WorldWideScience

Sample records for extreme fire danger

  1. Seasonal fire danger forecasts for the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Roads; F. Fujioka; S. Chen; R. Burgan

    2005-01-01

    The Scripps Experimental Climate Prediction Center has been making experimental, near-real-time, weekly to seasonal fire danger forecasts for the past 5 years. US fire danger forecasts and validations are based on standard indices from the National Fire Danger Rating System (DFDRS), which include the ignition component (IC), energy release component (ER), burning...

  2. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  3. The potential predictability of fire danger provided by ECMWF forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), is currently being developed in the framework of the Copernicus Emergency Management Services to monitor and forecast fire danger in Europe. The system provides timely information to civil protection authorities in 38 nations across Europe and mostly concentrates on flagging regions which might be at high danger of spontaneous ignition due to persistent drought. The daily predictions of fire danger conditions are based on the US Forest Service National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the Canadian forest service Fire Weather Index Rating System (FWI) and the Australian McArthur (MARK-5) rating systems. Weather forcings are provided in real time by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting system. The global system's potential predictability is assessed using re-analysis fields as weather forcings. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) provides 11 years of observed burned areas from satellite measurements and is used as a validation dataset. The fire indices implemented are good predictors to highlight dangerous conditions. High values are correlated with observed fire and low values correspond to non observed events. A more quantitative skill evaluation was performed using the Extremal Dependency Index which is a skill score specifically designed for rare events. It revealed that the three indices were more skilful on a global scale than the random forecast to detect large fires. The performance peaks in the boreal forests, in the Mediterranean, the Amazon rain-forests and southeast Asia. The skill-scores were then aggregated at country level to reveal which nations could potentiallty benefit from the system information in aid of decision making and fire control support. Overall we found that fire danger modelling based on weather forecasts, can provide reasonable predictability over large parts of the global landmass.

  4. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  5. NCEP-ECPC monthly to seasonal US fire danger forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Roads; P. Tripp; H. Juang; J. Wang; F. Fujioka; S. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Five National Fire Danger Rating System indices (including the Ignition Component, Energy Release Component, Burning Index, Spread Component, and the Keetch–Byram Drought Index) and the Fosberg Fire Weather Index are used to characterise US fire danger. These fire danger indices and input meteorological variables, including temperature, relative humidity, precipitation...

  6. Comparisons and Assessment of Forest Fire Danger Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xiao-rui; Douglas J Mcrae; Den Boychuk; Jin Ji-zhong; Gao Cheng-da; Shu Li-fu; Wang Ming-yu

    2005-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description about the current main forest fire danger rating systems in the world, which include forest fire danger rating system used in Canada, USA, Australia, and other countries. It shows the composition, structure and development of the main fire danger rating systems. The limitations of those systems are also discussed. Through a comparison of the three main forest fire danger rating systems the paper describes their differences on development, fuel complex descriptions, inputs and outputs, and their applications and finds that the technologies of the Canadian forest fire danger rating system can be adopted for China to develop a national forest fire danger rating system. Two steps are needed to develop our own national forest fire danger rating system. Firstly, we apply the CFFDRS directly. Then some studies should be done to calibrate the FDRS to local weather and fuel characteristics.

  7. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  8. USGS Fire Science: Fire Danger Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has advanced the use of moderate-resolution satellite data in a decision support system for assessing national fire potential. Weekly updated digital images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), based on data acquired at 1-kilometer (km) resolution (about 0.6 mi), have been used for the past 19 years as a means to assess live vegetation conditions for the purpose of rating fire danger. These images, produced and monitored through the growing season, portray the approximate time of greenup and senescence, as well as the relative amount and condition of growing plants.

  9. Impact of Climate Change on Fire Danger across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatzoglou, J. T.; Kolden, C.; Brown, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past three decades, the size and number of number of large wildfires have dramatically increased across the western United States. Large wildfires across much of the West preferentially occur during periods of extreme fire danger associated with critically low fuel moistures and limited relative humidity recovery. Anecdotal and analytical evidence suggests that fire danger and fire behavior have been unprecedented in recent years, therein contributing to the significant increase in wildland fire acres burned in recent years. Although fire danger, as a juxtaposition of climate and meteorological conditions, represents only a single determinant of wildfires, mounting evidence suggests that observed changes in climate have played a contributing role in increasing wildfire’s prevalence across the West and its subsequent effects on ecosystems and human infrastructure, Here, the impact of projected climate change on fire danger is examined across the western U.S. Projected changes in fire danger are assessed through a multimodel approach that uses downscaled daily meteorological fields. For a middle of the road climate change scenario results suggests an advance in the onset of fire season and an increase in the frequency of extreme fire danger conditions, with strong intermodel confidence across much of the desert southwest and intermountain western U.S. In addition, the alignment of climate change with low-frequency climate variability is projected to increase the likelihood of seasons that incur prolonged widespread fire danger. Such chronic and west-wide synchronous heightened wildfire potential is likely to tax fire suppression resources and reduce their efficacy, therein resulting in increased large catastrophic wildfires. Given the high degree of confidence regarding projected changes in fire danger and the increasing potential for anthropogenic ignitions, proactive efforts to mitigate the negative impacts of large wildfires are needed by land

  10. Fire danger and fire behavior modeling systems in Australia, Europe, and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis M. Fujioka; A. Malcolm Gill; Domingos X. Viegas; B. Mike Wotton

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire occurrence and behavior are complex phenomena involving essentially fuel (vegetation), topography, and weather. Fire managers around the world use a variety of systems to track and predict fire danger and fire behavior, at spatial scales that span from local to global extents, and temporal scales ranging from minutes to seasons. The fire management...

  11. Burns Interagency Fire Zone : Fire Danger Operating and Preparedness Plan 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fire Danger Operating and Preparedness Plan for the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. This plan provides a method to calculate the preparedness and dispatch...

  12. How to generate and interpret fire characteristics charts for the U.S. fire danger rating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Patricia L. Andrews; Deb Tirmenstein

    2017-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components as well as primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. Computer software has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts for both fire danger and fire behavior in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and...

  13. The impact of climate change on forest fire danger rating in China's boreal forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guang; DI Xue-ying; GUO Qing-xi; SHU Zhan; ZENG Tao; YU Hong-zhou; WANG Chao

    2011-01-01

    The Great Xing'an Mountains boreal forests were focused on in the northeastern China.The simulated future climate scenarios of IPCC SRES A2a and B2a for both the baseline period of 1961-1990 and the future scenario periods were downscaled by the Delta Method and the Weather Generator to produce daily weather data.After the verification with local weather and fire data, the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System was used to assess the forest fire weather situation under climate change in the study region.An increasing trend of fire weather severity was found over the 21st century in the study region under the both future climate change scenarios, compared to the 1961-1990 baseline period.The annual mean/maximum fire weather index was predicted to rise continuously during 2010-2099, and by the end of the 21st century it is predicted to rise by 22%-52% across much of China's boreal forest.The significant increases were predicted in the spring from of April to June and in the summer from July to August.In the summer, the fire weather index was predicted to be higher than the current index by as much as 148% by the end of the 21st century.Under the scenarios of SRES A2a and B2a, both the chance of extremely high fire danger occurrence and the number of days of extremely high fire danger occurrence was predieted to increase in the study region.It is anticipated that the number of extremely high fire danger days would increase from 44 days in 1980s to 53-75 days by the end of the 21st century.

  14. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  15. 33 CFR 334.350 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Va.; firing range danger zone. 334.350 Section 334.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.350 Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone. (a) The danger zone. All of...

  16. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available fighting preparedness and in logistic planning of fire fighting resources [2, 3]. Different indices are being used for specific areas while some FDIs, e.g. the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), are now being applied globally in the Global Wildfire...," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 234, pp. S10-S10, 2006. [2] A. P. Dimitrakopoulos, et al., "Evaluation of the Canadian fire weather index system in an eastern Mediterranean environment," Meteorological Applications, vol. 18, pp. 83-93, 2011. [3...

  17. Modeling human-caused forest fire ignition for assessing forest fire danger in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires have not been considered as a significant threat for mountain forests of the European Alpine Space so far. Climate change and its effects on nature, ecology, forest stand structure and composition, global changes according to demands of society and general trends in the provision of ecosystem services are potentially going to have a significant effect on fire ignition in the future. This makes the prediction of forest fire ignition essential for forest managers in order to establish an effective fire prevention system and to allocate fire fighting resources effectively, especially in alpine landscapes. This paper presents a modelling approach for predicting human-caused forest fire ignition by a range of socio-economic factors associated with an increasing forest fire danger in Austria. The relationship between touristic activities, infrastructure, agriculture and forestry and the spatial occurrence of forest fires have been studied over a 17-year period between 1993 and 2009 by means of logistic regression. 59 independent socio-economic variables have been analysed with different models and validated with heterogeneous subsets of forest fire records. The variables included in the final model indicate that railroad, forest road and hiking trail density together with agricultural and forestry developments may contribute significantly to fire danger. The final model explains 60.5% of the causes of the fire events in the validation set and allows a solid prediction. Maps showing the fire danger classification allow identifying the most vulnerable forest areas in Austria and are used to predict the fire danger classes on municipality level.

  18. Wildland fire probabilities estimated from weather model-deduced monthly mean fire danger indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Shyh-Chin Chen; Francis Fujioka; John W. Benoit; Anthony L. Westerling

    2008-01-01

    The National Fire Danger Rating System indices deduced from a regional simulation weather model were used to estimate probabilities and numbers of large fire events on monthly and 1-degree grid scales. The weather model simulations and forecasts are ongoing experimental products from the Experimental Climate Prediction Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography...

  19. Active fire monitoring and fire danger potential detection from space: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John J. QU; Wanting WANG; Swarvanu DASGUPTA; Xianjun HAO

    2008-01-01

    Wildland fire is both one of the major natural hazards and a natural process for ecosystem persistence. Accurate assessment of fire danger potential and timely detection of active fires are critical for fire fighting and fuel management. Space-borne measurements have become the primary approaches for these efforts. Many research works have been conducted and some data pro-ducts have been generated for practical applications. This paper presents a review of the major sensors and algo-rithms for active fire monitoring and fire danger potential detection from space. Major sensors and their character-istics, physical principles of the major algorithms are sum-marized. Limitations of these algorithms and future improvements are also discussed.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Kücük

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1 creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2 evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Bülent; Bilgili, Ertuğrul; Durmaz, Bahar Dinç; Kadıoğulları, Ali İhsan; Küçük, Ömer

    2008-01-01

    Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%. PMID:27879918

  2. Focused sunlight factor of forest fire danger assessment using Web-GIS and RS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Sherstnyov, Vladislav S.; Yankovich, Elena P.; Engel, Marina V.; Belov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-01

    Timiryazevskiy forestry of Tomsk region (Siberia, Russia) is a study area elaborated in current research. Forest fire danger assessment is based on unique technology using probabilistic criterion, statistical data on forest fires, meteorological conditions, forest sites classification and remote sensing data. MODIS products are used for estimating some meteorological conditions and current forest fire situation. Geonformation technologies are used for geospatial analysis of forest fire danger situation on controlled forested territories. GIS-engine provides opportunities to construct electronic maps with different levels of forest fire probability and support raster layer for satellite remote sensing data on current forest fires. Web-interface is used for data loading on specific web-site and for forest fire danger data representation via World Wide Web. Special web-forms provide interface for choosing of relevant input data in order to process the forest fire danger data and assess the forest fire probability.

  3. United States Geological Survey fire science: fire danger monitoring and forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeff C.; Howard, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Each day, the U.S. Geological Survey produces 7-day forecasts for all Federal lands of the distributions of number of ignitions, number of fires above a given size, and conditional probabilities of fires growing larger than a specified size. The large fire probability map is an estimate of the likelihood that ignitions will become large fires. The large fire forecast map is a probability estimate of the number of fires on federal lands exceeding 100 acres in the forthcoming week. The ignition forecast map is a probability estimate of the number of fires on Federal land greater than 1 acre in the forthcoming week. The extreme event forecast is the probability estimate of the number of fires on Federal land that may exceed 5,000 acres in the forthcoming week.

  4. Anticipating the severity of the fire season in Northern Portugal using statistical models based on meteorological indices of fire danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sílvia A.; DaCamara, Carlos C.; Turkman, Kamil F.; Ermida, Sofia L.; Calado, Teresa J.

    2017-04-01

    Like in other regions of Mediterranean Europe, climate and weather are major drivers of fire activity in Portugal. The aim of the present study is to assess the role played by meteorological factors on inter-annual variability of burned area over a region of Portugal characterized by large fire activity. Monthly cumulated values of burned area in August are obtained from the fire database of ICNF, the Portuguese authority for forests. The role of meteorological factors is characterized by means of Daily Severity Rating, DSR, an index of meteorological fire danger, which is derived from meteorological fields as obtained from ECMWF Interim Reanalysis. The study area is characterized by the predominance of forest, with high percentages of maritime pine and eucalyptus, two species with high flammability in summer. The time series of recorded burned area in August during 1980-2011 is highly correlated (correlation coefficient of 0.93) with the one for whole Portugal. First, a normal distribution model is fitted to the 32-year sample of decimal logarithms of monthly burned area. The model is improved by introducing two covariates:(1) the top-down meteorological factor (DSRtd) which consists of daily cumulated values of DSR since April 1 to July 31 and may be viewed as the cumulated stress on vegetation due to meteorological conditions during the pre-fire season; (2) the bottom-up factor (DSRbu) which consists of the square root of the mean of the squared daily deviations (restricted to days with positive departures of DSR from the corresponding long term mean) and may be viewed as the contribution of days characterized by extreme weather conditions favoring the onset and spreading of wildfires. Three different statistical models are then developed: the "climate anomaly" model, using DSRtd as covariate, the "weather anomaly", using DSRbu as covariate, and the "combined" model using both variables as covariates. These models are used to define background fire danger, fire

  5. Developing a probabilistic fire risk model and its application to fire danger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, T.; Bradstock, R.; Caccamo, G.; Price, O.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires can result in significant economic losses where they encounter human assets. Management agencies have large budgets devoted to both prevention and suppression of fires, but little is known about the extent to which they alter the probability of asset loss. Prediction of the risk of asset loss as a result of wildfire requires an understanding of a number of complex processes from ignition, fire growth and impact on assets. These processes need to account for the additive or multiplicative effects of management, weather and the natural environment. Traditional analytical methods can only examine only a small subset of these. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) provide a methodology to examine complex environmental problems. Outcomes of a BBN are represented as likelihoods, which can then form the basis for risk analysis and management. Here we combine a range of data sources, including simulation models, empirical statistical analyses and expert opinion to form a fire management BBN. Various management actions have been incorporated into the model including landscape and interface prescribed burning, initial attack and fire suppression. Performance of the model has been tested against fire history datasets with strong correlations being found. Adapting the BBN presented here we are capable of developing a spatial and temporal fire danger rating system. Currently Australian fire danger rating systems are based on the weather. Our model accounts for existing fires, as well as the risk of new ignitions combined with probabilistic weather forecasts to identify those areas which are most at risk of asset loss. Fire growth is modelled with consideration given to management prevention efforts, as well as suppression resources that are available in each geographic locality. At a 10km resolution the model will provide a probability of asset loss which represents a significant step forward in the level of information that can be provided to the general public.

  6. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts

  7. Operational perspective of remote sensing-based forest fire danger forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ehsan H.; Hassan, Quazi K.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fire is a natural phenomenon in many ecosystems across the world. One of the most important components of forest fire management is the forecasting of fire danger conditions. Here, our aim was to critically analyse the following issues, (i) current operational forest fire danger forecasting systems and their limitations; (ii) remote sensing-based fire danger monitoring systems and usefulness in operational perspective; (iii) remote sensing-based fire danger forecasting systems and their functional implications; and (iv) synergy between operational forecasting systems and remote sensing-based methods. In general, the operational systems use point-based measurements of meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitations, cloudiness, solar radiation, etc.) and generate danger maps upon employing interpolation techniques. Theoretically, it is possible to overcome the uncertainty associated with the interpolation techniques by using remote sensing data. During the last several decades, efforts were given to develop fire danger condition systems, which could be broadly classified into two major groups: fire danger monitoring and forecasting systems. Most of the monitoring systems focused on determining the danger during and/or after the period of image acquisition. A limited number of studies were conducted to forecast fire danger conditions, which could be adaptable. Synergy between the operational systems and remote sensing-based methods were investigated in the past but too much complex in nature. Thus, the elaborated understanding about these developments would be worthwhile to advance research in the area of fire danger in the context of making them operational.

  8. Calibration and evaluation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System for improved wildland fire danger rating in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mark C.; Wooster, Martin J.; Kitchen, Karl; Manley, Cathy; Gazzard, Rob; McCall, Frank F.

    2016-05-01

    Wildfires in the United Kingdom (UK) pose a threat to people, infrastructure and the natural environment. During periods of particularly fire-prone weather, wildfires can occur simultaneously across large areas, placing considerable stress upon the resources of fire and rescue services. Fire danger rating systems (FDRSs) attempt to anticipate periods of heightened fire risk, primarily for early-warning and preparedness purposes. The UK FDRS, termed the Met Office Fire Severity Index (MOFSI), is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) component of the Canadian Forest FWI System. The MOFSI currently provides daily operational mapping of landscape fire danger across England and Wales using a simple thresholding of the final FWI component of the Canadian FWI System. However, it is known that the system has scope for improvement. Here we explore a climatology of the six FWI System components across the UK (i.e. extending to Scotland and Northern Ireland), calculated from daily 2km × 2km gridded numerical weather prediction data and supplemented by long-term meteorological station observations. We used this climatology to develop a percentile-based calibration of the FWI System, optimised for UK conditions. We find this approach to be well justified, as the values of the "raw" uncalibrated FWI components corresponding to a very "extreme" (99th percentile) fire danger situation vary by more than an order of magnitude across the country. Therefore, a simple thresholding of the uncalibrated component values (as is currently applied in the MOFSI) may incur large errors of omission and commission with respect to the identification of periods of significantly elevated fire danger. We evaluate our approach to enhancing UK fire danger rating using records of wildfire occurrence and find that the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), Initial Spread Index (ISI) and FWI components of the FWI System generally have the greatest predictive skill for landscape fire activity across Great

  9. Calibration and evaluation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI System for improved wildland fire danger rating in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. De Jong

    2015-11-01

    can periodically place considerable stress upon the resources of Fire and Rescue Services. "Fire danger" rating systems (FDRS attempt to anticipate periods of heightened fire risk, primarily for early-warning purposes. The UK FDRS, termed the Met Office Fire Severity Index (MOFSI is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI component of the Canadian Forest FWI System. MOFSI currently provides operational mapping of landscape fire danger across England and Wales using a simple thresholding of the final FWI component of the Canadian System. Here we explore a climatology of the full set of FWI System components across the entire UK (i.e. extending to Scotland and Northern Ireland, calculated from daily 2 km gridded numerical weather prediction data, supplemented by meteorological station observations. We used this to develop a percentile-based calibration of the FWI System optimised for UK conditions. We find the calibration to be well justified, since for example the values of the "raw" uncalibrated FWI components corresponding to a very "extreme" (99th percentile fire danger situation can vary by up to an order of magnitude across UK regions. Therefore, simple thresholding of the uncalibrated component values (as is currently applied may be prone to large errors of omission and commission with respect to identifying periods of significantly elevated fire danger compared to "routine" variability. We evaluate our calibrated approach to UK fire danger rating against records of wildfire occurrence, and find that the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC, Initial Spread Index (ISI and final FWI component of the FWI system generally have the greatest predictive skill for landscape fires in Great Britain, with performance varying seasonally and by land cover type. At the height of the most recent severe wildfire period in the UK (2 May 2011, 50 % of all wildfires occurred in areas where the FWI component exceeded the 99th percentile, and for each of the ten most serious wildfire events

  10. Assessing the value of increased model resolution in forecasting fire danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne Hoadley; Miriam Rorig; Ken Westrick; Larry Bradshaw; Sue Ferguson; Scott Goodrick; Paul Werth

    2003-01-01

    The fire season of 2000 was used as a case study to assess the value of increasing mesoscale model resolution for fire weather and fire danger forecasting. With a domain centered on Western Montana and Northern Idaho, MM5 simulations were run at 36, 12, and 4-km resolutions for a 30 day period at the height of the fire season. Verification analyses for meteorological...

  11. STUDY ON FOREST FIRE DANGER MODEL WITHREMOTE SENSING BASED ON GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Forest fire is one of the main natural hazards because of its fierce destructiveness. Various researches on fire real-time monitoring, behavior simulation and loss assessment have been carried out in many countries. As fire prevention is probably the most efficient means for protecting forests, suitable methods should be developed for estimating the fire danger. Fire danger is composed of ecological, human and climatic factors. Therefore, the systematic analysis of the factors including forest characteristics, meteorological status, topographic condition causing forest fire is made in this paper at first. The relationships between biophysical factors and fire danger are paid more attention to. Then the parameters derived from remote sensing data are used to estimate the fire danger variables, According to the analysis, not only PVI (Perpendicular Vegetation Index) can classify different vegetation but also crown density is captured with PVI. Vegetation moisture content has high correlation with the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (LE) to potential ecapotranspiration (LEp). SI (Structural Index), which is the combination of TM band 4 and 5 data, is a good indicator of forest age. Finally, a fire dsnger prediction model, in which relative importance of each fire factor is taken into account, is built based on GIS.

  12. Long-term temporal changes in the occurrence of a high forest fire danger in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mäkelä

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate variation and change influence several ecosystem components including forest fires. To examine long-term temporal variations of forest fire danger, a fire danger day (FDD model was developed. Using mean temperature and total precipitation of the Finnish wildfire season (June–August, the model describes the climatological preconditions of fire occurrence and gives the number of fire danger days during the same time period. The performance of the model varied between different regions in Finland being best in south and west. In the study period 1908–2011, the year-to-year variation of FDD was large and no significant increasing or decreasing tendencies could be found. Negative slopes of linear regression lines for FDD could be explained by the simultaneous, mostly not significant increases in precipitation. Years with the largest wildfires did not stand out from the FDD time series. This indicates that intra-seasonal variations of FDD enable occurrence of large-scale fires, despite the whole season's fire danger is on an average level. Based on available monthly climate data, it is possible to estimate the general fire conditions of a summer. However, more detailed input data about weather conditions, land use, prevailing forestry conventions and socio-economical factors would be needed to gain more specific information about a season's fire risk.

  13. Web-GIS platform for forest fire danger prediction in Ukraine: prospects of RS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, N. V.; Zharikova, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    There are many different statistical and empirical methods of forest fire danger use at present time. All systems have not physical basis. Last decade deterministic-probabilistic method is rapidly developed in Tomsk Polytechnic University. Forest sites classification is one way to estimate forest fire danger. We used this method in present work. Forest fire danger estimation depends on forest vegetation condition, forest fire retrospective, precipitation and air temperature. In fact, we use modified Nesterov Criterion. Lightning activity is under consideration as a high temperature source in present work. We use Web-GIS platform for program realization of this method. The program realization of the fire danger assessment system is the Web-oriented geoinformation system developed by the Django platform in the programming language Python. The GeoDjango framework was used for realization of cartographic functions. We suggest using of Terra/Aqua MODIS products for hot spot monitoring. Typical territory for forest fire danger estimation is Proletarskoe forestry of Kherson region (Ukraine).

  14. A new website with real-time dissemination of information on fire activity and meteorological fire danger in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCamara, Carlos; Trigo, Ricardo; Nunes, Sílvia; Pinto, Miguel; Oliveira, Tiago; Almeida, Rui

    2017-04-01

    In Portugal, like in Mediterranean Europe, fire activity is a natural phenomenon linking climate, humans and vegetation and is therefore conditioned by natural and anthropogenic factors. Natural factors include topography, vegetation cover and prevailing weather conditions whereas anthropogenic factors encompass land management practices and fire prevention policies. Land management practices, in particular the inadequate use of fire, is a crucial anthropogenic factor that accounts for about 90% of fire ignitions. Fire prevention policies require adequate and timely information about wildfire potential assessment, which is usually based on fire danger rating systems that provide indices to be used on an operational and tactical basis in decision support systems. We present a new website designed to provide the user community with relevant real-time information on fire activity and meteorological fire danger that will allow adopting the adequate measures to mitigate fire damage. The fire danger product consists of forecasts of fire danger over Portugal based on a statistical procedure that combines information about fire history derived from the Fire Radiative Power product disseminated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF) with daily meteorological forecasts provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The aim of the website is fourfold; 1) to concentrate all information available (databases and maps) relevant to fire management in a unique platform so that access by end users becomes easier, faster and friendlier; 2) to supervise the access of users to the different products available; 3) to control and assist the access to the platform and obtain feedbacks from users for further improvements; 4) to outreach the operational community and foster the use of better information that increase efficiency in risk management. The website is sponsored by The Navigator Company, a leading force in the global pulp

  15. Joint processing of RS and WWLLN data for forest fire danger estimation: new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Krechetova, Svetlana Yu.; Belikova, Marina Yu.; Kocheeva, Nina A.; Yankovich, Elena P.

    2016-10-01

    The present article describes a new concept of lightning-caused forest fire danger using a probabilistic criterion. The assessment of forest fire danger is made on the basis of the algorithm that classifies the forest territory by vegetation conditions. Lightning activity is processed by the MODIS spectroradiometer according to the World Wide Lightning Location Network data and remote sensing data for the Timiryazevskiy forestry in the Tomsk Region. The cluster analysis of the WWLLN and MOD06_L2 product data are used in the present paper.

  16. Modeling Fire Danger in Galicia and Asturias (Spain from MODIS Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Bisquert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are one of the most dangerous natural hazards, especially when they are recurrent. In areas such as Galicia (Spain, forest fires are frequent and devastating. The development of fire risk models becomes a very important prevention task for these regions. Vegetation and moisture indices can be used to monitor vegetation status; however, the different indices may perform differently depending on the vegetation species. Eight different spectral indices were selected to determine the most appropriate index in Galicia. This study was extended to the adjacent region of Asturias. Six years of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer images, together with ground fire data in a 10 × 10 km grid basis were used. The percentage of fire events met the variations suffered by some of the spectral indices, following a linear regression in both Galicia and Asturias. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI was the index leading to the best results. Based on these results, a simple fire danger model was established, using logistic regression, by combining the EVI variation with other variables, such as fire history in each cell and period of the year. A seventy percent overall concordance was obtained between estimated and observed fire frequency.

  17. Future impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-rui; SHU Li-fu; ZHAO Feng-jun; WANG Ming-yu; Douglas J. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming has a rapid and far-reaching impact on forest fire management in the boreal forests of China. Regional climate model outputs and the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) Sys- tern were used to analyze changes to fire danger and the fire season for future periods under IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2, and the data will guide future fire management planning. We used regional climate in China (1961-1990) as our validation data, and the period (1991-2100) was modeled under SRES A2 and B2 through the weather simulated by the regional climate model system (PRECIS). Meteorological data and fire danger were interpolated to 1 km by using ANUSPLIN software. The average FWI value for future spring fire sea-sons under Scenarios A2 and B2 shows an increase over most of the region. Compared with the baseline, FWI averages of spring fire season will increase by -0.40, 0.26 and 1.32 under Scenario A2, and increase by 0.60, 1.54 and 2.56 under Scenario B2 in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, re-spectively. FWI averages of autumn fire season also show an increase over most of the region. FWI values increase more for Scenario B2 than for Scenario A2 in the same periods, particularly during the 2050s and 2080s. Average future FWI values will increase under both scenarios for autumn fire season. The potential burned areas are expected to increase by 10% and 18% in spring for 2080s under Scenario A2 and B2, respec- tively. Fire season will be prolonged by 21 and 26 days under Scenarios A2 and B2 in 2080s respectively.

  18. Predicting the formation and the dispersion of toxic combustion products from the fires of dangerous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevrlý, V.; Bitala, P.; Danihelka, P.; Dobeš, P.; Dlabka, J.; Hejzlar, T.; Baudišová, B.; Míček, D.; Zelinger, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Natural events, such as wildfires, lightning or earthquakes represent a frequent trigger of industrial fires involving dangerous substances. Dispersion of smoke plume from such fires and the effects of toxic combustion products are one of the reference scenarios expected in the framework of major accident prevention. Nowadays, tools for impact assessment of these events are rather missing. Detailed knowledge of burning material composition, atmospheric conditions, and other factors are required in order to describe quantitatively the source term of toxic fire products and to evaluate the parameters of smoke plume. Nevertheless, an assessment of toxic emissions from large scale fires involves a high degree of uncertainty, because of the complex character of physical and chemical processes in the harsh environment of uncontrolled flame. Among the others, soot particle formation can be mentioned as still being one of the unresolved problems in combustion chemistry, as well as decomposition pathways of chemical substances. Therefore, simplified approach for estimating the emission factors from outdoor fires of dangerous chemicals, utilizable for major accident prevention and preparedness, was developed and the case study illustrating the application of the proposed method was performed. ALOFT-FT software tool based on large eddy simulation of buoyant fire plumes was employed for predicting the local toxic contamination in the down-wind vicinity of the fire. The database of model input parameters can be effectively modified enabling the simulation of the smoke plume from pool fires or jet fires of arbitrary flammable (or combustible) gas, liquid or solid. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic via the project LD11012 (in the frame of the COST CM0901 Action) and the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (project no. SPII 1a10 45/70).

  19. Seasonal Forecasts of Extreme Conditions for Wildland Fire Management in Alaska using NMME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Bieniek, P.; Thoman, R.; York, A.; Ziel, R.

    2016-12-01

    The summer of 2015 was the second largest Alaska fire season since 1950 where approximately the land area of Massachusetts burned. The record fire year of 2004 resulted in 6.5 million acres burned and was costly from property loss (> 35M) and emergency personnel (> 17M). In addition to requiring significant resources, wildfire smoke impacts air quality in Alaska and downstream into North America. Fires in Alaska result from lightning strikes coupled with persistent (extreme) dry warm conditions in remote areas with limited fire management and the seasonal climate/weather determine the extent of the fire season in Alaska. Fire managers rely on weather/climate outlooks for allocating staff and resources from days to a season in advance. Though currently few tested products are available at the seasonal scale. Probabilistic forecasts of the expected seasonal climate/weather would aid tremendously in the planning process. Advanced knowledge of both lightning and fuel conditions would assist managers in planning resource allocation for the upcoming season. For fuel conditions, the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS) has been used since 1992 because it better suits the Alaska fire regime than the standard US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). This CFFWIS is based on early afternoon values of 2-m air temperature, relative humidity, and 10-m winds and daily total precipitation. Extremes of these indices and the variables are used to calculate these indices will be defined in reference to fire weather for the boreal forest. The CFFWIS will be applied and evaluated for the NMME hindcasts. This study will evaluate the quality of the forecasts comparing the hindcast NMME CFFWIS to acres burned in Alaska. Spatial synoptic patterns in the NMME related to fire weather extremes will be constructed using self-organized maps and probabilities of occurrence will be evaluated against acres burned.

  20. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.

    2012-04-01

    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other

  1. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  2. Synthesis of knowledge of extreme fire behavior: volume 2 for fire behavior specialists, researchers, and meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Werth; Brian E. Potter; Martin E. Alexander; Craig B. Clements; Miguel G. Cruz; Mark A. Finney; Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick; Chad Hoffman; W. Matt Jolly; Sara S. McAllister; Roger D. Ottmar; Russell A. Parsons

    2016-01-01

    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group’s definition of extreme fire behavior indicates a level of fire behavior characteristics that ordinarily precludes methods of direct control action. One or more of the following is usually involved: high rate of spread, prolific crowning/ spotting, presence of fire whirls, and strong convection column. Predictability is...

  3. Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center

  4. Consideration of Task Performance for Robots Engaged in Extremely Dangerous Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Mo; Han, Kee Soo; Yi, Sung Deok; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, it is started to pay more attention to operation and accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For domestic nuclear industry, it was recommended to establish corresponding strategies against accidents due to extremely dangerous natural disasters. Each nuclear power plant is also preparing to establish strategies to secure nuclear safety functions by estimating the counterplans for extreme accidents. Robots are particularly being used to access the areas where those are dangerous for human beings to access or to restore the accident. Robot technologies in NPPs are emerging cutting-edge technologies that are just a start except the developed countries like USA, Japan, etc. But they are carefully considered because they have the advantages of performing tasks in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs instead of human beings. In this study, the applicability of robots will be considered in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs. Accurate judgment of the inside situation of the plant and quick actions in the extreme condition like earthquake accompanied by loss of all AC powers should be considered as major function in terms of prevention of accident spread. According to the reported stress test results of domestic NPPs, the difficult things for operators to carry out in extreme conditions can be predictable, therefore the active use of robots as accident mitigation strategies will be helpful to reduce the unnecessary spending for facility improvement. Current trend of domestic and foreign robot technology development focuses on the information search of the inside of the plant and development of preventive maintenance of NPPs. As seen actually in Fukushima Daiichi, main roles of robots place emphasis on measuring the inside radiation level accessing to the area where operator cannot access and delivering information which can support operator's decision-making and actions. Therefore, it is considered that development of

  5. Social and Biophysical Predictors of Public Perceptions of Extreme Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. E.; Kooistra, C. M.; Paveglio, T.; Gress, S.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    To date, what constitutes an 'extreme' fire has been approached separately by biophysical and social scientists. Research on the biophysical characteristics of fires has identified potential dimensions of extremity, including fire size and vegetation mortality. On the social side, factors such as the degree of immediate impact to one's life and property or the extent of social disruption in the community contribute to a perception of extremity. However, some biophysical characteristics may also contribute to perceptions of extremity, including number of simultaneous ignitions, rapidity of fire spread, atypical fire behavior, and intensity of smoke. Perceptions of these impacts can vary within and across communities, but no studies to date have investigated such perceptions in a comprehensive way. In this study, we address the question, to what extent is the magnitude of impact of fires on WUI residents' well-being explained by measurable biophysical characteristics of the fire and subjective evaluations of the personal and community-level impacts of the fire? We bring together diverse strands of psychological theory, including landscape perception, mental models, risk perception, and community studies. The majority of social science research on fires has been in the form of qualitative case studies, and our study is methodologically unique by using a nested design (hierarchical modeling) to enable generalizable conclusions across a wide range of fires and human communities. We identified fires that burned in 2011 or 2012 in the northern Rocky Mountain region that were at least 1,000 acres and that intersected (within 15 km) urban clusters or identified Census places. For fires where an adequately large number of households was located in proximity to the fire, we drew random samples of approximately 150 individuals for each fire. We used a hybrid internet (Qualtrics) and mail survey, following the Dillman method, to measure individual perceptions. We developed two

  6. Statistical modelling of forest fire danger rating based on meteorological, topographical and fuel factors in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, M.; Yoon, S.; Jang, K.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Most of fires were human-caused fires in Korea, but meteorological factors are also big contributors to fire behavior and its spread. Thus, meteorological factors as well as social factors were considered in the fire danger rating systems. This study aims to develop an advanced Korean Forest Fire Danger Rating System (KFFDRS) using weather data of automatic mountain meteorology observation systems(AMOSs) to support forest fire prevention strategy in South Korea. The KFFDRS consists of three, 10-scale indices: daily weather index (DWI), fuel model index (FMI), and topography model index (TMI). DWI represents the meteorological characteristics, such as humidity (relative and effective), temperature and wind speed, and we integrated nine logistic regression models of the past into one national model. One integrated national model is [1+exp{2.706+(0.088×maximum temperature)-(0.055×relative humidity)-(0.023×effective humidity)-(0.104×mean wind speed)}-1]-1 and all weather variables significantly (pfusion of mountain weather data with 55 random sampling in forest fire event days. One integrated national model showed 10% high accuracy than nine logistic regression models when it is applied fused mountain weather data. These findings would be necessary for the policy makers in the Republic of Korea for the prevention of forest fires.

  7. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body.

  8. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shive, Kristen L.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Kane, Van R.; Smith, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western U.S. Given this increase there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation and water balance on fire severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. Proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high fire severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience.

  9. Forest fire danger index based on modifying Nesterov Index, fuel, and anthropogenic activities using MODIS TERRA, AQUA and TRMM satellite datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, K. V.; Roy, Arijit; Ramachandra Prasad, P.

    2016-05-01

    Forest fire has been regarded as one of the major causes of degradation of Himalayan forests in Uttarakhand. Forest fires occur annually in more than 50% of forests in Uttarakhand state, mostly due to anthropogenic activities and spreads due to moisture conditions and type of forest fuels. Empirical drought indices such as Keetch-Byram drought index, the Nesterov index, Modified Nesterov index, the Zhdanko index which belongs to the cumulative type and the Angstrom Index which belongs to the daily type have been used throughout the world to assess the potential fire danger. In this study, the forest fire danger index has been developed from slightly modified Nesterov index, fuel and anthropogenic activities. Datasets such as MODIS TERRA Land Surface Temperature and emissivity (MOD11A1), MODIS AQUA Atmospheric profile product (MYD07) have been used to determine the dew point temperature and land surface temperature. Precipitation coefficient has been computed from Tropical Rainfall measuring Mission (TRMM) product (3B42RT). Nesterov index has been slightly modified according to the Indian context and computed using land surface temperature, dew point temperature and precipitation coefficient. Fuel type danger index has been derived from forest type map of ISRO based on historical fire location information and disturbance danger index has been derived from disturbance map of ISRO. Finally, forest fire danger index has been developed from the above mentioned indices and MODIS Thermal anomaly product (MOD14) has been used for validating the forest fire danger index.

  10. Remote Sensing and GIS Based Risk Index Map For Predicting Forest Fire Danger - Evaluation From Forestry Datasets, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V. K.; Badarinath, K. V. S.

    Forest fires constitute one of the most serious ecological as well as environmental problems affecting most vegetation zones across the world, including India. In this study, we evaluated forest fire risk for sixteen different forest and vegetation types of India. Data from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NOAA AVHRR data has been integrated with bioclimatic data and fuel value index to quantify the forest fire risk. Biomass data for different forest types in different pools has been used as ancillary data. In using the fuel value index, calorific value of wood content for 60 species has been collected and aggregated, for specific species. Results from NDVI and precipitation correlations were found to be highly significant for tropical dry deciduous and moist deciduous forests. Spatial patterns in NDVI closely followed seasonal trends in precipitation for most of the forests. An integrated GIS framework with biophysical, biomass, thermo chemical and bioclimatic parameters allowed the calculation of risk indices for the different forest types. The methodology followed in the study and the maps produced are found to be useful for evaluating forest fire risk and for predicting forest fire danger in different vegetation zones in India.

  11. Extreme fire severity patterns in topographic, convective and wind-driven historical wildfires of Mediterranean pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Lecina-Diaz

    Full Text Available Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1 determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together and (2 ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires. The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn

  12. Extreme fire severity patterns in topographic, convective and wind-driven historical wildfires of Mediterranean pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecina-Diaz, Judit; Alvarez, Albert; Retana, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1) determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together) and (2) ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires). The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires) showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn as extreme

  13. What are the most fire-dangerous atmospheric circulations in the Eastern-Mediterranean? Analysis of the synoptic wildfire climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire management is closely linked to robust forecasts of changes in wildfire risk related to meteorological conditions. This link can be bridged either through fire weather indices or through statistical techniques that directly relate atmospheric patterns to wildfire activity. In the present work the COST-733 classification schemes are applied in order to link wildfires in Greece with synoptic circulation patterns. The analysis reveals that the majority of wildfire events can be explained by a small number of specific synoptic circulations, hence reflecting the synoptic climatology of wildfires. All 8 classification schemes used, prove that the most fire-dangerous conditions in Greece are characterized by a combination of high atmospheric pressure systems located N to NW of Greece, coupled with lower pressures located over the very Eastern part of the Mediterranean, an atmospheric pressure pattern closely linked to the local Etesian winds over the Aegean Sea. During these events, the atmospheric pressure has been reported to be anomalously high, while anomalously low 500hPa geopotential heights and negative total water column anomalies were also observed. Among the various classification schemes used, the 2 Principal Component Analysis-based classifications, namely the PCT and the PXE, as well as the Leader Algorithm classification LND proved to be the best options, in terms of being capable to isolate the vast amount of fire events in a small number of classes with increased frequency of occurrence. It is estimated that these 3 schemes, in combination with medium-range to seasonal climate forecasts, could be used by wildfire risk managers to provide increased wildfire prediction accuracy.

  14. Resilience of Critical Infrastructure to Extreme Fires - Gaps and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    example of the previous incident study, the review summary on the Overpass I-75 Fire, Hazel Park, Michigan in 2009 is provided here [1]. Overpass I...75, Hazel Park, Michigan At about 8:00 p.m. on July 15, 2009, a car spun out of control along an overpass bridge on I- 75 near Hazel Park close to

  15. Risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns during extreme cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Environmental factors are important predictors of fires, but no study has examined the association between outdoor temperature and fire-related burn injuries. We sought to investigate the relationship between extremely cold outdoor temperatures and the risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. We carried out a time-stratified case-crossover study of 2470 patients hospitalized for fire-related burn injuries during cold months between 1989 and 2014 in Quebec, Canada. The main exposure was the minimum outdoor temperature on the day of and the day before the burn. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the relationship between minimum temperature and fire-related burns, and assessed how associations varied across sex and age. Exposure to extreme cold temperature was associated with a significantly higher risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. Compared with 0°C, exposure to a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.22-1.87) for hospitalization for fire-related burns. The associations were somewhat stronger for women, youth, and the elderly. Compared with 0°C, a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR for fire-related burn hospitalization of 1.65 for women (95% CI 1.13-2.40), 1.60 for age fire-related burns. Measures to prevent fires should be implemented prior to the winter season, and enhanced during extreme cold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Linking Satellite-Derived Fire Counts to Satellite-Derived Weather Data in Fire Prediction Models to Forecast Extreme Fires in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    different time scales. We spatially compare the FWI using GEOS-4 / GPCP data on a grid from 50-80 degrees latitude and 70 degrees East longitude to 170 degrees West longitude. We are covering the burning season from April through October for the years of 1999 and 2002. Extreme fires occurred in central Siberia in 2002. In contrast, minor fires occurred in central Siberia 1999. Our analysis shows a direct correlation between increased fire activity and increased FWI, independent of time or the severity of the fire season. We noticed the density of fire counts per 1-degree grid box increased with increasing FWI rating. During normal and extreme fire seasons, the percentage of 1-degree grid boxes with and without fire counts increased with increasing FWI rating. Given this analysis, we are confident large-scale weather and climate data, in this case from the GEOS reanalysis and the GPCP data sets, can be used to accurately assess future fire potential. This increases confidence in the ability of large-scale IPCC weather and climate scenarios to predict future fire regimes in boreal regions.

  17. 内蒙古草原火险等级短期预报研究%A Study on Short Term Forecast of Grassland Fire Danger Rating in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都瓦拉; 刘桂香; 玉山; 李清清

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing estimation model on the amount of combustible-substance over dry period based on EOS / MODIS data was constructed using monthly dynamic data of field survey combustible-substance of different types of grassland in Inner Mongolia during dry period. On this basis, snow cover, the weight of combustible-substance, the grassland continuity degree, the daily precipitation, the daily minimum relative humidity, the daily maximum temperature, and the daily maximum wind speed were selected. Grassland fire danger index was constructed adopting analytic hierarchy process to determine the weight of each index. Short-time forecast model of the grassland fire danger rating was build up and the fire danger status of the grassland of Inner Mongolia was divided into five levels using above model, the five levels namely non-flammable, difficult-flammable, flammable, inflammable, extremely inflammable, and the fire danger level has been forecasted simultaneously. The accuracy of the short-time forecast of grassland fire danger rating was tested with the test method of data sampling back substitution, the results showed that the accuracy of location prediction reached 96. 42% and the forecast and practical were basically matched, so the model can be applied to the short-time forecast of the grassland fire danger rating of In-ner Mongolia in practice.%利用EOS/MODIS数据和内蒙古不同类型草地枯草期野外实测可燃物月动态数据,建立枯草期遥感估测模型.在此基础上,选择积雪覆盖、可燃物重量、草地连续度、日降水量、日最小相对湿度、日最高气温、日最大风速等7个指标,采用层次分析法确定各指标的权重,构建草原火险指数,建立草原火险等级短期预报模型.应用模型可将内蒙古草原的火险状态划分为小燃、难燃、可燃、易燃、极易燃5级,并对火险做出短期预报.利用数据抽样回代检验方法对草原火险等级短期预报进行精度检验,

  18. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  19. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  20. Towards the dynamic prediction of wildfire danger. Modeling temporal scenarios of fire-occurrence in Northeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Yago; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    Up to date models of human-caused ignition probability have commonly been developed from a static or structural point of view, regardless of the time cycles that drive human behavior or environmental conditions. However, human drivers mostly have a temporal dimension, and fuel conditions are subjected to temporal changes as well, which is why a historical/temporal perspective is often required. Previous studies in the region suggest that human driving factors of wildfires have undergone significant shifts in inter-annual occurrence probability models, thus varying over time. On the other hand, an increasing role of environmental conditions has also been reported. This research comprehensively analyzes the intra-annual dimension of fire occurrence and fire-triggering factors using NW Spain as a test area, moving one-step forward towards achieving more accurate predictions, to ultimately develop dynamic predictive models. To this end, several intra-annual presence-only models have been calibrated, exploring seasonal variations of environmental conditions and short-term cycles of human activity (working- vs non-working days). Models were developed from accurately geolocated fire data in the 2008-2012 period, and GIS and remote sensing (MOD1A2 and MOD16) information . Specifically, 8 occurrence data subsets (scenarios) were constructed by splitting fire records into 4 seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) then separating each season into 2 new categories (working and non-working days). This allows analyzing the temporal variation of socioeconomic (urban- and agricultural-interfaces, transport and road networks, and human settlements) and environmental (fuel conditions) factors associated with occurrence. Models were calibrated applying the Maximum Entropy algorithm (MaxEnt). The MaxEnt algorithm was selected as it is the most widespread approach to deal with presence-only data, as may be the case of fire occurrence. The dependent variable for each scenario was

  1. Statistical modelling of wildfire size and intensity: a step toward meteorological forecasting of summer extreme fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.; Keribin, C.; Drobinski, P.; Turquety, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this article we investigate the use of statistical methods for wildfire risk assessment in the Mediterranean Basin using three meteorological covariates, the 2 m temperature anomaly, the 10 m wind speed and the January-June rainfall occurrence anomaly. We focus on two remotely sensed characteristic fire variables, the burnt area (BA) and the fire radiative power (FRP), which are good proxies for fire size and intensity respectively. Using the fire data we determine an adequate parametric distribution function which fits best the logarithm of BA and FRP. We reconstruct the conditional density function of both variables with respect to the chosen meteorological covariates. These conditional density functions for the size and intensity of a single event give information on fire risk and can be used for the estimation of conditional probabilities of exceeding certain thresholds. By analysing these probabilities we find two fire risk regimes different from each other at the 90 % confidence level: a "background" summer fire risk regime and an "extreme" additional fire risk regime, which corresponds to higher probability of occurrence of larger fire size or intensity associated with specific weather conditions. Such a statistical approach may be the ground for a future fire risk alert system.

  2. Radiative Characteristics of Aerosol During Extreme Fire Event over Siberia in Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kabanov, Dmitriy M.; Nasrtdinov, Ilmir M.; Russkova, Tatiana V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2017-01-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol were studied during a mega-fire event in summer 2012 over Siberia using ground-based measurements of spectral solarradiation at the AERONET site in Tomsk and satellite observations. The data were analyzed using multi-year (2003-2013) measurements of aerosol characteristics under back-ground conditions and for less intense fires, differing in burning biomass type, stage of fire, remoteness from observation site, etc. (ordinary smoke). In June-August 2012, the average aerosol optical depth (AOD, 500 nm) had been 0.95+/-0.86, about a factor of 6 larger than background values (0.16+/-0.08), and a factor of 2.5 larger than in ordinary smoke. The AOD values were extremely high on 24-28 July and reached 3-5. A comparison with satellite observations showed that ground-based measurements in the region of Tomsk not only reflect the local AOD features, but are also characteristic for the territory of Western Siberia as a whole. Single scattering albedo (SSA, 440 nm) in this period ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approx. 0.96 in the entire wavelength range of 440-1020 nm. The increase in absorptance of aerosol particles (SSA(440 nm)=0.92) and decrease in SSA with wavelength observed in ordinary smoke agree with the data from multi-year observations in analogous situations in the boreal zone of USA and Canada. Volume aerosol size distribution in extreme and ordinary smoke had a bimodal character with significant prevalence of fine-mode particles, but in summer 2012 the mean median radius and the width of the fine-mode distribution somewhat increased. In contrast to data from multi-year observations, in summer 2012 an increase in the volume concentration and median radius of the coarse mode was observed with growing AOD.

  3. Catastrophic fat tails and non-smooth damage functions-fire economics and climate change adaptation for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriana Keeting; John Handmer

    2013-01-01

    South-eastern Australia is one of the most fire prone environments on earth. Devastating fires in February 2009 appear to have been off the charts climatically and economically, they led to a new category of fire danger aptly called 'catastrophic'. Almost all wildfire losses have been associated with these extreme conditions and climate change will see an...

  4. Radiative characteristics of aerosol during extreme fire event over Siberia in summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kabanov, Dmitriy M.; Nasrtdinov, Ilmir M.; Russkova, Tatiana V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2017-01-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol were studied during a mega-fire event in summer 2012 over Siberia using ground-based measurements of spectral solar radiation at the AERONET site in Tomsk and satellite observations. The data were analysed using multi-year (2003-2013) measurements of aerosol characteristics under background conditions and for less intense fires, differing in burning biomass type, stage of fire, remoteness from observation site, etc. (ordinary smoke). In June-August 2012, the average aerosol optical depth (AOD, 500 nm) had been 0.95 ± 0.86, about a factor of 6 larger than background values (0.16 ± 0.08), and a factor of 2.5 larger than in ordinary smoke. The AOD values were extremely high on 24-28 July and reached 3-5. A comparison with satellite observations showed that ground-based measurements in the region of Tomsk not only reflect the local AOD features, but are also characteristic for the territory of Western Siberia as a whole. Single scattering albedo (SSA, 440 nm) in this period ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of ˜ 0.96 in the entire wavelength range of 440-1020 nm. The increase in absorptance of aerosol particles (SSA(440 nm) = 0.92) and decrease in SSA with wavelength observed in ordinary smoke agree with the data from multi-year observations in analogous situations in the boreal zone of USA and Canada. Volume aerosol size distribution in extreme and ordinary smoke had a bimodal character with significant prevalence of fine-mode particles, but in summer 2012 the mean median radius and the width of the fine-mode distribution somewhat increased. In contrast to data from multi-year observations, in summer 2012 an increase in the volume concentration and median radius of the coarse mode was observed with growing AOD. The calculations of the average radiative effects of smoke and background aerosol are presented. Compared to background conditions and ordinary smoke, under the extreme smoke conditions the cooling

  5. Contesting danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...

  6. Contesting danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...... violence in the Ferghana Valley. It is argued that popular policy and academic texts are relatively consistent across the three dimensions of endangerment. This argument is demonstrated through a discussion of how policy-making and practice is informed by this discourse of danger and of how the discourse...... of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy...

  7. Relationship between Fire-Danger Weather and Forest Fire in Qiannan Area%黔南地区气象因子与森林火灾发生次数之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云丹; 鞠洪波; 张雄清; 纪平

    2011-01-01

    In this study, based on data of the forest fire occurrence and meteorological variables in spring fireproofing period in Qiannan area, Poisson regression model, negative binomial model, zero-inflated negative binomial model and Hurdle model were respectively employed to predict the forest fires under fire-danger climate, and those models were compared with each other based on the prediction. The results showed that; Poisson regression model did not fit well into the over-dispersion data. Negative binomial distribution fitted better into the data than Poisson distribution. But both of them were not suitable for simulating zero drived dispersion data. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression model and Hurdle model were useful methods for such data. Zero inflated negative binomial regression model and Hurdle model performed better than other two models in predicting forest fires. Moreover, Hurdle model was even superior to zero-inflated negative binomial model.%对黔南区春季防火期森林火灾数据进行分析,分别引入Poisson回归模型、负二项模型、零膨胀负二项模型和Hurdle模型拟合该地区火险天气森林火灾发生数,并对这些模型进行逐步筛选.结果表明:Poisson回归模型不适用于处理过度离散的数据,负二项回归模型相对于Poisson回归模型,比较适用于过离散数据;但是对于零个数过多的数据,这2类模型拟合效果较差,零膨胀负二项模型和Hurdle模型对这类数据有很好的解决办法.零膨胀负二项模型和Hurdle模型拟合效果优于其他2种模型,而且Hurdle模型好于零膨胀负二项模型.

  8. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis;

    2014-01-01

    -walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated...

  9. 大理市苍山森林火险等级区划研究%Study on the Division of Forest Fire Danger Grade in Cangshan Mountain of Dali City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国斌

    2015-01-01

    Take the data processing ,supplementary investigation ,statistical analysis and other methods ,according to the burning of the forest to forest fire ring theory ,three elements in the burning of the forest fire danger of online distribution ring value as the divi -sion standard of quantitative ,the woodlands of Cangshan divided into 3 grade of fire zone;the results show that:the combustion types in Cangshan forest land ,easy combustion type accounted for 87.9%;super fire area and the level of fire area up to 20731.9 hm2 ,ac-counting for 69.4%of the area of forest land.The results show that ,Dali Cangshan forest fire rank high ,large fire hazard ,is a nation-al risk fire area.%采取数据处理、补充调查、统计分析等方法,根据森林燃烧环网理论,以林火三要素在森林燃烧环网上分布的火险值作为定量划分标准,将苍山的林地划分为3个火险等级区;苍山林地燃烧类型中,易燃类占87.9%;特级火险区和一级火险区的面积达20731.9 hm2,占林地面积的69.4%。研究表明,大理苍山森林火险等级高,火灾危险性大,属全国高危火险区域。

  10. Atmospheric black carbon in the Russian Arctic: anthropogenic inputs in comparison with average or extremal wood fires' ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Anna A.; Smirnov, Nikolay S.; Korotkov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Model estimates of atmospheric black carbon concentrations were made for different points of the Russian Arctic. Anthropogenic BC emissions and wood fires' ones were calculated from Russian official statistics for the 2000s. We used the data of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of RF on anthropogenic air emissions of pollution in Russian cities and regions [1], as well as the data of Federal Forestry Agency of RF (Rosleshoz) [2] on wood fires. We considered the area within (50-72)N and (20-180)E, which covers about 94% of the Russian territory, where both anthropogenic and fire BC emissions have been arranged through grid cells (1×1) deg. Anthropogenic BC emissions are estimated as annual values based on the data for 54 regions and more than 100 cities. Total emission is estimated as (220 ± 30) Gg BC in 2010 [3], including emissions from open flares associated with gas/oil extractive industry which are about (25 ± 8) Gg/yr. We analyzed the data on wood fires (detailing crown, ground and underground fires in forests and fires on non-forest lands) with their spatial and seasonal variations during 15 years (2000-2014). Different combustion factors [4] and BC emission coefficients [5] were used in calculations for different types of burning. Russian total average annual BC emission from fires, occurring mainly in summertime, was estimated as 30 Gg with large variations (4-100 Gg/yr) from year to year. Asian territory emits about 90% of this value. We estimated anthropogenic (BC_A) and fires' (BC_F) contributions to BC air concentrations at different Russian Arctic points using the approach [6] - decadal back-trajectory analysis combined with spatial distribution of sensitivity pollution emission function (SPEF). Extraordinary atmospheric circulation causing, to a great extent, abnormally intensive fires in the middle latitudes often leads to a decrease in SPEF values for these territories. As a result, fires are not so dangerous for the whole Arctic, as

  11. Smoke aerosol and its radiative effects during extreme fire event over Central Russia in summer 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chubarova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Different microphysical, optical and radiative properties of aerosol were analyzed during the severe fires in summer 2010 over Central Russia using ground measurements at two AERONET sites in Moscow (Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University – MSU MO and Zvenigorod (Moscow Region and radiative measurements at the MSU MO. Volume aerosol size distribution in smoke conditions had a bimodal character with the significant prevalence of fine mode particles, for which effective radius was shifted to higher values (reff-fine = 0.24 μm against approximately 0.15 μm in typical conditions. For smoke aerosol, the imaginary part of refractive index (REFI in the visible spectral region was lower than that for typical aerosol (REFIλ =675 nm = 0.006 against REFIλ =675 nm = 0.01, while single scattering albedo (SSA was significantly higher (SSAλ =675 nm = 0.95 against SSAλ =675 nm ~ 0.9. Extremely high aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm (AOT500 was observed on 6–8 August reaching the absolute maximum on 7 August in Moscow (AOT500 = 6.4 and at Zvenigorod (AOT500 = 5.9. A dramatic attenuation of solar irradiance at ground was also recorded. Maximum irradiance loss had reached 64% for global shortwave irradiance, 91% for UV radiation 300–380 nm, and 97% for erythemally-weighted UV irradiance at relatively high solar elevation 47°. Significant spectral dependence in attenuation of solar irradiance in smoky conditions was mainly explained by higher AOT and smaller SSA in UV (0.8–0.9 compared with SSA in the visible region of spectrum. The assessments of radiative forcing effect (RFE at the TOA indicated a significant cooling of the smoky atmosphere. Instant RFE reached −167 Wm−2 at AOT500 = 6.4, climatological RFE calculated with August 2010 monthly mean AOT was about −65 Wm−2, compared with −20 Wm−2 for typical aerosol according to

  12. A Tool for Rating the Resilience of Critical Infrastructures in Extreme Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of active fire protection methods or systems or other techniques not appropriate for evaluation by this method. - Information as to...Clause 1.2) of rood /rail bridges be tested for fire resistance using the time-temperature curve of the ASTM E1529 and the test procedure be presented... rood tunnels, bridges, elevated highways, depressed highways, and roadways that are located beneath air-right structures. This standard provides

  13. 基于 Logistic 回归的森林火险天气等级模型%Weather Model Level of Forest Fire Danger Based on Logistic Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 王峰; 郭艳芬; 郑煜

    2013-01-01

    根据大兴安岭地区林业局1975-2004年火灾资料及气象数据,利用logistic 回归选择最优配比建立了森林火险天气等级模型,并对其进行检验。经验证该模型具有较好的应用效果,能够为当地林业部门制定防火策略时提供参考。%With the fire records and meteorological data of the Daxing’an Mountain Area Forestry Bureauin Heilongjiang Prov-ince from 1975 to 2004 , a judgment method of forest fire danger weather level was established by the logistic regression with best ratios and examined by forest fire data. The model has a good application effect and can provide a reference for the local forestry department when formulating the fire prevention strategy.

  14. Overview on fire hazard grading standard of flammable and explosive dangerous goods%易燃易爆危险品火灾危险性分级标准概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张网; 杨昭; 李晋; 王婕; 吕东

    2013-01-01

      危险化学品种类繁多,容易发生火灾,且一旦发生火灾难于扑救。介绍了危险化学品火灾事故的特点。危险品中的易燃气体、易燃液体、易燃固体、氧化类物质具有易燃易爆特点,属于消防监督管理的范围。介绍了易燃气体的火灾危险性参数测试标准及不同爆炸极限测试标准的特点。介绍了可燃液体的火灾危险性参数测试标准,概述了不同闪点测试标准的适用范围。概述了可燃固体、氧化类物质的火灾危险性分级标准。展望了易燃易爆危险品需开展的研究及标准的制定。%There are many types of dangerous chemicals,which are flammable. It is difficult to extinguish once the fire starts. The characteristics of hazardous chemical fire accidents were introduced. Flammable gases,flammable liquids,flammable solids and oxidizing substances have different flammable and explosive characteristics. These substances belong to the scope of the supervision and administration of the fire department. Fire hazard parameter test standards and characteristics of different explosive limit test standards were introduced. The fire hazard parameter test standards of flammable liquids were introduced. The scope of different flash point test standard was described. The fire hazard classification standards of flammable solids and oxidizing substances were introduced. Perspective research and standard development were also discussed.

  15. [Dangerous aquaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mitrus, Małgorzata; Targosz, Dorota; Gwiazdowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    World trends for a home breeding of exotic freshwater and marine fishes did not miss Poland. There are almost all species of aquarium fishes available in Polish pet shops, but there is not enough information about threat given to customers. In some fish, there are masses of one-cell glands, mainly serous, in the proximity of the spines. In others, those one-cell glands may be grouped in larger aggregates of cells called venom glands, that may form organs resembling multicellular glands of terrestrial animals. They are usually located around the spines or hard rays of the fins. Even if covered with a connective tissue sheath, the aggregates of the venom cells do not have any common outlet; they are not, therefore, proper multicellular glands. The venom glands of the catfish are covered with a thin sheath and they release their contents when the fin ray is pressed. Spines are derived from fin rays. When the spine penetrates the body of its prey, it presses its base against the cells, squashes them and squeezes the venomous contents into the wound. Catfish, lionfish and stonefish have the venom glands producing secretion which could be dangerous. The eels and morays blood is also dangerous, as well as slime of reduced squamae. Poison information centers noted several cases of fishes' stings in Poland.

  16. Looming Danger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXuewen

    2003-01-01

    Is all well with the roaring Chinese economy now that severe acute respiratory syndrome has almost vanished? For beginners,SARS is still a looming danger, as Chinese leaders and medical professionals relentlessly try tobring across to a wider, more relaxed post-SARS public. Meanwhile, economistsand analysts struggle to make sense of various news, facts and figures from the frontlines of trade and industry. Early on, while acknowledging that SARS had some negative impact on the development of some industries and regions,President and Party General Secretary Hu Jintao acted as true leader. He saidthat the people and country would triumph over “these temporary difficulties”and would finally win the war against this nasty disease.

  17. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  18. 41 CFR 102-74.255 - How must occupant evacuation or relocation be accomplished when there is immediate danger to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evacuation or relocation be accomplished when there is immediate danger to persons or property, such as fire... danger to persons or property, such as fire, explosion or the discovery of an explosive device (not... immediate danger to persons or property, such as fire, explosion or the discovery of an explosive...

  19. The dangers of euthanasia and dementia: how Kantian thinking might be used to support non-voluntary euthanasia in cases of extreme dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Some writers have argued that a Kantian approach to ethics can be used to justify suicide in cases of extreme dementia, where a patient lacks the rationality required of Kantian moral agents. I worry that this line of thinking may lead to the more extreme claim that euthanasia is a proper Kantian response to severe dementia (and similar afflictions). Such morally treacherous thinking seems to be directly implied by the arguments that lead Dennis Cooley and similar writers to claim that Kant might support suicide. If rationality is the only factor in valuing a human life, then the loss of that rationality (however such loss might be defined) would allow us to use essentially utilitarian thinking in order to support non-voluntary euthanasia, since the patients themselves would no longer be moral agents that demand respect.

  20. The dangers of lithotomy positioning in the operating room: case report of bilateral lower extremity compartment syndrome after a 90-minutes surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornelli, Nicole; Wydra, Frank B; Mitchell, Justin J; Stahel, Philip F; Fabbri, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity acute compartment syndrome after gynecologic surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare, yet potentially devastating complication. A high level of suspicion is paramount for early recognition and mitigation of acute compartment syndrome originating from prolonged surgery in lithotomy position. A 23-year-old female, gravida 1, para 0, underwent a laparoscopic salpingectomy for a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Surgical time was 90 min. Postoperatively, the patient developed acute compartment syndrome of both legs necessitating emergent bilateral four-compartment fasciotomies, with repeated returns to the operating room for 2nd look procedures and delayed wound closures. The patient regained full function within 3 months and returned to an unrestricted baseline activity level. Technical diligence in applying a lithotomy position is paramount for preventing postoperative lower extremity compartment syndrome. A high level of suspicion for this severe complication in conjunction with early recognition and immediate surgical management can mitigate long-term adverse sequelae and improve postoperative outcomes.

  1. Statistical modelling of wildfire size and intensity: a step toward meteorological forecasting of summer extreme fire risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, C; Keribin, C.; Drobinski, P.; Turquety, S.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this article we investigate the use of statistical methods for wildfire risk assessment in the Mediterranean Basin using three meteorological covariates, the 2 m temperature anomaly, the 10 m wind speed and the January– June rainfall occurrence anomaly. We focus on two remotely sensed characteristic fire variables, the burnt area (BA) and the fire radiative power (FRP), which are good proxies for fire size and intensity respectively. Using the fire data we determine...

  2. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan

    2015-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  3. Fire occurrence and fire weather indices in the past and under future climate in Peninsular Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Moreno, José M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding fire occurrence and its relationship with ignition sources and weather conditions is a major environmental challenge in regions affected by fire, particularly under ongoing and projected future climate change. The objectives of this study were: 1) To address a historical reconstruction of fire regime (fire occurrence, area burned, and fire causes) in Peninsular Spain for the last three decades. 2) Analyze the time x space relationship between fire occurrence and area burned with climatic variables and climate-derived fire danger indices. 3) Assess how climate change would affect fire danger indices for various emission scenarios based on projections of five regional climate models. The country was divided into 50x50 km cells, for which fire statistics were available. Climate data were interpolated at this grid so that daily fire danger indices were calculated for present and future conditions. Results showed an overall increase of fire occurrence and area burned over the past decades. Fire activity (number of fires and area burned) showed significant correlations with fire danger indices and climatic variables; although in some areas the relationship was weak given the uncertainty linked to the number of ignitions caused by people. There was a significant correlation between certain fire indices and Gini coefficient of fire sizes, whereby fires under more severe conditions become more variable in size. Towards the end of this century (2071-2100) increases in the fire danger indices, and a longer period of fire danger are projected. This trend is consistent among models.

  4. Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Mark A. Cochrane; Patrick H. Freeborn; Zachary A. Holden; Timothy J. Brown; Grant J. Williamson; David M. J. S. Bowman

    2015-01-01

    Climate strongly influences global wildfire activity, and recent wildfire surges may signal fire weather-induced pyrogeographic shifts. Here we use three daily global climate data sets and three fire danger indices to develop a simple annual metric of fire weather season length, and map spatio-temporal trends from 1979 to 2013. We show that fire weather seasons have...

  5. Danger signals in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy.

  6. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  7. Bacterial danger sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Michele; Peterson, S Brook; Mougous, Joseph D

    2015-11-20

    Here we propose that bacteria detect and respond to threats posed by other bacteria via an innate immune-like process that we term danger sensing. We find support for this contention by reexamining existing literature from the perspective that intermicrobial antagonism, not opportunistic pathogenesis, is the major evolutionary force shaping the defensive behaviors of most bacteria. We conclude that many bacteria possess danger sensing pathways composed of a danger signal receptor and corresponding signal transduction mechanism that regulate pathways important for survival in the presence of the perceived competitor.

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It started ...

  10. Second Hand Smoke: Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Second Hand Smoke: Danger! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Make ... the United States are still exposed to secondhand smoke, even though cigarette smoking rates are dropping and ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  13. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    . That seems not to be possible. We have to use words, metaphors and comparisons containing adverse connotations, and this situation creates ways of using unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems that could be avoided if we had better language tools...... at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations....

  14. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  15. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  16. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...... unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble that could be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media......, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... entire eye had to be rem… Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  18. A Danger to Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied…

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  20. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... for 35 years, according the m… Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  2. Fossil and non-fossil source contributions to atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols during extreme spring grassland fires in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ulevicius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires. Non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1 was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM and a source apportionment with the multilinear engine (ME-2 running the positive matrix factorization (PMF model was applied to the organic aerosol fraction to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning. Satellite observations over regions of biomass burning activity supported the results and identification of air mass transport to the area of investigation. Sharp increases in biomass burning tracers, such as levoglucosan up to 683 ng m−3 and black carbon (BC up to 17 μg m−3 were observed during this period. A further separation between fossil and non-fossil primary and secondary contributions was obtained by coupling ACSM PMF results and radiocarbon (14C measurements of the elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon fractions. Non-fossil organic carbon (OCnf was the dominant fraction of PM1, with the primary (POCnf and secondary (SOCnf fractions contributing 26–44 % and 13–23 % to the TC, respectively. 5–8 % of the TC had a primary fossil origin (POCf, whereas the contribution of fossil secondary organic carbon (SOCf was 4–13 %. Non-fossil EC (ECnf and fossil EC (ECf ranged from 13–24 % and 7–12 %, respectively. Isotope ratio of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to distinguish aerosol particles associated with solid and liquid fossil fuel burning.

  3. How will climate change affect wildland fire severity in the western US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol; Abatzoglou, John T.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Parisien, Marc-André; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2016-03-01

    Fire regime characteristics in North America are expected to change over the next several decades as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Although some fire regime characteristics (e.g., area burned and fire season length) are relatively well-studied in the context of a changing climate, fire severity has received less attention. In this study, we used observed data from 1984 to 2012 for the western United States (US) to build a statistical model of fire severity as a function of climate. We then applied this model to several (n = 20) climate change projections representing mid-century (2040-2069) conditions under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Model predictions suggest widespread reduction in fire severity for large portions of the western US. However, our model implicitly incorporates climate-induced changes in vegetation type, fuel load, and fire frequency. As such, our predictions are best interpreted as a potential reduction in fire severity, a potential that may not be realized due human-induced disequilibrium between plant communities and climate. Consequently, to realize the reductions in fire severity predicted in this study, land managers in the western US could facilitate the transition of plant communities towards a state of equilibrium with the emerging climate through means such as active restoration treatments (e.g., mechanical thinning and prescribed fire) and passive restoration strategies like managed natural fire (under suitable weather conditions). Resisting changes in vegetation composition and fuel load via activities such as aggressive fire suppression will amplify disequilibrium conditions and will likely result in increased fire severity in future decades because fuel loads will increase as the climate warms and fire danger becomes more extreme. The results of our study provide insights to the pros and cons of resisting or facilitating change in vegetation composition and fuel load in the context of a changing climate.

  4. Trauma is Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    to treatment . Further, identifying which patients are most likely to develop severe SIRS after injury may allow for early intervention. Our current...significant danger signal to the immune system. Cell Stress Chaperones 2003, 8:272-286. 35. Martinon F, Petrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J: Gout ...understanding of gout . Arthritis Res Ther 2008, 10:221. 37. Hawkins PN, Lachmann HJ, Aganna E, McDermott MF: Spectrum of clinical features in Muckle-Wells

  5. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  6. Stratospheric intrusions, the Santa Ana winds, and wildland fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, A. O.; Pierce, R. B.; Schultz, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Santa Ana winds of Southern California have long been associated with wildland fires that can adversely affect air quality and lead to loss of life and property. These katabatic winds are driven primarily by thermal gradients but can be exacerbated by northerly flow associated with upper level troughs passing through the western U.S. In this paper, we show that the fire danger associated with the passage of upper level troughs can be further increased by the formation of deep tropopause folds that transport extremely dry ozone-rich air from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to the surface. Stratospheric intrusions can thus increase surface ozone both directly through transport and indirectly through their influence on wildland fires. We illustrate this situation with the example of the Springs Fire, which burned nearly 25,000 acres in Ventura County during May 2013.

  7. A method for ensemble wildland fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Isaac C. Grenfell; Charles W. McHugh; Robert C. Seli; Diane Trethewey; Richard D. Stratton; Stuart Brittain

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble simulation system that accounts for uncertainty in long-range weather conditions and two-dimensional wildland fire spread is described. Fuel moisture is expressed based on the energy release component, a US fire danger rating index, and its variation throughout the fire season is modeled using time series analysis of historical weather data. This analysis...

  8. Evaluating present and future fire risk due to climate change in the Mediterranean: a case study for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, C. A.; Hatzaki, M.; Karali, A.; Roussos, A.; Xanthopoulos, G.; Kaoukis, K.

    2011-12-01

    The current climate change trend in the Mediterranean causes longer summer droughts and intensification of these droughts even out of season. Extreme weather events, such as periods of high temperatures, prolonged dry spells and very strong winds, as well as sudden storms with heavy rainfall are becoming more frequent. As a result, the frequency of large-scale forest fires is on the rise and the same holds true about soil erosion which is aggravated when such fires are followed by heavy rains a few days later. When a period of drought and high temperatures is followed by a day of peak temperatures, low relative humidity and very strong winds, fire danger reaches extreme levels and multiple fires can easily get out of control creating havoc. In order to investigate the future changes in fire risk in relation to the meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean, the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is applied. FWI is a daily meteorologically-based index designed in Canada and used worldwide to estimate fire danger in a generalized fuel type. The FWI system provides numerical ratings of relative fire potential based on weather observations. FWI components depend solely on daily noon measurements of dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, 10 m open wind speed and 24 h accumulated precipitation. The scope of this study is to investigate the impacts of climate change on fire risk for the Mediterranean, for two future time periods, 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, compared to the control run period 1961-1990. Subsequently, several regional climate models from EU-Project ENSEMBLES (www.ensembles-eu.org) are used to provide input for the FWI system. Moreover, an evaluation of the index is performed using current 7-year fire and meteorological data for Greece, in order to examine whether FWI values can adequately reflect fire risk as judged by actual fire occurrence and area burnt, with particular emphasis on the most vulnerable region of Southern Greece. FWI is confirmed to

  9. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  10. Fire Threatens the Grasslands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    FIRE is herdsmen’s woe. It is said by elderly people that fire almost destroyed the entire grasslands long ago. Few domestic animals survived and with great difficulty the people rebuilt and replanted what they could for many generations. Because of their efforts the grasslands survived. I have never experienced that kind of tragedy, but I could sense the fear in people’s voices when they talked of it. It is actually an unwritten law on the grasslands that whenever a fire occurs, no matter how far away or how dangerous it is, you must go out and fight it.

  11. Dangers of peace journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of mission shared by some peace journalists is a dangerous attitude. All journalists can do to give peace a chance is to serve as mediators, helping conflict parties overcome the competitive misperceptions and societal beliefs that fuel conflict. If peace journalists try to promote and impose their own solutions, however, frustration is inevitable and will finally result in the search for an evildoer who can be made responsible. Thus by involving themselves in conflicts, journalists can become unintentional agents of conflict escalation.

  12. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal E. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    Presents photographs of wildland vegetation appropriate for the 13 fuel models used in mathematical models of fire behavior. Fuel model descriptions include fire behavior associated with each fuel and its physical characteristics. A similarity chart cross-references the 13 fire behavior fuel models to the 20 fuel models used in the National Fire Danger Rating System....

  13. Assessing predictive services' 7-day fire potential outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin Riley; Crystal Stonesifer; Dave Calkin; Haiganoush Preisler

    2015-01-01

    The Predictive Services program was created under the National Wildfire Coordinating Group in 2001 to address the need for long- and short-term decision support information for fire managers and operations personnel. The primary mission of Predictive Services is to integrate fire weather, fire danger, and resource availability to enable strategic fire suppression...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had ... with a corneal abrasion. "I was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn' ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had not ...

  16. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Dangers and Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha Maria; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of young people’s conceptions of illegal drug use as dangerous and/or pleasurable and an analysis of the relationship between attitudes to drugs, drinking, friends’ reported drug use and own experience with drug use and drinking. The article applies a mixed methods approach using...... both survey data and focus group interviews. The main statistical method is Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), which constructs a social space of young people’s attitudes to drugs and drug experiences relationally. We identify four interrelated positions on illegal drug use among 17 to 19-year......-old Danes: the anti-drug position, usually held by youths who do not use illegal drugs and do not have drug-using friends; the ambivalent position, occupied by non-users who report that they have drug-using friends; the transitory position, held by cannabis users, some of whom express positive attitudes...

  18. Future Projections of Fire Occurrence in Brazil Using EC-Earth Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Fire has a fundamental role in the Earth system as it influences global and local ecosystem patterns and processes, such as vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle and climate. Since, in the global context, Brazil is one of the regions with higher fire activity, an assessment is here performed of the sensitivity of the wildfire regime in Brazilian savanna and shrubland areas to changes in regional climate during the 21st Century, for an intermediate scenario (RCP4.5 of climate change. The assessment is based on a spatial and temporal analysis of a meteorological fire danger index specifically developed for Brazilian biomes, which was evaluated based on regional climate simulations of temperature, relative humidity and precipitation using the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA4 forced by the EC-Earth earth system model. Results show a systematic increase in the extreme levels of fire danger throughout the 21st Century that mainly results from the increase in maximum daily temperature, which rises by about 2 °C between 2005 and 2100. This study provides new insights about projected fire activity in Brazilian woody savannas associated to climate change and is expected to benefit the user community, from governmental policies to land management and climate researches.

  19. Monitoring Forest Fire with MODIS-NDVI Images in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiaorui; SHU Lifu; WANG Mingyu; ZHAO Fengjun

    2006-01-01

    Fuel moisture monitoring is an important component of fire danger rating system in fire management This paper describes the application of NDVI images in monitoring potential fire danger and analyses the relationship between MODIS-NDVI and fire weather index.The series of weather data in Beijing are used in this analysis including fire seasons in spring during 2004 to 2005.Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is selected in this study, because it can properly estimate moisture conditions of live fuel.Fine fuel moisture, drought code and FWI values are generated by using the squared inverse distance algorithm.Strong correlations have previously been observed between FWI variables and NDVI data.The MODIS-NDVI images can be used in fire management as component related with live fuel moisture and fire danger.

  20. A dangerous mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year old woman was admitted for fatigue and arm paresthesias with Trousseau sign. Her medical history included thyroidectomy and hypercholesterolemia recently treated with simvastatin. Laboratory tests showed severe hypokalemia and hypocalcemia, severe increase in muscle enzymes, metabolic alkalosis; low plasma renin activity, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone, normal free thyroxine, increased parathyroid hormone, decreased vitamin D3; alterations in electrolyte urinary excretion, cortisol and aldosterone were excluded. Hypothesizing a statin-related myopathy, simvastatin was suspended; the patient reported use of laxatives containing licorice. Electrolytes normalized with intravenous supplementation. Among many biochemical alterations, none stands out as a major cause for muscular and electrolyte disorders. All co-factors are inter-connected, starting with statin-induced myopathy, worsened by hypothyroidism, secondary hyperaldosteronism and vitamin D deficiency, leading to hypocalcemia and hypokalemia, perpetrating muscular and electrolyte disorders. The importance of considering clinical conditions as a whole emerges with multiple co-factors involved. Another issue concerns herbal products and their potential dangerous effects.

  1. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Finney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when separate fire events converge in one location. Interactions can be created intentionally during prescribed fires by using spatial ignition patterns. Mass fires are among the most extreme examples of interactive behavior. This paper presents a review of the detailed effects of fire-fire interaction in terms of merging or coalescence criteria, burning rates, flame dimensions, flame temperature, indraft velocity, pulsation, and convection column dynamics. Though relevant in many situations, these changes in fire behavior have yet to be included in any operational-fire models or decision support systems.

  2. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  3. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  4. Recent fire history of the Table Mountain National Park and implications for fire management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forsyth, GG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available weather data from a recording weather station at Cape Town International Airport (33º58’S, 18º36’E) for the period 1970 to 2007 and used the McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index (Noble et al. 1980) to calculate daily indices of fire danger. The data used... this in January 2001. These fires destroyed 14 houses and necessitated the temporary evacuation of many residents, both reducing the immediate need for further burning and hardening public attitudes towards fire. As a result, almost no large prescribed burns...

  5. 加味生铁落饮治疗痰火上扰证狂病伴危险行为患者的效果%Effect of Modified Sheng Tie Lao Decoction in the treatment of patients with upward flaming of phlegm-fire of manic psychosis together with dangerous behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈生梅; 艾春启; 王熙; 戴文敬

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解加味生铁落饮治疗痰火上扰证狂病伴危险行为患者的效果。方法选取符合狂病伴危险行为患者100例,将诊断为痰火上扰证且符合精神分裂症伴发危险行为的56例患者随机分为加味生铁落饮联用利培酮组(治疗组)与单用利培酮组(单用组)。疗程4周,随访12个月。于治疗前及治疗1、2、3、4周分别采用危险行为分级量表评定危险行为;治疗前后采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)、不良反应量表(TESS)、健康状况问卷(SF-36)、大体评定量表(GAS)评定疗效、不良反应、生存质量,统计复发、再住院情况、危险行为改善情况。结果治疗组总有效率为82.1%,单用组为75.0%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组控制危险行为平均起效时间为(16.01±2.38)d,单用组为(20.93±2.25)d,两组比较差异有高度统计学意义(P0.05)。两组不良反应发生率比较差异有高度统计学意义(P0.05);the average onset time of con-trolling risk behavior in the treatment group was (16.01±2.38) days, which of single group was (20.93±2.25) days, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P 0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups had a statistically significant difference (P<0.01). The recurrence rate, rehospitalization rate, social disabil-ity rate of treatment group were all significantly lower than those of single group (P< 0.01). Several factor scores and total scores of treatment group were all significantly higher than those of single group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclu-sion Combined treatment of Modified Sheng Tie Lao Decoction in patients with upward flaming of phlegm-fire of manic psychosis and meeting schizophrenia combined with dangerous behavior has the almost same effect with Resperidone alone group, dangerous behaviors are improved obviously and onset time is more shorter, the incidence of adverse reac

  6. Superintelligence paths, dangers, strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Bostrom, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Superintelligence asks the questions: What happens when machines surpass humans in general intelligence? Will artificial agents save or destroy us? Nick Bostrom lays the foundation for understanding the future of humanity and intelligent life. The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. If machine brains surpassed human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become extremely powerful - possibly beyond our control. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on humans than on the species itself, so would the fate of humankind depend on the actions of the machine superintelligence. But we have one advantage: we get to make the first move. Will it be possible to construct a seed Artificial Intelligence, to engineer initial conditions so as to make an intelligence explosion survivable? How could one achieve a controlled detonation? This profoundly ambitious and o...

  7. 33 CFR 334.380 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and..., Virginia; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. All of the water within a sector extending seaward a...) nautical miles. (3) Firing on the ranges will be suspended as long as any vessel is within the danger...

  8. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  9. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  10. Documenting PyroCb Development on High-Intensity Boreal Fires: Implications for the Arctic Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M. D.; Servranckx, R.; Lindsey, D.

    2007-12-01

    The recent confirmation that smoke from high-intensity boreal forest fires can reach the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) through pyroconvection and be transported long distances has raised concern over the wider-scale environmental impact of boreal fire smoke. This concern is further elevated as climate change projections indicate a significant increase in the frequency and severity of boreal forest fires over the next century. Smoke in the UTLS is frequently transported to the Arctic and may have important implications for the radiative energy budget in the polar region. Soot deposition from fires may lead to enhanced melting of sea ice and glaciers, and the chemical impact of fire emissions at high altitudes is largely unknown. This knowledge gap will be addressed during the International Polar Year (IPY), as boreal fire emissions will be tracked and documented in detail through aerial, satellite and ground-based measurements, as a key component of the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport) and ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) projects to be conducted in 2008. A large fire in the Canadian Northwest Territories burned throughout the month of June 2007, in a remote region where forest fires are not actively suppressed, eventually reaching 90,000 hectares in size. This fire was monitored for blowup one week in advance; it erupted into pyroconvection on June 25, 2007. We present an analysis of this event combining satellite data with ground-based measurements to document the development and impact of this classic pyroCb event. Under extreme fire danger conditions, the fire burned close to 20,000 hectares on that day. Fire behavior was consistent with predictions using the Canadian Fire Behavior Prediction System, with the fire spreading at 2.7 km/hr, consuming 33,000 kg of fuel hourly, generating an

  11. Default-all is dangerous!

    CERN Document Server

    Gatterbauer, Wolfgang; Suciu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    We show that the default-all propagation scheme for database annotations is dangerous. Dangerous here means that it can propagate annotations to the query output which are semantically irrelevant to the query the user asked. This is the result of considering all relationally equivalent queries and returning the union of their where-provenance in an attempt to define a propagation scheme that is insensitive to query rewriting. We propose an alternative query-rewrite-insensitive (QRI) where-provenance called minimum propagation. It is analogous to the minimum witness basis for why-provenance, straight-forward to evaluate, and returns all relevant and only relevant annotations.

  12. Impacts of changing fire weather conditions on reconstructed trends in U.S. wildland fire activity from 1979 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn, Patrick H.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2016-11-01

    One component of climate-fire interactions is the relationship between weather conditions concurrent with burning (i.e., fire danger) and the magnitude of fire activity. Here daily environmental conditions are associated with daily observations of fire activity within ecoregions across the continental United States (CONUS) by aligning the latter 12 years of a 36 year gridded fire danger climatology with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer fire products. Results reveal that although modern relationships (2003-2014) vary regionally, fires across the majority of CONUS are more likely to be present and burning more vigorously as fire danger increases. Applying modern relationships to the entire climatology (1979-2014) indicates that in the absence of other influences, changes in fire danger have significantly increased the number of days per year that fires are burning across 42-49% of CONUS (by area) while also significantly increasing daily fire growth and daily heat release across 37-45% of CONUS. Increases in the fire activity season length coupled with an intensification of daily burning characteristics resulted in a CONUS-wide +0.02 Mha yr-1 trend in burned area, a 10.6 g m-2 yr-1 trend in the amount of fuel consumed per unit burned area, and ultimately a +0.51 Tg yr-1 trend in dry matter consumption. Overall, the results demonstrate regional variations in the response of fires to changes in fire danger and that weather conditions concurrent with burning have a three-pronged impact on the magnitude of fire activity by affecting the seasonal duration, spatial extent, and combustion intensity.

  13. The danger of misunderstanding ‘culture’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Most conservationists working in Madagascar recognise thatif conservation goals are to be achieved, conservation bodieshave to work together with, rather than against, local people.One important aspect of this is taking local ‘culture’ into account.However, what is understood by ‘culture’ in such contexts tendsto be extremely partial as ‘culture’ is almost always limited totaboos (fady. The article discusses the danger of such a narrowview suggesting that ‘culture’ is infinitely more complex andsubtle than its immediately apparent surface. I argue that if conservationists’ commitment to take ‘culture’ seriously is genuine, it must also apply to those cultural phenomena that are in conflict with conservation programmes. This applies in particular to rural Malagasy people’s desire to have many descendants; a desire which is linked to their fundamental understanding of what represents a meaningful life.

  14. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 repor...

  15. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 repor...

  16. Sensitivity of fire weather index to different reanalysis products in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bedia

    2012-03-01

    be useful for the identification of extreme fire danger events. (e.g. those above the 90th percentile value and for the definition of danger levels/classes (with level thresholds adapted to the observed/reanalysis distributions.

  17. High-Performance Fire Detector for Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The danger from fire aboard spacecraft is immediate with only moments for detection and suppression. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where the cost of...

  18. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  19. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  20. Danger of Antibiotic Overuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be Smart About Social Media The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse KidsHealth > For Parents > The Danger of Antibiotic ... by not reaching for the prescription pad. How Antibiotics Work Antibiotics, first used in the 1940s, are ...

  1. Dangerous Dogs, Constructivism and Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that although there is no necessary link between constructivism and particular sets of norms, constructivism opens up a space for normativity and can be articulated through particular normative or political programs. I show how Laclau’s deconstructive constructivism can be art...... be articulated within the framework of an ethos of democratization. The article takes its empirical point of departure in debates over dangerous dogs....

  2. 极端气象条件诱发的静电火灾事故分析与防范建议%Analysis and Preventive Countermeasures for Electrostatic Fire Accidents Caused by Extreme Weather Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家启; 李黎; 黄亚敏; 秦健; 曾理

    2012-01-01

    Taking a fire accident in at a pharmacy company in Chongqing on the September 2006 as an example, the causes of the electrostatic fire accident are analyzed by using the meteorological ground observation data and water vapor content inferred from GPS/MAT data, in combination with the production processes of the company. The results show that the extreme weather condition of high temperature and low moisture (air vapour content being 0.5 g/cm3, and surface temperature above.40℃) is the precondition for the electrostatic fire; another important cause is the incorrect measures for electrostatic prevention, which made a great deal of static electricity accumulated, produced spark discharge, and then led to the burning of a large amount of volatile petroleurn aether vapour. In order to decrease the occurrences of the like electrostatic fire accidents, some precaution suggestions are given.%针对重庆一家制药厂2006年9月3日22:00发生的一起火灾,利用GPS/MAT资料反演空气水汽含量产品和气象地面观测资料,并结合制药厂生产工艺,重点分析静电火灾事故原因.结果表明:高温低湿极端气象条件(空气中水汽含量达到0.5 g/cm3、地表温度在40℃以上)是静电火灾发生的先决条件;生产工艺中防静电措施不合理,使静电产生和大量积聚,并产生火花放电,致使大量挥发的石油醚蒸汽燃烧而引发火灾,为减少类似静电火灾事故的发生,提出了相应防范建议以供参考.

  3. Reconstruction of fire spread within wildland fire events in Northern Eurasia from the MODIS active fire product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, T. V.; Csiszar, I. A.

    2007-04-01

    fire activity in the area compared to vegetation zones. In addition, fire spread rates do not directly correlate with the intensity of a given fire season. FSR is also used to identify the points of ignition for individual fire events in spatio-temporal domain for fire danger and fire threat modeling. This approach presents another step towards the more complete characterization of fire events from remotely sensed data.

  4. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent danger. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... immediately or before the imminence of such danger can be eliminated through the enforcement...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  6. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  7. Assessment of Fire Occurrence and Future Fire Potential in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N. H. F.; Jenkins, L. K.; Loboda, T. V.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Whitley, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    An analysis of the occurrence of fire in Alaskan tundra was completed using the relatively complete historical record of fire for the region from 1950 to 2013. Spatial fire data for Alaskan tundra regions were obtained from the Alaska Large Fire Database for the region defined from vegetation and ecoregion maps. A detailed presentation of fire records available for assessing the fire regime of the tundra regions of Alaska as well as results evaluating fire size, seasonality, and general geographic and temporal trends is included. Assessment of future fire potential was determined for three future climate scenarios at four locations across the Alaskan tundra using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI). Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) weather variables were used for historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) time periods. The database includes 908 fire points and 463 fire polygons within the 482,931 km2 of Alaskan tundra. Based on the polygon database 25,656 km2 (6,340,000 acres) has burned across the six tundra ecoregions since 1950. Approximately 87% of tundra fires start in June and July across all ecoregions. Combining information from the polygon and points data records, the estimated average fire size for fire in the Alaskan Arctic region is 28.1 km2 (7,070 acres), which is much smaller than in the adjacent boreal forest region, averaging 203 km2 for high fire years. The largest fire in the database is the Imuruk Basin Fire which burned 1,680 km2 in 1954 in the Seward Peninsula region (Table 1). Assessment of future fire potential shows that, in comparison with the historical fire record, fire occurrence in Alaskan tundra is expected to increase under all three climate scenarios. Occurrences of high fire weather danger (>10 FWI) are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude in all regions modeled. The changes in fire weather conditions are expected to vary from one region to another in seasonal occurrence as well as severity and frequency

  8. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  9. INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SYSTEM OF FORECAST VEGETATION FIRES IN NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for spatial prediction for fire danger as function of weather and pyrological vegetation characteristics was constructed. The method of calculating the time conducted vegetable combustible materials in fire condition of each month of the season was suggested. Calculate the probability of fires and danger periods of plant formations in a monsoon climate. The geographic information system was developed, it was tested in the Middle Amur region in the Russian Far East.

  10. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  11. 3 CFR 8432 - Proclamation 8432 of October 2, 2009. Fire Prevention Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to stay “Fire Smart.” It is also a time to honor our Nation's brave firefighters and volunteers who... dangerous situations with fire. This week's theme, “Stay Fire Smart! Don’t Get Burned,” focuses on... neighboring buildings. These and other emergency situations can endanger the lives of not only the public,...

  12. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A section... four (4) nautical miles. (3) Firing on the ranges will be suspended as long as any vessel is within...

  13. The danger theory: 20 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    The self-non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the "danger theory." This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined.

  14. Meteoroids are Dangerous to Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2017-01-01

    Meteoroids put dents in Shuttle windows much like bouncing gravel puts dents in your car's windshield. However, meteoroids move at such high speeds that they can partly vaporize the surfaces they strike! A dust particle (smaller than a meteoroid) hit the STEREO spacecraft and produced this fountain of smaller particles. When a meteoroid breaks up, its "shrapnel" can also be dangerous. Even when meteoroids don't damage a spacecraft, they can cause problems. Here, a small meteoroid bumped a camera on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), causing wiggles in this scan of the lunar surface. Meteoroids and pieces of space junk create rough edges on the outside of the Space Station that can damage space suits. The astronauts' gloves had to be thickened to help prevent them from ripping.

  15. Interactions among wildland fires in a long-established Sierra Nevada natural fire area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.M.; Miller, J.D.; Thode, A.E.; Kelly, M.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Stephens, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate interactions between successive naturally occurring fires, and assess to what extent the environments in which fires burn influence these interactions. Using mapped fire perimeters and satellite-based estimates of post-fire effects (referred to hereafter as fire severity) for 19 fires burning relatively freely over a 31-year period, we demonstrate that fire as a landscape process can exhibit self-limiting characteristics in an upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. We use the term 'self-limiting' to refer to recurring fire as a process over time (that is, fire regime) consuming fuel and ultimately constraining the spatial extent and lessening fire-induced effects of subsequent fires. When the amount of time between successive adjacent fires is under 9 years, and when fire weather is not extreme (burning index classes (unchanged, low, moderate, high). This is in contrast to a recent study demonstrating increasing high-severity burning throughout the Sierra Nevada from 1984 to 2006, which suggests freely burning fires over time in upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests can regulate fire-induced effects across the landscape. This information can help managers better anticipate short- and long-term effects of allowing naturally ignited fires to burn, and ultimately, improve their ability to implement Wildland Fire Use programs in similar forest types. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. FIRE DESIGN: DIRECT COMPARISON BETWEEN FIRE CURVES. THE CASE STUDY OF A NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lombardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to fire safety engineering, the present study analyzes fire design settings for simulation of fire in a nursery and proposes to compare simulations developed with a natural fire curve and nominal fire curve. Comparative analysis was developed according to thermo-fluid dynamic parameters that are relevant to the safety of the exposed and for the representative period of the danger flow to the exposed, which are mainly children between 0 and 3 years of age, helpless under ordinary conditions and even more so in case of emergency. Defined conditions of structure and ventilation, Two fire simulations, differentiated by fire curve, have been implemented: First simulation: the parameters have been derived from the simulation of a fire, characterized by analytic function of Heat Release Rate (HRR Second simulation: the HRR function was obtained ex post by making a simulation of natural fire in realistically furnished room by imposing a minimum effective primer. The simulated HRR curve, appropriately linearized, allows to estimate a Likely Fire Curve (LFC. The simulations have been developed for a time of about 15 min, starting from the ignition of fire whereas the flow of the danger is serious for exposed mainly in this first phase of fire. The comparison between the parameters of fire involved the Temperature-Time Curve and HRR-Time Curve of both simulations and the ISO 834 Curve, which is a consolidated benchmark in Fire Safety Engineering (FSE. The nominal curves have been introduced for the purpose of checking whether the structural strength and integrity: the adoption of these curves in the fire safety engineering was made by analogy, on the assumption that the phenomena of major intensity, that these curves represent, ensure a safe approach on the choice of the fire design. The study showed indeed that the analytical curve, adopted in order to verify the structural strength, produces fields of both temperature and toxic concentrations

  17. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  18. Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…

  19. Towards improving wildland firefighter situational awareness through daily fire behaviour risk assessments in the US Northern Rockies and Northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Patrick H. Freeborn

    2017-01-01

    Wildland firefighters must assess potential fire behaviour in order to develop appropriate strategies and tactics that will safely meet objectives. Fire danger indices integrate surface weather conditions to quantify potential variations in fire spread rates and intensities and therefore should closely relate to observed fire behaviour. These indices could better...

  20. [Dangerous sharks in tropical seas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, J; Menard, G; Drouin, C; Pollet, L

    2000-01-01

    Sightseeing travel in tropical zones is a growing industry. The risks incurred by travelers depend on the destination, duration of stay, individual behavior, and type of leisure activity. Water sports expose visitors to encounters with dangerous marine animals. Shark attacks are rare but always serious occurrences. Divers should handle any shark, regardless of size, with due precaution. Prevention of shark attack depends on avoiding encounters by not attracting the attention of the shark and knowing the proper attitude to adopt in case an encounter should occur. Active and passive protection can be used, but each method has advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation. Rescue operations are difficult due to the gravity of injuries and their occurrence in a marine environment. This along with the nature of the aggressor explain that many attacks are immediately fatal. Wounds are often deep with involvement of bone, blood vessels, and nerves. A possible source of complication in survivors is infection, which can involve uncommon microorganisms associated with bacteria in sharks mouth or marine environment.

  1. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well beyond fire-fighting. It ranges from monitoring confined spaces to dealing with flooding and preventing chemical hazards. A wide range of equipment enables them to fulfil thei...

  2. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  3. Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Container Yard Using the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianhong Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT, a network of objects, has been regarded as the next revolution for the global information industry after the Internet. With IoT, many intelligent applications can be accomplished or improved. This paper presents a framework for dangerous goods management in container yard using IoT technology. The framework consists of three layers: perceptual layer, transport layer, and application layer. It offers an infrastructure for management and data analysis and utilization. According to the features of dangerous goods, the framework can be enhanced for container information forecast, container gate-in and gate-out management, environment parameters monitoring, and fire control as well. In order to verify our method, a prototype system is developed, which shows good performance. With our method, safe operation of dangerous goods in container yard can be accomplished.

  4. Post-fire vegetation and fuel development influences fire severity patterns in reburns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppoletta, Michelle; Merriam, Kyle E; Collins, Brandon M

    2016-04-01

    In areas where fire regimes and forest structure have been dramatically altered, there is increasing concern that contemporary fires have the potential to set forests on a positive feedback trajectory with successive reburns, one in which extensive stand-replacing fire could promote more stand-replacing fire. Our study utilized an extensive set of field plots established following four fires that occurred between 2000 and 2010 in the northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA that were subsequently reburned in 2012. The information obtained from these field plots allowed for a unique set of analyses investigating the effect of vegetation, fuels, topography, fire weather, and forest management on reburn severity. We also examined the influence of initial fire severity and time since initial fire on influential predictors of reburn severity. Our results suggest that high- to moderate-severity fire in the initial fires led to an increase in standing snags and shrub vegetation, which in combination with severe fire weather promoted high-severity fire effects in the subsequent reburn. Although fire behavior is largely driven by weather, our study demonstrates that post-fire vegetation composition and structure are also important drivers of reburn severity. In the face of changing climatic regimes and increases in extreme fire weather, these results may provide managers with options to create more fire-resilient ecosystems. In areas where frequent high-severity fire is undesirable, management activities such as thinning, prescribed fire, or managed wildland fire can be used to moderate fire behavior not only prior to initial fires, but also before subsequent reburns.

  5. A Cable-tunnel Inspecting Robot for Dangerous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhuang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of mobile robot used for inspecting the cable tunnel online in the dangerous environment. Usually, the calble tunnel is full of poisonous gases after fire, such as CO,CH4, CO2 and so on. Then, the mobile robot is able to tell us whether the tunnel environment is safe or not. In this paper the architecture of the robot is designed at first to meet the motion requirement in the tunnel. These characteristics distinguish the mobile robot from others like compact structure,small size,little weight and easily being carried. Next, the moving mechanism and its kinematics are described. And thus, the operating procedure and experiments are introuduced to validate its reliablity.

  6. A cable-tunnel inspecting robot for dangerous environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhuang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of mobile robot used for inspecting the cable tunnel online in the dangerous environment. Usually, the calble tunnel is full of poisonous gases after fire, such as CO, CH4, CO2 and so on. Then, the mobile robot is able to tell us whether the tunnel environment is safe or not. In this paper the architecture of the robot is designed at first to meet the motion requirement in the tunnel. These characteristics distinguish the mobile robot from others like compact structure, small size, little weight and easily being carried. Next, the moving mechanism and its kinematics are described. And thus, the operating procedure and experiments are introuduced to validate its reliablity.

  7. Dendritic Cells as Danger-Recognizing Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokmann Hong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells that are characterized by a potent capacity to initiate immune responses. DCs comprise several subsets with distinct phenotypes. After sensing any danger(s to the host via their innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors, DCs become mature and subsequently present antigens to CD4+ T cells. Since DCs possess the intrinsic capacity to polarize CD4+ helper cells, it is critical to understand the immunological roles of DCs for clinical applications. Here, we review the different DC subsets, their danger-sensing receptors and immunological functions. Furthermore, the cytokine reporter mouse model for studying DC activation is introduced.

  8. Potential dangers of hay bailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Individuals engaged in farming have higher risks of injury and death from trauma than many other workers. Fatalities most often involve tractor-related incident such as roll-overs. Although it is also recognized that farm machinery may result in serious injuries and death, little has been reported on problems associated with hay baling, transport and storage. Case 1: A 43-year-old man trying to dislodge jammed hay in a hay baler had either been pulled, or had fallen, into the baler, where he had been crushed, rotated and then cocooned within a hay bale. The body showed extensive blunt trauma to the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and limbs, with burning from a fire that subsequently started within the overheated machine. Case 2: A 58-year-old man was crushed between the moving arms of a hay shuttle and a safety fence. Death was attributed to blunt chest and abdominal trauma with crush asphyxia. Case 3: A 56-year-old man fell some distance from the top of stacked hay bales fracturing his neck and causing virtual transection of his cervical spinal cord. These cases demonstrate rare forms of farm deaths that may be associated with the creation (baling), moving (shuttling) and storage of hay bales. All forms of farm machinery should be treated circumspectly, given the possibility that serious injury or death may result from inattention or inappropriate handling. Temporary stacking of hay bales may create high work platforms that risk falls with lethal consequences.

  9. The management of fire-adapted ecosystems in an urban setting: the case of Table Mountain National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available and invasive alien plant control. National legislation emphasizes the need to protect communities from dangerous wildfires, and this compels fire managers to adopt a cautious approach to the application of fire. Ecological outcomes are optimized under a fire...

  10. Microbe- and danger-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Achille; Granucci, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The ability of the immune system to give rise to an effective response against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self-tissues has always been an object of keen interest for immunologist. Over the years, different theories have been proposed to explain if and how the immune system is able to discriminate between self and non-self, including the Infectious Non-self theory from Charles Janeway and Polly Matzinger's Danger theory. Nowadays we know Janeway's theory is largely true, however the immune system does respond to injured, stressed and necrotic cells releasing danger signals (DAMPs) with a potent inflammatory response. To avoid unwanted prolonged autoimmune reactions, though, danger-induced inflammation should be tightly regulated. In the present review we discuss how prototypic DAMPs are able to induce inflammation and the peculiarity of danger-induced inflammation, as opposed to a complete immune response to fight pathogen invasions.

  11. (Neuro)predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discuss...... whether some adherents of retributivism give a plausible rationale for punishing offenders more harshly if they, all else being equal, by means of predictions are believed to be more dangerous than other offenders. While consequentialism has no problem, at least in principle, with this use of predictions...... to be dangerous in the future more harshly than non-dangerous offenders. After having reconstructed their arguments in detail, it will be argued that both Duff's and Morse's attempts to give a retributivistic justification have several shortcomings....

  12. Inherent Dangers in Orogenital Sex During Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dangerous, causing even the death of the women. We carried out a search of ... KEY WORDS: Air embolism, cunnilingus, orogenital sex, pregnancy ... contained multiple case report. ... The average age of women was 20.2 years, and only one.

  13. Opioids and Alcohol a Dangerous Cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken opioids previously. Oxycodone, an ingredient in the brand-name drugs OxyContin and Percocet, is widely prescribed ... in the journal Anesthesiology . "We hope to increase awareness regarding the dangers of prescription opioids, the increased ...

  14. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Foods Containing Xylitol Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? Symptoms to Look For in Your Dog What Can ...

  15. An empirical machine learning method for predicting potential fire control locations for pre-fire planning and operational fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. O' Connor; David E. Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    During active fire incidents, decisions regarding where and how to safely and effectively deploy resources to meet management objectives are often made under rapidly evolving conditions, with limited time to assess management strategies or for development of backup plans if initial efforts prove unsuccessful. Under all but the most extreme fire weather conditions,...

  16. Urban Sprawl and Wildfire Danger along the Wildland-Urban Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kafatos, M.; Myoung, B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban sprawl has created an extensive wildland-urban interface (WUI) where urban areas encroach well into the wilderness that is highly susceptible to wildfire danger. To monitor urbanization along WUI, an innovative approach based on the Dense Sampling Method with the Rosette Transform (DSM-RT) enables the use of satellite scatterometer data to obtain observations without gaps in time and in space at 1-km posting in the decade of the 2000s. To explain how the satellite signature processed with DSM-RT represents physical urban infrastructures, the case of the mega city of Los Angeles is presented with the DSM-RT satellite image overlaid on three-dimensional buildings and road network from the commercial and industrial core of the city to the residential suburb extended into the wild land. Then the rate of urban development in the 2000s in terms of physical urban infrastructure change, rather than the arbitrary boundary defined by administrative or legislative measures, for 14 cities along the San Gabriel Mountains in California are evaluated to rank the degree of urbanization along the local WUI, which may increase the probability of fire ignitions and fire impacts. Moreover, the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODIS Aqua satellite is used to estimate live fuel moisture (LFM) conditions around the WUI to evaluate fire danger levels, which are consistent to the specific definition currently used by fire agencies in making real-life decisions for fire preparedness pro-actively before the fire occurrence. As an example, a map of EVI-derived LFM for the Colby Fire in 2014 showing a complex spatial pattern of LFM reduction along an extensive WUI illustrates satellite advantage in monitoring LFM over the vast wild land in Southern California. Since the method is based on global satellite data, it is applicable to regions prone to wildfires across the world.

  17. The return of the dangerous man. Reflections on the idea of dangerousness and its uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Kaluszynski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, the re-emergence of the notion of dangerousness in the process of law making has rendered it necessary to elaborate on the objectives of political actors. (Act on the Retention of Safety and the Declaration of Criminal Irresponsibility Due to Mental Disorder, 25 February 2008., Act of August 10, 2007 Strengthening the Fight Against Recidivism in Adults and Minors  The aim of this article is to analyse the social construction of this notion through the criminological discourse prevalent at the end of the XIXth century. The Third Republic was preoccupied with the question of recidivism, fearing degeneration and a declining birth rate, and was seduced by another notion emerging at this time: eugenism. Contemporary law making has reactivated a historical heritage based on extreme measures that have derived from these concepts. Based on a socio-historical approach, this article attempts to understand the mechanisms of governance in a republican society, as well as the influence of these mechanisms in the production of legal, political, moral and societal norms.

  18. Dangerous effects of methane gas in atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of methane gas which causes sever global warming in the atmosphere. Global warming becomes main issue in economics in the 21st century. Because global climate change becomes more dangerous and every nation realized that this is due to greenhouse gas emissions. Methane is dangerous greenhouse gas, since it is 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. All the nations talk about the reduction of only carbon dioxide and no nation stress on methan...

  19. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  20. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  1. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  2. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  3. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  4. Fire behavior sensor package remote trigger design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Jimenez; Jason Forthofer; James Reardon; Bret Butler

    2007-01-01

    Fire behavior characteristics (such as temperature, radiant and total heat flux, 2- and 3-dimensional velocities, and air flow) are extremely difficult to measure insitu. Although insitu sensor packages are capable of such measurements in realtime, it is also essential to acquire video documentation as a means of better understanding the fire behavior data recorded by...

  5. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  6. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  7. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  8. Satellite remote-sensing technologies used in forest fire management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-rui; Douglas J. Mcrae; SHU Li-fu; WANG Ming-yu; LI Hong

    2005-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing has become a primary data source for fire danger rating prediction, fuel and fire mapping, fire monitoring, and fire ecology research. This paper summarizes the research achievements in these research fields, and discusses the future trend in the use of satellite remote-sensing techniques in wildfire management. Fuel-type maps from remote-sensing data can now be produced at spatial and temporal scales quite adequate for operational fire management applications. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellites are being used for fire detection worldwide due to their high temporal resolution and ability to detect fires in remote regions. Results can be quickly presented on many Websites providing a valuable service readily available to fire agency. As cost-effective tools, satellite remote-sensing techniques play an important role in fire mapping. Improved remote-sensing techniques have the potential to date older fire scars and provide estimates of burn severity. Satellite remote sensing is well suited to assessing the extent of biomass burning, a prerequisite for estimating emissions at regional and global scales, which are needed for better understanding the effects of fire on climate change. The types of satellites used in fire research are also discussed in the paper. Suggestions on what remote-sensing efforts should be completed in China to modernize fire management technology in this country are given.

  9. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. CERN firemen simulate the backdraft phenomena for training. The demonstration, which you will have the opportunity to observe, on the next Discovery Monday, is spectacular. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well b...

  10. Fire and Climate Change in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, M. D.; Logan, K. A.; Stocks, S. J.; Wotton, B. M.; Amiro, B. D.

    2004-12-01

    Fire is the major stand-renewing agent for much of the circumboreal forest, and greatly influences the structure and function of boreal ecosystems from regeneration through mortality. Current estimates are that an average of 5-15 million hectares burn annually in boreal forests, almost exclusively in Siberia, Canada and Alaska. There is a growing global awareness of the importance and vulnerability of the boreal region to projected future climate change. Fire activity is strongly influenced by four factors - weather/climate, vegetation \\(fuels\\), natural ignition agents and humans. Climate and weather are strongly linked to fire activity which suggests that the fire regime will respond rapidly to changes in climate. Recent results suggest that area burned by fire is related to temperature and fuel moisture. The climate of the northern hemisphere has been warming due to an influx of radiatively active gases \\(carbon dioxide, methane etc.\\) as a result of human activities. This altered climate, modelled by General Circulation Models \\(GCMs\\), indicates a profound impact on fire activity in the circumboreal forest. Recent results using GCMs suggest that in many regions fire weather/fire danger conditions will be more severe, area burned will increase, people-caused and lightning-caused ignitions will increase, fire seasons will be longer and the intensity and severity of fires will increase. This increase in fire activity may lead to a positive feedback cycle with the increased release of greenhouse gases. Although a run away scenario is unlikely as changes in vegetation would limit the positive feedback cycle. Changes in fire activity as a result of climate change could have a greater and more immediate impact on vegetation distribution and abundance as compared to the direct impact of climate change.

  11. Simulation of evacuation behaviors in fire using spacial grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; ZHAO Daoliang; LI Jian; FANG Weifeng; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional Cellular Automata (CA) model to demonstrate the special phenomena of occupants evacuating from fire room is presented. A set of simple but effective models is proposed to investigate the effect of fire smoke on route choice. The concept of danger grade is introduced, and occupants select the target cell according to the value of danger grade at each time step. Some technique is introduced to substitute the human intelligence, such as premeditation. The simulation results show that human evacuation is influenced greatly by both human visual field and building exit.

  12. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire.

  13. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  14. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  15. Using unplanned fires to help suppressing future large fires in Mediterranean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Regos

    Full Text Available Despite the huge resources invested in fire suppression, the impact of wildfires has considerably increased across the Mediterranean region since the second half of the 20th century. Modulating fire suppression efforts in mild weather conditions is an appealing but hotly-debated strategy to use unplanned fires and associated fuel reduction to create opportunities for suppression of large fires in future adverse weather conditions. Using a spatially-explicit fire-succession model developed for Catalonia (Spain, we assessed this opportunistic policy by using two fire suppression strategies that reproduce how firefighters in extreme weather conditions exploit previous fire scars as firefighting opportunities. We designed scenarios by combining different levels of fire suppression efficiency and climatic severity for a 50-year period (2000-2050. An opportunistic fire suppression policy induced large-scale changes in fire regimes and decreased the area burnt under extreme climate conditions, but only accounted for up to 18-22% of the area to be burnt in reference scenarios. The area suppressed in adverse years tended to increase in scenarios with increasing amounts of area burnt during years dominated by mild weather. Climate change had counterintuitive effects on opportunistic fire suppression strategies. Climate warming increased the incidence of large fires under uncontrolled conditions but also indirectly increased opportunities for enhanced fire suppression. Therefore, to shift fire suppression opportunities from adverse to mild years, we would require a disproportionately large amount of area burnt in mild years. We conclude that the strategic planning of fire suppression resources has the potential to become an important cost-effective fuel-reduction strategy at large spatial scale. We do however suggest that this strategy should probably be accompanied by other fuel-reduction treatments applied at broad scales if large-scale changes in fire

  16. DANGERS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountaineering and everything that is connected with it is a sport with con¬tro¬lled risk. Mountaineers, alpinists, climbers, cavers and all the others who visit and sojourn in mountains are faced with many risks and dangers, which are caused by na¬ture and also by their own mistakes. The dangers in the mountains, like dangers in any other environment, are mainly predictable, so it is best to deal with them with good esti¬mation, knowledge and skill. One has to be aware of his surroundings – the moun¬tain, to respect it and to know what is dangerous and how much it is dangerous at any moment. The organization of the mountaineering expeditions and leadership per¬haps re¬present the highest level of security control. To develop skills for organizing and lead¬ing a group means to ensure the safety of the entire group – to work pre¬ven¬ti¬ve¬ly at the level of the entire group, not only at the level of an individual. The success of the enti¬re group as well as safety depends on the organization and leadership.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. (a) Danger zones—(1) Aerial bombing and strafing target surrounding Kaula...

  18. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated danger marks. Isolated danger marks indicate an isolated danger which may be passed on all sides. As...

  19. 33 CFR 334.5 - Disestablishment of a danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disestablishment of a danger zone..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.5 Disestablishment of a danger zone. (a) Upon receipt of a request from any agency for the disestablishment of a danger zone, the...

  20. The Latest on the Sokal Affair: Beyond Three Extremisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolescu, Basarab

    2006-01-01

    After a short summary of the Sokal Affair and of the point of view of Steven Weinberg, we discuss certain aspects of the scientist ideology present in the last book of Alan Sokal "Pesudoscience ans Postmodernism: Antagonists or Fellow-Travellers?", published in France. The danger of the three extremisms present in our time - relativist extremism, scientist extremism and its mirror-image, the religious extremism - is underlined. We point out also the necessity of a transdisciplinary dialogue b...

  1. Home Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  2. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  3. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorci, Guglielmo; Giovannini, Gloria; Riuzzi, Francesca; Bonifazi, Pierluigi; Zelante, Teresa; Zagarella, Silvia; Bistoni, Francesco; Donato, Rosario; Romani, Luigina

    2011-03-01

    Humans inhale hundreds of Aspergillus conidia without adverse consequences. Powerful protective mechanisms may ensure prompt control of the pathogen and inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. Upon forming complexes with TLR2 ligands, S100B inhibited TLR2 via RAGE, through a paracrine epithelial cells/neutrophil circuit that restrained pathogen-induced inflammation. However, upon binding to nucleic acids, S100B activated intracellular TLRs eventually resolve danger-induced inflammation via transcriptional inhibition of S100B. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of TLRs and RAGE by S100B provides evidence for an evolving braking circuit in infection whereby an endogenous danger protects against pathogen-induced inflammation and a pathogen-sensing mechanism resolves danger-induced inflammation.

  4. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Sorci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans inhale hundreds of Aspergillus conidia without adverse consequences. Powerful protective mechanisms may ensure prompt control of the pathogen and inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. Upon forming complexes with TLR2 ligands, S100B inhibited TLR2 via RAGE, through a paracrine epithelial cells/neutrophil circuit that restrained pathogen-induced inflammation. However, upon binding to nucleic acids, S100B activated intracellular TLRs eventually resolve danger-induced inflammation via transcriptional inhibition of S100B. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of TLRs and RAGE by S100B provides evidence for an evolving braking circuit in infection whereby an endogenous danger protects against pathogen-induced inflammation and a pathogen-sensing mechanism resolves danger-induced inflammation.

  5. The danger model: questioning an unconvincing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowski, Szczepan

    2016-02-01

    Janeway's pattern recognition theory holds that the immune system detects infection through a limited number of the so-called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors bind specific chemical compounds expressed by entire groups of related pathogens, but not by host cells (pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In contrast, Matzinger's danger hypothesis postulates that products released from stressed or damaged cells have a more important role in the activation of immune system than the recognition of nonself. These products, named by analogy to PAMPs as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are proposed to act through the same receptors (PRRs) as PAMPs and, consequently, to stimulate largely similar responses. Herein, I review direct and indirect evidence that contradict the widely accepted danger theory, and suggest that it may be false.

  6. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play.

  7. Dangerous arachnids-Fake news or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Tobias J; Herzig, Volker

    2017-09-01

    The public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are becoming more popular as pets in Europe, America and Asia, raising the question for regulatory agencies in these regions as to whether they need to take measurements to protect their citizens. In order to decide upon the necessary regulatory steps, they first need to determine which arachnids are actually dangerous to humans. This review therefore provides an overview of the current literature on verified bites and stings from spiders and scorpions with the aim of assessing their potential danger for human health. As a guideline, we also provide a list of those arachnid genera that we consider as potentially dangerous, which includes 10 spider and 11 scorpion genera. The arachnid genera classified as dangerous comprise less than a quarter of all extant scorpion species and only 0.5% of all spiders species, with the actual number most likely being much lower than that, as not all species in those genera might turn out to pose an actual threat for humans. In conclusion, we found that only a small percentage of scorpions and a minute percentage of all spiders can be considered as potentially dangerous to humans. While in some countries of origin the high incidence of envenomations by dangerous arachnids can result in a serious problem to the health system, we assessed the risk that the same species pose when kept as pets under controlled maintenance conditions as significantly lower. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cartographies of danger mapping hazards in America

    CERN Document Server

    Monmonier, Mark

    1997-01-01

    No place is perfectly safe, but some places are more dangerous than others. Whether we live on a floodplain or in ""Tornado Alley,"" near a nuclear facility or in a neighborhood poorly lit at night, we all co-exist uneasily with natural and man-made hazards. As Mark Monmonier shows in this entertaining and immensely informative book, maps can tell us a lot about where we can anticipate certain hazards, but they can also be dangerously misleading. California, for example, takes earthquakes seriously, with a comprehensive program of seismic mapping, whereas Washington has been comparatively lax

  9. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... the range will be conducted intermittently by one or more vessels, depending on weather and...

  10. Forecasting distributions of large federal-lands fires utilizing satellite and gridded weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.K. Preisler; R.E. Burgan; J.C. Eidenshink; J.M. Klaver; R.W. Klaver

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents a statistical model for assessing the skill of fire danger indices and for forecasting the distribution of the expected numbers of large fires over a given region and for the upcoming week. The procedure permits development of daily maps that forecast, for the forthcoming week and within federal lands, percentiles of the distributions of (i)...

  11. Keep away from danger: Dangerous objects in dynamic and static situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena eAnelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroscience studies have shown that objects observation evokes specific affordances (i.e., action possibilities and motor responses. Recent findings provide evidence that even dangerous objects can modulate the motor system evoking aversive affordances. This sounds intriguing since so far the majority of behavioral, brain imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies with painful and dangerous stimuli strictly concerned the domain of pain, excepted for evidence suggesting sensitivity to objects’ affordances when neutral objects are located in participants’ peripersonal space. This study investigates whether the observation of a neutral or dangerous object in a static or dynamic situation differently influences motor responses, and the time-course of the dangerous objects’ processing. In three experiments we manipulated: object dangerousness (neutral vs. dangerous; object category (artifact vs. natural; manual response typology (press vs. release a key; object presentation (Experiment 1: dynamic, Experiments 2 and 3: static; object movement direction (Experiment 1: away vs. toward the participant or size (Experiments 2 and 3: big vs. normal vs. small. The task required participants to decide whether the object was an artifact or a natural object, by pressing or releasing one key. Results showed a facilitation for neutral over dangerous objects in the static situation, probably due to an affordance effect. Instead, in the dynamic condition responses were modulated by the object movement direction, with a dynamic affordance effect of neutral objects and an escape-avoidance effect of dangerous objects (neutral objects were processed faster when they moved toward-approached the participant, whereas dangerous objects were processed faster when they moved away from the participant. Moreover, static stimuli influenced the manual response typology. These data indicate the emergence of dynamic affordance and escaping

  12. Transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Lacroix, Didier; Amundsen, F.H.;

    1999-01-01

    A paper which describes the work of an OECD research group. The group has suggested a grouping of dangerous materials, a quantitative risk assessment model and a decision support model which should allow tunnel operators to determine if a given material should be allowed throug a given tunnel...

  13. Securing the dangerous UN convoys in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Albrecht, Peter; Ravnkilde, Signe Cold

    2017-01-01

    It has proven particularly challenging for the UN stabilization mission in Mali (MINUSMA) to transport fuel, food and water to military camps in Sector North on the frontline of the mission. Convoy escorts drain the UN mission of resources and is one of its most dangerous tasks, mainly carried ou...

  14. Augustine on the Dangers of Friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawar, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The philosophers of antiquity had much to say about the place of friendship in the good life and its role in helping us live virtuously. Augustine is unusual in giving substantial attention to the dangers of friendship and its potential to serve as an obstacle (rather than an aid) to virtue. Despite

  15. Transhumanism: projections of opportunities, risks and dangers

    OpenAIRE

    Kindras, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    The experience of recent decades reveals a special changeability of various aspects of human existence. The nomadic movement in space «trans» is especially typical. Modern philosophical thought for these processes uses the term «transhumanism». The paper considers scientifically oriented outlook of transhumanism, analyzes the opportunities, risks and dangers of biotechnological transformation of human into posthuman.

  16. Honeybee communication: a signal for danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2010-04-27

    Scout honeybees recruit other bees to visit a newly discovered food source through the famous 'waggle dance'. Now a new study reports that other nest mates can induce the dancer to stop advertising, if they have experienced danger at that location.

  17. knowledge about obstetric danger signs among preg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    about knowledge level of pregnant women on obstetric danger signs. The objective of this ... deficiencies in awareness should be addressed through maternal and child health services by designing an appro- ..... demographic, cultural, and health interventions as well as ... Baby Package: Implementing Safe Motherhood.

  18. The dangers of non-empirical confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In the book "String Theory and the Scientific Method", Richard Dawid describes a few of the many non-empirical arguments that motivate theoretical physicists' confidence in a theory, taking string theory as case study. I argue that excessive reliance on non-empirical evidence compromises the reliability of science, and that precisely the case of string theory well illustrates this danger.

  19. (Neuro)predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discu...

  20. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  1. Development of a Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC = 1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRA's precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  2. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  3. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  4. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  5. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  6. Adding fuel to the fire: the impacts of non-native grass invasion on fire management at a regional scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A Setterfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Widespread invasion by non-native plants has resulted in substantial change in fire-fuel characteristics and fire-behaviour in many of the world's ecosystems, with a subsequent increase in the risk of fire damage to human life, property and the environment. Models used by fire management agencies to assess fire risk are dependent on accurate assessments of fuel characteristics but there is little evidence that they have been modified to reflect landscape-scale invasions. There is also a paucity of information documenting other changes in fire management activities that have occurred to mitigate changed fire regimes. This represents an important limitation in information for both fire and weed risk management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook an aerial survey to estimate changes to landscape fuel loads in northern Australia resulting from invasion by Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass. Fuel load within the most densely invaded area had increased from 6 to 10 t ha(-1 in the past two decades. Assessment of the effect of calculating the Grassland Fire Danger Index (GFDI for the 2008 and 2009 fire seasons demonstrated that an increase from 6 to 10 t ha(-1 resulted in an increase from five to 38 days with fire risk in the 'severe' category in 2008 and from 11 to 67 days in 2009. The season of severe fire weather increased by six weeks. Our assessment of the effect of increased fuel load on fire management practices showed that fire management costs in the region have increased markedly (∼9 times in the past decade due primarily to A. gayanus invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated the high economic cost of mitigating fire impacts of an invasive grass. This study demonstrates the need to quantify direct and indirect invasion costs to assess the risk of further invasion and to appropriately fund fire and weed management strategies.

  7. Tested by Fire - How two recent Wildfires affected Accelerator Operations at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spickermann, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    In a little more than a decade two large wild fires threatened Los Alamos and impacted accelerator operations at LANL. In 2000 the Cerro Grande Fire destroyed hundreds of homes, as well as structures and equipment at the DARHT facility. The DARHT accelerators were safe in a fire-proof building. In 2011 the Las Conchas Fire burned about 630 square kilometers (250 square miles) and came dangerously close to Los Alamos/LANL. LANSCE accelerator operations Lessons Learned during Las Conchas fire: (1) Develop a plan to efficiently shut down the accelerator on short notice; (2) Establish clear lines of communication in emergency situations; and (3) Plan recovery and keep squirrels out.

  8. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  9. Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With effect from 15 April 2004, the Fire Brigade will no longer issue master keys on loan. Contractors' personnel requiring access to locked premises in order to carry out work must apply to the CERN staff member responsible for the contract concerned.

  10. Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to the nearest exit. Don't stop. Don't go back . In case of fire, do not try to rescue pets or possessions. Once you are out, do not go back in for any reason. Firefighters have the best chance of rescuing people who are trapped. Let firefighters know right away if anyone is missing. ...

  11. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  12. A danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruirui; Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times.

  13. A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161005.html A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go' At least 14 crashes ... it remains imperative for people to understand the dangers of driving with that level of distraction. "This ...

  14. Study on dangers of methane in the gob of fully mechanized caving mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guang-li; WU Li-rong; ZOU De-yun

    2007-01-01

    Divided the gob gas in different types according to falling structure and spatial patterns of gob of the fully mechanized caving mining and analyzed its main form of harm.This passage preliminarily studied the law of unusual gush of gob gas of the fully mechanized caving mining. According to the basic condition for the gas explosion, made comprehensive analysis and appraisal about the oxygen condition, gas concentration distribute and fire source conditions. And find that there is the dangerous district of gas explosion in a certain area of the producing gob and give the three zone theory of gob gas explosion.

  15. Fire Distribution in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with Special Emphasis on Peatland Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Shi, Chenghua; Liew, Soo Chin

    2017-07-03

    In this paper, we analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation fires in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo in the severe El Niño year of 2015, concentrating on the distribution of fires between mineral soils and peatland areas, and between land cover types in peatland areas. The results reveal that 53% of all Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire detections were recorded in peatlands that cover only 12% of the study area. However, fire occurrence in the peatland areas was highly dependent on land cover type. Pristine peat swamp forests (PSF) experienced only marginal fire activity (30 fire detections per 1000 km(2)) compared to deforested undeveloped peatlands (831-915 fire detections per 1000 km(2)). Our results also highlight the extreme fire vulnerability of the southern Sumatran and Bornean peatlands under strong El Niño conditions: 71% of all peatland hotspots were detected in the provinces of South Sumatra and Central Kalimantan, which contain 29% of peatlands in the study area. Degraded PSF and all deforested peatland land cover types, including managed areas, in the two provinces were severely affected, demonstrating how difficult it is to protect even managed drained agricultural areas from unwanted fires during dry periods. Our results thereby advocate rewetting and rehabilitation as the primary management option for highly fire prone degraded undeveloped peatland areas, whenever feasible, as a means to reduce fire risk during future dry episodes.

  16. Seasonal Forecasting of Fires across Southern Borneo, 1997-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Field, Robert; Kaiser, Johannes; Langner, Andreas; Moore, Jonathan; Pappenberger, Florian; Siegert, Florian; Weber, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    several studies using historical data have established negative relationships between fires and antecedent rainfall, and/or positive relationships between fires and deforestation in regions affected by El Nino, comparatively little work has attempted to predict fires and emissions in such regions. Ensemble seasonal climate forecasts issued with several months lead-time have been applied to support risk assessment systems in many fields, notably agricultural production and natural disaster management of flooding, heat waves, drought and fire. The USA, for example, has a long-standing seasonal fire danger prediction system. Fire danger monitoring systems have been operating in Indonesia for over a decade, but, as of yet, no fire danger prediction systems exist. Given the effort required to mobilise suppression and prevention measures in Indonesia, one could argue that high fire danger periods must be anticipated months in advance for mitigation and response measures to be effective. To address this need, the goal of our work was to examine the utility of seasonal rainfall forecasts in predicting severe fires in Indonesia more than one month in advance, using southern Borneo (comprising the bulk of Kalimantan) as a case study. Here we present the results of comparing seasonal forecasts of monthly rainfall from ECMWF's System 4 against i) observed rainfall (GPCP), and ii) burnt area and deforestation (MODIS, AVHRR and Landsat) across southern Borneo for the period 1997-2010. Our results demonstrate the utility of using ECMWF's seasonal climate forecasts for predicting fire activity in the region. Potential applications include improved fire mitigation and responsiveness, and improved risk assessments of biodiversity and carbon losses through fire. These are important considerations for forest protection programmes (e.g. REDD+), forest carbon markets and forest (re)insurance enterprises.

  17. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  18. Affective and Emotional Performances of Danger on Tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; van Hoven, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how danger is affectively and emotionally experienced and performed in different tourism contexts. We draw on Brian Massumi’s work on affect as intensity to show how danger is experienced and outlived to tell the story. The exact origin of danger is not the most important, t

  19. WRF fire simulation coupled with a fuel moisture model and smoke transport by WRF-Chem

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Kim, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    We describe two recent additions to WRF coupled with a fire spread model. Fire propagation is strongly dependent on fuel moisture, which in turn depends on the history of the atmosphere. We have implemented a equilibrium time-lag model of fuel moisture driven by WRF variables. The code allows the user to specify fuel parameters, with the defaults calibrated to the Canadian fire danger rating system for 10-hour fuel. The moisture model can run coupled with the atmosphere-fire model, or offline from WRF output to equilibrate the moisture over a period of time and to provide initial moisture conditions for a coupled atmosphere-fire-moisture simulation. The fire model also inserts smoke tracers into WRF-Chem to model the transport of fire emissions. The coupled model is available from OpenWFM.org. An earlier version of the fire model coupled with atmosphere is a part of WRF release.

  20. Application of PDA forest fire monitoring based on web service technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufei ZHOU; Pengju LIU; Xiaoming TANG

    2009-01-01

    The difficulty in information communication and sharing are major problems for forest fire monitoring and early warning in China. As authors, we applied web service technology to a personal digital assistant (PDA) forest fire monitoring system and propose the framework of a monitoring system based on service-oriented architecture (SOA). At the same time, we describe the composition and function of web services from a server side and a client side. The method for developing a web service invocation engine on the PDA is introduced in detail. Finally, an example of a fire danger rating and fire weather services system are established, based on the Beijing Forest Fire Control System. The results show that the PDA forest fire monitoring system based on web services can effectively take advantage of the existing fire protection decision information services, realize real-time information interaction and sharing, and improve the level of forest fire monitoring.

  1. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  2. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  3. A Global Classification of Contemporary Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S. P.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire regimes provide a sensitive indicator of changes in climate and human use as the concept includes fire extent, season, frequency, and intensity. Fires that occur outside the distribution of one or more aspects of a fire regime may affect ecosystem resilience. However, global scale data related to these varied aspects of fire regimes are highly inconsistent due to incomplete or inconsistent reporting. In this study, we derive a globally applicable approach to characterizing similar fire regimes using long geophysical time series, namely MODIS hotspots since 2000. K-means non-hierarchical clustering was used to generate empirically based groups that minimized within-cluster variability. Satellite-based fire detections are known to have shortcomings, including under-detection from obscuring smoke, clouds or dense canopy cover and rapid spread rates, as often occurs with flashy fuels or during extreme weather. Such regions are free from preconceptions, and the empirical, data-mining approach used on this relatively uniform data source allows the region structures to emerge from the data themselves. Comparing such an empirical classification to expectations from climate, phenology, land use or development-based models can help us interpret the similarities and differences among places and how they provide different indicators of changes of concern. Classifications can help identify where large infrequent mega-fires are likely to occur ahead of time such as in the boreal forest and portions of the Interior US West, and where fire reports are incomplete such as in less industrial countries.

  4. Carbon-Neutral Energy Supply and Energy Demand-Reduction Technology Needed for Continued Economic Growth Without Dangerous Interference in the Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at levels likely to avoid unacceptable climate risk will require a major transformation in the ways we produce and use energy. Most of our energy will need to come from sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and that energy will need to be used efficiently. The required reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as global energy consumption and GDP grow imposes quantitative requirements on some combination of carbon-neutral primary power and energy demand reduction. (Emission reductions are expressed relative to an implicit or explicit baseline; explicit being better for policy-making. Energy demand reduction involves both efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes.) These requirements can be expressed as CO2 emission reductions needed, or as carbon-neutral primary power production needed combined with power not used by virtue of increased energy end use efficiency or lifestyle changes ("negawatts"), always subject to some reasonably well-characterized uncertainty limits. Climatic changes thus far have been closer to the more extreme zone of the climatic uncertainty envelope of global warming indicating the potential for disastrous impacts by mid-century and beyond for business-as-usual. Emission reductions needed to avoid "dangerous interference in the climate system" imply a revolutionary change in the global energy system beginning now; particularly ominous are massive conventional coal-fired electric power energy infrastructures under construction by the US, China & India. Strong arguments, based on physical science considerations, exist for prompt measures such as (1) an immediate moratorium on coal-fired plants that don't sequester CO2, (2) a gradually increasing price on carbon emissions and (3) regulatory standards, for example, that would encourage utilities and car manufacturers to improve efficiency, and (4) Apollo-scale R & D projects beginning now to develop sustainable carbon-neutral power that can be

  5. Assessing the Danger: Validation of Taiwan Intimate Partner Violence Danger Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-ling

    2015-09-01

    The Taiwan Intimate Partner Violence Danger Assessment (TIPVDA) is an IPV risk assessment instrument developed to assist front-line professionals with assessing victim's likelihood of experiencing lethal danger, and is also used to identify intervention strategies. The validation of TIPVDA with an independent sample of 543 female IPV victims in a program was examined in this study. The analysis results revealed the discriminant power of the TIPVDA. In addition, the area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was strongly supportive of predictive effects of the TIPVDA. And the findings suggest that the TIPVDA had stronger predictive power for high dangerousness. Implications for future research and utilization of the TIPVDA are discussed.

  6. The Greek National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompoulidou, Maria; Stefanidou, Alexandra; Grigoriadis, Dionysios; Dragozi, Eleni; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

    2016-08-01

    Efficient forest fire management is a key element for alleviating the catastrophic impacts of wildfires. Overall, the effective response to fire events necessitates adequate planning and preparedness before the start of the fire season, as well as quantifying the environmental impacts in case of wildfires. Moreover, the estimation of fire danger provides crucial information required for the optimal allocation and distribution of the available resources. The Greek National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi)—established by the Greek Forestry Service in collaboration with the Laboratory of Forest Management and Remote Sensing of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the International Balkan Center—aims to develop a series of modern products and services for supporting the efficient forest fire prevention management in Greece and the Balkan region, as well as to stimulate the development of transnational fire prevention and impacts mitigation policies. More specifically, NOFFi provides three main fire-related products and services: a) a remote sensing-based fuel type mapping methodology, b) a semi-automatic burned area mapping service, and c) a dynamically updatable fire danger index providing mid- to long-term predictions. The fuel type mapping methodology was developed and applied across the country, following an object-oriented approach and using Landsat 8 OLI satellite imagery. The results showcase the effectiveness of the generated methodology in obtaining highly accurate fuel type maps on a national level. The burned area mapping methodology was developed as a semi-automatic object-based classification process, carefully crafted to minimize user interaction and, hence, be easily applicable on a near real-time operational level as well as for mapping historical events. NOFFi's products can be visualized through the interactive Fire Forest portal, which allows the involvement and awareness of the relevant stakeholders via the Public Participation GIS

  7. Combined use of weather forecasting and satellite remote sensing information for fire risk, fire and fire impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knorr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of fire-affected forest areas needs to be combined with their future protection from renewed catastrophic fires, such as those that occurred in Greece during the 2007 summer season. The present work demonstrates that the use of various sources of satellite data in conjunction with weather forecast information is capable of providing valuable information for the characterization of fire danger with the purpose of protecting the Greek national forest areas. This study shows that favourable meteorological conditions have contributed to the fire outbreak during the days of the unusually damaging fires in Peloponnese as well as Euboia (modern Greek: Evia at the end of August 2007. During those days, Greece was located between an extended high pressure system in Central Europe and a low pressure system in the Middle East. Their combination resulted in strong north-northeasterly winds in the Aegean Sea. As a consequence, strong winds were also observed in the regions of Evia and Peloponnese, especially in mountainous areas. The analysis of satellite images showing smoke emitted from the fires corroborates the results from the weather forecasts. A further analysis using the Fraction of Absorbed Photosyntetically Active Radiation (FAPAR as an indicator of active vegetation shows the extent of the destruction caused by the fire. The position of the burned areas coincides with that of the active fires detected in the earlier satellite image. Using the annual maximum FAPAR as an indicator of regional vegetation density, it was found that only regions with relatively high FAPAR were burned.

  8. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  9. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  10. Dangerous situations in a synchronized flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song

    2007-04-01

    This paper studies the dangerous situation (DS) in a synchronized flow model. The DS on the two branches of the fundamental diagram are investigated, respectively. It is shown that different relationship between DS probability and the density exists in the synchronized flow and in the jams. Moreover, we prove that there is no DS caused by non-stopped car although the model itself is a non-exclusion process. We classify the DS into four sub-types and study the probability of these four sub-types. The simulation result is consistent with the real traffic.

  11. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  12. A dangerous movie? Hollywood does psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Donald R; Silverman, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    After the appearance of David Cronenberg's film A Dangerous Method in 2011, dealing with the relationships of Sigmund Freud, C. G. Jung and Sabina Spielrein, Dr. Donald Ferrell published: A Dangerous Method, A Film Directed by David Cronenberg: An Extended Review (Ferrell 2012) in the Journal of Religion and Health. Upon its publication, Dr. Ferrell's article was nominated for a Gradiva Award by the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. On November 1, 2013, the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society held its annual conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Dr. Billie Pivnick, a member at large of the Board of Directors of the APCS and also on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Religion and Health, persuaded the 2013 Conference Program Committee that Cronenberg's film would make an interesting subject for discussion for conference participants. To that end, Dr. Pivnick invited Dr. Ferrell, C. G. Jung Institute of New York, Dr. Steven Reisner, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, and Dr. Martin Silverman, Training and Supervising Analyst and Supervising Child Analyst at the Institute for Psychoanalytic Education, NYU College of Medicine, Training and Supervising Analyst at the Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis of New Jersey, and Associate Editor of The Psychoanalytic Quarterly to serve as panel members to discuss: A Dangerous Movie? Hollywood does Psychoanalysis. Presentations on Cronenberg's film and the early history of psychoanalysis were given by Drs. Ferrell and Reisner, followed by a response to their presentations by Dr. Silverman. Dr. Pivnick chaired the session. The articles presented here were given originally at the APCS conference by Dr. Ferrell and Dr. Silverman. Dr. Reisner declined the invitation to submit his presentation for publication. Dr. Silverman's remarks were based not only on the presentation given by Dr. Ferrell at the session on A Dangerous Movie?, but also on his close and

  13. Oil pollution dangers on the German coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauk, G.

    1984-03-01

    Helgoland waters in the German Bight are a vital wintering area for seabirds. As long as the discharge of waste oil and oily water is not completely avoided, large amounts of oil will continuously get into the sea. Therefore, the danger to the marine life, especially seabirds, increases. Helgoland presents the possibility of determining the extent and the effect of the oil pollution of the North Sea, since it is placed in the point of intersection of important steamship routes and also oil slicks drifted by the north-west winds along the German Bight. Seabirds are indicators for the quantity, the type and the temporal distribution of oil.

  14. [Mental disorders and dangerous acting out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The major mental disorders which are most likely to lead to dangerous acting out are adult psychoses (schizophrenia and paranoia) and severe mood disorders (major depressive episodes and mania). Good knowledge of the symptomatology of these pathologies and their identification can help to anticipate and prevent much of the violence which people with these disorders may inflict on others or themselves. After mental assessment, those who commit wrongful and criminal acts may be ruled to be criminally irresponsible. They are then handed over to the relevant health care authorities for treatment for their mental disorders.

  15. Fire behavior potential in central Saskatchewan under predicted climate change : summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, M.; Hirsch, K.; Todd, B.; Flannigan, M. [Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kafka, V. [Parks Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Flynn, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This study assesses fire danger and fire behaviour potential in central Saskatchewan using simulated climate scenarios produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), including scenario analysis of base, double and triple level carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and uses available forest fuels to develop an absolute measure of fire behaviour. For each of these climate scenarios, the CRCM-generated weather was used as input variables into the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System. Fire behavior potential was quantified using head fire intensity, a measure of the fire's energy output because it can be related to fire behavior characteristics, suppression effectiveness, and fire effects. The report discusses the implications of fire behavior potential changes for fire and forest management. Preliminary results suggest a large increase in area burned in the study area by the end of the twenty-first century. Some of the possible fire management activities for long-term prediction include: pre-positioning of resources, preparedness planning, prioritization of fire and forest management activities and fire threat evaluation. 16 refs., 1 tab, 7 figs.

  16. Licensing Procedures for Sodium Experiment Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Jiyoung; Lee, Jewhan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR is utilized in various fields and yet there has been no record of handling and storing sodium exceeding designated quantity, which is a quantity that serves as the lowest level permitted for construction. The difficulty in achieving the license for sodium experiment facilities and equipment has been the main issue since the first time of sodium-related plan. Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material and water-prohibiting substance). The objective of this study is to investigate the procedure of installing a sodium-related facility and achieving the license from the fire agency of government. In this work, the licensing procedure for a sodium experiment facility was investigated under the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium cooled Fast Reactor), the described procedure should be reviewed and prepared carefully in accordance with the fire safety regulatory body.

  17. Fire training in a virtual-reality environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Jurgen; Bucken, Arno

    2005-03-01

    Although fire is very common in our daily environment - as a source of energy at home or as a tool in industry - most people cannot estimate the danger of a conflagration. Therefore it is important to train people in combating fire. Beneath training with propane simulators or real fires and real extinguishers, fire training can be performed in virtual reality, which means a pollution-free and fast way of training. In this paper we describe how to enhance a virtual-reality environment with a real-time fire simulation and visualisation in order to establish a realistic emergency-training system. The presented approach supports extinguishing of the virtual fire including recordable performance data as needed in teletraining environments. We will show how to get realistic impressions of fire using advanced particle-simulation and how to use the advantages of particles to trigger states in a modified cellular automata used for the simulation of fire-behaviour. Using particle systems that interact with cellular automata it is possible to simulate a developing, spreading fire and its reaction on different extinguishing agents like water, CO2 or oxygen. The methods proposed in this paper have been implemented and successfully tested on Cosimir, a commercial robot-and VR-simulation-system.

  18. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  19. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  20. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  1. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  2. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Boys Live Dangerously in the Womb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIKSSON, JOHAN G.; KAJANTIE, EERO; OSMOND, CLIVE; THORNBURG, KENT; BARKER, DAVID J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of every human fetus is constrained by the limited capacity of the mother and placenta to deliver nutrients to it. At birth, boys tend to be longer than girls at any placental weight. Boy’s placentas may therefore be more efficient than girls, but may have less reserve capacity. In the womb boys grow faster than girls and are therefore at greater risk of becoming undernourished. Fetal undernutrition leads to small size at birth and cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, in later life. We studied 2003 men and women aged around 62 years who were born in Helsinki, Finland, of whom 644 had hypertension: we examined their body and placental size at birth. In both sexes, hypertension was associated with low birth weight. In men, hypertension was also associated with a long minor diameter of the placental surface. The dangerous growth strategy of boys may be compounded by the costs of compensatory placental enlargement in late gestation. In women, hypertension was associated with a small placental area, which may reduce nutrient delivery to the fetus. In men, hypertension was linked to the mothers’ socioeconomic status, an indicator of their diets: in women it was linked to the mothers’ heights, an indicator of their protein metabolism. Boys’ greater dependence on their mothers’ diets may enable them to capitalize on an improving food supply, but it makes them vulnerable to food shortages. The ultimate manifestation of their dangerous strategies may be that men have higher blood pressures and shorter lives than women. PMID:19844898

  4. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial.

  5. Using Large-scale Spatially and Temporally Consistent Reanalysis Data to Assess Fire Weather and Fire Regimes in Siberia in Preparation for Future Fire Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Westberg, D. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.; McRae, D.; Jin, J.

    2008-12-01

    A primary driving force of land cover change in boreal regions is fire, where extreme fire seasons are influenced by local weather and ultimately climate. It is predicted that fire frequency, area burned, fire severity, fire season length, and severe fire seasons will increase under current climate change scenarios. The use of local ground based weather data can be used to gauge the local fire potential on a daily, monthly, or seasonal basis. However, the number and distribution of surface observing stations in Siberia have been declining since the early 1990's. A compounding problem is existing observing stations have missing data on various time scales. The density of stations is limited; hence results may not be representative of the spatial reality. One solution is the temporally and spatially consistent NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) satellite-derived weather data interpolated to a 1x1 degree grid. In previous work, we showed the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) derived using GEOS-4 weather and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation data compared well to ground based weather data from Jakutsk (Sakha) and Kyzyl (Tuva), Russia. Our primary focus is to expand on this work by spatially comparing the FWI derived from GEOS-4 / GPCP data and ground-based weather observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, while in contrast, normal fire seasons occurred in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the 1999, 2002, and 2004 fire seasons (April - September). In this investigation, we demonstrate how fire weather models perform on a large scale and investigate the performance of these models relative to input uncertainties. We intend to use this information to build regional-scale fire predictions systems that can be used for future interactive fire-weather-climate assessments.

  6. Developing a Global, Short-Term Fire Weather Forecasting Tool Using NWP Input Meteorology and Satellite Fire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. A.; Hyer, E. J.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    In order to meet the emerging need for better estimates of biomass burning emissions in air quality and climate models, a statistical model is developed to characterize the effect of a given set of meteorological conditions on the following day's fire activity, including ignition and spread potential. Preliminary tests are conducted within several spatial domains of the North American boreal forest by investigating a wide range of meteorological information, including operational fire weather forecasting indices, such as the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS). However, rather than using local noon surface station data, the six components of the CFFDRS are modified to use inputs from the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Navy's Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System Model (NOGAPS). The Initial Spread Index (ISI) and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) are shown to be the most relevant components of the CFFDRS for short-term changes in fire activity. However, both components are found to be highly sensitive to variations in relative humidity and wind speed input data. Several variables related to fire ignition from dry lighting, such as instability and the synoptic pattern, are also incorporated. Cases of fire ignition, growth, decay, and extinction are stratified using satellite fire observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and compared to the available suite of meteorological information. These comparisons reveal that combinations of meteorological variables, such as the FWI, ISI, and additional indices developed for this study, produce the greatest separability between major fire growth and decay cases, which are defined by the observed change in fire counts and fire radiative power. This information is used to derive statistical relationships affecting the short-term changes in fire activity and subsequently applied to other

  7. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Vervoort, R.W.; Iwema, J.; Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We p

  8. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Vervoort, R.W.; Iwema, J.; Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We

  9. Risks at bus fires. Recommendations for the improvement of the safety; Gefahren bei Busbraenden. Empfehlungen zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann-Boellinghaus, Anja; Duelsen, Steffen [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    The heavy bus fire in 2008 near Hanover, in which 20 of the 32 passengers left their life, has shown that the current fire protections regulations for buses cannot guarantee the self rescue of the passengers. The Federal Highway Research Institute (Bergisch Gladbach, Federal Republic of Germany) sponsored a research project in order to study the current fire protection regulations and developed recommendations to improve the fire safety in buses. Numerous attempts at materials present in buses were performed and compared with the requirements for rail vehicles. Accompanying the experimental investigations fire progressions were calculated in order to identify particularly dangerous scenarios and explore possible measures.

  10. Forecasting distributions of large federal-lands fires utilizing satellite and gridded weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, H.K.; Burgan, R.E.; Eidenshink, J.C.; Klaver, Jacqueline M.; Klaver, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents a statistical model for assessing the skill of fire danger indices and for forecasting the distribution of the expected numbers of large fires over a given region and for the upcoming week. The procedure permits development of daily maps that forecast, for the forthcoming week and within federal lands, percentiles of the distributions of (i) number of ignitions; (ii) number of fires above a given size; (iii) conditional probabilities of fires greater than a specified size, given ignition. As an illustration, we used the methods to study the skill of the Fire Potential Index an index that incorporates satellite and surface observations to map fire potential at a national scale in forecasting distributions of large fires. ?? 2009 IAWF.

  11. Metabolic features of the cell danger response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviaux, Robert K

    2014-05-01

    The cell danger response (CDR) is the evolutionarily conserved metabolic response that protects cells and hosts from harm. It is triggered by encounters with chemical, physical, or biological threats that exceed the cellular capacity for homeostasis. The resulting metabolic mismatch between available resources and functional capacity produces a cascade of changes in cellular electron flow, oxygen consumption, redox, membrane fluidity, lipid dynamics, bioenergetics, carbon and sulfur resource allocation, protein folding and aggregation, vitamin availability, metal homeostasis, indole, pterin, 1-carbon and polyamine metabolism, and polymer formation. The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis. The systemic form of the CDR, and its magnified form, the purinergic life-threat response (PLTR), are under direct control by ancient pathways in the brain that are ultimately coordinated by centers in the brainstem. Chemosensory integration of whole body metabolism occurs in the brainstem and is a prerequisite for normal brain, motor, vestibular, sensory, social, and speech development. An understanding of the CDR permits us to reframe old concepts of pathogenesis for a broad array of chronic, developmental

  12. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  13. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  14. Modelling avalanche danger and understanding snow depth variability

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses the causes of avalanche danger at a regional scale. Modelled snow stratigraphy variables were linked to [1] forecasted avalanche danger and [2] observed snowpack stability. Spatial variability of snowpack parameters in a region is an additional important factor that influences the avalanche danger. Snow depth and its change during individual snow fall periods are snowpack parameters which can be measured at a high spatial resolution. Hence, the spatial distribution of sn...

  15. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  16. Ethics consultation: a dangerous, antidemocratic charlatanry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Giles Scofield's argument indicates ethics consultants may need to better clarify what in fact they are and what they are not doing, claiming, and striving for. But we must not step back too far. We must neither engage in putting in envious professional claims for exclusive rights in the area of difficult and momentous decisions in healthcare nor get stuck in discussing normative ethics at the level of metaphysics, ontology, and dogmatics (as has happened in Germany for decades). We must not do so especially in view of the achievements of ethics consultation and the growing demand for it by all parties involved, conceded even by sceptics. Ethics consultation, according to Scofield, appears to be dangerous....Let us look more closely at the logic of the argument by discussing the presumed "antidemocratic" nature. The "new tyranny" of thoughts, and the "proper" role of bioethics consultation. Some considerations about the possibility of ethics expertise shall be left for the end.

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-18

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

  18. The identification of dangerously coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriocanal, C.; Patrick, J.W.; Walker, P.A. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    When coals are carbonised in slot-type ovens, layers of plastic coal are formed parallel to the oven walls and move progressively inwards eventually meeting at the oven centre. It is within these plastic layers that the principal processes which result in particulate coal being converted into porous, fused coke take place. For some coals, usually having volatile matter contents between 17 and 25wt% (dry, ash-free basis), these processes are accompanied by the generation of measurable gas pressures within the plastic layers which attain maximum levels when the two layers meet at the oven centre. These pressures are transmitted through the coke to the oven walls, causing damage if sufficiently high. Other coals, similar in chemical analysis and swelling properties, can be carbonised with impunity. The technical aspects of the coking pressure phenomenon are well known. However, the fundamental processes involved in the generation of internal gas pressures are not fully understood. Thus, before being used in blends for commercial coke production, potentially dangerous coals are tested by carbonising upwards of 180kg charges in moveable-wall ovens and measuring directly the pressures exerted on the walls. Clearly, it would be helpful if dangerously coking coals could be identified from laboratory tests. Preliminary findings of a laboratory study designed to gain further insight into coking pressure development are presented in this paper. Internal gas pressures have been ascribed to volatiles trapped within either the plastic envelope or the plastic layer implying an overlap of the temperature ranges of volatile release and fluidity. An attempts to assess this view using, initially, thermogravimetric analysis and Gieseler plastometry and, later, a coking bomb are described, the results being related to internal gas pressures measured in a 1.5kg double-wall oven.

  19. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G M

    2003-06-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

  20. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  1. Occupant evacuation model based on cellular automata in fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By applying the rules set in traffic flow and pedestrian flow models, a basic cellular automata model is presented to simulate occupant evacuation in fire. Some extended models are introduced to study the special phenomena of evacuation from the fire room. The key of the models is the introduction of the danger grade which makes the route choice convenient and reasonable. Fire not only influences the emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual but also affects his physical constitution, which reduces his maximal possible velocity. The models consider these influence factors by applying a set of simple but effective rules. It is needed to emphasize that all rules are established according to the essential phenomenon in fire evacuation, that is, all the occupants would try to move to the safest place as fast as possible. Some simulation examples are also presented to validate the applicability of the models.

  2. Simulation of Quaking Aspen Potential Fire Behavior in Northern Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Justin DeRose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of aspen fire ecology in western North America includes the paradoxical characterization that aspen-dominated stands, although often regenerated following fire, are “fire-proof”. We tested this idea by predicting potential fire behavior across a gradient of aspen dominance in northern Utah using the Forest Vegetation Simulator and the Fire and Fuels Extension. The wind speeds necessary for crowning (crown-to-crown fire spread and torching (surface to crown fire spread were evaluated to test the hypothesis that predicted fire behavior is influenced by the proportion of aspen in the stand. Results showed a strong effect of species composition on crowning, but only under moderate fire weather, where aspen-dominated stands were unlikely to crown or torch. Although rarely observed in actual fires, conifer-dominated stands were likely to crown but not to torch, an example of “hysteresis” in crown fire behavior. Results support the hypothesis that potential crown fire behavior varies across a gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather, where it was likely under extreme and severe fire weather, and unlikely under moderate and high fire weather. Furthermore, the “fire-proof” nature of aspen stands broke down across the gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather.

  3. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Stoof

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. Taking a unique approach, we performed a catchment-scale experimental fire to improve insight into the drivers of fire impact on hydrology. In north-central Portugal, rainfall, canopy interception, streamflow and soil moisture were monitored in shrub-covered paired catchments pre- and post-fire. Post-fire runoff coefficients were higher than pre-fire, and fire changed the rainfall-streamflow relationship – although the increase in streamflow was only significant at the subcatchment-scale. Fire also increased the response of topsoil moisture to rainfall, and caused more rapid drying of topsoils after rain events. Since soil physical changes due to fire were not apparent, we suggest that changes resulting from vegetation removal played an important role in increasing streamflow after fire, namely: (1 increased effective rainfall and decreased transpiration – increasing the amount of water available for (subsurface runoff, (2 more rapid development of soil water repellency and decreased surface water storage – increasing overland flow risk, (3 more rapid breakdown of post-fire soil water repellency – increasing infiltration during extended rain events. Results stress that fire impact on hydrology is largely affected by scale, highlight the hydrological impact of fire on small scales, and emphasize the risk of overestimating fire impact when upscaling plot-scale studies to the catchment-scale. Finally, they increase understanding of the processes contributing to post-fire flooding and erosion events.

  4. Land cover, more than monthly fire weather, drives fire-size distribution in Southern Québec forests: Implications for fire risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Jean; Cumming, Steve G; McIntire, Eliot J B

    2017-01-01

    Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region. Fires were highly selective on fuel-type under a wide range of fire weather conditions: specifically, deciduous forest, lakes and to a lesser extent recently burned areas decreased the expected fire size in their vicinity compared to conifer forest. This has large implications for fire risk management in that fuels management could reduce fire risk over the long term. Our results imply, for example, that if 30% of a conifer-dominated landscape were converted to hardwoods, the probability of a given fire, occurring in that landscape under mean fire weather conditions, exceeding 100,000 ha would be reduced by a factor of 21. A similarly marked but slightly smaller effect size would be expected under extreme fire weather conditions. We attribute the decrease in expected fire size that occurs in recently burned areas to fuel availability limitations on fires spread. Because regenerating burned conifer stands often pass through a deciduous stage, this would also act as a negative biotic feedback whereby the occurrence of fires limits the size of nearby future for some period of time. Our parameter estimates imply that changes in vegetation flammability or fuel availability after fires would tend to counteract shifts in the fire size distribution favoring larger fires that are expected under climate warming. Ecological forecasts from models neglecting these feedbacks may markedly overestimate the

  5. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  6. Scientists assess impact of Indonesia fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The fires burning in Indonesia over the past several months are setting aflame the biomass and wildlife habitat of the tropical forests, spreading a dangerously unhealthy haze across the populous country and nearby nations in southeast Asia, causing transportation hazards, and sending plumes of smoke up into the troposphere.Most of the fires have been set—by big landowners, commercial loggers, and small farmers—in attempts to clear and cultivate the land, as people have done in the past. But this year a drought induced by El Niño limited the rainfall that could help extinguish the flames and wash away the smoke and haze. In addition, some scientists say that smoke could even delay the monsoon, which usually arrives in early November.

  7. Fire Simulation and Cardiovascular Health in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Amanda L.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Langrish, Jeremy P.; Raftis, Jennifer B.; Lucking, Andrew J.; Brittan, Mairi; Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Stables, Catherine L.; Stelzle, Dominik; Marshall, James; Graveling, Richard; Flapan, Andrew D.; Newby, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rates of myocardial infarction in firefighters are increased during fire suppression duties, and are likely to reflect a combination of factors including extreme physical exertion and heat exposure. We assessed the effects of simulated fire suppression on measures of cardiovascular health in healthy firefighters. Methods: In an open-label randomized crossover study, 19 healthy firefighters (age, 41±7 years; 16 males) performed a standardized training exercise in a fire simulation facility or light duties for 20 minutes. After each exposure, ex vivo thrombus formation, fibrinolysis, platelet activation, and forearm blood flow in response to intra-arterial infusions of endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilators were measured. Results: After fire simulation training, core temperature increased (1.0±0.1°C) and weight reduced (0.46±0.14 kg, PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01812317. PMID:28373523

  8. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  9. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  10. Communication path for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

  11. Coupled atmosphere-wildland fire modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Henri Balbi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the interaction between fire and atmosphere is critical to the estimation of the rate of spread of the fire. Wildfire’s convection (i.e., entire plume can modify the local meteorology throughout the atmospheric boundary layer and consequently affect the fire propagation speed and behaviour. In this study, we use for the first time the Méso-NH meso-scale numerical model coupled to the point functional ForeFire simplified physical front-tracking wildfire model to investigate the differences introduced by the atmospheric feedback in propagation speed and behaviour. Both numerical models have been developed as research tools for operational models and are currently used to forecast localized extreme events. These models have been selected because they can be run coupled and support decisions in wildfire management in France and Europe. The main originalities of this combination reside in the fact that Méso-NH is run in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES configuration and that the rate of spread model used in ForeFire provides a physical formulation to take into account the effect of wind and slope. Simulations of typical experimental configurations show that the numerical atmospheric model is able to reproduce plausible convective effects of the heat produced by the fire. Numerical results are comparable to estimated values for fire-induced winds and present behaviour similar to other existing numerical approaches.

  12. Artificial intelligence techniques for monitoring dangerous infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamma, Evelina; Mello, Paola; Nanetti, Anna; Riguzzi, Fabrizio; Storari, Sergio; Valastro, Gianfranco

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring and detection of nosocomial infections is a very important problem arising in hospitals. A hospital-acquired or nosocomial infection is a disease that develops after admission into the hospital and it is the consequence of a treatment, not necessarily a surgical one, performed by the medical staff. Nosocomial infections are dangerous because they are caused by bacteria which have dangerous (critical) resistance to antibiotics. This problem is very serious all over the world. In Italy, almost 5-8% of the patients admitted into hospitals develop this kind of infection. In order to reduce this figure, policies for controlling infections should be adopted by medical practitioners. In order to support them in this complex task, we have developed a system, called MERCURIO, capable of managing different aspects of the problem. The objectives of this system are the validation of microbiological data and the creation of a real time epidemiological information system. The system is useful for laboratory physicians, because it supports them in the execution of the microbiological analyses; for clinicians, because it supports them in the definition of the prophylaxis, of the most suitable antibi-otic therapy and in monitoring patients' infections; and for epidemiologists, because it allows them to identify outbreaks and to study infection dynamics. In order to achieve these objectives, we have adopted expert system and data mining techniques. We have also integrated a statistical module that monitors the diffusion of nosocomial infections over time in the hospital, and that strictly interacts with the knowledge based module. Data mining techniques have been used for improving the system knowledge base. The knowledge discovery process is not antithetic, but complementary to the one based on manual knowledge elicitation. In order to verify the reliability of the tasks performed by MERCURIO and the usefulness of the knowledge discovery approach, we performed a test

  13. Tubular composite columns in a non-symmetrical fire

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Heinisuo; Timo Jokinen

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted worldwide on fires that act on all four sides of a column (symmetrical fire). These cases are used for the validation of the analysis models developed in this study. In real buildings the columns are often embedded. If the fire does not act similarly on all surfaces of the column (non-symmetrical fire), it is extremely difficult to predict how the column will behave. The key research questions are: Is resistance stronger in non-symmetri...

  14. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or possess within the Preserve... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

  15. 48 CFR 245.7310-4 - Dangerous property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous property. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7310-4 Dangerous property. The following warning shall be included when it cannot be certified that the property...

  16. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  17. Dangerousness and risk assessment: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Arie; Rosca, Paula; Khawalled, Razak; Gruzniewski, Adrian; Grinshpoon, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Risk or dangerousness is an issue which burdens the minds of all mental health and law enforcement professionals. Researchers have attempted to define its extent and constituent elements and to predict and assess it. Risk assessment is a complex task, influenced by the interaction of many variables, such as previous pattern of violence, biological, sociological and psychological factors, divided into facilitating and inhibiting factors. In our paper we discuss the theoretical concepts linked with dangerousness prediction and assessment, and then review the "first" and "second" generations of literature on dangerousness and risk assessment, including the actuarial instruments. We then present the current trends in the field, concentrating on the correlation between dangerousness and mental disorders, dangerousness analysis and risk management, a wider concept including prevention, treatment and communication of risk. Although great progress has been made in this field, there are still many unresolved issues, among them the development of valid instruments for the assessment of risk.

  18. The generic danger and the idiosyncratic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Arnaud; Nijp, Jelmer; van der Meij, Marijn; Samia, Jalal; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    This contribution argues two main points. First, that generic landscapes used in some modelling studies sometimes have properties or cause simulation results that are unrealistic. Such initially flat or straight-sloped landscapes, sometimes with minor random perturbations, e.g. form the backdrop for ecological simulations of vegetation growth and competition that predict catastrophic shifts. Exploratory results for semi-arid systems suggest that the results based on these generic landscapes are end-members from a distribution of results, rather than an unbiased, typical outcome. Apparently, the desire to avoid idiosyncrasy has unintended consequences. Second, we argue and illustrate that in fact new insights often come from close inspection of idiosyncratic case studies. Our examples from landslide systems, connectivity and soil formation show how a central role for the case study - either in empirical work or to provide model targets - has advanced our understanding. Both points contribute to the conclusion that it is dangerous to forget about annoying, small-scale, idiosyncratic and, indeed, perhaps bad-ass case studies in Earth Sciences.

  19. How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, J

    2007-01-01

    Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to "tipping points" with unacceptable consequences, especially ice sheet disintegration with sea level rise out of humanity's control, has a bright side. It implies an imperative: we must find a way to keep the CO2 amount so low that it will also avert other detrimental effects that had begun to seem inevitable, e.g., ocean acidification, loss of most alpine glaciers and thus the water supply for millions of people, and shifting of climatic zones with consequent extermination of species. Here I outline from a scientific perspective actions needed to achieve low limits on CO2 and global warming. These changes are technically feasible and have ancillary benefits. Achievement of needed changes requires overcoming t...

  20. Euthanasia--definition, dangers and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C

    1994-03-01

    There is as yet (1992) no law specifically allowing euthanasia, the active intervention to end a patient's life. The discussion has so far been restricted to such action as taking place at a patient's request, but evidence from the Netherlands appears to show that the move to involuntary euthanasia is a real danger. Palliative medicine offers appropriate treatment for relief and support where limits are set on interventions that would no longer be in a patient's best interests. It is possible to relieve distress by using the increasing knowledge in this field. It is important to distinguish this from euthanasia and the term "passive euthanasia" is confusing and unfortunate. Those with extensive experience in the treatment of advanced cancer have much to share with practitioners in other specialties, not least in the possible achievements of both patient and family at the end of life. Society has the responsibility for including them in its concern to the end of life and for supporting those who find it difficult to believe in any meaning in their existence.

  1. Steam vaporizers: A danger for paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonie, Sarah; Baker, Paul; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Steam vaporizers are used to humidify air in dry environments. They are marketed to moisten children's airway secretions and thus to help relieve symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately the steam emitted from the unit can also pose a significant risk of burns to children. Our study aimed to ascertain patterns of injury and treatment outcomes from steam burns resulting from these devices. Potential preventative measures are discussed. Children who had sustained vaporizer scald burns were identified at the outpatient burns clinic over a 10-month period (November 2014-August 2015). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively and data collected on pattern of injury, management and outcomes. Ten children were treated for vaporizer steam burns over the study period. The mean age was 1.6 years and 8 (80%) patients were male. Operative intervention was undergone in 5 (50%) cases; four acutely and one as a secondary reconstructive procedure. Hand burns accounted for 8 (80%) of cases. Steam vaporizers can cause significant burns in the paediatric population. Toddlers were most at risk, frequently sustaining hand burns that underwent skin grafting. Greater public awareness of the danger is indicated and measures to prevent such injuries should be addressed by appropriate authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  3. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. The agricultural and rural areas, in the last century, have been gradually abandoned, especially in areas with complex topography. Many of these areas were subject to reforestation, leading to the spread of pioneer species mainly represented by Mediterranean conifer, which are highly vulnerable to fire. Because of the frequent spread of fire, these areas are limited to the early successional stages, consisting mainly of shrub vegetation; its survival in the competition with the climax species being ensured by the spread of fire itself. Due to the frequency of fire ignition — almost entirely man caused — the time between fires on the same area is at least an order of magnitude less than the time that would allow the establishment of forest climax species far less vulnerable to fire. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. The goal of such detailed planning is to dramatically reduce the costs associated with water bombers fleet management and fire

  4. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J.

    2009-09-01

    Stephen J Pyne For the past two decades fire agencies have grappled with a seemingly new and intractable problem. Like the return of smallpox or polio, an issue they thought had vanished reappeared in virulent form. Year by year, the unthinkable became the undeniable: all across many industrial nations settlements began to burn. The earliest formal study followed the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires that swept through southeastern Australia [1]. That report remains definitive: nearly every subsequent inquiry has reaffirmed its conclusions about how houses actually burn and what remedial measures could counter the destruction [2, 3]. In many respects these insights simply adapted to nominal `wildlands' the lessons long learned for urban fire protection. Ban combustible roofing. Plug openings where embers might enter buildings. Establish defensible spaces. Provide firefighters. The larger concern was that wild landscapes and cityscapes were being intermixed in dangerous and unprecedented ways, like some kind of environmental matter and anti-matter. That mingling assumed two different forms. One was typical of developed nations with extensive wildlands in which suburban (or exurban) sprawl pushed against reserved landscapes. In 1987 researchers with the US Forest Service coined a name for this variant, the awkwardly labeled `wildland/urban interface' (WUI) or I-zone [4]. The second pattern found its best expression in Mediterranean Europe. Here agricultural lands were being abandoned, and then partially reclaimed by exurbanites [5]. The upshot for both was an explosion of fuels, houses (and communities) not built according to standard fire codes, and the absence of formal fire brigades [6]. The solution seemed obvious: install standard fire protection measures. More broadly, remove the houses or remove the wildlands. The apparitional fires would vanish as had urban conflagrations before them. In effect, define the problem as one that existing engineering, or techniques

  5. An enhanced real-time forest fire assessment algorithm based on video by using texture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudikandhula Narasimha Rao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the human technology moved further, the risk of natural and man induced sudden damage increase exponentially. One of the most dangerous disasters is fire. In addition to its direct danger on human's lives, fire consumes forests where trees that provide humans with oxygen are destroyed. Every year, the large number of wildfires happening all over the world they burn forested lands, causing adverse ecological and social impacts. Early warning and immediate responses are the only ways to avoid such type of disasters. This work describes a naïve method is used to detect flames in forest by using a Spatio Wildfire Prediction and Monitoring System (SWPMS. Basically, the fired information retrieving from regions by using background subtraction and colour analysis. The fire behaviour is modelled by texture analysis using computer vision systems. The Central Server should receives fired regions from the volunteer's smart phone and use fired location coordinates, different angles of smart phone receives fired locations based on Google Earth API. Finally, Kalman filter estimator computes the position vector of a moving object. Antennas or Satellite systems are grasping information from fire regions then GIS will be analyzed those regions and send alert to local peoples of forest regions and NDRF team.

  6. Dangerous Spaces, Dangerous Liaisons: Performance Arts on and of the U.S./Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten F. Nigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay will consider the performative arts on the border, ranging from script-based plays to performance pieces in urban spaces and public installation pieces. These will be analyzed according to their focus on 1 the plight of the illegal immigrant; 2 the violence that has become a daily factor in the lives of border citizens; and 3 the symbolic efforts to make a sacred space out of one as seemingly unsacred as the border; and if not a sacred space, one that is more transparent and hopefully, less dangerous and threatening.

  7. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  8. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  9. Reinforcing a Dangerous Rock Mass Using the Flexible Network Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wendong; Xie Quanmin; Xia Yuanyou; Li Xinping

    2005-01-01

    Because the main failure type of a dangerous rock mass is collapse, the treatment of such a mass should focus on controlling collapse failure. When treating dangerous rock masses, disturbing the mass (e.g. by blasting) needs to be avoided, as this new damage could cause collapse. So the self-bearing capacity of the mountain mass must be used to treat the dangerous rock mass. This article is based on a practical example of the control of a dangerous rock mass at Banyan Mountain, Huangshi, Hubei Province. On the basis of an analysis of damage mechanism and the stability of the dangerous rock mass, a flexible network reinforcement method was designed to prevent the collapse of the rock mass. The deformations of section Ⅱw of the dangerous rock mass before and after the flexible network reinforcement were calculated using the two-dimensional finite element method. The results show that the maximum deformation reduced by 55 % after the application of the flexible network reinforcement, from 45.99 to 20.75 mm, which demonstrates that the flexible network method is effective, and can provide some scientific basis for the treatment of dangerous rock masses.

  10. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  11. Behavior and Preparedness to Fire Hazard in High Density Settlements in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saut Sagala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the hazards that may affect urban areas with high density settlements. Thus, research on fire mitigation is important to be conducted. This paper examines the behavior and preparedness of occupants in high density settlements towards fire risks in urban area. The case study is located at Kelurahan Sukahaji, Kecamatan Babakan Ciparay, Bandung that has very high density settlement as well as prone to fire hazards. This study assess 232 respondents in the study areas on information related to demography, understanding about fire, behavior and preparedness. The respondents understanding on the types of fire sources are still low. Similarly, the behavior related to the activites using fire are still dangerous because some activities are conducted with other activities which make people less aware of the fire hazards. Nevertheless, their knowledge on how to extinguish fires are quite good. This paper recommends more trainings on knowledge of fire source and behavior to be conducted to occupants living in high density settlements in order to reduce fire disaster risk.

  12. Traffic danger detection by visual attention model of sparse sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏利民; 刘涛; 谭论正

    2015-01-01

    A method to detect traffic dangers based on visual attention model of sparse sampling was proposed. The hemispherical sparse sampling model was used to decrease the amount of calculation which increases the detection speed. Bayesian probability model and Gaussian kernel function were applied to calculate the saliency of traffic videos. The method of multiscale saliency was used and the final saliency was the average of all scales, which increased the detection rates extraordinarily. The detection results of several typical traffic dangers show that the proposed method has higher detection rates and speed, which meets the requirement of real-time detection of traffic dangers.

  13. Influence of altitude and aspect on daily variations in factors of forest fire danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Lloyd. Hayes

    1941-01-01

    Altitude, in broad subdivisions, exerts recognized and well-understood effects on climate. Aspect further modifies the altitudinal influence. Many publications have dealt with the interrelations of these geographic factors with climate and life zones or have discussed variations of individual weather elements as influenced by local altitude and aspect differences and...

  14. The Blue Shield Initiative. Joining Efforts to Preserve our Cultural Heritage in Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Thérèse Varlamoff

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Each year dramatic and unexpected events erase part of our memory by destroying the documentary heritage that has been accumulated in our libraries, archives or museums. Two world wars, as well as unavoidable and recurrent disasters, have added to the already extensive list of documents that have vanished for ever. A list of libraries and archives that have been totally or partially destroyed has been compiled and published in 1996 by IFLA and ICA in the framework of the UNESCO „Memory of the World Programme” . It is appalling. The recent and dramatic events in Kosovo, East Timor or Sierra Leone, to quote just a few, testify the dangers threatening cultural heritage in the event of armed conflicts. Natural disasters like floods, fires, hurricanes or landslides do not unfortunately lack behind. Generally the danger seems very far away but you must always keep in mind that this can happen to you as well and the best way to respond is to be prepared and get ready. My concern today is to explain how institutions like libraries, archives and museums have decided to join to mitigate the consequences when a disaster strikes. This is why they created the „ International Committee of the Blue Shield” (ICBS.

  15. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  16. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  17. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  18. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  19. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  20. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  1. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  2. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... for empirical aspects of the subject of fire; Analyses ignition of liquids and the importance of evaporation including heat and mass transfer; Features the stages of fire in compartments, and the role of scale modelling in fire. The book is written by Prof. James G. Quintiere from University of Maryland...

  3. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or closed List of NFPA codes & standards National Fire Codes® Subscription Service NEC® Online Subscription Free online ... Toggle this sub-menu open or closed The fire risk of exterior walls containing combustible components Resources ...

  4. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  5. Alaska’s changing fire regime - Implications for the vulnerability of its boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Verbyla, David L.; Rupp, T. Scott; McGuire, Anthony; Murphy, Karen A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Hoy, E.; Duffy, Paul A; Calef, Monika; Turetsky, Merritt R.

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska’s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha·year–1 burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from human-ignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska’s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska’s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  6. Alaska's Changing Fire Regime - Implications for the Vulnerability of Its Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Hoy, E. E.; Verbyla, D. L.; Rupp, T. S.; Duffy, P. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Murphy, K. A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, J. L.; Calef, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha/year burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from humanignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  7. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2010-08-01

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. Using a large suite of climate model experiments, we find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2°C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. We also find that the intensification of hot extremes is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2°C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  8. Urban Fire Risk Clustering Method Based on Fire Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lizhi; REN Aizhu

    2008-01-01

    Fire statistics and fire analysis have become important ways for us to understand the law of fire,prevent the occurrence of fire, and improve the ability to control fire. According to existing fire statistics, the weighted fire risk calculating method characterized by the number of fire occurrence, direct economic losses,and fire casualties was put forward. On the basis of this method, meanwhile having improved K-mean clus-tering arithmetic, this paper established fire dsk K-mean clustering model, which could better resolve the automatic classifying problems towards fire risk. Fire risk cluster should be classified by the absolute dis-tance of the target instead of the relative distance in the traditional cluster arithmetic. Finally, for applying the established model, this paper carded out fire risk clustering on fire statistics from January 2000 to December 2004 of Shenyang in China. This research would provide technical support for urban fire management.

  9. A rapid response database in support of post-fire hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ellen Miller; William J. Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Being prepared for an emergency is important. Every year wildfires threaten homes and lives, but danger persists even after the flames are extinguished. Post-fire flooding and erosion (Figure 1) can threaten lives, property, and natural resources. To respond to this threat, interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams assess potential erosion and flood...

  10. Vegetation clearance distances to prevent wildland fire caused damage to telecommunication and power transmission infrastructure (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; T. Wallace; J. Hogge

    2015-01-01

    Towers and poles supporting power transmission and telecommunication lines have collapsed due to heating from wildland fires. Such occurrences have led to interruptions in power or communication in large municipal areas with associated social and political implications as well as increased immediate danger to humans. Vegetation clearance standards for overhead...

  11. Vegetation clearance distances to prevent wildland fire caused damage to telecommunication and power transmission infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; J. Webb; J. Hogge; T. Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Towers and poles supporting power transmission and telecommunication lines have collapsed due to heating from wildland fires. Such occurrences have led to interruptions in power or communication in large municipal areas with associated social and political implications as well as increased immediate danger to humans. Unfortunately, no studies address the question of...

  12. Modification of a fire drought index for tropical wetland ecosystems by including water table depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Muh; Setiawan, B.I.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how an existing empirical drought index, i.e. the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) that is commonly used for assessing forest fire danger, has been adjusted and modified for improved use in tropical wetland ecosystems. The improvement included: (i) adjustment of the dro

  13. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  14. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism differentiates danger- and non-danger-based traumas in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Amy E; Litz, Brett T; Resick, Patricia A; Woolsey, Mary D; Dondanville, Katherine A; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Adam M; Borah, Elisa V; Peterson, Alan L; Fox, Peter T

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presumably the result of life threats and conditioned fear. However, the neurobiology of fear fails to explain the impact of traumas that do not entail threats. Neuronal function, assessed as glucose metabolism with (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, was contrasted in active duty, treatment-seeking US Army Soldiers with PTSD endorsing either danger- (n = 19) or non-danger-based (n = 26) traumas, and was compared with soldiers without PTSD (Combat Controls, n = 26) and Civilian Controls (n = 24). Prior meta-analyses of regions associated with fear or trauma script imagery in PTSD were used to compare glucose metabolism across groups. Danger-based traumas were associated with higher metabolism in the right amygdala than the control groups, while non-danger-based traumas associated with heightened precuneus metabolism relative to the danger group. In the danger group, PTSD severity was associated with higher metabolism in precuneus and dorsal anterior cingulate and lower metabolism in left amygdala (R(2 )= 0.61). In the non-danger group, PTSD symptom severity was associated with higher precuneus metabolism and lower right amygdala metabolism (R(2 )= 0.64). These findings suggest a biological basis to consider subtyping PTSD according to the nature of the traumatic context.

  15. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) 24th Panel Meeting. The agenda for the Working Group is...

  16. 77 FR 53250 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) Working Group of the Whole...

  17. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's)...

  18. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  19. Fire and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon Collins; Carl Skinner

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of historical fire regimes indicate that fires occurring prior to Euro-American settlement were characterized by a high degree of spatial complexity that was driven by heterogeneity in vegetation/fuels and topography and influenced by variability in climate, which mediated the timing, effects, and extents of fires over time. Although there are many...

  20. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  1. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  2. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  3. Top of the Most Dangerous Food Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Zaslavskaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the rating of the risk of infection by food parasites, which was published the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food Agriculture Organisation in 2014, cryptosporidiosis is on the 5th place. It is a parasitic protozoan disease, belongs to the genus Cryptosporidium type Apicomplexa. About 20 species of Cryptosporidium are revealed and known now. The incubation period of cryptosporidiosis lasts from 4 to 14 days. The main and most typical clinical manifestation of the disease — a profuse watery diarrhea, as well as clinically possible cryptosporidiosis of the biliary tract and broncho-pulmonary (respiratory cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis diagnosis is based on laboratory studies of faeces (in vivo and pathological material (posthumously, taking into account epizootic, clinical and postmortem data. Causal treatment is not developed. But it is possible to control the diarrhea caused by this infection. Specific preventive management of cryptosporidiosis is not developed. Personal hygiene measures are necessary. The 6th most dangerous food parasitosis is Entamoeba histolytica. This intestinal protozoa disease is characterized by ulcerative lesions of the colon, chronic protracted course with the risk of the formation of abscesses in the liver and various organs. The causative agent of ame­biasis — Entamoeba histolytica — belongs to the genus Entamoeba, family Entamoebidae, the simplest type — Protozoa. According to the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee (1970, there are three clinical forms of amebiasis: intestinal, extra-intestinal and skin. Diagnostic microscopy of the native smears of fresh feces in saline solution and smears stained with Lugol’s solution is carried out. In the presence of clinical signs of intestinal amebiasis and negative results of parasitological studies, serological tests are used based on the detection of specific antibodies against Entamoeba. There are several groups of drugs for

  4. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Todd [Union of Concerned Scientists; Frumhoff, Peter [Union of Concerned Scientists; Luers, Amy [Skoll Global Threats Fund; Gulledge, Jay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  5. Too Few Women, Docs Understand Dangers of Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Too Few Women, Docs Understand Dangers of Heart Disease It kills more than all cancers combined, but ... 22, 2017 THURSDAY, June 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease is the leading killer of U.S. women, but ...

  6. Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163513.html Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots ... 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ingesting high-concentration hydrogen peroxide as a "natural cure" or cleansing agent may ...

  7. How Older People Can Head Off Dangerous Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161150.html How Older People Can Head Off Dangerous Drug Interactions Taking multiple ... serious drug interactions are a daily threat to older people who take multiple medications and supplements, according to ...

  8. FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162849.html FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes Agency ... The Associated Press reported last month that the FDA had identified 66 instances of e-cigarette explosions ...

  9. male knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cultural status in society. In addition to ... Keywords: Danger Signs in Pregnancy, Obstetric Complications, Male Knowledge ... documentation of this would be useful in designing ... Package for the Social Sciences version 16 with analysis.

  10. Danger Signals Activating the Immune Response after Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hirsiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that resembles the host response during sepsis. The inflammatory response following trauma comprises various systems of the human body which are cross-linked with each other within a highly complex network of inflammation. Endogenous danger signals (danger-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs; alarmins as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs play a crucial role in the initiation of the immune response. With popularization of the “danger theory,” numerous DAMPs and PAMPs and their corresponding pathogen-recognition receptors have been identified. In this paper, we highlight the role of the DAMPs high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1, interleukin-1α (IL-1α, and interleukin-33 (IL-33 as unique dual-function mediators as well as mitochondrial danger signals released upon cellular trauma and necrosis.

  11. Modeling the Emission of CO from Wood Fires using Detailed Chemical Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne

    Carbon monoxide is treated as one of the most common and dangerous of gases evolving in fires. Modeling the formation of the toxic gas CO from in fire enclosures using detailed chemical kinetics is the topic of this manuscript. A semi-empirical model is developed to study the formation of CO from......, the model separately treats the process of pyrolysis and combustion. For under ventilated conditions and at high temperatures during pyrolysis it is found that the process of pyrolysation strongly influences the formation of CO in fire. CO2 follows the same trend....

  12. A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtczuk, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    University of Nottingham “A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.” Kamil Wojtczuk MSc Logistics and Supply Chain Management   “A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.” by Kamil Wojtczuk 2011   Summary of dissertation This dissertation comprises five chapters and three appendixes. The dissertation starts with an introduction where all research objectives are placed. In the first...

  13. Thermal instability and runaway criteria: the dangers of disregarding dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rowena

    2012-01-01

    Two exemplary exothermic processes, synthesis of nitroglycerine in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and synthesis of the explosive RDX in a CSTR, are used to demonstrate the dangers of ignoring the system dynamics when defining criteria for thermal criticality or runaway. Stability analyses are necessary to prescribe such criteria, and for these systems prove the presence of dangerous oscillatory thermal instability which cannot be detected using the steady state thermal balances.

  14. Climatic variability of a fire-weather index based on turbulent kinetic energy and the Haines Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman; Xindi Bian

    2010-01-01

    Combining the Haines Index (HI) with near-surface turbulent kinetic energy (TKEs) through a product of the two values (HITKEs) has shown promise as an indicator of the atmospheric potential for extreme and erratic fire behavior in the U.S. Numerical simulations of fire-weather evolution during past wildland fire episodes in...

  15. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Bernard, C.S.; Beek, van M.; Breman, F.C.; Eichhorn, K.A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent

  16. The semantic distinction between "risk" and "danger": a linguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholm, Max

    2012-02-01

    The analysis combines frame semantic and corpus linguistic approaches in analyzing the role of agency and decision making in the semantics of the words "risk" and "danger" (both nominal and verbal uses). In frame semantics, the meanings of "risk" and of related words, such as "danger," are analyzed against the background of a specific cognitive-semantic structure (a frame) comprising frame elements such as Protagonist, Bad Outcome, Decision, Possession, and Source. Empirical data derive from the British National Corpus (100 million words). Results indicate both similarities and differences in use. First, both "risk" and "danger" are commonly used to represent situations having potential negative consequences as the result of agency. Second, "risk" and "danger," especially their verbal uses (to risk, to endanger), differ in agent-victim structure, i.e., "risk" is used to express that a person affected by an action is also the agent of the action, while "endanger" is used to express that the one affected is not the agent. Third, "risk," but not "danger," tends to be used to represent rational and goal-directed action. The results therefore to some extent confirm the analysis of "risk" and "danger" suggested by German sociologist Niklas Luhmann. As a point of discussion, the present findings arguably have implications for risk communication.

  17. Social learning spreads knowledge about dangerous humans among American crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; Marzluff, John M; Pecoraro, Shannon

    2012-02-07

    Individuals face evolutionary trade-offs between the acquisition of costly but accurate information gained firsthand and the use of inexpensive but possibly less reliable social information. American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) use both sources of information to learn the facial features of a dangerous person. We exposed wild crows to a novel 'dangerous face' by wearing a unique mask as we trapped, banded and released 7-15 birds at five study sites near Seattle, WA, USA. An immediate scolding response to the dangerous mask after trapping by previously captured crows demonstrates individual learning, while an immediate response by crows that were not captured probably represents conditioning to the trapping scene by the mob of birds that assembled during the capture. Later recognition of dangerous masks by lone crows that were never captured is consistent with horizontal social learning. Independent scolding by young crows, whose parents had conditioned them to scold the dangerous mask, demonstrates vertical social learning. Crows that directly experienced trapping later discriminated among dangerous and neutral masks more precisely than did crows that learned through social means. Learning enabled scolding to double in frequency and spread at least 1.2 km from the place of origin over a 5 year period at one site.

  18. Classification of dangers for personnel in underground mine operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryncarz, T.

    1983-01-01

    As noted by the author, in Polish literature on mining, the dangers for personnel in underground operations are classified into natural and others; this separation is very approximate. It does not promote strict scientific analysis of the production dangers in mines. The concept ''danger in underground mining operations'' posed by the author is based on physical process of human interaction with the environment, where this process can have a harmful influence on the human body. A classification is proposed of dangers in underground mining operations depending on the three groups of factors: factors of the environment (lithosphere, atmosphere, technosphere); factors of the type of process (mechanical, thermal, substantial and other processes); factors determined by the nature of occurrence of the process (slow flow, sharp flow). A ''matrix of dangers'' is presented based on the indicated approach to the classification. Use of the matrix makes it possible to evaluate on a strictly scientific basis the factors of production danger in underground conditions and to develop effective measures to guarantee safety of personnel in the mines.

  19. Ancient origin of the new developmental superfamily DANGER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Nikolaidis

    Full Text Available Developmental proteins play a pivotal role in the origin of animal complexity and diversity. We report here the identification of a highly divergent developmental protein superfamily (DANGER, which originated before the emergence of animals (approximately 850 million years ago and experienced major expansion-contraction events during metazoan evolution. Sequence analysis demonstrates that DANGER proteins diverged via multiple mechanisms, including amino acid substitution, intron gain and/or loss, and recombination. Divergence for DANGER proteins is substantially greater than for the prototypic member of the superfamily (Mab-21 family and other developmental protein families (e.g., WNT proteins. DANGER proteins are widely expressed and display species-dependent tissue expression patterns, with many members having roles in development. DANGER1A, which regulates the inositol trisphosphate receptor, promotes the differentiation and outgrowth of neuronal processes. Regulation of development may be a universal function of DANGER family members. This family provides a model system to investigate how rapid protein divergence contributes to morphological complexity.

  20. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  1. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  2. Precipitation-fire linkages in Indonesia (1997-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, Thierry; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2017-09-01

    nighttime and total active fires did not change, the 1997 season was thus about twice as severe as the one in 2015. Although large, the difference is smaller than found in fire emission estimates from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Besides different rainfall amounts and patterns, the two-fold difference between 1997 and 2015 may be attributed to a weaker El Niño and neutral Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) conditions in the later year. The fraction of fires burning in peatlands was higher in 2015 compared to 1997 (61 and 45 %, respectively). Finally, we found that the non-linearity between rainfall and fire in Indonesia stems from longer periods without rain in extremely dry years.

  3. Danger-associated molecular patterns and danger signals in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Christian D; Dunmore, Rebecca; Hogaboam, Cory M; Sleeman, Matthew A; Murray, Lynne A

    2014-08-01

    The chronic debilitating lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, with a median mortality rate of 2-3 years after diagnosis. IPF is a disease of unknown cause and progression, and multiple pathways have been demonstrated to be activated in the lungs of these patients. A recent genome-wide association study of more than 1,000 patients with IPF identified genes linked to host defense, cell-cell adhesion, and DNA repair being altered due to fibrosis (Fingerlin, et al. Nat Genet 2013;45:613-620). Further emerging data suggest that the respiratory system may not be a truly sterile environment, and it exhibits an altered microbiome during fibrotic disease (Molyneaux and Maher. Eur Respir Rev 2013;22:376-381). These altered host defense mechanisms might explain the increased susceptibility of patients with IPF to microbial- and viral-induced exacerbations. Moreover, chronic epithelial injury and apoptosis are key features in IPF, which might be mediated, in part, by both pathogen-associated (PA) and danger-associated molecular patterns (MPs). Emerging data indicate that both PAMPs and danger-associated MPs contribute to apoptosis, but not necessarily in a manner that allows for the removal of dying cells, without further exacerbating inflammation. In contrast, both types of MPs drive cellular necrosis, leading to an exacerbation of lung injury and/or infection as the debris promotes a proinflammatory response. Thus, this Review focuses on the impact of MPs resulting from infection-driven apoptosis and necrosis during chronic fibrotic lung disease.

  4. Wireless Sensor Network based Fire Monitoring and Extinguishing System in Real Time Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Narendra Reddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Firefighting is one of the most dangerous professions in which people are employed. The dangers associated are the result of a number of factors such as lack of information regarding the location, size and spread of the fire. The use of wireless sensor networks may be one way of reducing the risks faced by the firefighters and assist in the process of rapid extinguishment of the fire. The standards, such as IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee, stimulated the development of numerous commercial products. Moving from early research in military applications, sensor networks now are widely deployed in diverse applications including home automation, building automation, and others. This paper mainly presents the design and the implementation of wireless sensor network based fire monitoring and extinguishing system. Fire monitoring system continuously monitors the surroundings and keeps a track of the temperature recorded and the intruders detected, performed by monitoring node. Fire extinguishing system switches the extinguisher as soon as it detects the fire or when the temperature crosses a certain threshold level, performed by extinguishing node. Results indicate that the overall performance of the proposed approach is very good. The usage of zigbee monitored fire extinguishers in a hospital building has been demonstrated.

  5. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    -term climate projections point to pronounced changes in fire season length, total burned area, and the frequency of extreme events across North America by 2050.

  6. Assessing Wildland Fire Risk Transmission to Communities in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín J. Alcasena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed potential economic losses and transmission to residential houses from wildland fires in a rural area of central Navarra (Spain. Expected losses were quantified at the individual structure level (n = 306 in 14 rural communities by combining fire model predictions of burn probability and fire intensity with susceptibility functions derived from expert judgement. Fire exposure was estimated by simulating 50,000 fire events that replicated extreme (97th percentile historical fire weather conditions. Spatial ignition probabilities were used in the simulations to account for non-random ignitions, and were estimated from a fire occurrence model generated with an artificial neural network. The results showed that ignition probability explained most of spatial variation in risk, with economic value of structures having only a minor effect. Average expected loss to residential houses from a single wildfire event in the study area was 7955€, and ranged from a low of 740 to the high of 28,725€. Major fire flow-paths were analyzed to understand fire transmission from surrounding municipalities and showed that incoming fires from the north exhibited strong pathways into the core of the study area, and fires spreading from the south had the highest likelihood of reaching target residential structures from the longest distances (>5 km. Community firesheds revealed the scale of risk to communities and extended well beyond administrative boundaries. The results provided a quantitative risk assessment that can be used by insurance companies and local landscape managers to prioritize and allocate investments to treat wildland fuels and identify clusters of high expected loss within communities. The methodological framework can be extended to other fire-prone southern European Union countries where communities are threatened by large wildland fires.

  7. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  8. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  9. CERN fire fighters roll out in style

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    On Thursday, 20 October, CERN fire fighters celebrated the arrival of a new equipment transport truck.   Measuring 13m3 and weighing 2.5 tonnes, the truck can carry several types of response materials in the event of chemical or radiological accidents, pollution incidents or floods. It can also pull trailers carrying fire extinguishers and oxygen masks. "Despite its size, this vehicle is extremely practical and flexible, and it can be put to work quickly and easily,” says Patrick Berlinghi, logistics officer for the Fire Brigade. “It is equipped with a rear-view camera and lighting on the rear and the side. It can also be loaded and unloaded very quickly, as it takes only 15 seconds to lower the truck box and open the doors! "  

  10. Fire Weather Index application in north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cane

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Piedmont region is located in North-Western Italy and is surrounded by the alpine chain and by the Appennines. The region is covered by a wide extension of forests, mainly in its mountain areas (the forests cover 36% of the regional territory. Forested areas are interested by wildfire events. In the period 1997–2005 Piedmont was interested by an average 387 forest fires per year, covering an average 1926 ha of forest per year. Meteorological conditions like long periods without precipitation contribute to create favourable conditions to forest fire development, while the fire propagation is made easier by the foehn winds, frequently interesting the region in winter and spring particularly. The meteorological danger index FWI (Fire Weather Index was developed by Van Wagner (1987 for the Canadian Forestry Service, providing a complete description of the behaviour of the different forest components in response to the changing weather conditions. We applied the FWI to the Piedmont region on warning areas previously defined for fire management purposes. The meteorological data-set is based on the data of the very-dense non-GTS network of weather stations managed by Arpa Piemonte. The thresholds for the definition of a danger scenarios system were defined comparing historical FWI data with fires occurred on a 5 years period. The implementation of a prognostic FWI prediction system is planned for the early 2008, involving the use of good forecasts of weather parameters at the station locations obtained by the Multimodel SuperEnsemble post-processing technique.

  11. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Soja, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  12. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V A [Siberian State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: GAIvanova@ksc.krasn.r [National Institute of Aerospace, Resident at NASA Langley Research Center, MS 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  13. The sounds of safety: Stress and danger in music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchäfer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1 there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2 any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3 in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the

  14. The sounds of safety: stress and danger in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1) there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2) any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3) in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the environment.

  15. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  16. Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Anderson, Liana O.; Lima, André; Arai, Egidio

    2016-11-01

    Fire has been used since the first humans arrived in Amazonia; however, it has recently become a widely used instrument for large-scale forest clearance. Patterns of fire incidence in the region have been exacerbated by recent drought events. Understanding temporal and spatial fire patterns as well as their consequences for forest structure, species composition, and the carbon cycle is critical for minimising global change impacts on Amazonian ecosystems and people. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state of our knowledge on the spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidence in Amazonia, depicting the historical fire usage in the region, their relationship with land use and land cover, and their responses to climate seasonality and droughts. We subsequently focus on the impacts of fire, by quantifying the extent of burnt forests during major droughts and describing the main impacts on forest structure, composition, and carbon stocks. Finally, we present an overview of modelling initiatives for forecasting fire incidence in the region. We conclude by providing a comprehensive view of the processes that influence fire occurrence, potential feedbacks, and impacts in Amazonia. We also highlight how key areas within fire ecology must be improved for a better understanding of the long-term effect of fire on the Amazon forest 'biome'.

  17. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  18. The dangers of feeling like a fake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Manfred F R Kets

    2005-09-01

    In many walks of life-and business is no exception-there are high achievers who believe that they are complete fakes. To the outside observer, these individuals appear to be remarkably accomplished; often they are extremely successful leaders with staggering lists of achievements. These neurotic impostors--as psychologists call them--are not guilty of false humility. The sense of being a fraud is the flip side of giftedness and causes a great many talented, hardworking, and capable leaders to believe that they don't deserve their success. "Bluffing" their way through life (as they see it), they are haunted by the constant fear of exposure. With every success, they think, "I was lucky this time, fooling everyone, but will my luck hold? When will people discover that I'm not up to the job?" In his career as a management professor, consultant, leadership coach, and psychoanalyst, Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries has found neurotic impostors at all levels of organizations. In this article, he explores the subject of neurotic imposture and outlines its classic symptoms: fear of failure, fear of success, perfectionism, procrastination, and workaholism. He then describes how perfectionist overachievers can damage their careers, their colleagues' morale, and the bottom line by allowing anxiety to trigger self-handicapping behavior and cripple the very organizations they're trying so hard to please. Finally, Kets de Vries offers advice on how to limit the incidence of neurotic imposture and mitigate its damage through discreet vigilance, appropriate intervention, and constructive support.

  19. Traffic crash liability determination: Danger and Dodge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sikui; Huang, Helai

    2016-10-01

    By proposing a systematic set of rules for traffic crash liability determination, this paper attempts to prove the feasibility and practicability of legal liability in handling traffic crashes. Two sequential elements are identified for crash occurrence, i.e., the occurrence of a dangerous situation and failure in dodging the dangerous situation. A Danger and Dodge model is subsequently established for liability determination in a traffic crash. By investigating the basic mechanism of a crash occurrence, the specific contents of causalties and the effect of the parties' acts in traffic crashes are specified. Based on the theories of social adequancy, the principle of reliance and the duty of care, the study further proposes to use the "peril" of a dangerous situation and the "possibility" of dodging the dangerous situation to appraise the effect of the parties' acts upon a crash occurrence, with the rule of the "pattern deciding effect". The proposed approach would be very helpful to the concreteness of the determination of liability in a traffic crash. Two case studies are presented for demonstration.

  20. Market-oriented management method of coalmine accident hidden dangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-xia; LI Xing-dong; LU Ying; REN Da-wei

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the problems which exist currently in the accident hidden dangers management of the coal mine, this paper proposed a new kind of management method-"simulating the market", in which an operation pattern of simulating the market to transact hidden troubles was constructed. This method introduces "Market Mechanism"into safe management, and adopts measurable value to describe the hidden dangers such as" human behavior, technique, environment, equipments etc.". It regards the hidden dangers as "the goods produced by labor" which are found out by the safety managers and the security inspectors, then sells as "commodity". By the process of disposing, counterchecking, re-selling, and redisposing. It forms a set of market-oriented closed-form management pattern of coalmine accident hidden dangers. This kind of management method changes the past traditional methods in which the wageworkers treat safety management passively, but to encourage and restrict them to participate in the check-up and improvement of the hidden dangers.

  1. Differing types of cellular phone conversations and dangerous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, Chris S; Martin, Benjamin A; Fox, Russell T; Leonard, Robin L

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between cell phone conversation type and dangerous driving behaviors. It was hypothesized that more emotional phone conversations engaged in while driving would produce greater frequencies of dangerous driving behaviors in a simulated environment than more mundane conversation or no phone conversation at all. Participants were semi-randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) no call, (2) mundane call, and, (3) emotional call. While driving in a simulated environment, participants in the experimental groups received a phone call from a research confederate who either engaged them in innocuous conversation (mundane call) or arguing the opposite position of a deeply held belief of the participant (emotional call). Participants in the no call and mundane call groups differed significantly only on percent time spent speeding and center line crossings, though the mundane call group consistently engaged in more of all dangerous driving behaviors than did the no call participants. Participants in the emotional call group engaged in significantly more dangerous driving behaviors than participants in both the no call and mundane call groups, with the exception of traffic light infractions, where there were no significant group differences. Though there is need for replication, the authors concluded that whereas talking on a cell phone while driving is risky to begin with, having emotionally intense conversations is considerably more dangerous.

  2. Estimating Fire Weather Indices Via Semantic Reasoning Over Wireless Sensor Network Data Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianli Gao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires are frequent, devastating events in Australia that regularly cause significant l oss of life and widespread property damage. Fire weather indices are a widely - adopted method for measuring fire danger and they play a significant role in issuing bushfire warnings and in anticipating demand for bushfire management resources. Existing syst ems that calculate fire weather indices are limited due to low spatial and temporal resolution. Localized wireless sensor networks, on the other hand, gather continuous sensor data measuring variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall an d wind speed at high resolutions. However, using wireless sensor networks to estimate fire weather indices is a challenge due to data quality issues, lack of standard data formats and lack of agreement on thresholds and methods for calculating fire weather indices. Within the scope of this paper, we propose a standardized approach to calculating Fire Weather Indices (a.k.a. fire danger ratings and overcome a number of the challenges by applying Semantic Web Technologies to the processing of data streams fr om a wireless sensor network deployed in the Springbrook region of South East Queensland. This paper describes the underlying ontologies, the semantic reasoning and the Semantic Fire Weather Index (SFWI system that we have developed to enable domain exper ts to specify and adapt rules for calculating Fire Weather Indices. We also describe the Web - based mapping interface that we have developed, that enables users to improve their understanding of how fire weather indices vary over time within a particular re gion. Finally, we discuss our evaluation results that indicate that the proposed system outperforms state - of - the - art techniques in terms of accuracy, precision and query performance .

  3. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Cuesta, R M; Carmona-Moreno, C; Lizcano, G; New, M; Silman, M; Knoke, T; Malhi, Y; Oliveras, I; Asbjornsen, H; Vuille, M

    2014-06-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountainous ecosystems, and there is a global evidence of increased fire activity with elevation. Whilst fire research has become popular in the tropical lowlands, much less is known of the tropical high Andean region (>2000 masl, from Colombia to Bolivia). This study examines fire trends in the high Andes for three ecosystems, the Puna, the Paramo and the Yungas, for the period 1982-2006. We pose three questions: (i) is there an increased fire response with elevation? (ii) does the El Niño- Southern Oscillation control fire activity in this region? (iii) are the observed fire trends human driven (e.g., human practices and their effects on fuel build-up) or climate driven? We did not find evidence of increased fire activity with elevation but, instead, a quasicyclic and synchronous fire response in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, suggesting the influence of high-frequency climate forcing on fire responses on a subcontinental scale, in the high Andes. ENSO variability did not show a significant relation to fire activity for these three countries, partly because ENSO variability did not significantly relate to precipitation extremes, although it strongly did to temperature extremes. Whilst ENSO did not individually lead the observed regional fire trends, our results suggest a climate influence on fire activity, mainly through a sawtooth pattern of precipitation (increased rainfall before fire-peak seasons (t-1) followed by drought spells and unusual low temperatures (t0), which is particularly common where fire is carried by low fuel loads (e.g., grasslands and fine fuel). This climatic sawtooth appeared as the main driver of fire trends, above local human influences and fuel build

  4. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  5. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1350 Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  7. 10 CFR 1048.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... facility or real property subject to this part, of a dangerous weapon, explosive or other dangerous...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has... protective device for any lighting circuit that is in a gas-dangerous space must open each conductor of...

  9. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  10. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  11. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  12. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  13. Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests. PMID:22523580

  14. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops. Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  15. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  16. 危险品槽车交通事故案例分析%Dangerous Goods Tank Car Accident Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乐然

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,with the increasing of dangerous goods tank,complex changes and weather,road conditions, dangerous goods tank accidents continue to occur.Such accidents can easily lead to dangerous chemicals leakage,explosion,fire, pollution and other hazards,the event will cause serious consequences.In this paper,by means of case study,hope that through real-life lessons caused by enterprises attach great importance to the transport of dangerous goods,strengthen enterprise management,and improve the emergency mechanism system,check erroneous ideas at the outset,the risk to a minimum,to reduce the direct and secondary loss.%近年来,随着危险品槽车的不断增多,加上天气、路况等情况的复杂变化,危险品槽车的事故不断发生。此类事故极易引发危险化学品的泄漏、爆炸、火灾、污染等灾害,一旦发生将会造成严重后果。文中以案例分析的方式,希望通过活生生的教训引起危险品运输企业的高度重视,加强企业管控,并完善危机应急机制体系,防微杜渐,使风险降到最低,以减小直接和次生损失。

  17. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  18. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  19. Kilns and Firing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of firing pottery is to change clay, a plastic material, into ceramic, which is aplastic. Examined here are structures designed to fire pottery or faience or to make glass (although the latter might be better described as furnaces). Firing can take place in an open, bonfire-like environment, which can also be enclosed as a firing structure. Beyond this is the development of the true kiln of which there are two main types: updraft and downdraft. The first of these is by far the mos...

  20. Determination of Survivable Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  1. Threats and Dangers in Activity of the Tourism Sector Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markina Iryna А.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to investigate the threats and dangers that affect not only the management system of the tourism sector enterprises, but their safety as well. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the essence of the concepts of “danger” and “threat” has been considered, and the classification of dangers and threats faced by tourism enterprises in an unstable environment has been carried out. As a result of the research there have been identified the main threats and dangers peculiar for subjects of tourist activity that occur in the process of operation of tourism enterprises and deficiencies in the management of material, information, human, financial and other resources of tourism enterprises. The main prospect for further research in this area is to identify the potential directions for minimizing the risks and threats that ensure not only the appropriate level of the tourism enterprise competitiveness, but its development as well.

  2. EMPLOYING SENSOR NETWORK TO GUIDE FIREFIGHTERS IN DANGEROUS AREA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koohi, Hamidreza; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Fathi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    itself against possible changes. The protocol developed, will integrate the artificial potential field of the sensors with the information of the intended place of moving firefighter so that it guides the firefighter step by step through the sensor network by choosing the safest path in dangerous zones......In this paper, we intend to focus on the sensor network applications in firefighting. A distributed algorithm is developed for the sensor network to guide firefighters through a burning area. The sensor network models the danger of the area under coverage as obstacles, and has the property to adapt....... This protocol is simulated by Visual-Sense and the simulation results are available. Keyword: Firefighter, Sensor Network, Potential Field, Area’s Danger, Navigation...

  3. Assessing Danger Degree of Soil Erosion in Rikaze Prefecture, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuehua; ZHOU Jianzhong; ZHOU Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    Ten indicators were selected in the present paper concerns current status of soil erosion and its driving forces. Synthesized evaluation model on danger degree of soil erosion (DDSE) was built and estimation on DDSE in Rikaze was carried out by analytical hierarchy process (AHP). This evaluation model selected indicators scientifically and reasonably, which are easy to be caught, and played well in application. Results showed that a light erosion danger degree exists in Nanmulin, Xietongmen and Angren; Dingri, Sajia, Saga, Zhongba; Nielamu, Gangba, Kangma and Rikaze County share a moderate danger degree, while other counties own severe erosion, especially Dingjie and Lazi County. Ecological environment in Rikaze is frangible. Therefore, eco-restoration and corresponding countermeasures are urgently needed in this region to guarantee a regional eco-environment healthy.

  4. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-08

    fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All elements in the forest mosaic are in various stages of postfire succession, with only a few approaching climax. Fire interrupts the successful sequence toward climax. Geomorphic and edaphic factors in vegetational distribution are largely submerged by the fire regime, except for bog and other lowland vegetation. Fire recycles nutrients and renews succession. Nevertheless, despite the fire regime, the resulting long-term equilibrium of the forest mosaic, characterized by severe and irregular fluctuations of individual elements, reflects regional climate. In the BWCA and the western mountains, large virgin forests can be preserved for study and wilderness recreation. These wilderness areas must be managed to return them to the natural equilibrium which has been disturbed by 50 to 70 years of fire suppression. The goal should be to maintain virgin forests as primeval wilderness. This can be done by management that permits fire and other natural processes to determine the forest mosaic. Mechanized tree-felling and other human disturbances should be kept to an absolute minimum. Natural landforms also should be preserved for study and for certain nondestructive recreational activities. It is somewhat late for the Colorado River and other rivers of the West, because natural balances are upset by drainagebasin disturbances. Modification of plant cover on hillslopes changes infiltration and erosion rates and thus the stream discharge and sediment load, so the stream balance is altered from primeval conditions. Scenic Rivers legislation should thus be used to restore certain river systems and their drainage basins. Mountain meadows, badlands, desert plains, and patterned permafrost terrain are extremely fragile and sensitive. Intricate stream and weathering processes leave patterns easily obliterated by mechanized vehicles. Tire tracks can last for decades or centuries. The mineral

  5. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning Fire for Daxing an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning fire is one of natural fires; its mechanism is very complex and difficult to control. Daxing'an Mountain is the main region that lightning fires occur in China. Research on lightning fires indicates that special fuel, dry-storm weather and high altitude form the lightning fire environment. Lightning fires have close relation with lights. When lightning occurs, especially dry-lightning which brings little precipitation with surface temperature growing and fuel dehydrating, these often lead to l...

  6. [GIS-based forest fire risk zone mapping in Daxing'an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Kong, Fanhua; Li, Xiuzhen

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the Yuying and Fendou forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau in Daxing'an Mountains were chosen as test areas, and their vegetation type, altitude, slop, aspect, and settlement buffer were selected as the main forest fire factors. The circumstances of forest fire risk were quantified by the factor-weights union method with the support of GIS. Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extreme were generated. The none-, low, moderate, high, and extremely high fire risk zones accounted for 0.37%, 0.63%, 38.67%, 58.63% and 1.70%, respectively, which was in corresponding with normal distribution. About 60.33% of the test areas were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones, indicating that the forest fire management task in these areas is super onerous. There was an obvious regional difference in the distribution of forest fire risk zones, being higher in the center and lower around the center, and the difference in fire factors was also obvious. The GIS-based forest fire risk model of test areas strongly cohered with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987, which suggested that the forest fire risk zone mapping had a higher reliability, and could be used as the reference and guidance of forest fire management.

  7. 2012 drug packaging review: many dangerous, reportable flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Drug packaging plays an important role in protecting and providing information to patients. The packaging examined by Prescrire in 2012, on the whole, still fails to perform all of these functions effectively. Two issues are especially worrisome. First, packaging too often poses a danger to children. In addition, too many patient leaflets provide incomplete information about adverse effects, thus failing to properly protect the most vulnerable patients. Yet, the method Prescrire used to analyse drug packaging shows that it is not difficult to detect and anticipate risks. It is up to healthcare professionals to take advantage of the method, to protect patients from, and report, dangerous packaging.

  8. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  9. The Impact of Precipitation Regimes on Forest Fires in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount, frequency, and duration of precipitation have important impact on the occurrence and severity of forest fires. To fully understand the effects of precipitation regimes on forest fires, a drought index was developed with number of consecutive dry days (daily precipitation less than 2 mm and total precipitation, and the relationships of drought and precipitation with fire activities were investigated over two periods (i.e., 1982–1988 and 1989–2008 in five ecoregions of Yunnan Province. The results showed that precipitation regime had a significant relationship with fire activities during the two periods. However, the influence of the drought on fire activities varied by ecoregions, with more impacts in drier ecoregions IV-V and less impacts in the more humid ecoregions I–III. The drought was more closely related to fire activities than precipitation during the two study periods, especially in the drier ecoregions, indicating that the frequency and the duration of precipitation had significant influences on forest fires in the drier areas. Drought appears to offer a better explanation than total precipitation on temporal changes in fire regimes across the five ecoregions in Yunnan. Our findings have significant implications for forecasting the local fire dangers under the future climate change.

  10. The impact of precipitation regimes on forest fires in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Niu, Shukui; Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jinlong; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    The amount, frequency, and duration of precipitation have important impact on the occurrence and severity of forest fires. To fully understand the effects of precipitation regimes on forest fires, a drought index was developed with number of consecutive dry days (daily precipitation less than 2 mm) and total precipitation, and the relationships of drought and precipitation with fire activities were investigated over two periods (i.e., 1982-1988 and 1989-2008) in five ecoregions of Yunnan Province. The results showed that precipitation regime had a significant relationship with fire activities during the two periods. However, the influence of the drought on fire activities varied by ecoregions, with more impacts in drier ecoregions IV-V and less impacts in the more humid ecoregions I-III. The drought was more closely related to fire activities than precipitation during the two study periods, especially in the drier ecoregions, indicating that the frequency and the duration of precipitation had significant influences on forest fires in the drier areas. Drought appears to offer a better explanation than total precipitation on temporal changes in fire regimes across the five ecoregions in Yunnan. Our findings have significant implications for forecasting the local fire dangers under the future climate change.

  11. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  12. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... the daily report. October 6, 2017 Minimal large fire activity was reported yesterday. Four large fires have ...

  13. The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E [V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: ncheby@forest.akadem.r, E-mail: Amber.J.Soja@nasa.go [National Institute of Aerospace (NIA), NASA Langley Research Center, Climate Sciences, 21 Langley Boulevard, Mail Stop 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

  14. Remote sensing techniques for vegetation moisture and fire risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Swarvanu

    This dissertation is aimed at evaluating and improving remote sensing techniques for vegetation moisture and fire risk estimation. Empirical retrievals of vegetation moisture using liquid water absorption based spectral indices such as the NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index) and NDII (Normalized Difference Infrared Index) may have uncertainties, since these indices cannot fully normalize the reflectance variability due to other biophysical, biochemical, soil and illumination viewing geometry factors. Coupled leaf-canopy reflectance models, National Fire Danger Rating System data and the FARSITE fire behavior model were used to estimate the effect of Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) retrieval uncertainties on fire spread rate predictions. The uncertainty estimation was focused on the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge where errors in LFMC retrievals using NDWI and NDII were shown to result in considerable fire spread rate prediction errors at lower LFMC levels. Soil reflectance contamination driven by soil moisture variability was identified as a problem causing errors in Vegetation Water Content (VWC) retrievals over low vegetation conditions. Analysis of canopy reflectance simulations from coupled soil-leaf-canopy reflectance models revealed that VWC isolines were curved and did not converge at the origin of the 1.64mum--0.86mum space. These were identified as causes for the soil moisture contamination of the spectral index NDII. As an improvement strategy an origin transformed NDII, called the SANDII (Soil Adjusted NDII) was designed to minimize soil contamination. Further separate regression models between VWC and the SANDII for different soil moisture classes were proposed to account for the curved nature of VWC isolines. The new technique which requires categorical soil moisture information was shown to reduce VWC estimation errors by about 20% over grassland conditions. The approach was supported using data collected over pastures during the Soil

  15. PERSPECTIVE: On the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, Elmar

    2007-03-01

    .5 °C or higher. In the language of the IPCC, the latter would mean that such a high climate sensitivity is anything but extremely unlikely ([1], footnote 6 and p 9), a view that is shared by many in the scientific community. Even if the risk tolerance is increased to 10%, the maximum allowable CO2 equivalent concentration remains below 460 ppm ([2], figure 7(c)). We are bound to reach that concentration in the near future, as it can be surpassed both by addition of new greenhouse gases and by a reduction of global dimming. Given the potential significance of this result, let us take a step back, and investigate its underlying assumptions. The concept of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' is inextricably linked to the idea of a threshold beyond which climate change can be labeled dangerous. This idea enters Harvey's analysis in the form of a probability distribution for the—as he calls it—'harm threshold' measured in terms of global mean temperature increase since preindustrial time. It might be due to the presumption of such a threshold that climate science and society at large have had a difficult relationship with the concept of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' (Dessai et al [3]). Nevertheless, I want to argue here, as many have done before (see Oppenheimer and Petsonk [4] for an overview), that this concept is not ill-defined. First of all, it is clear that 'dangerous interference' and the stipulation of a 'harm threshold' carry a value judgment, and therefore cannot be decided upon purely by science. This does not prevent science, however, from providing information and conceptual frameworks to facilitate such judgment (Schellnhuber et al [5]). Secondly, it is certainly true that our interference with the climate system emanates from local and national action, and that the consequences of such interference will first and foremost be felt on the local to regional scale. However, this does not need to conflict with the assessment of a global 'harm

  16. Seismic detection system for blocking the dangerous installations in case of strong earthquake occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, Daniela; Corneliu Rau, Dan; Ionescu, Constantin; Grigore, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    During the last 70 years, four major earthquakes occurred in the Vrancea seismic area affected Romania territory: 10 November 1940 (Mw = 7.7, 160 km depth), 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.5, 100 km depth), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.2, 140 km depth), 30 May 30 1990 (Mw = 6.9, 80 km depth). Romania is a European country with significant seismicity. So far, the 1977 event had the most catastrophic consequences: about 33,000 residences were totally destroyed or partially deteriorated, 1,571 people dies and another 11,300 were injured. Moreover, 61 natural-gas pipelines were damaged, causing destructive fires. The total losses were estimated at 3 mld. U.S. dollars. Recent studies clearly pointed out that in case of a strong earthquake occurrence in Vrancea region (Ms above 7), the biggest danger regarding the major cities comes from explosions and fires started immediately after the earthquake, and the most important factor of risk are the natural gas distribution networks. The damages are strongly amplified by the fact that, simultaneously, water and electric energy lines distributions are damaged too, making impossible the efficient firemen intervention, for localizing the fire sources. Presently, in Romania safe and efficient accepted solutions for improving the buildings securing, using antiseismic protection of the dangerous installations as natural-gas pipelines are not available. Therefore, we propose a seismic detection system based on a seismically actuated gas shut-off valve, which is automatically shut down in case of a seismic shock. The device is intended to be installed in the natural-gas supply line outside of buildings, as well at each user (group of users), inside of the buildings. The seismic detection system for blocking the dangerous installations in case of a strong earthquake occurrence was designed on the basis of 12 criteria enforced by the US regulations for seismic valves, aimed to eliminate the critical situations as fluids and under pressure gases leakage

  17. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  18. A growing danger: the risks posed by marihuana grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    The proliferation of sophisticated illegal indoor multi-plant marihuana cultivation operations is discussed, focusing primarily on public health and safety issues. Public health issues arise from the high level of molds and pollens caused by high humidity, which can cause asthma, respiratory conditions and allergies, particularly among children, and the likelihood of deadly levels of carbon monoxide build-up resulting from faulty rerouting of the residence's ventilation system. Safety issues discussed are: fires and electrocutions associated with the use of electrical diversions or bipasses to circumvent utility meters, the chemical and electrical hazards involved in investigating and dismantling growing operations, the significant dangers to utility crews who must repair illegal electrical bypasses, injuries by the booby-traps planted to protect the operation from other criminals or law enforcement agents, and the physical danger from the violence, including homicide and assaults, carried out by operators to exert control over production and distribution. Although in general, there is a relaxed attitude towards marihuana use in Canada. there is growing evidence of increasing public concern over large-scale growing operations. Nevertheless, to date operators of grow-ops have been dealt with lightly by the justice system. For example, in British Columbia 11,733 cases have come to the attention of police during the 1997 to 2000 period. Of these about half were dealt with informally (i.e. 'no case' seizures) and 2,255 cases led to at least one offender being convicted. The majority of convictions did not result in custodial dispositions. Only 18 per cent of the cases resulted in prison sentences, the average term being only 4.5 months.

  19. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  20. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  1. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  2. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    are backstage areas, dressing rooms, ice rinks, boxing rings, and basketball floors. 37. Projection room or area. Included are stage light and...or taper . 45. Match. 46. Lighter (flame type). 47. Open fire. Included are campfires, bonfires, warning flares, rubbish fires, open trash burners, open

  3. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures i

  4. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  5. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  6. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    the German and French Weather Services (Deutscher Wetterdienst and Météo-France). Historical fire events are taken from Prométhée database. Time series 2000-2010 are used as learning data and data from 2011 is used as the validation data. The resulting model can support real-time fire risk estimation for improved allocation of firefighting resources and planning of other mitigation actions. [1] Keeley, J.E.; Bond, W.J.; Bradstock, R.A.; Pausas, J.G.; Rundel, P.W. (2012): Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems: ecology, evolution and management. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp.515 [2] Lawson, B.D.; Armitage, O.B. (2008): Weather Guide for the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. [3] Van Wagner, C.E.; Pickett, T.L. (1985): Equations and FORTRAN Program for the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Forestry Technical Report 33. Canadian Forestry Service, Government of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada [4] Syphard, A.D.; Radeloff, V.C.; Keuler, N.S.; Taylor, R.S.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Clayton, M.K. (2008): Predicting spatial patterns of fire on a southern California landscape. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 17, pp.602-613 [5] Papakosta, P.; Klein, F.; König, S.; Straub, D. (2012): Linking spatio-temporal data to the Fire Weather Index to estimate the probability of wildfire in the Mediterranean. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol.14, EGU2012-12737, EGU General Assembly 2012

  7. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St....

  8. Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and Burns Interagency Fire Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between the Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. The objectives...

  9. External human factors in incident management team decisionmaking and their effect on large fire suppression expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janie Canton-Tompson; Krista M. Gebert; Brooke Thompson; Greg Jones; David Calkin; Geoff. Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. Changing climate, fuel buildup due to past suppression, and increasing populations in the wildland-urban interface have all been blamed for the extreme fire seasons and rising suppression expenditures of recent years. With each high-cost year comes a...

  10. Repeated fires trap Amazonian blackwater floodplains in an open vegetation state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Bernardo M.; Fagoaga, Raquel; Nelson, Bruce W.; Holmgren, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may increase the occurrence of droughts and fires in the Amazon. Most of our understanding on how fire affects tropical ecosystems is based on studies of non-flooded forest–savanna ecotones. Nonetheless, tropical floodplain forests in the Amazon can burn severely during extreme dro

  11. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Keeley, Jon E.; Stephens, Scott L.; Roller, Gary B.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, after large stand-replacing fires in mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests, dense shrub fields occupy sites formerly occupied by mature conifers, until eventually conifers overtop and shade out shrubs. Attempting to reduce fuel loads and expedite forest regeneration in these areas, the USDA Forest Service often disrupts this cycle by the logging of fire-killed trees, replanting of conifers and killing of shrubs. We measured the effects of these treatments on live and dead fuel loads and alien species and modeled potential fire behavior and fire effects on regenerating forests. Sampling occurred in untreated, logged and herbicide-treated stands throughout the Sierra Nevada in four large fire areas 4–21 years after stand-replacing fires. Logging fire-killed trees significantly increased total available dead fuel loads in the short term but did not affect shrub cover, grass and forb cover, alien species cover or alien species richness. Despite the greater available dead fuel loads, fire behavior was not modeled to be different between logged and untreated stands, due to abundant shrub fuels in both logged and untreated stands. In contrast, the herbicide treatment directed at shrubs resulted in extremely low shrub cover, significantly greater alien species richness and significantly greater alien grass and forb cover. Grass and forb cover was strongly correlated with solar radiation on the ground, which may be the primary reason that grass and forb cover was higher in herbicide treated stands with low shrub and tree cover. Repeat burning exacerbated the alien grass problem in some stands. Although modeled surface fire flame lengths and rates of spread were found to be greater in stands dominated by shrubs, compared to low shrub cover conifer plantations, surface fire would still be intense enough to kill most trees, given their small size and low crown heights in the first two decades after planting.

  13. Dangerous Events, Risk Communications and Evolutionary Governance Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, M.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation conceptualizes and categorizes the various relationships between dangerous events, the emergence of risk communications and the effects on governance (the taking of collectively binding decisions in a community by a diversity of actors, inside and outside government) from Evolution

  14. Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs Page Content ... be strong indicators of serious mental health issues. Mental Health “Red Flags” Parents Should Be Alert For: Excessive ...

  15. Cancer immunogenicity, danger signals, and DAMPs: what, when, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhishek D; Dudek, Aleksandra M; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Cancer immunosurvelliance usually leads to formation of cancer cells that have been "immunoedited" to resist anti-tumor immunity. One of the consequences of immunoediting that is, reduced immunogenicity, is an important roadblock in revival of stable and long-lasting anti-tumor immune responses. Research done during the last decade has shown that emission by the dying cancer cells of immunomodulatory factors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which can act as danger signals, is a critical event in accentuating the immunogenicity of cancer cells, in response to a subset of anticancer treatments. Recent evidence has defined that an apoptotic cell death subroutine and its underlying biochemistry, which has been termed as "immunogenic cell death (ICD)" or "immunogenic apoptosis," is required for the efficient emission of DAMPs and inciting anti-tumor immunity. Here, we review the basic concepts of ICD, like cancer immunogenicity, danger signals, and DAMPs. Moreover, we discuss the emerging molecular links between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, induction of a viral response-like gene expression, danger signals, and anti-tumor immunity. We envisage that along with ER stress-based trafficking of DAMPs (which is a "short-range communicator" of danger), the accompanying induction of a viral response-like gene expression and the secretion of anti-tumorigenic cytokines may become a crucial signature of ICD induction by anticancer therapy.

  16. Innate danger signals in acute injury: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Mathieu; Lepape, Alain; Piriou, Vincent; Venet, Fabienne; Friggeri, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    The description of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a reaction to numerous insults marked a turning point in the understanding of acute critical states, which are intensive care basic cases. This concept highlighted the final inflammatory response features whichever the injury mechanism is: infectious, or non-infectious such as extensive burns, traumas, major surgery or acute pancreatitis. In these cases of severe non-infectious insult, many endogenous mediators are released. Like infectious agents components, they can activate the immune system (via common signaling pathways) and initiate an inflammatory response. They are danger signals or alarmins. These molecules generally play an intracellular physiological role and acquire new functions when released in extracellular space. Many progresses brought new information on these molecules and on their function in infectious and non-infectious inflammation. These danger signals can be used as biomarkers and provide new pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, particularly for immune dysfunctions occurring after an acute injury. We present herein the danger model, the main danger signals and the clinical consequences.

  17. Teens Share Sexually Explicit Messages: Simple Rebellion or Dangerous Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular form of communication among teenagers is "sexting," sending nude photos via text messaging, reported The Orange County Register (3/20/09). This "flirtation" technique has sparked quite a bit of debate: is this simply a form of rebellion or is it dangerous behavior that could have adverse penalties? Although many teens say…

  18. Stop-loss order, unequal means, and more dangerous distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, R.; van Heerwaarden, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Using a sequence of transformations of subsequent cumulative distribution functions, the connections between the following three relations between risks are established: stop-loss order, stop-loss order with equal means, and being more dangerous. By a related technique, stop-loss order is verified b

  19. Detecting danger labels with RAM-based neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.; Christensen, S.S.; Andersen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing system for the automatic location of danger labels on the back of containers is presented. The system uses RAM-based neural networks to locate and classify labels after a pre-processing step involving specially designed non-linear edge filters and RGB-to-HSV conversion. Results...

  20. Danger-signaler og inflammasomer ved autoinflammatoriske og autoimmune sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inflammasomes are formed through activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the innate immune system. Endogenous and exogenous danger signals, e.g. DNA- and RNA-fragments, urate- and cholesterol crystals, silica and asbestos, ß-amyloid, UV-light and skin irritants, may induce...

  1. The Path to Extreme Violence: Nazism and Serial Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In people's minds, extreme violence is an enigma. The tortures inflicted on defenceless victims seem to defy reason. Yet, the fact that these incidents keep recurring is proof that there are rules governing them. It is these rules that I have attempted to isolate. We shall see that they are clearly defined and that they are to be found in individual as well as collective violence. To categorise them is the first step towards implementing preventative measures which would help to protect the rational majority from a dangerous minority. Practice and theory are inextricably linked in the analysis of “organised insanity” that is extreme violence. PMID:20126638

  2. The path to extreme violence: nazism and serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In people's minds, extreme violence is an enigma. The tortures inflicted on defenceless victims seem to defy reason. Yet, the fact that these incidents keep recurring is proof that there are rules governing them. It is these rules that I have attempted to isolate. We shall see that they are clearly defined and that they are to be found in individual as well as collective violence. To categorise them is the first step towards implementing preventative measures which would help to protect the rational majority from a dangerous minority. Practice and theory are inextricably linked in the analysis of "organised insanity" that is extreme violence.

  3. The path to extreme violence: Nazism and serial killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Cotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In people’s minds, extreme violence is an enigma. The tortures inflicted on defenceless victims seem to defy reason. Yet, the fact that these incidents keep recurring is proof that there are rules governing them. It is these rules that I have attempted to isolate. We shall see that they are clearly defined and that they are to be found in individual as well as collective violence. To categorise them is the first step towards implementing preventative measures which would help to protect the rational majority from a dangerous minority. Practice and theory are inextricably linked in the analysis of ‘organised insanity’ that is extreme violence.

  4. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  5. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  6. USFA NFIRS 2006 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2006 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  7. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  8. USFA NFIRS 2007 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2007 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  9. USFA NFIRS 1999 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 1999 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  10. USFA NFIRS 2008 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2008 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  11. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  12. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  13. USFA NFIRS 2005 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2005 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  14. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  15. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  16. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  17. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  18. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  19. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana.

  20. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  1. Analysis of Original Causes of Reed Fires in Zhalong Nature Wetland Reserve in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingyu; SHU Lifu; TIAN Xiaorui; WANG Zhicheng

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, serious reed fires occurred in Zhalong Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province in China. From 19th to 28th of March 2005, 12 fires occurred in Zhalong Nature Reserve, and the fires spread to Qiqihaer City, Duerberte Mongolian Autonomous County, Lindian County and Daqing City. The burned area was about 18 666 ha. Meteorological factor was the leading factor of its fire environment in Zhalong Nature Reserve, which came into being for a long time. Long-term drought and shortage of rain made the reed and meadow withered and yellow and thus greatly reduced the water content of withered fallen leaves and humus. Much fuel was accumulated and became dry, thus forming the fire environment. Fires in Zhalong Nature Reserve were mainly strong surface fires accompanied by the spread of underground fire. It was extremely easy for reed to burn and spread very quickly. Once a fire broke out, it could spread rapidly to a scene of large fire area, and sometimes it could burn for a long time. Due to lack of correct understanding of the wetland fire and inconvenient wetland traffic, it was unable to find and put out wetland fire in time to save life and property early.

  2. “危险物品型”危险驾驶罪的准抽象危险犯定位%Orientation on Quasi Abstract Dangerous Criminal of the Dangerous Articles Type Crime of Dangerous Driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文昊

    2016-01-01

    《刑法修正案(九)》新设“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪,系准抽象危险犯。抽象危险犯与具体危险犯不能仅凭语词做形式判断,应当参照德日刑法理论,根据危险的程度,从实质上区分抽象危险犯与具体危险犯,而准抽象危险犯是介于两者中间的形态。“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪不能理解为具体危险犯,否则会违反罪刑均衡的原则。将“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪视为准抽象危险犯,是风险社会提前规制危险行为的必然要求。危险驾驶罪的解释应当考察可罚性,运用目的解释,将其认定为准抽象危险犯。%A new "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime is set up in the Criminal Law Amendment (9), namely quasi abstract dangerous criminal .Abstract dangerous crime and concrete dangerous crime cannot be judged only by words , but by the reference of theory of criminal law in Germany and Japan , and according to de-gree of danger , they can be judged essentially .While the quasi abstract dangerous crime is just a form in the mid-dle of these two crimes .The "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime cannot be simply understood as concrete dangerous crime;otherwise it will violate the principle of balance between crime and punishment .Regard-ing the "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime as quasi abstract dangerous crime is an inevitable re-quirement for the risk society to regulate the dangerous behavior in advance .The interpretation of the dangerous driving crime shall be subject to the investigation of the penalty , and by the use of teleological interpretation , the dangerous driving crime can be identified as quasi abstract dangerous crime .

  3. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  4. Fires in Myanmar (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, fires are common and widespread throughout the dry season, which roughly spans the northern hemisphere winter months. People set fires to clear crop stubble and brush and to prepare grazing land for a new flush of growth when the rainy season arrives. These intentional fires are too frequently accompanied by accidental fires that invade nearby forests and woodlands. The combination of fires produces a thick haze that alternately lingers and disperses, depending on the weather. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite shows fire activity on March 19, 2007, across eastern India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and China. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red on the image. The darker green areas are generally more wooded areas or forests, while the paler green and tan areas are agricultural land. Smoke pools over low-lying areas of the hilly terrain in gray pockets. The green tops of rolling hills in Thailand emerge from a cloud of low-lying smoke. According to news reports from Thailand, the smoke blanket created air quality conditions that were considered unhealthy for all groups, and it prompted the Thai Air Force to undertake cloud-seeding attempts in an effort to cleanse the skies with rain. Commercial air traffic was halted due to poor visibility.

  5. Abrupt fire regime change may cause landscape-wide loss of mature obligate seeder forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Murphy, Brett P; Neyland, Dominic L J; Williamson, Grant J; Prior, Lynda D

    2014-03-01

    Obligate seeder trees requiring high-severity fires to regenerate may be vulnerable to population collapse if fire frequency increases abruptly. We tested this proposition using a long-lived obligate seeding forest tree, alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis), in the Australian Alps. Since 2002, 85% of the Alps bioregion has been burnt by several very large fires, tracking the regional trend of more frequent extreme fire weather. High-severity fires removed 25% of aboveground tree biomass, and switched fuel arrays from low loads of herbaceous and litter fuels to high loads of flammable shrubs and juvenile trees, priming regenerating stands for subsequent fires. Single high-severity fires caused adult mortality and triggered mass regeneration, but a second fire in quick succession killed 97% of the regenerating alpine ash. Our results indicate that without interventions to reduce fire severity, interactions between flammability of regenerating stands and increased extreme fire weather will eliminate much of the remaining mature alpine ash forest. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Climate effect on forest fire static risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Antonella; Cossu, Antonello; Entrade, Erika; Fiorucci, Paolo; Gaetani, Francesco; Parodi, Ulderica

    2010-05-01

    The availability of a long data series of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allow to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. In addition, climate indexes obtained from the analysis of time series with more than 20 years of complete records allow to understand the role of climate on fire regime, both in terms of direct effects on fire behaviour and the effect on vegetation cover. In particular, indices of extreme events have been considered like CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and HWDI (heat wave duration index: maximum period > 5 consecutive days with Tmax >5°C above the 1961-1990 daily Tmax normal), together with the usual indices describing rainfall and temperature regimes. As a matter of fact, based on this information it is possible to develop statistical methods for the objective classification of forest fire static risk at regional scale. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in Liguria and is almost absent in Sardinia. What is common in the two regions is the widespread presence of shrub species frequently spread by fire. The analysis in the two regions thus allows in a rather limited area to consider almost all the species and the climate conditions that characterize the Mediterranean region. More than 10000 fire perimeters that burnt about 800 km2 were considered in the analysis

  7. The Spirit of Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    POTTERY born around 5,000-7,000years ago,is the crystallization ofhuman being’s experience ofmolding earth with fire.It was also the firstcreation of man.From ancient to moderntimes,fire has accompanied every potterymaker.The contemporary artist Picassoonce said,“Fire is a special color set apartfrom those on the palette.It can create anart described by one poet as "the smeltingof seven colored sun rays”.ZhangWenzhi,from the Art Academy ofGuangzhou,is a woman who hascontributed herself wholly to the art of

  8. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  9. Probabilistic fire simulator - Monte Carlo simulation tool for fire scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostikka, S.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2002-11-01

    Risk analysis tool is developed for computing of the distributions of fire model output variables. The tool, called Probabilistic Fire Simulator, combines Monte Carlo simulation and CFAST two-zone fire model. In this work, it is used to calculate failure probability of redundant cables and fire detector activation times in a cable tunnel fire. Sensitivity of the output variables to the input variables is calculated in terms of the rank order correlations. (orig.)

  10. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  11. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  12. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  13. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  14. Fire and worker health and safety: an introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard; Levenstein, Charles

    2015-02-01

    One century ago, the landmark fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City claimed the lives of 146 garment workers and helped spur the adoption of fire safety measures and laws targeting dangerous working conditions. Since that time, continuing advances have been made to address the threat of fire-in workplace fire safety practices and regulations, in training and safety requirements for firefighters and first responders, and in hazard communication laws that enhance disaster planning and response. Recent high profile events, including the West, Texas fertilizer plant explosion, derailments of fuel cargo trains, and garment factory fires in Bangladesh, have brought renewed attention to fire as a workplace health and safety issue and to the unevenness of safety standards and regulatory enforcement, in the United States as well as internationally. In this article, we provide an overview of fire as a workplace health and safety hazard and an introduction to the essays included in this special issue of New Solutions on fire and work.

  15. Classification of fire-technical characteristic of roofing materials in European and Russian regulation documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the fire-danger index of building materials (such as roofing materials in European and Russian regulations. The parameters which were obtained during tests in accordance with standard of roofing materials in European and Russian methods of testing were analyzed. Some of the tests to determine the properties of the fire hazard of building materials are identical. Contributors show that the European standardization system has a much wider range of test methods for determining the properties of fire safety of construction materials. In Russia, for some tests is not unique (the test in a corner room, non-flammability tests, etc.. We concluded that the European standards for building materials are more stringent and also that the correlation between the various indicators missing. We demonstrate significant differences in the European and Russian fire hazard classification of identical roofing materials.

  16. Daily fire occurrence in northern Eurasia from 2002 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Hao; H. M. Eissinger; A. Petkov; B. L. Nordgren; Shawn Urbanski

    2010-01-01

    Northern Eurasia, covering 20% of the global land mass and containing 70% of boreal forest, is extremely sensitive to climate changes. Warmer temperatures in this region have led to less snowfall, earlier spring, longer growing season, and reduced moisture for soil and vegetation in summer. Recently, severe drought and record high temperatures caused catastrophic fires...

  17. Fire in the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M.J.S.; Balch, Jennifer; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J.; Carlson, Jean M.; Cochrane, Mark A.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Doyle, John C.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Johnston, Fay H.; Keeley, Jon E.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Kull, Christian A.; Marston, J. Brad; Moritz, Max A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Roos, Christopher I.; Scott, Andrew C.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Pyne, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  18. Fire in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J

    2009-04-24

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  19. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  20. Research and Analysis of the Fire Prevention Countermeasures and Fire Safety Characteristics of Ancient Buildings%古建筑消防安全特性及防火对策研析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连加民; 李振华

    2014-01-01

    古建筑多为木质结构,并且年代久远,极易发生火灾,存在着特别重大的消防安全隐患。本文从古建筑的消防安全特性出发,探讨了如何运用现代的消防手段,并提出了新形势下古建筑防火对策和措施。%The ancient buildings are mostly of wooden str- ucture; and they are liable to catch fire for aging on this basis. So these buildings are with the potential serious dangers of fire safety accidents. This paper started with the fire safety charac- teristics of ancient building, discussing how to apply modern fire protection means under the new situation and puting fo- rward the countermeasures against fire accidents of ancient buildings.

  1. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  2. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  3. Fire Mapper Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  4. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Search Email subscriptions Training & Professional Development Fire Prevention & Public Education Operations Management & Safety Data Publications & Library Grants & Funding About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Email subscriptions Disaster sheltering ...

  5. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  6. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  7. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  8. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  9. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  10. Fire Management Species Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...

  11. Fire Management Plan 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Erie as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts and alternatives...

  12. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  13. Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and Southern Italy: Implications for Land and Fire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in Southern Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and Southern Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  15. Sources of guns to dangerous people: what we learn by asking them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Parker, Susan T; Pollack, Harold A

    2015-10-01

    Gun violence exacts a lethal toll on public health. This paper focuses on reducing access to firearms by dangerous offenders, contributing original empirical data on the gun transactions that arm offenders in Chicago. Conducted in the fall of 2013, analysis of an open-ended survey of 99 inmates of Cook County Jail focuses on a subset of violence-prone individuals with the goal of improving law enforcement actions. Among our principal findings: *Our respondents (adult offenders living in Chicago or nearby) obtain most of their guns from their social network of personal connections. Rarely is the proximate source either direct purchase from a gun store, or theft. *Only about 60% of guns in the possession of respondents were obtained by purchase or trade. Other common arrangements include sharing guns and holding guns for others. *About one in seven respondents report selling guns, but in only a few cases as a regular source of income. *Gangs continue to play some role in Chicago in organizing gun buys and in distributing guns to members as needed. *The Chicago Police Department has a considerable effect on the workings of the underground gun market through deterrence. Transactions with strangers and less-trusted associates are limited by concerns over arrest risk (if the buyer should happen to be an undercover officer or a snitch), and about being caught with a "dirty" gun (one that has been fired in a crime).

  16. Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials to improve the Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience......Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience...

  17. Fire Burning Characteristics, Attacking Techniques and Safety Precautions in Pinus pumila Scrubs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In China, Pinus pumila is mainly distributed in Daxing’anling, while those growing in the eastern Daxing’anling are primarily covered under the jurisdiction of Huzhong Forest Bureau. P. pumila is an evergreen shrub, 3-6 m high, and always grows vigorously. Its trunks creep along the ground, usually 10 m long or more. It is easily flammable because of the large amounts of resins and volatile oils in its body. Attacking forest fires is a dangerous work, especially in P. pumila scrubs. The fires in P. pumila s...

  18. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  19. Environmental problems in a coal mining area affected by coal fires --A case study in Ruqigou Coalfield, Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ruqigou Coalfield, being one of the most important coal mining areas in China, has suffered coal fire problems for more than one hundred years. Due to coal fires, about 4.513 million tons coal resources has been lost each year, and apart from a large volume of CO2 delivered into air, environmental problems such as land degradation, land pollution and air pollution are also produced. Air pollution, as one related to coal fires, is the most dangerous problems for local people and has already led to vegetation pollution in this area. Land degradation is mainly induced with occurrence of land subsidence, fissures with due to coal mining/coal fires, and debris slide/flow. With development of opencast coal mining, a large volume of waste was produced, which is the major source of land pollution. All these environmental problems are associated with coal mining or coal fires and their comprehensive effects are deterioration of environment.

  20. A Protection plan of wildlife in a danger of extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don; Park, Yong Ha; Suh, Jung Soo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This report collected data on the present situation of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, insects, invertebrates, and 43 kinds of plants, which is in a danger of extinction, and their habitat, by the article 2 of 1998 Natural Environmental Conservation Act, as a part of 'Establishment of Biological diversity strategy'. This will utilize as a basic data for protection management to establish the recovery plan for each species. 358 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.