of permafrost surrounding "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (Deception Island, Antarctica): Studying the possible degradation due to the infrastructures heating effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Cayetana; Ángel de Pablo, MIguel; Ramos, MIguel; Molina, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost degradation is one of the effects of the global warming. Many studies reveal the increase of active layer and reduction on permafrost table thickness, also in Antarctica. However, these trends on permafrost can be accelerated by the human activities, as the heating produced by the Antarctic stations infrastructures when they are not properly isolated from the ground. In Deception island, South Shetland Archipelago, we started 3 years ago a monitoring program at the 26 years old "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS), It is focused on charactering the state of permafrost, since in the coastal scarps at tens of meters from the station an increase on erosion had been detected. Although the main cause of the erosion of this coastal volcanoclastic materials is the 2 meters thick icefield which forms during the winter in the inner sea of this volcanic island, we want to detect any possible contribution to the coastal erosion caused by the permafrost degradation related to the SAS presence. We present our preliminary analysis based on three years of continuous ground temperature data, monitored at a shallow borehole (70 cm deep) in the SAS edge, together with the active layer thickness measured around the station and their vicinities in two thawing seasons. We complete this study with the analysis of the continuous temperature data taken inside the SAS and the air and ground temperatures below the station, acquired during the last Antarctic Campaign (December 2014-February 2015). These preliminary results are fundamental 1) to discard any contribution from the SAS presence, and to help to improve its thermal isolation, 2) to help improve our knowledge about the thermal state of permafrost in the area, and 3) to help to understand the causes of the coastal erosion in the volcanic Deception Island.

  12. An assessment of the wind re-analyses in the modelling of an extreme sea state in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Adem; Ponce de León, S.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims at an assessment of wind re-analyses for modelling storms in the Black Sea. A wind-wave modelling system (Simulating WAve Nearshore, SWAN) is applied to the Black Sea basin and calibrated with buoy data for three recent re-analysis wind sources, namely the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) during an extreme wave condition that occurred in the north eastern part of the Black Sea. The SWAN model simulations are carried out for default and tuning settings for deep water source terms, especially whitecapping. Performances of the best model configurations based on calibration with buoy data are discussed using data from the JASON2, TOPEX-Poseidon, ENVISAT and GFO satellites. The SWAN model calibration shows that the best configuration is obtained with Janssen and Komen formulations with whitecapping coefficient (Cds) equal to 1.8e-5 for wave generation by wind and whitecapping dissipation using ERA-Interim. In addition, from the collocated SWAN results against the satellite records, the best configuration is determined to be the SWAN using the CFSR winds. Numerical results, thus show that the accuracy of a wave forecast will depend on the quality of the wind field and the ability of the SWAN model to simulate the waves under extreme wind conditions in fetch limited wave conditions.

  13. A Decentralized Control Method for Distributed Generations in an Islanded DC Microgrid Considering Voltage Drop Compensation and Durable State of Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Sang Hwang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a decentralized control method for distributed generations (DGs in an islanded direct current (DC microgrid. In most typical DC microgrids, a decentralized control method is based on a voltage droop control method. However, the grid voltage differs from node to node due to line voltage drop, and hence the power sharing ratio among DGs cannot be matched with as desired value. Especially in an islanded DC microgrid including an energy storage system as a voltage source, it is difficult for DGs to maintain the charge state of the ESS in a decentralized way. To overcome this problem, state of charge (SOC-voltage droop control is applied to the ESS. By using the proposed droop method, the SOC information can be assigned to the grid voltage, and hence the other DGs are able to support the SOC in a decentralized way. For DGs to enhance the accuracy of the SOC estimation, voltage drop is compensated for based on forecasting data and line impedance data. The simulation is modeled and implemented using Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients for DC (PSCAD/EMTDC, version 4.2, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and the simulation results show that the capability to maintain SOC as well as the system voltage profile are improved by using the proposed method.

  14. Exposure assessment of arc welders to extremely low frequency magnetic field: its relationship with the secretion of paratormone hormone and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohalah Hajizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field has been interested in many studies due to possible effects on human physical-mental health. Therefore, this study aimed to assess arc welders’ exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field and to determine its relationship with the secretion of paratormone (PTH hormone and mood states. Material and Method: The present study has been conducted among 35 healthy production workers (as exposed group and 35 healthy administrative personnel (as unexposed group. After checking the work activities of participants according to the guide recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, ELF magnetic fields were measured using an ELF measurement device in the regions including trunk, head, and neck. The plasma levels of PTH hormone of both groups were evaluated by the Electrochemiluminescence method. Stress-Arousal Checklist (SACL was used to assess the mode states of subjects in both groups. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Result: There was a significant difference between the exposed and unexposed groups with respect to the exposure level to ELF magnetic fields (P-value<0.0001. Mean PTH hormone level in exposed group (34.54 pg/ml was lower than unexposed ones (37 pg/ml, however these mean values weren’t significantly different (P-value=0.67. Score of “stress” subscale related to the “pleasure” and score of “arousal” subscale  related to the “activities and alertness” in the unexposed group were significantly higher than those in exposed group (p<0.0001. Regarding the relationship between exposure level to ELF electromagnetic field and scores of  stress, arousal, and PTH hormone level in the two groups, it should be stated that only a significant and positive association was found between the average exposure to ELF magnetic fields and PTH levels in the exposed group (P-value<0.009, r=0

  15. State-of-art methodology of marine natural products chemistry: structure determination with extremely small sample amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, M; Oishi, T; Yoshida, M

    2006-01-01

    Structure elucidation studies on natural products are reviewed emphasizing extremely small sample amounts. Previous studies on insect pheromones, periplanones, and bean-originating kairomones, glycinoeclepins, are described briefly. Recent examples are selected from marine natural products such as ciguatoxin, dolastatin-3, and aurisides. A more detailed description is given of a sperm-activating and attracting factor (SAAF), which may be the smallest sample amount used in the structure elucidation of novel non-peptidic natural products. SAAF was isolated from the eggs of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, and its structure was deduced with only approximately 4 microg (6 nmol) of sample. Based upon the proposed structure, two epimers were synthesized from chenodeoxycholic acid in 17 steps, leading to the identification of SAAF as a novel sterol sulfate.

  16. Increased Extreme Hydrological Events and Decreased Water Supply Availability for the Southwestern United States Projected by Mid-Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, B. R.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.; Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Mei, R.; Kendall, D. R.; Pal, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid Southern California relies primarily on imported water originating mostly from snowpack in basins outside of the region including the San-Joaquin River, Tulare Lake, Sacramento River, Owens Valley, Mono Lake, and Colorado River basins. This study provides an integrated ensemble approach to assessing climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle and hydrologic extremes for all water supplies to Southern California. Output from 10 global climate models is used to force a regional climate model and hydrological model resulting in high-resolution 4.17-km output for the region. Greenhouse gas concentrations are prescribed according to historical values for the present-day (1965-2005) and the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for the near to mid term future (2010-2050). On the annual timescale, temperature, precipitation and evaporation increase throughout the majority of the study area. With increased temperatures, precipitation is less likely to fall as snow, decreasing snowpack and natural storage and shifting peak flows to earlier in the year. Daily annual maximum runoff and precipitation events are projected to significantly increase in intensity and frequency by mid-century. The 50-year event, for example, becomes approximately five times more likely in the Colorado River basin and twice as likely in the other basins. In densely populated coastal Southern Californian cities, extreme flood events become three to five times as likely substantially increasing the risk of overburdening flood control systems and potential widespread flooding. The escalating likelihood of the combined effects of runoff occurring earlier in the year and in significantly higher amounts poses a substantial flood control risk requiring adaptation measures such as water release from reservoirs. Significant snowpack reductions and increased flood risk will likely necessitate additional multiyear storage solutions for urban and agricultural regions in the Southwestern US.

  17. Vertical electric field induced suppression of fine structure splitting of excited state excitons in a single GaAs/AlGaAs island quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghali, Mohsen [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Laboratory of Nanophotonics, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafrelsheikh (Egypt); Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    We report experimentally on fine structure splitting (FSS) of various excitonic transitions in single GaAs island quantum dots, formed by a monolayer thickness fluctuation in the narrow GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well, and embedded in an n-i-Schottky diode device. By applying a forward vertical electric field (F) between the top metallic contact and the sample substrate, we observed an in-plane polarization rotation of both the ground and the excited state excitons with increasing the electric field. The polarization rotations were accompanied with a strong decrease in the FSS of the ground as well as the excited state excitons with the field, until the FSS vanished as F approached 30 kV/cm.

  18. Towards a Homeland Security Strategy for the United States Virgin Islands: The Terrorism and Natural Disasters Planning Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    inclusive because to get from St. John to the Marriot Hotel on St. Thomas requires a ferry-boat ride from St. John to St. Thomas with car or taxis...overstressed; St. Thomas hotels are no help,” Virgin Islands Daily News, September 23, 1995, 6. xvi will be unavailable and incapable of assisting each...www.rand.org/pubs/testimonies/2005/RAND_CT250-1.pdf, (accessed 3/16/06). 51 Will Jones, “Davila: Cops are overstressed; St. Thomas hotels are no

  19. Observation of parturition in the Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on the Island of Agaltepec, Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Dias, Pedro Américo

    2005-01-01

    We observed a birth in a group of Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) living under semi-free-ranging conditions on Agaltepec Island, Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Although we could not quantify contractions, we were able to record a complete description of the sequence of events that resulted in a successful birth. Nine minutes passed from the release of the amniotic fluid to the total emergence of the infant. Although all group members were resting relatively close to the female when the birth occurred, none approached her until the postpartum period. Only then did several individuals briefly inspect the newborn and then resume their foraging activities.

  20. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  1. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  2. Quasi-bound state resonances of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    The quasi-bound states of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal charged Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime are studied analytically. These discrete resonant modes of the composed black-hole-field system are characterized by the physically motivated boundary condition of ingoing waves at the black-hole horizon and exponentially decaying (bounded) radial eigenfunctions at spatial infinity. Solving the Klein-Gordon wave equation for the linearized scalar fields in the black-hole spacetime, we derive a remarkably compact analytical formula for the complex frequency spectrum which characterizes the quasi-bound state resonances of the composed Reissner-Nordstroem-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. (orig.)

  3. W(310) cold-field emission characteristics reflecting the vacuum states of an extreme high vacuum electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Boklae; Shigeru, Kokubo; Oshima, Chuhei

    2013-01-01

    An extremely high vacuum cold-field electron emission (CFE) gun operating at pressures ranging from ˜10-8 Pa to ˜10-10 Pa was constructed. Only the CFE current emitting from W(310) surfaces revealed the existence of a "stable region" with high current angular density just after tip flash heating. In the "stable region," the CFE current was damped very slowly. The presence of non-hydrogen gas eliminated this region from the plot. Improvement of the vacuum prolonged the 90% damping time of the CFE current from ˜10 min to 800 min. The current angular density I' of CFE current was 60 and 250 μA/sr in the "stable region" for total CFE currents of 10 and 50 μA, respectively. These results were about three times larger than I' when measured after the complete damping of the CFE current. The CFE gun generated bright scanning transmission electron microscopy images of a carbon nanotube at 30 kV.

  4. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Extreme states of matter on Earth and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.

    2009-06-01

    This review is concerned with the results of studies into the behavior of substances at ultimately high pressures and temperatures obtainable by way of kinetic or electromagnetic energy cumulation in laboratory conditions. Also considered are the diversified states of matter and the processes occurring under gravitational forces and thermonuclear energy release.

  5. Identification and control of an isolated, but intense focus of lymphatic filariasis on Satawal Island, Federated States of Micronesia, in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretrick, Moses; Melrose, Wayne; Chaine, Jean-Paul; Canyon, Deon; Carron, Jaime; Graves, Patricia M; Bradbury, Richard S

    2017-01-01

    There is very limited data available on the prevalence of Bancroftian filariasis in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Considerable attempts to eliminate the disease had occurred in the Pacific region by the year 2003, and the prevalence in FSM was thought to be sufficiently low that the region was considered non-endemic. However, a survey conducted in 2003 on an isolated atoll of FSM, Satawal Island, challenged that assumption. Participants on Satawal Island were recruited and their blood tested for Wuchereria bancrofti antigen by the filariasis immunochromatographic test (ICT) card and circulating microfilaria by Knott's concentration technique. A survey for active cases of lymphoedema, elephantiasis and hydrocoele was performed and mosquitoes were trapped and dissected to detect larvae of W. bancrofti. A total of 104 males and 149 females from early teens to mid-80s were tested. Men had a significantly higher prevalence of infection than women in both the ICT test (53 vs 28%; p 25 years of age. All persons sampled were treated for LF. No cases of elephantiasis or hydrocoele were detected. No Aedes dissected were positive but three of nine culicine mosquitoes were positive for L1-3 larval stages of W. bancrofti by microscopy. In depth interviews were conducted with residents and chiefs. This survey showed that even in regions thought to be close to elimination, isolated high intensity foci of lymphatic filariasis may occur. These need to be recognized and control measures instituted such as local MDA as in the current study.

  6. The near-term prediction of drought and flooding conditions in the northeastern United States based on extreme phases of AMO and NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Rouzbeh; Driscoll, Charles T.; Adamowski, Jan F.

    2017-10-01

    A series of hydroclimatic teleconnection patterns were identified between variations in either Atlantic or Pacific oceanic indices with precipitation and discharge anomalies in the northeastern United States. We hypothesized that temporal annual or seasonal changes in discharge could be explained by variations in extreme phases of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO index, SST: Sea Surface Temperature anomalies) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index, SLP: Sea-Level Pressure anomalies) up to three seasons in advance. The Merrimack River watershed, the fourth largest basin in New England, with a drainage area of 13,000 km2, is a compelling study site because it not only provides an opportunity to investigate the teleconnection between hydrologic variables and large-scale climate circulation patterns, but also how those patterns may become obscured by anthropogenic disturbances such as river regulation or urban development. We considered precipitation and discharge data of 21 gauging stations within the Merrimack River watershed, including the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, with a median record length of 55 years beginning as early as 1904. The discharge anomalies were statistically significant (p-value ≤ 0.2) between extreme positive and negative phases of AMO (1857-2011) and NAO (1900-2011) and revealed the potential teleconnectivity of climate circulation patterns with discharge. Annual and seasonal correlations of discharge were examined with the extreme phases of AMO and NAO at zero-, one-, or two- year/season lags (total of 30 scenarios). When AMO was greater than 0.2, the strongest correlations of AMO and NAO with discharge were observed at headwater catchments. This correlation weakened downstream towards larger regulated and/or developed sub-basins. We introduced a simple approach for near-term prediction of drought and flooding events. An exponential decay function was regressed through the historic occurrence of the relative

  7. Linkage analysis of quantitative traits for obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmulewitz, Dvora; Heath, Simon C; Blundell, Maude L; Han, Zhihua; Sharma, Ratnendra; Salit, Jacqueline; Auerbach, Steven B; Signorini, Stefano; Breslow, Jan L; Stoffel, Markus; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2006-03-07

    Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are highly heritable conditions that in aggregate are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world and are growing problems in developing countries. To map the causal genes, we conducted a population screen for these conditions on the Pacific Island of Kosrae. Family history and genetic data were used to construct a pedigree for the island. Analysis of the pedigree showed highly significant heritability for the metabolic traits under study. DNA samples from 2,188 participants were genotyped with 405 microsatellite markers with an average intermarker distance of 11 cM. A protocol using loki, a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method, was developed to analyze the Kosraen pedigree for height, a model quantitative trait. Robust quantitative trait loci for height were found on 10q21 and 1p31. This protocol was used to map a set of metabolic traits, including plasma leptin to chromosome region 5q35; systolic blood pressure to 20p12; total cholesterol to 19p13, 12q24, and 16qter; hip circumference to 10q25 and 4q23; body mass index to 18p11 and 20q13; apolipoprotein B to 2p24-25; weight to 18q21; and fasting blood sugar to 1q31-1q43. Several of these same chromosomal regions have been identified in previous studies validating the use of loki. These studies add information about the genetics of the metabolic syndrome and establish an analytical approach for linkage analysis of complex pedigrees. These results also lay the foundation for whole genome scans with dense sets of SNPs aimed to identifying causal genes.

  8. Procedure of Forecasting Operational and Extremal State of Critical Systems of the Rocket Technique Under Repeated Thermo-Force Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Yu.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model for investigation of the thermoelastoplastic stress-strain state and the strength of the rocket technique systems under the repeated starting is proposed. The thermal conductivity equation and constitutive equations of thermoplasticity for the repeated elastic-plastic deformation processes of isotropic materials along small-curvature paths, the strength and low-cyclic fatigue criteria, numerical methods for solving the boundary-value heat conduction problems and corresponding computer software are used.

  9. Probing the limitations of isotropic pair potentials to produce ground-state structural extremes via inverse statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S

    2013-10-01

    Inverse statistical-mechanical methods have recently been employed to design optimized short-range radial (isotropic) pair potentials that robustly produce novel targeted classical ground-state many-particle configurations. The target structures considered in those studies were low-coordinated crystals with a high degree of symmetry. In this paper, we further test the fundamental limitations of radial pair potentials by targeting crystal structures with appreciably less symmetry, including those in which the particles have different local structural environments. These challenging target configurations demanded that we modify previous inverse optimization techniques. In particular, we first find local minima of a candidate enthalpy surface and determine the enthalpy difference ΔH between such inherent structures and the target structure. Then we determine the lowest positive eigenvalue λ(0) of the Hessian matrix of the enthalpy surface at the target configuration. Finally, we maximize λ(0)ΔH so that the target structure is both locally stable and globally stable with respect to the inherent structures. Using this modified optimization technique, we have designed short-range radial pair potentials that stabilize the two-dimensional kagome crystal, the rectangular kagome crystal, and rectangular lattices, as well as the three-dimensional structure of the CaF(2) crystal inhabited by a single-particle species. We verify our results by cooling liquid configurations to absolute zero temperature via simulated annealing and ensuring that such states have stable phonon spectra. Except for the rectangular kagome structure, all of the target structures can be stabilized with monotonic repulsive potentials. Our work demonstrates that single-component systems with short-range radial pair potentials can counterintuitively self-assemble into crystal ground states with low symmetry and different local structural environments. Finally, we present general principles that offer

  10. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  11. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 10 across Stono River to the shoreline of Sandy Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Seabrook Island 257° true across the North Edisto River Entrance to the shore of Botany Bay...

  12. Natural Plasmodium infection in neotropical primates in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The states that make up the Legal Amazon Region, which include the state of Maranhão, account for 99% of registered cases of human malaria in Brazil. It is also believed that transmission of malaria from nonhuman primates (NHP to humans occurs in this region, because of current reports of seroepidemiological results from samples from humans and NHP coexisting in the same areas. This study aimed to make morphological, serological and molecular diagnoses of Plasmodium spp. in neotropical primates on the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The diagnostic techniques used were optical microscopy, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. From June 2009 to April 2010, 70 NHP were sampled: 50 at the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS, located in the municipality of São Luís and 20 free-living individuals that were caught in a private reserve located in the municipality of São Jose de Ribamar, state of Maranhão. Under an optical microscope, 140 slides (two from each animal were evaluated and five animals (7.1% were found to be positive. IFA did not detect anti-Plasmodium spp. From PCR on the 70 animals sampled, amplified Plasmodium spp. products were observed in 13 samples, of which eight (61.5% were from free-living animals and five (38.5% were from animals at CETAS.

  13. Future projections of extreme precipitation intensity-duration-frequency curves for climate adaptation planning in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur T. DeGaetano

    2017-01-01

    One-hundred-year recurrence interval precipitation amounts exhibit a median increase of between 5 and 10% across the state in the 2010–2039 period regardless of greenhouse gas concentration. By the 2040–2069 period, the median increase is on the order of 10–20% for the high concentration case (RCP 8.5, but remains below 10% if concentrations are lower (RCP 4.5. At the end of the century, all downscaling method climate model combinations indicate increases, with a median change of between 20 and 30% in the case of high concentrations.

  14. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  15. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  16. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  17. "When my Moods Drive Upward There Is Nothing I Can Do about It": A Review of Extreme Appraisals of Internal States and the Bipolar Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rebecca E; Dodd, Alyson L; Mansell, Warren

    2017-01-01

    The integrative cognitive model provides a comprehensive account of bipolar disorder (BD) that, if empirically supported, has important potential implications for psychological therapies. This article is the first to review the evidence for this model. We evaluate the evidence (up to 2017) for four hypotheses derived uniquely from the model: extreme positive and negative appraisals of internal states are associated with (1) risk of developing BD; (2) BD diagnosis; (3) relevant clinical and functional outcomes including hypomanic and depressive mood symptoms; and (4) outcomes over time. Research involving individuals with diagnosed mood disorders as well as non-clinical populations is reviewed. The hypotheses were broadly supported and several consistent findings were not accounted for by alternative psychological models of BD. The evidence base is limited by a relative paucity of prospective studies; only 6 of the 31 studies identified. Implications for theory, research and clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L; Figueiredo, F B; Almeida, A B; Benigno, C V; Pontes, C S; Souza, M B

    2014-08-01

    Immature phlebotomine sand flies develop in soils with essential and ideal characteristics for their life cycle, such as organic matter, humidity, temperature and low levels of light. Information regarding the potential breeding places of these dipterans is fundamental to understand the epidemiology and ecology of leishmaniasis, in addition to its importance to control them. In the present study, we aimed to find natural breeding sites of sand flies on Marambaia Island with the aid of emergence traps and direct search of immature forms using the flotation technique with saturated sugar solution in organic substrates of the region. Both methods were effective, with a total of 42 specimens of six different species - including some species that participate in the transmission cycle of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis - collected by the emergence traps, and five immature forms obtained by floatation technique. However, further studies are still necessary, mainly with respect to the ecology and biology of immature sandfly stages, so that control measures focused on breeding sites can produce positive sustainable results in natural environments.

  19. Novel Human Embryonic Stem Cell Regulators Identified by Conserved and Distinct CpG Island Methylation State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Pells

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs undergo epigenetic changes in vitro which may compromise function, so an epigenetic pluripotency "signature" would be invaluable for line validation. We assessed Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine Island (CGI methylation in hESCs by genomic DNA hybridisation to a CGI array, and saw substantial variation in CGI methylation between lines. Comparison of hESC CGI methylation profiles to corresponding somatic tissue data and hESC mRNA expression profiles identified a conserved hESC-specific methylation pattern associated with expressed genes. Transcriptional repressors and activators were over-represented amongst genes whose associated CGIs were methylated or unmethylated specifically in hESCs, respectively. Knockdown of candidate transcriptional regulators (HMGA1, GLIS2, PFDN5 induced differentiation in hESCs, whereas ectopic expression in fibroblasts modulated iPSC colony formation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed interaction between the candidates and the core pluripotency transcription factor network. We thus identify novel pluripotency genes on the basis of a conserved and distinct epigenetic configuration in human stem cells.

  20. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  1. On the maximum conversion efficiency into the 13.5-nm extreme ultraviolet emission under a steady-state laser ablation of tin microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basko, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical investigation has been performed on the conversion efficiency (CE) into the 13.5-nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in a scheme where spherical microspheres of tin (Sn) are simultaneously irradiated by two laser pulses with substantially different wavelengths. The low-intensity short-wavelength pulse is used to control the rate of mass ablation and the size of the EUV source, while the high-intensity long-wavelength pulse provides efficient generation of the EUV light at λ=13.5 nm. The problem of full optimization for maximizing the CE is formulated and solved numerically by performing two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RALEF-2D code under the conditions of steady-state laser illumination. It is shown that, within the implemented theoretical model, steady-state CE values approaching 9% are feasible; in a transient peak, the maximum instantaneous CE of 11.5% was calculated for the optimized laser-target configuration. The physical factors, bringing down the fully optimized steady-state CE to about one half of the absolute theoretical maximum of CE≈20 % for the uniform static Sn plasma, are analyzed in detail.

  2. Extending REDD+ to mangroves and wetlands for small island states and a case study for the conservation of mangroves and inter-tidal mudflats in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Heng LYE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly discusses the prospects of using coastal wetlands as REDD+ projects for small island states. The paper contends that the city-state of Singapore would do well to enhance existing laws to more specifically address the challenges and threats faced in conserving mangroves and inter-tidal mudflats, and support their conservation and rehabilitation, not just to facilitate the implementation of REDD+ projects but also to meet other goals like biodiversity conservation and climate change adaptation. The proposal is to expand Sungei Buloh to encompass the mudflats at Kranji which is home to the mangrove horseshoe crab (Carcinoscrorpius rotundicauda; aligned with inter-tidal and coastal management strategies advanced under the auspices of the Ramsar Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the IUCN. However, there are considerable challenges in maintaining an intact eco-system in the face of rapid development, not only in Singapore itself but also in the neighbouring state of Johor, Malaysia. The paper examines the specific legal strategies that will be required to meet the various objectives of conservation in the context of Singapore's laws and the challenges posed by the development plans of both Singapore and Malaysia.

  3. Ground state properties of neutron-rich Mg isotopes the "island of inversion" studied with laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalska, M

    2006-01-01

    Studies in regions of the nuclear chart in which the model predictions of properties of nuclei fail can bring a better understanding of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. To such regions belongs the so called "island of inversion" centered around Ne, Na and Mg isotopes with 20 neutrons in which unexpected ground-state spins, large deformations and dense low-energy spectra appear. This is a strong argument that the magic N=20 is not a closed shell in this area. In this thesis investigations of isotope shifts of stable $^{24-26}$Mg, as well as spins and magnetic moments of short-lived $^{29,31}$Mg are presented. The successful studies were performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN using collinear laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy techniques. The isotopes were investigated as single-charged ions in the 280 nm transition from the atomic ground state $^2\\!$S$_{1/2}$ to one of the two lowest excited states $^2\\!$P$_{1/2 ,\\,3/2}$ using continuous wave laser beams. The isotope-shift measurements with fluor...

  4. Equations of state of anhydrous AlF3 and AlI3: Modeling of extreme condition halide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M; Bastea, Sorin; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Goncharov, Alexander F; Radousky, Harry B; Armstrong, Michael R; Roberts, Sarah K; Plaue, Jonathan W

    2015-06-07

    Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (α-AlF3) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI3) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF3 and AlI3 were determined through refinements of collected x-ray diffraction patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives are reported for multiple orders of the Birch-Murnaghan (B-M), finite-strain (F-f), and higher pressure finite-strain (G-g) EOS analysis models. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits an apparent isostructural phase transition at approximately 12 GPa. Aluminum triiodide also undergoes a second-order atomic rearrangement: applied stress transformed a monoclinically distorted face centered cubic (fcc) structure into a standard fcc structural arrangement of iodine atoms. Results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants were obtained with the aim of predicting the yield of halogenated products.

  5. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  6. Discover the Hidden Jewels in Your Library and Sharing the Wealth through Collaboration. Selected Papers from PIALA 2011, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (21st, Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 14-17, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 21st annual conference was held in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 14-17, 2011. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2011 Planning…

  7. Contribution of GIS and digital archaeology to the interpretation of stratigraphic relations on the Bronze Age site al-Khidr, Failaka island, State of Kuwait : Imagery analyses of trenches 22S and 22T - case study

    OpenAIRE

    Benediková, Lucia; Štolc, Svorad; Bartík, Martin; Ďuriš, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the stratigraphic analysis of the northern part of excavated KH-1 mound on al-Khidr site (Failaka island, State of Kuwait) based on the GIS and digital archaeology approaches. The results are compared with already published results of stratigraphic analysis based on the field observations only.

  8. Extremely confined quantum-well states for (2×2)-K and (3×3)-K on graphite: First-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chis, V.; Walldén, L.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the atomic and electronic structure obtained by first-principles density functional theory calculations for a (2×2)-K monolayer as well as a (3×3)-K monolayer on graphite represented by an 11-layer carbon slab. In both cases, the calculations predict that the K atoms reside above hollows [2.93 Å above the surface atomic layers for (2×2)-K]. The electronic structure is characterized by a partially occupied, free-electron-like overlayer quantum-well (QW)-state band (EF-0.76 eV at Γ¯, 1.14me) and one empty QW band (EF+1.7 eV, 1.0me), for (2×2)-K. The partially filled QW band, which has an energy and dispersion close to that which has been experimentally observed, provides examples of extremely confined states with nearly all charge (93%) deposited in the overlayer. In the substrate, the layer-confined σ bands are rigidly downshifted, by 0.6 eV for the outermost carbon-atom layer and by 0.14 eV for the second layer. For the π electrons, downshifted bands are split off from the ladder of closely spaced band energies, which approximate the continuum of states in a thick graphite sample. The splitting off can be regarded as the formation of a QW state, since the electrons are found mainly in the outermost layer of carbon atoms. The split-off band is not obtained via a downshift of the band with the lowest energy among the closely spaced states, since the band-edge states of the bare substrate have only a small amplitude in the outermost layer of carbon atoms. The high degree of confinement for both the K overlayer states and the C underlayer π states should make the system of interest for studies of the excitations of two near-two-dimensional electron gases at short distance.

  9. The surface urban heat island response to urban expansion: A panel analysis for the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Yuyu; Asrar, Ghassem R; Imhoff, Marc; Li, Xuecao

    2017-12-15

    Urban heat island (UHI), the phenomenon that urban areas experience higher temperatures compared to their surrounding rural areas, has significant socioeconomic and environmental impacts. With current and anticipated rapid urbanization, improved understanding of the response of UHI to urbanization is important for developing effective adaptation measures and mitigation strategies. Current studies mainly focus on a single or a few big cities and knowledge on the response of UHI to urbanization for large areas is limited. As a major indicator of urbanization, urban area size lends itself well for representation in prognostic models. However, we have little knowledge on how UHI responds to urban area size increase and its spatial and temporal variation over large areas. In this study, we investigated the relationship between surface UHI (SUHI) and urban area size in the climate and ecological context, and its spatial and temporal variations, based on a panel analysis of about 5000 urban areas of 10km(2) or larger, in the conterminous U.S. We found statistically significant positive relationship between SUHI and urban area size, and doubling the urban area size led to a SUHI increase as high as 0.7°C. The response of SUHI to the increase of urban area size shows spatial and temporal variations, with stronger SUHI increase in Northern U.S., and during daytime and summer. Urban area size alone can explain as much as 87% of the variance of SUHI among cities studied, but with large spatial and temporal variations. Urban area size shows higher association with SUHI in regions where the thermal characteristics of land cover surrounding the urban area are more homogeneous, such as in Eastern U.S., and in the summer months. This study provides a practical approach for large-scale assessment and modeling of the impact of urbanization on SUHI, both spatially and temporally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 63213 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... species under the Endangered Species Act, or impacts to essential fish habitat covered by the Magnuson... consulted with the Minnesota State official, Mr. Stephen Rakow of the Minnesota Office of Energy...

  11. The surface urban heat island response to urban expansion: A panel analysis for the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Yuyu; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Imhoff, Marc; Li, Xuecao

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Urban heat island (UHI), a major concern worldwide, affects human health and energy use. With current and anticipated rapid urbanization, improved understanding of the response of UHI to urbanization is important for impact analysis and developing effective adaptation measures and mitigation strategies. Current studies mainly focus on a single or a few big cities and knowledge on the response of UHI to urbanization for large areas is very limited. Modelling UHI caused by urbanization for large areas that encompass multiple metropolitans remains a major scientific challenge/opportunity. As a major indicator of urbanization, urban area size lends itself well for representation in prognostic models to investigate the impacts of urbanization on UHI and the related socioeconomic and environmental effects. However, we have little knowledge on how UHI responds to the increase of urban area size, namely urban expansion, and its spatial and temporal variation over large areas. In this study, we investigated the relationship between surface UHI (SUHI) and urban area size in the climate and ecological context, and its spatial and temporal variations, based on a panel analysis of about 5000 urban areas of 10 km2 or larger, in the conterminous U.S. We found statistically significant positive relationship between SUHI and urban area size, and doubling the urban area size led to a SUHI increase of higher than 0.7 °C. The response of SUHI to the increase of urban area size shows spatial and temporal variations, with stronger SUHI increase in the Northern region of U.S., and during daytime and summer. Urban area size alone can explain as much as 87% of the variance of SUHI among cities studied, but with large spatial and temporal variations. Urban area size shows higher association with SUHI in regions where the thermal characteristics of land cover surrounding the urban are more homogeneous, such as in Eastern U.S., and in the summer months. This study provides a

  12. Hydrological extremes and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  13. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  14. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  15. Libraries, Archives, and Museums Helping Create Futures: Building on Culture, Knowledge, and Information through Collaboration and Resource Sharing. Selected Papers from PIALA 2010, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (20th, Weno, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, November 15-19, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 20th annual conference was held in Weno, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, November 15-19, 2010. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2010…

  16. Individual Participation in Collective Action in the Context of a Caribbean Island State: Testing the Effects of Multiple Dimensions of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicha, Karl A.; Thompson, Gretchen H.; Fulkerson, Gregory M.; May, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a case study examining the relationship between social capital and individual participation in collective action on a Caribbean island recovering from devastation inflicted by Hurricanes Ivan and Emily. Using data drawn from 114 residential surveys on the island of Carriacou, Grenada, over the summer of 2006,…

  17. The Flores Island tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  18. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...... changes in this evolution due to changes in the climate and associated sea levels. We analyzed the morphologic evolution of a series of barrier islands over the last decades using maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. This decadal morphologic evolution was coupled to the frequency and intensity...... of the local extreme events. The characterization of the extreme events was based on the joint probability of the extreme water levels and storm waves for the specific sites. The predicted climate change for the Danish waters will lead to higher water levels and an increase of the overwashes on the barrier...

  19. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  20. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  1. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  2. Cost of a measles outbreak in a remote island economy: 2014 Federated States of Micronesia measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Tippins, Ashley; Nyaku, Mawuli; Eckert, Maribeth; Helgenberger, Louisa; Underwood, J Michael

    2017-10-13

    After 20years with no reported measles cases, on May 15, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was notified of two cases testing positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Under the Compact of Free Association, FSM receives immunization funding and technical support from the United States (US) domestic vaccination program managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In a collaborative effort, public health officials and volunteers from FSM and the US government worked to respond and contain the measles outbreak through an emergency mass vaccination campaign, contact tracing, and other outbreak investigation activities. Contributions were also made by United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO). Total costs incurred as a result of the outbreak were nearly $4,000,000; approximately $10,000 per case. Direct medical costs (≈$141,000) were incurred in the treatment of those individuals infected, as well as lost productivity of the infected and informal caregivers (≈$250,000) and costs to contain the outbreak (≈$3.5 million). We assessed the economic burden of the 2014 measles outbreak to FSM, as well as the economic responsibilities of the US. Although the US paid the majority of total costs of the outbreak (≈67%), examining each country's costs relative to their respective economy illustrates a far greater burden to FSM. We demonstrate that while FSM was heavily assisted by the US in responding to the 2014 Measles Outbreak, the outbreak significantly impacted their economy. FSM's economic burden from the outbreak is approximately equivalent to their entire 2016 Fiscal Year budget dedicated to education. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Cross sectoral impacts on water availability at +2 °C and +3 °C for east Mediterranean island states: The case of Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, A. G.; Grillakis, M. G.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Jacob, D.

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble pan-European projections under a 2 °C global warming relative to the preindustrial period reveal a more intense warming in south Eastern Europe by up to +3 °C, thus indicating that impacts of climate change will be disproportionately high for certain regions. The Mediterranean is projected as one of the most vulnerable areas to climatic and anthropogenic changes with decreasing rainfall trends and a continuous gradual warming causing a progressive decline of average stream flow. Many Mediterranean regions are currently experiencing high to severe water stress induced by human and climate drivers. Changes in average climate conditions will increase this stress notably because of a 10-30% decline in freshwater resources. For small island states, where accessibility to freshwater resources is limited the impact will be more pronounced. Here we use a generalized cross-sectoral framework to assess the impact of climatic and socioeconomic futures on the water resources of an Eastern Mediterranean island. A set of representative regional climate models simulations from the EURO-CORDEX initiative driven by different RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 GCMs are used to form a comparable set of results and a useful basis for the assessment of uncertainties related to impacts of 2° warming and above. A generalized framework of a cross-sectoral water resources analysis was developed in collaboration with the local water authority exploring and costing adaptation measures associated with a set of socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Transient hydrological modeling was performed to describe the projected hydro-climatological regime and water availability for each warming level. The robust signal of less precipitation and higher temperatures that is projected by climate simulations results to a severe decrease of local water resources which can be mitigated by a number of actions. Awareness of the practical implications of plausible hydro-climatic and socio-economic scenarios in the

  4. A Preliminary Survey of Extremely Small Populations of Wild Plants in Bawangling,Hainan Island%海南岛霸王岭极小种群野生植物调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洋瑜; 罗文; 韩文涛; 彭慧

    2014-01-01

    According to the existing literature's analysis, there are 17 kinds of extremely small populations of wild plants in Bawangling , through the survey of 17 kinds of extremely small populations of wild plants, has got a preliminary understanding about the distribution of small populations in Bawangling ,and analyzed the correlation between the distribution of extremely small populations and the altitude, slope direction, slope, veg-etation habitat factors , the main threats factors. Found that the extremely small populations in Bawangling was at risk, which need protected timely, and at the same time put forward some suggestions for protection.%根据已有文献资料分析统计,霸王岭地区有分布记录的极小种群野生植物17种,通过对17种极小种群野生植物的调查,初步了解霸王岭地区极小种群的分布资源状况,并分析极小种群的分布与海拔、坡向、坡度、植被等生境因子的相关性以及所面临的主要威胁,据此可知霸王岭保护区的极小种群植物资源已处于亟待保护的危险状态,并提出了一些保护建议。

  5. Extreme river response to climate-induced aggradation in a forested, montane basin, Carbon River, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, J. D.; Rossi, R. K.; Kennard, P. M.; Beason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is drastically affecting the alpine landscape of Mount Rainier, encouraging glacial retreat, changes in snowpack thickness and longevity, and sediment delivery to downstream fluvial systems, leading to an extremely transport limited system and aggradation of the river valleys. River aggradation encourages devastating interactions between the pro-glacial braided fluvial systems and streamside floodplain ecosystems, in most places occupied by old-growth conifer forests. Current aggradation rates of the channels, bordered by late seral stage riparian forests, inhibit floodplain development, leading to an inverted relationship between perched river channels and lower-elevation adjacent floodplains. This disequilibrium creates a steeper gradient laterally towards the floodplains, rather than downstream; promoting flooding of streamside forest, removal and burial of vegetation with coarse alluvium, incision of avulsion channels, tree mortality, wood recruitment to channels, and ultimately widening the alluviated valley towards the glacially carved hillslopes. Aggradation and loss of streamside old-growth forest poses a significant problem to park infrastructure (e.g. roads, trails, and campgrounds) due to flood damage with as frequent as a two-year event. Other park rivers, the White River and Tahoma Creek, characterize two end-member cases. Despite an extremely perched channel, the White River is relatively stable; experiencing small avulsions while the old-growth streamside forest has remained mostly intact. These relatively small avulsions however severely impact park infrastructure, causing extensive flood damage and closure of the heavily trafficked state highway. Conversely debris flows on Tahoma Creek destroyed the streamside forest and migration across the valley is uninhibited. Mature streamside forests tend to oppose avulsions, sieving wood at the channel margins, promoting sediment deposition and deflection of erosive flows. Our study seeks to

  6. Demographic Changes on Croatian Islands at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lajić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Depopulation was the main feature of the demographic development of Croatian islands during a large part of the 20th century. It started in 1921 and ended in the last decade of the century according to the official statistical indicators. It was caused by a long-term emigration from the islands, arising both from economic (agrarian over¬population, land industrialisation, de-agrarisation, the crises of certain agricultural activities, monoculture on some of the islands, etc. and political reasons (political emigration, Italian optants. Depopulation due to emigration was crucial in creating total depopulation up to the 1960s, and after that period it was joined by natural depopulation as well, leading many island communities to a state of extreme depo¬pulation – extinction. But since the 1991 Census, the general population change on Croatian islands has got a positive sign. However, the conclusion that population revitalisation occurred on Croatian islands was soon denied by a series of facts. As the law, popularly called “the law on vacation homes”, has been applied since 1993, a large number of second homes owners opted for this location as the predominant place of residence, although they do not reside there for the most part of the year, thus creating a significant contingent of “fictitious population”. Another theory whi¬ch denies that our islands are experiencing demographic upswing and revitalisation rests on the fact that far and away the highest rates of population growth have been recorded on the bridged islands. We believe that these islands (also characterized by the highest proportion of second homes in the total number of objects do not share the fate of islandness (insularity as the other “real islands” do, owing to their solid connection to the mainland so that, in fact, they are no longer isolated. If we exclude the population trends of this group of islands from the total population change of the entire

  7. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Face (July 2008): 32. 21 Ahmed Rashid , Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan (New York: Viking, 2012). 22 Brian J...promoting extremism. Commentators such as Jessica Stern, Alan Richards, Hussain Haqqani, Ahmed Rashid , and Ali Riaz are a few of the scholars who...www.jstor.org/stable/3183558; See also Ahmed Rashid , Descent Into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and

  8. Morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of long range transported wildfire particles at Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Cappelletti, David; Crocchianti, Stefano; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Mazzola, Mauro; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Ritter, Christoph; Zielinski, Tymon

    2017-05-01

    A prolonged and exceptionally intense air mass advection event transporting biomass burning aerosols generated in Alaska affected Ny-Ålesund in the mid of July 2015. This paper reports the morphochemical characteristics and mixing state of individual aerosol particles collected during the event. To this aim aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore polycarbonate membrane filters using a DEKATI 12-stage low volume impactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Results of SEM investigations depict a complex aerosol characterized by an external mixing between a main part of carbonaceous organic particles (tar balls and organic particles), lower ammonium sulfate and minor potassium chloride and mineral dust amounts. The carbonaceous particles are spherical to slightly elongated and the organic particles show an internal mixing of low density organics and/or ammonium sulfate upon denser nuclei. Most particles are in the accumulation mode size range although the size and the morphology of the chloride and the sulfate salts evidence the growth of these species both in the air and upon the sampling membranes. Individual particle analyses were complemented by aerosol size distribution (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and optical (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, nephelometer) measurements at ground level in order to retrieve the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol in the atmosphere and to predict the fate and behaviour of particles upon deposition at ground level. Individual particle analyses were also compared with bulk chemical analyses on daily sampling filters and back-trajectory analyses of the air mass movement in order to enucleate distinct sources of the aerosol during the long range transport.

  9. The NSF-RCN Urban Heat Island Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hamilton, P.; Shepherd, M.; Stone, B., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In much of the world cities are warming at twice the rate of outlying rural areas. The frequency of urban heat waves is projected to increase with climate change through the 21stcentury. Addressing the economic, environmental, and human costs of urban heat islands requires a better understanding of their behavior from many disciplinary perspectives. The goal of this four-year Urban Heat Island Network is to (1) bring together scientists studying the causes and impacts of urban warming, (2) advance multidisciplinary understanding of urban heat islands, (3) examine how they can be ameliorated through engineering and design practices, and (4) share these new insights with a wide array of stakeholders responsible for managing urban warming to reduce their health, economic, and environmental impacts. The Urban Heat Island Network involves atmospheric scientists, engineers, architects, landscape designers, urban planners, public health experts, and education and outreach experts, who will share knowledge, evaluate research directions, and communicate knowledge and research recommendations to the larger research community as well as stakeholders engaged in developing strategies to adapt to and mitigate urban warming. The first Urban Climate Institute was held in Saint Paul, Minnesota in July 2013 and focused on the characteristics of urban heat islands. Scientists engaged with local practitioners to improve communication pathways surrounding issues of understanding, adapting to, and mitigating urban warming. The second Urban Climate Institute was held in Atlanta, Georgia in July 2014 and focused on urban warming and public health. Scientists discussed the state of the science on urban modeling, heat adaptation, air pollution, and infectious disease. Practitioners informed participants on emergency response methods and protocols related to heat and other extreme weather events. Evaluation experts at the Science Museum of Minnesota have extensively evaluated both Institutes

  10. Modelling dune erosion, overwash and inundation of barrier islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhout, B.; Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical model experiments are performed at Deltares to investigate the morphological response of barrier islands on extreme storm events. The experiments included dune erosion, overwash and inundation regimes. Extensive measurement techniques made detailed comparison with numerical models possible.

  11. FUNCTIONAL STATE OF ORGANISM OF INTERN DOCTORS WITH DIFFERENT SUCCESS LEVEL ACTIVITY IN EXTREME CONDITIONS IN THE COURSE OF DAILY DUTY IN CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Madzigon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of daily duty in clinic, the indeces of functional status, functional reserve of organism and mnestic (operator’s performance ability of intern doctors with different success level activity in extreme conditions were determined twice (in the beginning and at the end of the duty. It is shown that the higher success level activity in extreme conditions of interns, the more tolerance and strength of their body functional system formed in work process and it means the higher professional activity performance. Intern graduates activity preparation in extreme conditions is one of activities of Medical Institutions of Higher Education quality improvement

  12. Disinfection byproduct precursor dynamics and water treatability during an extreme flooding event in a coastal blackwater river in southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, A; Uzun, H; Karanfil, T; Tsui, M T K; Chow, A T

    2017-12-01

    Coastal blackwater rivers, characterized by high concentrations of natural organic matter, are source water for millions of people in the southeastern US. In October 2015, large areas of coastal South Carolina were flooded by Hurricane Joaquin. This so-called "thousand-year" rainfall mobilized and flushed large amounts of terrestrial organic matter and associated pollutants (e.g. mercury) into source water, affecting water quality and safety of municipal water supply. To understand the dynamics of water quality and water treatability during this extreme flood, water samples were collected from Waccamaw River (a typical blackwater river in the southeastern US) during rising limb, peak discharge, falling limb, and base flow. Despite decreasing water flow after peak discharge, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels (increased by up to 125%), and formation potentials of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (increased by up to 150%) remained high for an extended period of time (>eight weeks after peak discharge), while variation in the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) FP was negligible. Coagulation with alum and ferric at optimal dosage significantly reduced concentrations of DOC by 51-76%, but up to 10 mg/L of DOC still remained in treated waters. For an extended period of time, elevated levels of THMs (71-448 μg/L) and HAAs (88-406 μg/L) were quantified in laboratory chlorination experiments under uniform formation conditions (UFC), exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) maximum contaminant level of 80 and 60 μg/L, respectively. Results demonstrated that populations in coastal cities are at high risk with disinfection by-products (DBPs) under the changing climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A downstream CpG island controls transcript initiation and elongation and the methylation state of the imprinted Airn macro ncRNA promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V Koerner

    Full Text Available A CpG island (CGI lies at the 5' end of the Airn macro non-protein-coding (nc RNA that represses the flanking Igf2r promoter in cis on paternally inherited chromosomes. In addition to being modified on maternally inherited chromosomes by a DNA methylation imprint, the Airn CGI shows two unusual organization features: its position immediately downstream of the Airn promoter and transcription start site and a series of tandem direct repeats (TDRs occupying its second half. The physical separation of the Airn promoter from the CGI provides a model to investigate if the CGI plays distinct transcriptional and epigenetic roles. We used homologous recombination to generate embryonic stem cells carrying deletions at the endogenous locus of the entire CGI or just the TDRs. The deleted Airn alleles were analyzed by using an ES cell imprinting model that recapitulates the onset of Igf2r imprinted expression in embryonic development or by using knock-out mice. The results show that the CGI is required for efficient Airn initiation and to maintain the unmethylated state of the Airn promoter, which are both necessary for Igf2r repression on the paternal chromosome. The TDRs occupying the second half of the CGI play a minor role in Airn transcriptional elongation or processivity, but are essential for methylation on the maternal Airn promoter that is necessary for Igf2r to be expressed from this chromosome. Together the data indicate the existence of a class of regulatory CGIs in the mammalian genome that act downstream of the promoter and transcription start.

  14. Sexual positioning and race-based attraction by preferences for social dominance among gay Asian/Pacific Islander men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Judy Y; Pratto, Felicia; Operario, Don; Dworkin, Shari L

    2013-10-01

    For gay men in the United States, race/ethnicity has been demonstrated to factor importantly into sexual preferences, and race-based beliefs regarding certain racial groups are prevalent within the gay male community. For gay men of color, such beliefs may differentially influence their sexual preferences. Yet, little is known about the social-psychological factors underlying differences in sexual preferences among gay men of color. The present study examined how personal preferences for social hierarchy and dominance may explain variations in sexual positioning preferences, and how this relationship may be further qualified by their race-based sexual attraction among gay Asian/Pacific Islander (API) men. A total of 141 API gay men were recruited to participate in an online survey. Measures assessed participants' sexual positioning preferences, race-based sexual attraction, and preferences for social hierarchy or social dominance orientation (SDO). Self-identified tops scored higher on SDO than bottoms or versatiles. Participants attracted to non-API men scored higher on SDO compared to participants attracted to API men and participants who reported no race-based attraction. Finally, a significant two-way interaction indicated that tops attracted to non-API men scored the highest on SDO, and bottoms with no race-based attraction in men scored the lowest. Race/ethnicity is a prominent factor in sexual attraction and sexual positioning preferences among gay men, and one's proclivity for social hierarchy and dominance explains differences in sexual preferences among API gay men. By demonstrating how API gay men negotiate sexual preferences, present findings help elucidate existing race-based sexual dynamics within gay male culture.

  15. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  16. Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi (Guerne and Richard, 1890) in the Canary Islands (Copepoda: Calanoida: Paradiaptominae). Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 19

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi is widespread on Lanzarote, where it occurred at 22 of the 105 stations. On Fuerteventura it was found at only 2 of the 53 stations, both in the extreme northwest part of the island. It was also found in a reservoir on the south side of the small island of Alegranza.

  17. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  18. Extreme Photonics & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  19. Morphological impacts of extreme storms on sandy beaches and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Historical extreme storms that struck the Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast regions of the United States caused several different styles of morphological response and resulted in a wide range of washover penetration distances. The post- storm erosional responses included dune scarps, channel incisions, and washouts, whereas depositional responses included perched fans, washover terraces, and sheetwash lineations. Maximum inland extent of washover penetration ranged from approximately 100 to 1000 m and estimated sediment volumes associated with these deposits ranged from about 10 to 225 m 3/m of beach. Unusual styles of morphological response (sheetwash lineations and incised channels) and maximum washover penetration distances are closely correlated, and they also correspond to storm intensity as denned by the Saffir-Simpson wind-speed scale. The regional morphological responses and washover penetration distances are controlled primarily by the interactions among heights and durations of storm surge relative to adjacent land elevations, differences in water levels between the ocean and adjacent lagoon, constructive and destructive interference of storm waves, and alongshore variations in nearshore bathymetry. For barrier segments that are entirely submerged during the storm, impacts can be enhanced by the combined influences of shallow water depths and organized flow within the wind field. The greatest washover penetrations and sediment accumulations are products of shallow water, confined flow, and high wind stress. Transport and deposition of washover sediments across barrier islands and into the adjacent lagoon are common processes along the Gulf of Mexico but not along the western Atlantic Ocean. This fundamental difference in storm impact underscores how microtidal and mesotidal barriers respond respectively to extreme storms, and provides insight into how different types of barrier islands will likely respond to future extreme storms and to a relative rise in sea

  20. On the recent M=6.1 earthquake occurred at Kefalonia island (South-West Greece) on 26 January 2014: Manifestations of an Earth system in critical state

    CERN Document Server

    Contoyiannis, Y; Kopanas, J; Antonopoulos, G; Koulouras, G; Eftaxias, K; Nomicos, C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show, in terms of fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EME) recorded two days prior to the earthquake of Kefalonia (Cephalonia), Greece [(38.22o N, 20.53oE), 26 January 2014, M=6.1] that the Earth system around the focal area came to critical condition two days before the earthquake occurence. Specifically, the MHz EME recorded by the remote telemetric stations on the island of Kefalonia and the neighboring island of Zante came simultaneously to critical conditions. The analysis was performed by means of the method of critical fluctuations (MCF) revealing critical features.

  1. Climate change and size evolution in an island rodent species: new perspectives on the island rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Virginie; Damuth, John

    2004-06-01

    As stated by the island rule, small mammals evolve toward gigantism on islands. In addition they are known to evolve faster than their mainland counterparts. Body size in island mammals may also be influenced by geographical climatic gradients or climatic change through time. We tested the relative effects of climate change and isolation on the size of the Japanese rodent Apodemus speciosus and calculated evolutionary rates of body size change since the last glacial maximum (LGM). Currently A. speciosus populations conform both to Bergmann's rule, with an increase in body size with latitude, and to the island rule, with larger body sizes on small islands. We also found that fossil representatives of A. speciosus are larger than their extant relatives. Our estimated evolutionary rates since the LGM show that body size evolution on the smaller islands has been less than half as rapid as on Honshu, the mainland-type large island of Japan. We conclude that island populations exhibit larger body sizes today not because they have evolved toward gigantism, but because their evolution toward a smaller size, due to climate warming since the LGM, has been decelerated by the island effect. These combined results suggest that evolution in Quaternary island small mammals may not have been as fast as expected by the island effect because of the counteracting effect of climate change during this period.

  2. Surto de encefalomielite equina Leste na Ilha de Marajó, Pará Eastern equine encephalitis on Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinny F. Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nove casos de encefalomielite equina foram estudados na Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. Os equinos apresentavam dificuldade em se manter em estação, andavam em círculo, tinham acentuada depressão, pálpebras cerradas, paralisia da língua, tremores musculares, bruxismo, anorexia e desidratação. Alguns apresentavam diminuição dos reflexos auricular, palpebral, de ameaça, diminuição do tônus da língua e taquicardia. Posição de auto-auscultação foi observada com frequência. Os animais muitas vezes eram encontrados apoiados em troncos e cercas para se manterem em estação. À necropsia verificou-se hemorragia das leptomeninges e da medula, alguns apresentaram ainda aderência das leptomeninges. À histopatologia verificou-se encefalite difusa que afetava principalmente a substância cinzenta, com meningite e coroidite. Foi observada perivasculite mononuclear. Em dois equinos identificou-se o vírus da encefalomielite equina Leste pela reação de Semi-Nested transcrição reversa de polimerase em cadeia (Semi-Nested RT-PCR.Nine cases of equine encephalomyelitis on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, were studied. The affected horses had difficulty to stand, walked in circles, with marked depression, closed eyelids, tongue paralysis, muscle tremors, bruxism, anorexia and dehydration. Some had their ear and eyelid reflexes diminished, decreased tongue tone and tachycardia; laid down frequently they kept their head on the chest. Often they were seen resting their head on tree trunks or fences. At necropsy, hemorrhages of the meninges and spinal cord, and in some animals also adhesion of the meninges were found. Histologically there was diffuse encephalitis affecting mainly the gray matter, with meningitis and choroiditis. Presence of perivascular cuffs consisting of mononuclear inflammatory cells was observed. From two horses the Eastern equine encephalitis virus was identified by semi-nested reverse transcription

  3. Isotopic variations ({delta}{sup 13} C and {delta}{sup 18} O) in Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria-Anthozoa), Itamaraca island, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Valderez P.; Sial, Alcides N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Mayeal, Elga M.; Exner, Marco Antonio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia. Lab. de Macro e Megabentos

    1998-12-01

    Isotopic determinations for O and C were performed in coral skeletons collected in beach rocks from two localities (Orange and Catuama), Itamaraca Island, north littoral of the State of pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Large variations of {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C in corals from both localities are found, the largest ones being observed at the Orange locality {delta}{sup 13} C in this locality varies from -0.8 to +1.8% PDB and {delta}{sup 1.8} O from -5.3 to -1.8% PDB, while at the Catuama locality, they vary from -1.8 to 0.1% PDB and -3.8 to -2.7% PDB, respectively. Large variations in {delta}{sup 18} O (up to 2.5%) coupled with weakly defined positive correlation between {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C, can be attributed to temperature variations as consequence of climatic perturbations. Temperature estimates, calculated from {delta}{sup 18} O values, assuming isotopic equilibrium with seawater, yield values between 24.9 deg C and 43.1 deg C at Orange, and from 28.4 deg C to 35 deg C at Catuama, all of them (expect one growth band from one sample) are high enough for the full development of the coral colony. Temperature average is 31.4 deg C at Orange, which is a little bit higher than that at Catuama, but both of them indicate thermal stress conditions. In all analyzed specimens, expect for one, at Orange, T increases was accompanied by decreasing in the organic activity, as suggested by corresponding negative {delta}{sup 13} C anomaly. Therefore, the observed bleaching is possibly related to thermal stress and the high T may be related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warning event. On the other hand, anthropogenic action at Orange, local of intense tourism throughout the year, coupled with high rate of sedimentation in the region, may contribute to the observed coral bleaching. (author)

  4. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  5. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  6. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  7. Environmental Assessment Cross Island Complex Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The United States Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to acquire fee title rights to approximately 1,355 acres by donation and 130 acres by purchase of coastal island...

  8. Bryophyte floras of tropical Pacific islands

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Harvey A.; Whittier, Henry O.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of bryological research in each of the nations, states or governmental units of southern Melanesia, Micronesia and tropical Polynesia shows the imperfect state of knowledge about the Pacific tropical islands. Best known overall are Hawaii and Micronesia with Wallis and Futuna, the Marquesas and the high mountains of Fiji seeming to be the least known potentially species rich areas. Involvement of residents from Pacific islands in botanical study and preservation of ecos...

  9. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  10. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  11. Evaluation of stochastic weather generators for capturing the statistics of extreme precipitation events in the Catskill Mountain watersheds, New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, N.; Frei, A.; Owens, E. M.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Watersheds located in the Catskill Mountains area, part of the eastern plateau climate region of New York, contributes about 90% of New York City's municipal water supply, serving 9 million New Yorkers with about 1.2 billion gallons of clean drinking water each day. The New York City Department of Environmental Protection has an ongoing series of studies to assess the potential impacts of climate change on the availability of high quality water in this water supply system. Recent studies identify increasing trends in total precipitation and in the frequency of extreme precipitation events in this region. The objectives of the present study are: to analyze the proba­bilistic structure of extreme precipitation based on historical observations: and to evaluate the abilities of stochastic weather generators (WG), statistical models that produce synthetic weather time series based on observed statistical properties at a particular location, to simulate the statistical properties of extreme precipitation events over this region. The generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) has been applied to the annual block maxima of precipitation for 60 years (1950 to 2009) observed data in order to estimate the events with return periods of 50, 75, and 100 years. These results were then used to evaluate a total of 13 WGs were : 12 parametric WGs including all combinations of three different orders of Markov chain (MC) models (1st , 2nd and 3rd) and four different probability distributions (exponential, gamma, skewed normal and mixed exponential); and one semi parametric WG based on k-nearest neighbor bootstrapping. Preliminary results suggest that three-parameter (skewed normal and mixed exponential distribution) and semi-parametric (k-nearest neighbor bootstrapping) WGs are more consistent with observations. It is also found that first order MC models perform as well as second or third order MC models.

  12. Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli Farner as an epidemic vector of Chikungunya virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Harry M; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Yug, Laurence; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Marfel, Maria; Hancock, W Thane

    2015-02-01

    Two species of Aedes (Stegomyia) were collected in response to the first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak on Yap Island: the native species Ae. hensilli Farner and the introduced species Ae. aegypti (L.). Fourteen CHIKV-positive mosquito pools were detected. Six pools were composed of female Ae. hensilli, six pools were composed of female Ae. aegypti, one pool was composed of male Ae. hensilli, and one pool contained female specimens identified as Ae. (Stg.) spp. Infection rates were not significantly different between female Ae. hensilli and Ae. aegypti. The occurrence of human cases in all areas of Yap Island and the greater number of sites that yielded virus from Ae. hensilli combined with the ubiquitous distribution of this species incriminate Ae. hensilli as the most important vector of CHIKV during the outbreak. Phylogenic analysis shows that virus strains on Yap are members of the Asia lineage and closely related to strains currently circulating in the Caribbean.

  13. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  14. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  15. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  16. A Study on Extremely Dry and Wet Summer Monsoon in Pakistan by Focusing on the Anomalous States of the Upper Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.

    2012-04-01

    Seasonally-changes in wind pattern, monsoon, sometimes results in severe droughts and intense flooding in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. The livelihood of a vast population in Pakistan depends on agriculture and land use is strongly influenced by water-based ecosystems that depend on the monsoon rains. Furthermore, climate change studies undertaken so far reveal that action is essential in order to prevent long term damage to water cycle and thus of great concern to the community and stakeholders. Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) is generally affected by both the disturbances from the tropical and the extratropical regions; however there is lack of understanding of physical mechanisms of PSM compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM). In our study, we applied heat and vorticity budgets and wave train analysis to reveal the mechanisms of the extremely dry and wet PSM events associated with the anomalous upper tropospheric circulation. We found that the extremely dry (wet) PSM events are closely related with the strengthening(weakening) of the upper-tropospheric central Asian high. We also found that in addition to Rossby-wave (Matsuno-Gill) type atmospheric response, the Rossby wave train along the Asian Jet originating from northwestern Europe or North Atlantic Ocean strengthened(weakened) the upper-tropospheric central Asian high. Therefore strong convection anomalies resulting in severe flooding (drought) events over the PSM region are induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes. Key Words: Pakistan, Extremes Monsoon Events, Physical Processes, Heat Budget, Vorticity, Wave Train

  17. Making Autonomies Matter: Sub-State Actor Accommodation in the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers -- An Analysis of the Institutional Framework for Accommodating the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland within ‘Norden’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign powers are not absolute but exercised in varying areas and to varying degrees by sub-state, state and supra-state entities. The upward dispersion of power to international organisations carries implications for the sub-state level, while sub-state governance poses demands as to the conduct of governance at the international level. It is well recognised that sub-state entities, such as federal states and autonomies, may have the (restricted capacity to enter into international relations. But what capacities do international organisations have to accommodate autonomies in their institutional frameworks? This paper shall present a case study of one such framework, namely Nordic co-operation and the accommodation of the Nordic autonomies, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland, within its institutional framework. Within ‘Norden’, the position of autonomies has been scrutinised and adapted on several occasions, in the late 1960s, early 1980s and in the mid-2000s. The accommodation of the autonomies has been discussed in light of evident implications of statehood and international legal personality and the institutional arrangements eventually carved serve well to illustrate the challenges and opportunities international organisations face in the attempt to accommodate multi-level systems.

  18. Effect of life in industrialized societies on hearing in natives of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goycoolea, M V; Goycoolea, H G; Farfan, C R; Rodriguez, L G; Martinez, G C; Vidal, R

    1986-12-01

    In an effort to determine whether life in industrialized societies can have an effect on hearing, 90 natives from Easter Island over 45 years old were evaluated. They underwent complete clinical and audiological assessment and were divided into groups according to those having lived only on the island or those having lived in modern civilization. With all factors being equal, except exposure to modern civilization, our results showed that living in civilized societies has a significant negative effect on hearing; the severity is directly proportional to the years of exposure. The median hearing thresholds of natives always living on the island (men and women combined) was found to be similar to those of female citizens of the United States; there was no significant difference in hearing thresholds between men and women among these natives. These results suggest that there are no significant inherent racial differences nor significant inherent differences between males and females in the sensitivity of hearing. A relationship between aging and hearing was noted and interpreted as true or intrinsic presbycusis. There were no cases of otosclerosis, Meniere's disease, or exostoses of the external ear canal among natives who had always lived on the island. Pure natives were found not to be prone to otitis media in spite of having an extremely high incidence of severe upper respiratory tract allergies.

  19. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  20. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    -nesting seabirds of the Prince Edward Islands into the 21st century, but only providing the effects of .... too penguins resulted in high losses of eggs and chicks ... Marion Island base. ..... which comes into force three months after five Parties.

  1. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  2. Incorporating climate trends in the stochastic modeling of extreme minimum air temperature series of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the hypothesis that the presence of climate trends in the annual extreme minimum air temperature series of Campinas (Tminabs; 1891-2010; 22º54'S; 47º05'W; 669 m may no longer be neglected, the aim of the work was to describe the probabilistic structure of this series based on the general extreme value distribution (GEV with parameters estimated as a function of a time covariate. The results obtained by applying the likelihood ratio test and the percentil-percentil and quantil-quantil plots, have indicated that the use of a time-dependent model provides a feasible description of the process under evaluation. In this non-stationary GEV model the parameters of location and scale were expressed as time-dependent functions. The shape parameter remained constant. It was also verified that although this non-stationary model has indicated an average increase in the values of the analyzed data, it does not allow us to conclude that the region of Campinas is now free from frost occurrence since this same model also reveals an increasing trend in the dispersions of the variable under evaluation. However, since the parameters of location and scale of this probabilistic model are significantly conditioned on time, the presence of climate trends in the analyzed time series is proven.

  3. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  5. a Diatomic Molecule with Extremely Large Amplitude Motion in its Vibrational States that have Lengths of at Least 12,000 Angstroms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2016-06-01

    The state-of-the-art empirical potential, and the state-of-the-art ab initio potential for the b(1^3Π2_u) state of 7,7Li_2 agree with each other that the (v=100,J=0) ro-vibrational state has an outer classical turning point larger than the diameter of most bacteria and many animal cells. The 2015 empirical potential based on a significant amount of spectroscopic data, predicts the (v=100,J=0) level to be bound by only 0.000 000 000 004 cm-1 (0.01 mm. While this discovery occurred during a study of Li_2, the b(1^3Π2_u) states of heavier alkali diatomics are expected to have even larger amplitude vibrational states. While it might be tempting to call these very large molecules ``Rydberg molecules", it is important to remember that this term is already used to describe highly excited electronic states whose energy levels follow a formula similar to that for the famous Rydberg series. The highly delocalized vibrational states are a truly unfamiliar phenomenon. Dattani (2015) http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.07184v1 Musial & Kucharski (2014) Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 10, 1200

  6. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  7. The Faroe Islands: Options for Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The Faroe Islands are currently at a crossroads in their constitutional status. Discussions concerning changes in the current constitutional status are ongoing and several analyses about possible trajectories of future development are being proposed. Argued in a context of Faroese nationalism, this article tries to assess these trajectories in the future jurisdictional and political development of the Faroe Islands in terms of three possible scenarios: independence or full sovereignty (as is Iceland; a freely associated statehood (as are Niue and the Cook Islands in relation to New Zealand; or a confederation, probably involving changes at both the central level of the Danish state and the European Union level. This article argues that the most likely future development is that of a state in free association with Denmark. Meanwhile, island politics can change very quickly and the traditional cleavages in Faroese politics are liable to changing degrees of public support.

  8. Neotectonics in Marajó Island, State of Pará (Brazil revealed by vertical electric sounding integrated with remote sensing and geological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENA S.B. SOUZA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that the Marajó Island has experienced neotectonic activity during its latest evolution. However, there are no data demonstrating the presence of tectonic structures in its shallow subsurface. This work integrates vertical electric sounding, morphostructural lineaments, and geological data aiming to show fault control on the Late Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentation of this area. Resistivity values were related to mud ( 500 Ωm. The latest values were related to the unconformity with lateritic paleosol at the top of the Barreiras Formation. Despite the values ≤ 500 Ωm of both the Barreiras Formation and the Late Pleistocene-Holocene unit, the latter was distinguished along four electric sections due to the presence of this unconformity, combined with the integration of available 14C, and luminescence ages of Quaternary sediments. The electric sections recorded several places with lateral interruptions of resistivity values within short distances, which were related to faults. The Miocene strata were vertically displaced by normal faults, giving rise to new accommodation space where Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments were deposited. Fault reactivation was crucial to renew sedimentation in eastern Marajó Island during its latest evolutionary stage.

  9. Analysis of seafloor change around Dauphin Island, Alabama, 1987–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-09-26

    Dauphin Island is a 26 km-long barrier island located southwest of Mobile Bay, Alabama, in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1). The island contains sandy beaches, dunes, maritime forests, freshwater ponds and intertidal wetlands, providing habitat for many endangered and threatened species. Dauphin Island also provides protection for and maintains estuarine conditions within Mississippi Sound, supporting oyster habitat and seagrasses. Wetland marshes along the Alabama mainland are protected by the island from wave-induced erosion during storms approaching from the Gulf of Mexico. Over the years, the island has been eroded by storms, most recently by Hurricane Ivan (2004) and Hurricane Katrina (2005) (Ivan/Katrina), which breached the island along its narrowest extent and caused damage to infrastructure (fig. 2). Along with storms producing significant episodic change, long-term beach erosion has exposed numerous pine tree stumps in the shoreface. The stumps are remnants of past maritime forests and reflect the consistent landward retreat of the island (Parker and others, 1997).Island change has prompted the State of Alabama to evaluate restoration alternatives to increase island resilience and sustainability by protecting and preserving the natural habitat, and by understanding the processes that influence shoreline change. Under a grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF), restoration alternatives are being developed that will allow the State to make decisions on engineering and ecological restoration designs based on scientific analysis of likely outcomes and tradeoffs between impacts to stakeholder interests. Science-based assessment of the coastal zone requires accurate and up-to-date baseline data to provide a valid image of present conditions and to support modeling of coastal processes. Bathymetric elevation measurements are essential to this requirement. In August 2015, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the U.S. Geological

  10. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  11. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  12. A Phenomenology of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Hay

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The question is posed: is a coherent theory of islandness – nissology – possible? Faultlines within constructions of islands and islandness are noted. Some of these axes of contestation have remained latent but have the potential to be sharply divisive. Three of the identified faultlines are examined – the nature of the island ‘edge’, the import for questions of island memory and identity of massive inward and outward movements of people, and the appropriation of island ‘realness’ by those for whom ‘island’ best functions as metaphor. A case is made for the excision of the latter from the purview of island studies. Despite apparent irreconcilability within island studies’ emerging faultlines, it is argued that place theory does constitute a theoretical framing that can work for island studies. Following a brief overview of the faultlines that also exist within place studies, it is noted that the difference-respecting and identity focused nature of phenomenology of place is particularly apposite for island studies, and the paper concludes with a consideration of what a phenomenology of islands might look like.

  13. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  14. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  15. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  16. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  17. Psychological and psycho-vegetative technologies of diagnostics and correction the behavior of professionals working in extreme conditions (state of problem and prospective studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to promising areas of research regulatory processes (self-control оf the professionals working in special and extreme conditions of professional activity. The actuality of creation a comprehensive compact of the selection methods, adaptation the technologies to professional tasks, methods of psychological assistance of the specialists of hazardous occupations was shown. It was done an overview of foreign studies of the features of psychological regulation and self-control in stressful situations, neurophysiological correlates of self-control and aggressive behavior. The results of trainings of the development of the capacity for self-control, increasing resistance to the negative effects of mental exhaustion, were described. There were expounded the results of domestic investigations of the association between the self-regulation of behavior and profile of reactivity among mentally healthy and ill persons. The necessity of the development of psychodiagnostic and psychological programs for specialists in the professions of risk, aimed to improve the efficiency of regulatory processes for the adaptation to the conditions of professional activity.

  18. [FUNCTIONAL STATE OF PERIPHERAL VESSELS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES AND INTRAOSSEOUS PRESSURE IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING OBLITERATING ATHEROSCLEROSIS ON BACKGROUND OF DIABETES MELLITUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, V I; Korsak, V V; Rusyn, V V; Gorlenko, F V; Mashura, V V; Pekahr, M I; Langazo, O V

    2016-01-01

    Results of examination of 46 patients, suffering obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremities arteries solely or in combination with diabetes mellitus (DM), were analyzed. The malleolar pressure index (MPI), regional systolic pressure (RSP), velocity of the volume blood flow (VVBF), rheographic index (RI), using test with nitroglycerine, postocclusion venous pressure (POVP) and intaosseous pressure (IOP) in tibiae were studied. The RI reduction, parallel to the arterial ischemia progression, was established. The test indices with nitroglycerine in patients with obliterating atherosclerosis have reduced step by step. With coexistent DM the efficacy of nitroglycerine was practically absent. POVP is upgraded in patients of all the groups and it have lowered step by step in a laying position of the patient, and while transition into standing position--it have upgraded progressively with a progress of arterial ischemia. IOP have upgraded significantly in isolated obliterating atherosclerosis in ischemia stage 3a and have lowered--in stage 3b. In coexistent DM IOP is upgraded in ischemia stage 3b also.

  19. Analysis of volcanic threat from Nisyros Island, Greece, with implications for aviation and population exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinvig, H. S.; Winson, A.; Gottsmann, J.

    2010-06-01

    Nisyros island in the South Aegean volcanic arc, Greece, is a Quaternary composite volcano with a 3.8 km wide caldera that in 1996 entered a volcano-seismic crisis, which heralded the islands' return to a state of unrest. The caldera has been the locus of at least thirteen phreatic eruptions in historical times, the most recent in 1888, and the system is still presently affected by considerable hydrothermal activity. Although the recent unrest waned off without eruption, there are still open questions relating to the current threat of volcanic activity from the island. Here, we perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the volcanic threat of Nisyros using a threat analysis protocol established as part of the USGS National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS). The evaluation involves a methodical assessment of fifteen hazard and exposure factors, and is based on a score system, whereby the higher the score, the higher the threat is. Uncertainty in assessment criteria are expressed by allowing for a conservative and an extreme score for each factor. We draw our analysis from published data as well as from results of our research on Nisyros over the past years. Our analysis yields a conservative threat score of 163 and an extreme score of 262. The most adverse exposure factors include significant scores relating to aviation and population exposure to volcanic hazards from Nisyros. When looked at in comparison to US volcanoes both scores place Nisyros in the "Very High Threat (VHT)" category, grouping it with volcanoes such as Redoubt, Mount Ranier and Crater Lake. We identify a short-fall in recommended surveillance efforts for VHT volcanoes given existing monitoring capabilities on the island. We discuss potential pitfalls of applying the NVEWS scheme to Nisyros and suggest potential adaptation of analysis scheme to match industrial and societal conditions in Europe. At the same time, our findings indicate that that volcanic threat posed by Nisyros volcano may

  20. Analysis of volcanic threat from Nisyros Island, Greece, with implications for aviation and population exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Kinvig

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nisyros island in the South Aegean volcanic arc, Greece, is a Quaternary composite volcano with a 3.8 km wide caldera that in 1996 entered a volcano-seismic crisis, which heralded the islands' return to a state of unrest. The caldera has been the locus of at least thirteen phreatic eruptions in historical times, the most recent in 1888, and the system is still presently affected by considerable hydrothermal activity. Although the recent unrest waned off without eruption, there are still open questions relating to the current threat of volcanic activity from the island. Here, we perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the volcanic threat of Nisyros using a threat analysis protocol established as part of the USGS National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS. The evaluation involves a methodical assessment of fifteen hazard and exposure factors, and is based on a score system, whereby the higher the score, the higher the threat is. Uncertainty in assessment criteria are expressed by allowing for a conservative and an extreme score for each factor. We draw our analysis from published data as well as from results of our research on Nisyros over the past years. Our analysis yields a conservative threat score of 163 and an extreme score of 262. The most adverse exposure factors include significant scores relating to aviation and population exposure to volcanic hazards from Nisyros. When looked at in comparison to US volcanoes both scores place Nisyros in the "Very High Threat (VHT" category, grouping it with volcanoes such as Redoubt, Mount Ranier and Crater Lake. We identify a short-fall in recommended surveillance efforts for VHT volcanoes given existing monitoring capabilities on the island. We discuss potential pitfalls of applying the NVEWS scheme to Nisyros and suggest potential adaptation of analysis scheme to match industrial and societal conditions in Europe. At the same time, our findings indicate that that volcanic threat posed by

  1. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  2. Electrochemical island growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  3. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  4. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    . It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the streamlined islands, the current-like flutes are parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesis that catastrophic floods broke forth in this region, known as Ares Vallis. Ares Vallis is the region where Pathfinder landed to help understand the possible history of water on Mars. Geologists want to understand not only if there was a catastrophic flood, but why it happened. Both orbiters and landers can add to the information on hand, but some Earth examples might provide clues as well. On our planet, some glacial valleys have had major catastrophic floods that were caused by the sudden outburst and drainage of glacial lakes. The Channeled Scabland in Washington state is great Earthly example of a place where the sudden failure of a glacier ice dam spewed out water, leaving a system of large, dry channels with flutes similar to the ones seen in this image. Did something similar happen to cause this outburst on Mars? Hopefully, future studies of THEMIS and other images will help us understand the answer.

  5. Evidence for an invasive aphid "superclone": extremely low genetic diversity in Oleander aphid (Aphis nerii populations in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scott Harrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander and Milkweed (Asclepias spp. under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km and large (3,700 km geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii "superclones". Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG or "clone" and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species.

  6. 75 FR 20598 - Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of... identified as Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, California to the State of...

  7. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski

  8. Availability, usage, and threats to freshwater resources on low carbonate islands in Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboroši, Danko; Jenson, John W.; Sánchez Collazo, Maricruz; Zega, Mojca

    2010-05-01

    Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is an insular nation in the western Pacific. It consists of 4 high volcanic islands and 37 low carbonate units, mostly coral atolls. The high islands are relatively large, and are developing socioeconomic centers of the country, whereas low islands are small and remote outposts of traditional subsistence lifestyle. The latter are inhabited by a fifth of the nation's population of 107,000 people. Total land area of a typical low island is a fraction of a km2, yet may be home to hundreds of people, creating some of the highest population densities in the Pacific. The resultant extreme pressures on natural resources are exacerbated by severe weather hazards, especially typhoons and unusually high tides which have recently flooded some islands in entirety, damaging homes and food sources. Freshwater resources are particularly sensitive. Crowded low islands have some of the world's most unfavorable relationships between population density and freshwater availability. As there are no communal or municipal facilities and government operated infrastructure, people have only two sources of water available for consumption: rainwater and groundwater. Rain is captured by individual households' thatch or corrugated iron roofs and transferred by gutters to concrete or fiberglass tanks. It is used for drinking, cooking, and dishwashing, and depending on availability, for laundry and showering. Such arrangement are highly unreliable, because they depend on sufficient rainfall and islanders' ability to capture and store it. Some communities have actually run out of water in the past, as a result of prolonged droughts or typhoons' damage to the catchment systems. In addition, tropical climate and pervasive organic matter and microorganisms make the tanks' maintenance difficult, because even most conscientious cleaning cannot ensure that stored water remains potable. Stomach problems and more serious health complications are common. Groundwater

  9. State and Civil Society in the search of resources for overcoming xenophobia, nationalism and extremism in Russia in the contemporary period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankratov Sergey Anatolievich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the results of the work of the Research and Education Center “Modernization of multidimensional socio-political space of contemporary Russia”. Particular attention is paid to the realization of the first stage of the state contract on the topic “Innovative resources and models of political and legal resocialization of the youth cohorts representatives that are prone to xenophobia and nationalism, extremist forms of behavior in the context of modernization of contemporary Russia”.

  10. Extremely large non-saturating magnetoresistance and ultrahigh mobility due to topological surface states in metallic Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, K; Chou, M; Graf, D.; Yang, H. D.; Lorenz, B.; Chu, C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Weak antilocalization (WAL) effects in Bi2Te3 single crystals have been investigated at high and low bulk charge carrier concentrations. At low charge carrier density the WAL curves scale with the normal component of the magnetic field, demonstrating the dominance of topological surface states in magnetoconductivity. At high charge carrier density the WAL curves scale with neither the applied field nor its normal component, implying a mixture of bulk and surface conduction. WAL due to topolog...

  11. Feedback-charging a metallic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Gernot

    2017-03-01

    We consider electronic transport through a single-electron quantum dot that is tunnel-coupled to an electronic lead and a metallic island. A background reservoir keeps the metallic island at a thermal state with the ambient temperature, while the charge accumulated on the island is reflected in a time-dependent chemical potential. Without feedback, a current would flow through the system until the chemical potentials of island and lead are equilibrated. A feedback loop can be implemented by a quantum point contact detecting the dot state, classical processing of the result and appropriate feedback actions on the electronic tunneling rates taken, with the objective to direct the current in a preferred direction. Since we directly take the detector counting statistics into account, this automatically includes measurement errors in the description. When mainly the rates are modified but hardly any energy is exchanged with the system, this feedback loop effectively implements a Maxwell demon, capable of transporting electrons against an electric bias and thereby charging the metallic island. Once the feedback protocol is stopped, the metallic island simply discharges. We find that a quantitative detector model may be useful for a realistic statistical description of feedback loops.

  12. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Federated States of Micronesia; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia, a sovereign nation and U.S.-associated state in the western Pacific Ocean. The Federated States of Micronesia’s electricity rates for residential customers exceed $0.48 U.S. dollars (USD)/per kilowatt-hour (kWh), nearly four times the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  13. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  14. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  15. Assessment of Damage and Adaptation Strategies for Structures and Infrastructure from Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise for a Coastal Community in Rhode Island, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Small

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of inundation, erosion, and wave damage for a coastal community in Rhode Island, USA. A methodology called the Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI was used that incorporates levels of inundation including sea level rise, wave heights using STWAVE, and detailed information about individual structures from an E911 database. This information was input into damage functions developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers following Hurricane Sandy. Damage from erosion was evaluated separately from local published erosion rates. Using CERI, two different adaptation strategies were evaluated that included a combination of dune restoration, protective berms, and a tide gate. A total of 151 out of 708 structures were estimated to be protected from inundation and wave action by the combined measures. More importantly, the use of CERI allowed for the assessment of the impact of different adaptation strategies on both individual structures and an entire community in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment. This tool shows promise for use by coastal managers to assess damage and mitigate risk to coastal communities.

  16. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  17. Extremely supercharged proteins in mass spectrometry: profiling the pH of electrospray generated droplets, narrowing charge state distributions, and increasing ion fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenaidee, Muhammad A; Donald, William A

    2015-03-21

    The effects of 12 acids, 4 solvents, and 8 low-volatility additives that increase analyte charging (i.e., superchargers) on the charge state distributions (CSDs) of protein ions in ESI-MS were investigated. We discovered that (i) relatively low concentrations [5% (v/v)] of 1,2-butylene carbonate (and 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one) can be added to ESI solutions to form higher charge states of cytochrome c and myoglobin ions than by using more traditional additives (e.g., propylene carbonate, sulfolane, or m-nitrobenzyl alcohol) under these conditions and (ii) the width of CSDs narrow as the effectiveness of superchargers increase, which concentrates protein ions into fewer detection channels. The use of strong acids (pKa values protein supercharging, higher adduction of acid molecules, and wider CSDs for many superchargers and proteins, whereas the use of weak acids (pKa > 0) results in significantly higher protein ion charging, less acid adduction, and narrower CSDs, indicating that protein ion supercharging in ESI can be significantly limited by the binding of conjugate base anions of acids that neutralize charge sites and broaden CSDs. The extent of protein charging as a function of acid identity (HA) does not strongly correlate with gas-phase proton transfer data (i.e., gas-phase basicity and proton affinity values for HA and A(-)), solution-phase protein secondary structures (as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy), and/or acid molecule volatility data. For protein-denaturing solutions, these data were used to infer that the "effective" pH of ESI generated droplets near the moment of ion formation can be ∼0, which is ca. 1 to 3 pH units lower than the pH of the solutions prior to ESI. Electron capture dissociation (ECD) of [ubiquitin, 17H](17+) resulted in the identification of 223 cleavages, 74 of 75 inter-residue sites, and 92% ECD fragmentation efficiency, which correspond to highest of these values that have been obtained by ECD of a single

  18. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  19. Candidate genes involved in cardiovascular risk factors by a family-based association study on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhihua; Heath, Simon C; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Li, Wentian; Auerbach, Steve B; Blundell, Maude L; Lehner, Thomas; Ott, Jurg; Stoffel, Markus; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Breslow, Jan L

    2002-07-01

    Altered plasma levels of lipids and lipoproteins, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. To identify genes that affect these traits and disorders, we looked for association between markers in candidate genes (apolipoprotein AII (apo AII), apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster (apo AI-CIII-AIV), apolipoprotein E (apo E), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7a), hepatic lipase (HL), and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP)) and known risk factors (triglycerides (Tg), total cholesterol (TC), apolipoprotein AI (apo AI), apolipoprotein AII (apo AII), apolipoprotein B (apo B), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), leptin, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels.) A total of 1,102 individuals from the Pacific island of Kosrae were genotyped for the following markers: Apo AII/MspI, Apo CIII/SstI, Apo AI/XmnI, Apo E/HhaI, CETP/TaqIB, CYP7a/BsaI, HL/DraI, and MTP/HhpI. After testing for population stratification, family-based association analysis was carried out. Novel associations found were: 1) the apo AII/MspI with apo AI and BP levels, 2) the CYP7a/BsaI with apo AI and BMI levels. We also confirmed the following associations: 1) the apo AII/MspI with Tg level; 2) the apo CIII/SstI with Tg, TC, and apo B levels; 3) the Apo E/HhaI E2, E3, and E4 alleles with TC, apo AI, and apo B levels; and 4) the CETP/TaqIB with apo AI level. We further confirmed the connection between the apo AII gene and Tg level by a nonparametric linkage analysis. We therefore conclude that many of these candidate genes may play a significant role in susceptibility to heart disease.

  20. Equations of state of anhydrous AlF{sub 3} and AlI{sub 3}: Modeling of extreme condition halide chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavrou, Elissaios, E-mail: stavrou1@llnl.gov [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. 20015 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, P.O. Box 808 L-350, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Zaug, Joseph M., E-mail: zaug1@llnl.gov; Bastea, Sorin; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Radousky, Harry B.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Roberts, Sarah K.; Plaue, Jonathan W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, P.O. Box 808 L-350, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Goncharov, Alexander F. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. 20015 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (α-AlF{sub 3}) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI{sub 3}) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF{sub 3} and AlI{sub 3} were determined through refinements of collected x-ray diffraction patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives are reported for multiple orders of the Birch-Murnaghan (B-M), finite-strain (F-f), and higher pressure finite-strain (G-g) EOS analysis models. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits an apparent isostructural phase transition at approximately 12 GPa. Aluminum triiodide also undergoes a second-order atomic rearrangement: applied stress transformed a monoclinically distorted face centered cubic (fcc) structure into a standard fcc structural arrangement of iodine atoms. Results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants were obtained with the aim of predicting the yield of halogenated products.

  1. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  2. Memorandum of understanding between the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the United States Atomic Energy Commission [Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum of an agreement between the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the US Atomic Energy Commission. It states that the BSFW...

  3. State Boundaries, Hawaii (Big Island) District, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as...

  4. State Boundaries, Hawaii (Big Island) Homestead, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as...

  5. State Boundaries, Hawaii (Big Island) Small Park, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as...

  6. State Boundaries, Hawaii (Big Island) Federal Land, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as...

  7. 近10年海南岛后汛期特大暴雨环流配置及其异常特征%Circulation of Extreme Rainstorm and Its Anomalous Characteristics During Post-Flood Period of the Last Decade in Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文; 符式红; 赵付竹

    2015-01-01

    With daily precipitation observation data in Hainan compiled by National Climate Centre of CMA and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data,the atmospheric circulation of extreme rainstorm and its anomalous characteristics during post-flood period late rainy season in Hainan Island in the last ten years are investi-gated .Results show that the circulation configurations of extreme rainstorm cases have many similar char-acteristics.In the upper level,South Asia high is located in the north of South China Sea (SCS)and pro-vides strong divergence.In the middle and lower levels,increasing pressure gradient induced by the inter-actions among tropical disturbances,the Northwest Pacific subtropical high (NWPSH)and East Asia mid-dle-latitude trough are helpful to the formation of frontal zone,maintenance and reinforcement of tropical disturbance and induction of easterly low-level jet.The presence of strong low-level jet in north-central South China Sea is the most significant feature of extreme rainstorm cases in late rainy season,which consists of the southeast wind from the northeast side of tropical disturbance,the northeast wind from the front of cold high and the easterly wind from the south side of NWPSH.The core of low-leve jet shows three obvious characteristics of moving from east to west,daily gradual rising and strong wind speed fluc-tuation before the torrential rain occurs.The distinct characteristics are also manifested mainly in the a-nomalies of synoptic scale circulation of extreme rainstorm cases in comparison with the same period clima-tological mean:the Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)is exceptionally active,SCS summer monsoon trough and Indian summer monsoon trough are stronger and retreat more slowly in comparison with the normal climatological means.The location of South Asia high is abnormally eastern and southern, and the intensities of middle-latitude trough and NWPSH are stronger than usual.The water vapor causing the enhancement of precipitation

  8. Resurrection Peninsula and Knight Island ophiolites and recent faulting on Montague Island, southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1987-01-01

    The Resurrection Peninsula forms the east side of Resurrection Bay (Fig. 1). The city of Seward is located at the head of the bay and can be reached from Anchorage by highway (127 mi;204 km). Relief ranges from 1,434 ft (437 m) at the southern end of the peninsula to more than 4,800 ft (1,463 m) 17 mi (28 km) to the north. All rock units composing the informally named Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite are visible and (or) accessible by boat.The eastern half of the peninsula is located within the Chugach National Forest; the western half is mainly state land, but there is some private land with recreational cabins. The Seward A6 and A7 and Blying Sound D6 and D7 maps at 1:63,360 scale (mile-to-the-inch) cover the entire Resurrection Peninsula.Knight Island is located 53 mi (85 km) east of Seward (Fig. 1). Numerous fiords indent the 31-mi-long (50 km) by 7.4-mi-wide (12 km) island and offer excellent bedrock exposures. The island is rugged and has a maximum elevation of 3,000 ft (914 m). It has numerous mineral prospects (Tysdal, 1978; Nelson and others, 1984; Jansons and others, 1984; Koski and others, 1985), and several abandoned canneries are located on the island. Knight Island lies entirely within the Chugach National Forest—state and private inholdings constitute less than five percent of its total land area. The Seward A2, A3, B2, B3, and C2, 1:63,360-scale U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps cover the entire island.Montague Island, 50 mi (80 km) long and up to 11 mi (18 km) wide, lies 10.6 mi (17 km) southeast of Knight Island. It belongs to an island group that forms the southern margin of Prince William Sound (Fig. 1). Montague Island is less rugged and less heavily vegetated than either the Resurrection Peninsula or Knight Island. Rock exposures are excellent along the beaches, and ground disruption due to recent fault movements is clearly visible. The Seward Al and A2 and Blying Sound Dl, D2, and D3 maps cover the areas of interest on Montague Island

  9. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  10. Microfaunal primary succession on the volcanic island Surtsey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle B.; Kraglund, H. O.; Ekelund, F.

    2001-01-01

    The island of Surtsey, Iceland, was formed in 1963 by a volcanic eruption. Since then, it has served as a unique natural laboratory for scientists interested in primary succession. In this study we investigated the state of the soil microfauna succession in 1995. We examined locations on the island...

  11. 75 FR 3981 - National Angel Island Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... their struggle, we honor all who have been drawn to America by dreams of limitless opportunity. Unlike... experience and an unjust time in our history. If there is any vindication for the Angel Island immigrants who... call upon the people of the United States to learn more about the history of Angel Island and to...

  12. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  13. Island-Trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Outreach During the cruise, while surveying around Helen Reef , Revelle received a radio call from the conservation officers on the island asking for...from the government of Palau to allow us to deliver some water and food to the officers. Governor Patris of Hatohobei State and the Coral Reef ...black. 4 0.5 m s−1 Merir Helen Reef 0 to 200 m 131 131.5 132 132.5 133 133.5 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Figure 5: The NECC’s depth-mean eastward currents

  14. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Island-trapped waves , internal waves , and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...topography. As strong flows encounter small islands, points, and submarine ridges, it is expected that wakes, eddies, and arrested internal lee waves ...form drag, lee waves , eddy generation) over small-scale topographic features and (ii) fundamentally nonlinear processes (turbulent island wakes

  15. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  16. Resurrection of the Island Rule: Human-Driven Extinctions Have Obscured a Basic Evolutionary Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurby, Søren; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-06-01

    Islands are or have been occupied by unusual species, such as dwarf proboscideans and giant rodents. The discussion of the classical but controversial island rule-which states that mammalian body sizes converge on intermediate sizes on islands-has been stimulated by these unusual species. In this study, we use an unprecedented global data set of the distributions and body sizes of late Quaternary mammal species and a novel analytical method to analyze body size evolution on islands. The analyses produced strong support for the island rule. Islands have suffered massive human-driven losses of species, and we found that the support for the island rule was substantially stronger when the many late Quaternary extinct species were also considered (particularly the tendency for dwarfing in large taxa). The decisive support for the island rule in this study confirms that evolution plays out in a markedly different way on islands and that human impact may obscure even fundamental evolutionary patterns.

  17. Ancient fishing activities developed in Easter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Easter Island, Rapa Nui or Te pito o te henua, is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean halfway between South America and Oceania, constituting one of the most isolated places on the planet. It was colonized by Polynesians at the end of the first millennium of the Christian era, thus becoming one of the extremes of the Polynesian triangle. The island is of volcanic origin, has a small surface area (166 km² and limited resources, and gave rise to a culture that is unique in the world, recognized internationally for its numerous megalithic constructions and large moai. Just as it was discovered and colonized by sea, the development and sustainability of the island is closely related to the ocean that surrounds it. The objective of this article is to describe the sailing and fishing techniques used by the Easter Islanders, or rapanuis, and their use of marine organisms prior to contact with Europeans, demonstrating their inventiveness and adaptation to the specific characteristics of this small territory.

  18. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W;

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of extreme loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses extreme duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing...... and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  19. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  20. Geomorphology and depositional subenvironments of Gulf Islands National Seashore, Perdido Key and Santa Rosa Island, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Montgomery, Marilyn C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying coastal hazards and coastal change to improve our understanding of coastal ecosystems and to develop better capabilities of predicting future coastal change. One approach to understanding the dynamics of coastal systems is to monitor changes in barrier-island subenvironments through time. This involves examining morphologic and topographic change at temporal scales ranging from millennia to years and spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers to meters. Of particular interest are the processes that produce those changes and the determination of whether or not those processes are likely to persist into the future. In these analyses of hazards and change, both natural and anthropogenic influences are considered. Quantifying past magnitudes and rates of coastal change and knowing the principal factors that govern those changes are critical to predicting what changes are likely to occur under different scenarios, such as short-term impacts of extreme storms or long-term impacts of sea-level rise. Gulf Islands National Seashore was selected for detailed mapping of barrier-island morphology and topography because the islands offer a diversity of depositional subenvironments and because island areas and positions have changed substantially in historical time. The geomorphologic and subenvironmental maps emphasize the processes that formed the surficial features and also serve as a basis for documenting which subenvironments are relatively stable, such as the vegetated barrier core, and those which are highly dynamic, such as the beach and inactive overwash zones.

  1. Editorial : islands : objects of representation

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  2. Relationship between rainfall and temperature: observations on the cases of visceral leishmaniasis in São Luis Island, State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Maria de Castro Viana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem that requires global control strategies, especially with respect to factors that may intervene in reducing the incidence of endemicity. In this work, rainfall density and temperature were correlated with the incidence of human cases in an area endemic for leishmaniasis in São Luis do Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Notification of human cases by the National Health Foundation/Regional Coordination of Maranhão (FUNASA/COREMA from 2002 to 2010 was used. Ecological data (mean temperature and rainfall density were provided by the Meteorological Office of State. RESULTS: A significant association was verified between the number of VL cases and rainfall rate but not in the analysis concerning mean temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the control actions in visceral leishmaniasis should be performed during rainy season in the State of Maranhão, which is in the first half of the year.

  3. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  4. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  5. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Venous (Extremities) Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to ... limitations of Venous Ultrasound Imaging? What is Venous Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  6. Statistics of extremes

    CERN Document Server

    Gumbel, E J

    2012-01-01

    This classic text covers order statistics and their exceedances; exact distribution of extremes; the 1st asymptotic distribution; uses of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd asymptotes; more. 1958 edition. Includes 44 tables and 97 graphs.

  7. QCD matter in extreme environments

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We review various theoretical approaches to the states of QCD matter out of quarks and gluons in extreme environments such as the high-temperature states at zero and finite baryon density and the dimensionally reduced state under an intense magnetic field. The topics at high temperature include the Polyakov loop and the 't Hooft loop in the perturbative regime, the Polyakov loop behaviour and the phase transition in some of non-perturbative methods; the strong-coupling expansion, the large-Nc limit and the holographic QCD models. These analyses are extended to hot and dense matter with a finite baryon chemical potential. We point out that the difficulty in the finite-density problem has similarity to that under a strong magnetic field. We make a brief summary of results related to the topological contents probed by the magnetic field and the Chiral Magnetic Effect. We also address the close connection to the (1+1) dimensional system.

  8. Frequency-Feedback Based Islanding Detection Algorithm for Micro-Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongli; LI Shengwei; BAI Shibin; NIU Chongxuan

    2008-01-01

    The unintentional islanding of micro-grid may cause negative impacts on distribution loads and distributed generations, so it must be detected within the acceptable duration. In this paper a new islanding detection algorithm is proposed. This algorithm introduces the frequency feedback method by the reactive power compensation to derive the frequency continuous shift. Accordingly, the islanding can be detected by monitoring the frequency within 0.1 s. The simulationresults prove that this algorithm has extremely small non-detection zone, and meanwhile it presents an excellent islanding detection speed as well.

  9. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  10. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  11. Metagenomic islands of hyperhalophiles: the case of Salinibacter ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohwer Forest

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saturated brines are extreme environments of low diversity. Salinibacter ruber is the only bacterium that inhabits this environment in significant numbers. In order to establish the extent of genetic diversity in natural populations of this microbe, the genomic sequence of reference strain DSM 13855 was compared to metagenomic fragments recovered from climax saltern crystallizers and obtained with 454 sequencing technology. This kind of analysis reveals the presence of metagenomic islands, i.e. highly variable regions among the different lineages in the population. Results Three regions of the sequenced isolate were scarcely represented in the metagenome thus appearing to vary among co-occurring S. ruber cells. These metagenomic islands showed evidence of extensive genomic corruption with atypically low GC content, low coding density, high numbers of pseudogenes and short hypothetical proteins. A detailed analysis of island gene content showed that the genes in metagenomic island 1 code for cell surface polysaccharides. The strain-specific genes of metagenomic island 2 were found to be involved in biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharide components. Finally, metagenomic island 3 was rich in DNA related enzymes. Conclusion The genomic organisation of S. ruber variable genomic regions showed a number of convergences with genomic islands of marine microbes studied, being largely involved in variable cell surface traits. This variation at the level of cell envelopes in an environment devoid of grazing pressure probably reflects a global strategy of bacteria to escape phage predation.

  12. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  13. St. Vincent Island : A Prospective National Wildlife Refuge in Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A proposal is under consideration which could result in the acquisition by the United States of St. Vincent Island, a 12,000-acre tract of land in Franklin County,...

  14. 78 FR 52783 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ...: September 11, 2013, 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. (Eastern). Location: Partnership Office, 15 State Street, 8th... recommendations to the Boston Harbor Islands Partnership with respect to the implementation of a management...

  15. Bair Island Restoration and Management Plan: Existing Hydrologic Conditions Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay Wildlife Society is developing a Restoration and Management Plan for 3,200 acres of Federal and State lands on Bair Island, Redwood City,...

  16. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  17. Hunting Management Plan Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge clearly state that appropriate public uses, including hunting, should be encouraged and that...

  18. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  19. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations in Larus dominicanus. Case study: Marambaia island, Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.18344

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds play a significant role as bioindicators: they are conspicuous, relatively easy to observe, well-established studied group of organisms, and in the focus of public interest due to pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Systematically, a significant number of man-made chemicals have been introduced in the marine environment and represent the major problem arising in the development worldwide. Many of these chemical contaminants are persistent, known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify through the aquatic food web, affecting species associated with aquatic systems. Dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD, dibenzofurans (PCDF] and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB concentrations were measured in Kelp gull Larus dominicanus collected from 2006 to 2011 on Marambaia Island, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Detectable liver concentrations of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs were found in all samples analyzed. These represent some of the first measurements of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs in seabirds from this area. Although levels of these contaminants in the tested species currently appear to fall below critical values, a continuous and systematic monitoring on these compounds becomes essential and desirable to not express toxic values in the future.   

  20. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  1. Native Americans, regional drought and tree Island evolution in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses palynologic data to determine the effects of regional climate variability and human activity on the formation and development of tree islands during the last ~4000 years. Although prolonged periods of aridity have been invoked as one mechanism for their formation, Native American land use has also been hypothesized as a driver of tree island development. Using pollen assemblages from head and near tail sediments collected on two tree islands and documented archeological data, the relative roles of Native Americans, climate variability, and recent water-management practices in forming and structuring Everglades tree islands are examined. The timing of changes recorded in the pollen record indicates that tree islands developed from sawgrass marshes ~3800 cal. yr BP, prior to human occupation. Major tree island expansion, recorded near tail sediments, occurred ~1000 years after initial tree island formation. Comparison of the timing of pollen assemblages with other proxy records indicates that tree island expansion is related to regional and global aridity correlated with southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Local fire associated with droughts may also have influenced tree island expansion. This work suggests that Native American occupation did not significantly influence tree island formation and that the most important factors governing tree island expansion are extreme hydrologic events due to droughts and intense twentieth century water management.

  2. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  3. Mean Elevation of Continents and Survival of Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Continental mean elevation is controlled by tectonic uplift (including all solid earth processes and volcanic activities) and erosion, so is the mean thickness of continents. Assuming that a continent is large enough so that various tectonic processes can be averaged to behave similarly, the balance between uplift and erosion results in a steady state mean elevation that increases with the area of a continent (Zhang, 2005). The model fits the mean elevation of continents well, but many islands depart from the curve of mean elevation versus land area. Here I explore the elevation and survival of the islands. An island is small so that one cannot assume it would display average character in terms of tectonic processes. Oceanic islands are there largely because of recent volcanic activities leading to an uplift rate much higher than the average uplift rate. On the other hand, once such special conditions fade away, islands are eroded rapidly. Based on the modeling of Zhang (2005), the half-erosion time to erode an island is roughly proportional to the square root of the land area of the island. Hence, scaling from the half-erosion time of the largest continent (about 100 Myr, Harrison, 1994), the half-erosion time for islands once tectonic activity stops can be estimated. For example, the half-erosion time for Hawaii Island is estimated to be 1.3 Myr, roughly consistent with the rate of disappearing of older Hawaiian Islands. The half-erosion time is 0.16 Myr for the present-day Easter Island, and 10 Myr for Madagascar once uplift stops. In view of the short erosion time scale, the islands are present and survive because of special tectonics, such as volcanic activities, recent separation from continents, etc. References: C.G.A. Harrison (1994) Geol. Rundsch. 83, 431-447. Y. Zhang (2005) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237, 524-531.

  4. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  5. Atomically flat ultrathin cobalt ferrite islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, Laura; Quesada, Adrián; Munuera, Carmen; Fernández, Jose F; García-Hernández, Mar; Foerster, Michael; Aballe, Lucía; de la Figuera, Juan

    2015-10-21

    A route for fabricating structurally perfect cobalt ferrite magnetic nanostructures is demonstrated. Ultrathin islands of up to 100 μm(2) with atomically flat surfaces and free from antiphase boundaries are developed. The extremely low defect concentration leads to a robust magnetic order, even for thicknesses below 1 nm, and exceptionally large magnetic domains. This approach allows the evaluation of the influence of specific extrinsic effects on domain wall pinning. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  7. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  8. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  9. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  10. Thermodynamics of extremal rotating thin shells in an extremal BTZ spacetime and the extremal black hole entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2017-02-01

    In a (2 +1 )-dimensional spacetime with a negative cosmological constant, the thermodynamics and the entropy of an extremal rotating thin shell, i.e., an extremal rotating ring, are investigated. The outer and inner regions with respect to the shell are taken to be the Bañados-Teitelbom-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime and the vacuum ground state anti-de Sitter spacetime, respectively. By applying the first law of thermodynamics to the extremal thin shell, one shows that the entropy of the shell is an arbitrary well-behaved function of the gravitational area A+ alone, S =S (A+). When the thin shell approaches its own gravitational radius r+ and turns into an extremal rotating BTZ black hole, it is found that the entropy of the spacetime remains such a function of A+, both when the local temperature of the shell at the gravitational radius is zero and nonzero. It is thus vindicated by this analysis that extremal black holes, here extremal BTZ black holes, have different properties from the corresponding nonextremal black holes, which have a definite entropy, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S (A+)=A/+4G , where G is the gravitational constant. It is argued that for extremal black holes, in particular for extremal BTZ black holes, one should set 0 ≤S (A+)≤A/+4G;i.e., the extremal black hole entropy has values in between zero and the maximum Bekenstein-Hawking entropy A/+4 G . Thus, rather than having just two entropies for extremal black holes, as previous results have debated, namely, 0 and A/+4 G , it is shown here that extremal black holes, in particular extremal BTZ black holes, may have a continuous range of entropies, limited by precisely those two entropies. Surely, the entropy that a particular extremal black hole picks must depend on past processes, notably on how it was formed. A remarkable relation between the third law of thermodynamics and the impossibility for a massive body to reach the velocity of light is also found. In addition, in the procedure, it

  11. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  12. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  13. Wave forecasting and longshore sediment transport gradients along a transgressive barrier island: Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Schindler, Jennifer K.

    2009-12-01

    Louisiana barrier islands, such as the chain surrounding the southeast region of the state, are experiencing rapid loss of land area, shoreline erosion, and landward migration due to transgression and in-place drowning, and the landfall of several major hurricanes in the last decade. Observations of migration rates and overall impacts to these barrier islands are poorly understood since they do not respond in a traditional way, such as barrier rollover. This paper aims to verify how wave energy and potential longshore sediment transport trends have influenced the recent evolution of the Chandeleur Islands, by direct comparison with recent observations of migration and erosion trends. The Chandeleur Islands are characterized by a bidirectional transport system, with material moving from the central arc to the flanks. The longshore sediment transport along the barrier islands was calculated after propagation and transformation of waves to breaking (generated using observed winds), and through the use of a common longshore sediment transport formula. Seasonal variations in wind climate produced changes in the transport trends and gradients that agree with migration and rotation patterns observed for this barrier island system. Results suggest that wind dominance produces seasonal oscillations that cause an imbalance in the resulting transport gradients that over time are responsible for higher rates of transport in the northward direction. These results and data from other works verify the evolutionary model previously suggested, and qualitatively confirm the recent observations in asymmetric shoreline erosion.

  14. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  15. Barrier island habitat map and vegetation survey—Dauphin Island, Alabama, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Borchert, Sinéad M.; Day, Richard H.; Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hongqing

    2017-08-04

    Barrier islands are dynamic environments due to their position at the land-sea interface. Storms, waves, tides, currents, and relative sea-level rise are powerful forces that shape barrier island geomorphology and habitats (for example, beach, dune, marsh, and forest). Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deep Water Horizon oil spill in 2010 are two major events that have affected habitats and natural resources on Dauphin Island, Alabama. The latter event prompted a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the State of Alabama funded by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to investigate viable, sustainable restoration options that protect and restore the natural resources of Dauphin Island, Alabama.In order to understand the feasibility and sustainability of various restoration scenarios, it is important to understand current conditions on Dauphin Island. To further this understanding, a detailed 19-class habitat map for Dauphin Island was produced from 1-foot aerial infrared photography collected on December 4, 2015, and lidar data collected in January 2015. We also conducted a ground survey of habitat types, vegetation community structure, and elevations in November and December 2015. These products provide baseline data regarding the ecological and general geomorphological attributes of the area, which can be compared with observations from other dates for tracking changes over time.

  16. One Hundred Years of New York City's "Urban Heat Island": Temperature Trends and Public Health Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Goldberg, R.; Kinney, P. L.

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the historical development of New York City and its effect on the urban climate. Urban "heat islands" (UHI) are created principally by man-made surfaces, including concrete, dark roofs, asphalt lots and roads, which absorb most of the sunlight falling on them and reradiate that energy as heat. Many urban streets have fewer trees and other vegetation to shade buildings, block solar radiation and cool the air by evapotranspiration. The historical development of the NYC heat island effect was assessed in terms of average temperature differences of the city center relative to its surrounding 31-county metropolitan region, comprised of parts of New York State, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures for 1900-1997 were obtained from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, the NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University for 24 weather stations within the region that are part of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network. Analysis of annual mean temperatures shows an increasing difference between NYC (Central Park weather station) and its surrounding region over the twentieth century. Analysis of the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization show a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20\\deg C to 3.02\\deg C. A difference of at least 1\\deg C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. There was a significant decrease in the monthly and seasonal variability of the UHI effect over the century. Temperature extremes and summertime heat can create heat stress and other health

  17. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  18. Post-Hurricane Katrina coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, August 31, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On August 31, 2005, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,000 feet offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Katrina data, which can be used to assess incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  19. Winter 2016, Part B—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Assateague Island, Virginia, to Montauk Point, New York, March 8–9, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On March 8–9, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Assateague Island, Virginia, to Montauk Point, New York, aboard a Cessna 182 aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,200 feet offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  20. Winter 2016, Part A—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from the South Carolina/North Carolina Border to Assateague Island, Virginia, February 18–19, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L M

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On February 18–19, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, aboard a Cessna 182 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  1. Bruny on the Brink: Governance, Gentrification and Tourism on an Australian Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Jackson

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of islandness on development and governance of Bruny Island (offshore from Tasmania, Australia’s only island state. While traditional economic activities, particularly agriculture, are in decline, tourism is increasingly important to the island economy. While some 600 people live on the island all-year-round; there are some 2,000 ratepayers, including holiday home owners. This location is being rapidly ‘discovered’ by people drawn from interstate and overseas to the island lifestyle, and this is leading to a process of gentrification, with consequences for islanders. Bruny Island’s local governing authority is based on the Tasmanian mainland and hence is another source of externally-driven change. Amidst these pressures, island community visioning can be an important source of resilience.

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Hydrographic Geodatabase of the United States - Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains streams, waterbodies and wetlands, streamflow gaging stations, and coastlines for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The streams are...

  3. Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), Division of Lands and Natural Resources (DLNR) of the State of Hawaii Fish Stock Surveys from 41 sites on Oahu and Island of Hawaii from 1952-2000 (NODC Accession 0002754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks from 41 survey sites on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii, conducted by biologists and technicians of Hawaii's...

  4. State Conservation Lands; StaCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Approximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction. Includes:...

  5. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  6. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  7. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Joshua B [Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 0EZ (United Kingdom); Nawaz, Rizwan; Nawaz, Faiza [HydroRisk Ltd, Leeds University Union, Lifton Place, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fauzi, Rosmadi [Department of Geography, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Latif, Zulkiflee Abd [Department of Surveying Science and Geomatics, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Blackett, Matthew [Department of Geography, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: joshbfisher@gmail.com

    2008-04-15

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development-environment-culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  8. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  9. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable ext

  10. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tend to impact at arterial bifurcations, the commonest site being the ... Other ominous signs of advanced ischaemia include bluish ... Recommended standards for lower extremity ischaemia*. Doppler signals ... of the embolectomy procedure. An ... in a cath-lab or angio-suite under local ... We serially measure the aPTT and.

  11. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  12. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  13. de Sitter Extremal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, K

    2015-01-01

    We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

  14. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W

    2016-01-01

    and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  15. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  16. Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the mobility of arsenic in groundwater of a through-flow island in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, Natalie; Wolski, Piotr; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Murray-Hudson, Michael; Enriquez, Hersy; Damaraju, Sivaramakrishna; Galkaduwa, Madhubhashini B.; McKnight, Diane M.; Masamba, Wellington

    2014-10-01

    The Okavango Delta of Botswana is a large arid-zone wetland comprising 20,000 km2 of permanent and seasonal floodplains and over 100,000 islands. It has been shown that island groundwater can have very high dissolved arsenic (As) concentration, but the abiotic and biotic controls on As mobility are not well understood in this setting. At New Island, an island located in the seasonal swamp, dissolved As concentration increased from below detection limits in the surface water to 180 μg/L in groundwater, present as As(III) species. We investigated the relative importance of hydrologic, geochemical, and geomicrobial processes, as well as influences of recent extreme flooding events, in mobilizing and sequestering As in the shallow groundwater system under this island. Our results suggest that evapotranspiration and through-flow conditions control the location of the high arsenic zone. A combination of processes is hypothesized to control elevated As in the concentration zone of New Island: high evapotranspiration rates concentrate As and other solutes, more alkaline pH leads to desorption of arsenic or dissolution of arsenic sulfides, and formation of thioarsenic complexes acts to keep arsenic in solution. Evidence from X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) measurements further suggests that SRBs influence arsenic sequestration as orpiment (As2S3). Although dissolved organic matter (DOM) was not significantly correlated to dissolved As in the groundwater, our results suggest that DOM may serve as an electron donor for sulfate reduction or other microbial reactions that influence redox state and As mobility. These results have important implications for water management in the region and in other large wetland environments. The processes evaluated in this study are also relevant for arsenic removal in subsurface constructed wetland systems that may exhibit rapidly changing processes over small spatial scales.

  17. Managing migration: scaling sovereignty on islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M. Loyd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Island and maritime spaces between regions have become central places of recurrent crises over human migration and re-articulations of state sovereignty. Islands, the very sites where land meets water, are among the contested sites of struggle over entry and exclusion. In this paper, the Mediterranean is our main area of geographical inquiry. We explore the connections between crises of sovereignty, migration and islands, seeking to enhance connections between scholarship on migration and sovereignty. We argue that migration management and its geographical articulation on islands involve persistent reconfigurations of sovereignty, particularly evident during times of crisis over human migration. Such crises and re-articulations of sovereignty are creative uses of geography that repeatedly lead to a failure to protect human rights. To develop this argument, we bring feminist theorists of state sovereignty into conversation with political geographers. We move across scales of governance and political mobilization to show how a reconfiguration of sovereignty through regional and national management regimes leads to complex legal geographies and sovereign entanglements that migrants and advocates must navigate to claim rights.

  18. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  19. Takarajima: A Treasured Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the manner in which local identity can be constructed on small islands from the selective prioritisation and elaboration of exogenous elements that become localised by this process and can subsequently function as a brand within contemporary tourism markets. The particular analysis of identity motifs on Takarajima island that we expound examines aspects of the relationships between folklore and contemporary media and references contemporary debates concerning archaeology’s interface with folklore and popular culture in the context of (non-scientific ‘treasure hunting’.

  20. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...