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Sample records for extreme environments preliminary

  1. PRELIMINARY BIOGEOCHEMICAL DATA ON MICROBIAL CARBONATOGENESIS IN ANCIENT EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS (KESS-KESS MOUNDS, MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANO GUIDO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian Kess-Kess mounds, cropping out in the Hamar Laghdad Ridge (SE Morocco, provide a useful case-study for understanding the relationships between the microbial metabolic activities and micrite precipitation in an extreme environment. Very fine dark and white wrinkled laminae record microbial activity and the geochemistry of the organic matter allows the  characterization of the source organisms. The biogeochemical characterization of extracted organic matter was performed through the functional group analyses by FT-IR Spectroscopy. FT-IR parameters indicate a marine origin and low thermal evolution for the organic material. The organic matter is characterized by the presence of stretching ?C=C vibrations attributable to alkene and/or unsaturated carboxylic acids. Preliminary analysis with GC-MS provides evidence for an autochthonous (extreme environment may have implications in astrobiological research considering the recent discovery of carbonate deposits on Mars. 

  2. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  3. Reinforced Feedback in Virtual Environment for Rehabilitation of Upper Extremity Dysfunction after Stroke: Preliminary Data from a Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Paweł Kiper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study whether the reinforced feedback in virtual environment (RFVE is more effective than traditional rehabilitation (TR for the treatment of upper limb motor function after stroke, regardless of stroke etiology (i.e., ischemic, hemorrhagic. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Participants. Forty-four patients affected by stroke. Intervention. The patients were randomized into two groups: RFVE (N=23 and TR (N=21, and stratified according to stroke etiology. The RFVE treatment consisted of multidirectional exercises providing augmented feedback provided by virtual reality, while in the TR treatment the same exercises were provided without augmented feedbacks. Outcome Measures. Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale (F-M UE, Functional Independence Measure scale (FIM, and kinematics parameters (speed, time, and peak. Results. The F-M UE (P=0.030, FIM (P=0.021, time (P=0.008, and peak (P=0.018, were significantly higher in the RFVE group after treatment, but not speed (P=0.140. The patients affected by hemorrhagic stroke significantly improved FIM (P=0.031, time (P=0.011, and peak (P=0.020 after treatment, whereas the patients affected by ischemic stroke improved significantly only speed (P=0.005 when treated by RFVE. Conclusion. These results indicated that some poststroke patients may benefit from RFVE program for the recovery of upper limb motor function. This trial is registered with NCT01955291.

  4. Transformers For Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Imagine a revolutionary way to remotely control the environment surrounding one or more roving vehicles exploring remote and unexplored areas of the Solar System,...

  5. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

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    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  6. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

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    Christopher T. Lefèvre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  7. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  8. Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Extreme environments abound in the solar system and include the radiation around Jupiter, high surface temperatures on Mercury and Venus, and hot, high pressure...

  9. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  10. Gene adaptation to extreme environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlaire, P.; Rodriguez, V.; Kerner, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This work is oriented to the study of gene adaptation to extreme conditions, such as the hydrothermal system located in Copahue, Neuquen, Argentina. The organisms living there develop under two pressure selection conditions: the high temperature of thermal water and the strong impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Several microorganisms found in this region were isolated and different colonies resistant to UV radiation were selected, a Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain identified through 16S RNA sequence, being the most remarkable. A gene library was prepared out of this strain with UV sensitive bacteria BH200 (uvrA::Tn10). A number of clones were isolated by means of UV selection, the most outstanding being a gene carrier able to codify for the guanosine monophosphate synthetase enzyme (GMPs). The suitability of said enzyme was proved by means of additional assays performed on ght 1 bacteria (guaA26::Tn 10) which lacked the enzyme. A transcript of 1100 pb was detected through Northern Blot. The result was consistent with that obtained for the mapping of the starting transcription site. The cloned GMPs produces an increase in growth speed and a greater biomass in BH200 bacteria. (author)

  11. Force Myography for Monitoring Grasping in Individuals with Stroke with Mild to Moderate Upper-Extremity Impairments: A Preliminary Investigation in a Controlled Environment

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    Gautam P. Sadarangani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing research interest in technologies that can detect grasping, to encourage functional use of the hand as part of daily living, and thus promote upper-extremity motor recovery in individuals with stroke. Force myography (FMG has been shown to be effective for providing biofeedback to improve fine motor function in structured rehabilitation settings, involving isolated repetitions of a single grasp type, elicited at a predictable time, without upper-extremity movements. The use of FMG, with machine learning techniques, to detect and distinguish between grasping and no grasping, continues to be an active area of research, in healthy individuals. The feasibility of classifying FMG for grasp detection in populations with upper-extremity impairments, in the presence of upper-extremity movements, as would be expected in daily living, has yet to be established. We explore the feasibility of FMG for this application by establishing and comparing (1 FMG-based grasp detection accuracy and (2 the amount of training data necessary for accurate grasp classification, in individuals with stroke and healthy individuals. FMG data were collected using a flexible forearm band, embedded with six force-sensitive resistors (FSRs. Eight participants with stroke, with mild to moderate upper-extremity impairments, and eight healthy participants performed 20 repetitions of three tasks that involved reaching, grasping, and moving an object in different planes of movement. A validation sensor was placed on the object to label data as corresponding to a grasp or no grasp. Grasp detection performance was evaluated using linear and non-linear classifiers. The effect of training set size on classification accuracy was also determined. FMG-based grasp detection demonstrated high accuracy of 92.2% (σ = 3.5% for participants with stroke and 96.0% (σ = 1.6% for healthy volunteers using a support vector machine (SVM. The use of a training set that was 50

  12. Wireless Sensor Applications in Extreme Aeronautical Environments

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    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require rigorous ground and flight testing. Many of the testing environments can be extremely harsh. These environments include cryogenic temperatures and high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). Temperature, pressure, vibration, ionizing radiation, and chemical exposure may all be part of the harsh environment found in testing. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new wireless sensors that address anticipated structural health monitoring (SHM) and testing needs for aeronautical vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless sensors for ground testing and high altitude aircraft operations are presented. Some of the challenges and issues of the technology are also presented.

  13. Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments, Phase II

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments (DACEE) addresses a critical need of NASA's future exploration plans to investigate extreme environments within our...

  14. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  15. Magnetic Reconnection in Extreme Astrophysical Environments

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    Uzdensky, Dmitri

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma physics process of breaking ideal-MHD's frozen-in constraints on magnetic field connectivity and of dramatic rearranging of the magnetic topol-ogy, which often leads to a violent release of the free magnetic energy. Reconnection has long been acknowledged to be of great importance in laboratory plasma physics (magnetic fusion) and in space and solar physics (responsible for solar flares and magnetospheric substorms). In addition, its importance in Astrophysics has been increasingly recognized in recent years. However, due to a great diversity of astrophysical environments, the fundamental physics of astrophysical magnetic reconnection can be quite different from that of the traditional recon-nection encountered in the solar system. In particular, environments like the solar corona and the magnetosphere are characterized by relatively low energy densities, where the plasma is ad-equately described as a mixture of electrons and ions whose numbers are conserved and where the dissipated magnetic energy basically stays with the plasma. In contrast, in many high-energy astrophysical phenomena the energy density is so large that photons play as important a role as electrons and ions and, in particular, radiation pressure and radiative cooling become dominant. In this talk I focus on the most extreme case of high-energy-density astrophysical reconnec-tion — reconnection of magnetar-strength (1014 - 1015 Gauss) magnetic fields, important for giant flares in soft-gamma repeaters (SGRs), and for rapid magnetic energy release in either the central engines or in the relativistic jets of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). I outline the key relevant physical processes and present a new theoretical picture of magnetic reconnection in these environments. The corresponding magnetic energy density is so enormous that, when suddenly released, it inevitably heats the plasma to relativistic temperatures, resulting in co-pious production of electron

  16. Colors of extreme exo-Earth environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Siddharth; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has already detected rocky planets and several planetary candidates with minimum masses that are consistent with rocky planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. A low-resolution spectrum in the form of a color-color diagram of an exoplanet is likely to be one of the first post-detection quantities to be measured for the case of direct detection. In this paper, we explore potentially detectable surface features on rocky exoplanets and their connection to, and importance as, a habitat for extremophiles, as known on Earth. Extremophiles provide us with the minimum known envelope of environmental limits for life on our planet. The color of a planet reveals information on its properties, especially for surface features of rocky planets with clear atmospheres. We use filter photometry in the visible as a first step in the characterization of rocky exoplanets to prioritize targets for follow-up spectroscopy. Many surface environments on Earth have characteristic albedos and occupy a different color space in the visible waveband (0.4-0.9 μm) that can be distinguished remotely. These detectable surface features can be linked to the extreme niches that support extremophiles on Earth and provide a link between geomicrobiology and observational astronomy. This paper explores how filter photometry can serve as a first step in characterizing Earth-like exoplanets for an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere, thereby prioritizing targets to search for atmospheric biosignatures.

  17. Autonomous Mission Design in Extreme Orbit Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovik, David Allen

    An algorithm for autonomous online mission design at asteroids, comets, and small moons is developed to meet the novel challenges of their complex non-Keplerian orbit environments, which render traditional methods inapplicable. The core concept of abstract reachability analysis, in which a set of impulsive maneuvering options is mapped onto a space of high-level mission outcomes, is applied to enable goal-oriented decision-making with robustness to uncertainty. These nuanced analyses are efficiently computed by utilizing a heuristic-based adaptive sampling scheme that either maximizes an objective function for autonomous planning or resolves details of interest for preliminary analysis and general study. Illustrative examples reveal the chaotic nature of small body systems through the structure of various families of reachable orbits, such as those that facilitate close-range observation of targeted surface locations or achieve soft impact upon them. In order to fulfill extensive sets of observation tasks, the single-maneuver design method is implemented in a receding-horizon framework such that a complete mission is constructed on-the-fly one piece at a time. Long-term performance and convergence are assured by augmenting the objective function with a prospect heuristic, which approximates the likelihood that a reachable end-state will benefit the subsequent planning horizon. When state and model uncertainty produce larger trajectory deviations than were anticipated, the next control horizon is advanced to allow for corrective action -- a low-frequency form of feedback control. Through Monte Carlo analysis, the planning algorithm is ultimately demonstrated to produce mission profiles that vary drastically in their physical paths but nonetheless consistently complete all goals, suggesting a high degree of flexibility. It is further shown that the objective function can be tuned to preferentially minimize fuel cost or mission duration, as well as to optimize

  18. Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Venus, with its sulfuric acid clouds, temperatures of over 450', and surface pressure of 92 bar, is one of the most hostile planetary environments in the solar...

  19. Radiation diagnostics in extremely harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dona, H.; Lee, P.H.Y.; Williams, A.H.; McGurn, J.L.; Veeser, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent Trailmaster experiments have required to use of rather delicate radiation diagnostics in hostile environments. We have developed instrumentation for use high-explosive magnetic flux compression generators and near the noisy environment of high energy capacitor banks. These include some rather unique ''fly-away'' designs for x-ray imaging and spectroscopy, and other optical techniques for plasma temperature and field measurements. We will show some representative data and will also discuss an on-going program for the determination of magnetic field via atomic spectral line splitting and/or broadening

  20. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in extreme environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the extreme environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in extreme environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different extreme environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have important roles in stress resistance and adaptation to extremes. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from extreme environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Automated Precision Maneuvering and Landing in Extreme and Constrained Environments

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous, precise maneuvering and landing in extreme and constrained environments is a key enabler for future NASA missions. Missions to map the interior of a...

  2. SOI MESFETs for Extreme Environment Electronics, Phase I

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing a new extreme environment electronics (EEE) technology based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs)....

  3. Somersault of Paramecium in extremely confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Eddins, Aja; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-08-01

    We investigate various swimming modes of Paramecium in geometric confinements and a non-swimming self-bending behavior like a somersault, which is quite different from the previously reported behaviors. We observe that Paramecia execute directional sinusoidal trajectories in thick fluid films, whereas Paramecia meander around a localized region and execute frequent turns due to collisions with adjacent walls in thin fluid films. When Paramecia are further constrained in rectangular channels narrower than the length of the cell body, a fraction of meandering Paramecia buckle their body by pushing on the channel walls. The bucking (self-bending) of the cell body allows the Paramecium to reorient its anterior end and explore a completely new direction in extremely confined spaces. Using force deflection method, we quantify the Young’s modulus of the cell and estimate the swimming and bending powers exerted by Paramecium. The analysis shows that Paramecia can utilize a fraction of its swimming power to execute the self-bending maneuver within the confined channel and no extra power may be required for this new kind of self-bending behavior. This investigation sheds light on how micro-organisms can use the flexibility of the body to actively navigate within confined spaces.

  4. Digital mapping in extreme and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Joel; Bauer, Tobias; Sarlus, Zimer; Zainy, Maher; Brethes, Anais

    2017-04-01

    During the last few years, Luleå University of Technology has performed a series of research projects in remote areas with extreme climatic conditions using digital mapping technologies. The majority of past and ongoing research projects focus on the arctic regions of the Fennoscandian Shield and Greenland but also on the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in northern Iraq. Currently, we use the Midland Valley application FieldMove on iPad mini devices with ruggedized casings. As all projects have a strong focus on geological field work, harsh climatic conditions are a challenge not only for the geologists but also for the digital mapping hardware. In the arctic regions especially cold temperatures affect battery lifetime and performance of the screens. But also high temperatures are restricting digital mapping. From experience, a typical temperature range where digital mapping, using iPad tablets, is possible lies between -20 and +40 degrees. Furthermore, the remote character of field areas complicates access but also availability of electricity. By a combination of robust solar chargers and ruggedized batteries we are able to work entirely autarkical. Additionally, we are currently installing a drone system that allows us to map outcrops normally inaccessible because of safety reasons or time deficiency. The produced data will subsequently be taken into our Virtual Reality studio for interpretation and processing. There we will be able to work also with high resolution DEM data from Lidar scanning allowing us to interpret structural features such as post-glacial faults in areas that are otherwise only accessible by helicopter. By combining digital field mapping with drone technique and a Virtual Reality studio we are able to work in hardly accessible areas, improve safety during field work and increase efficiency substantially.

  5. Evidence of Molecular Adaptation to Extreme Environments and Applicability to Space Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović, M. D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile: {it Escherichia coli (E. coli K12}, will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0D C ({it Metarhizium frigidum (M.~frigidum} and {it Methanococcoides burtonii (M.~burtonii} and 110D C ({it Methanopyrus kandleri (M.~kandleri}. Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the {it chaperones} known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved {it chaperons} found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique {it chaperone TF55}. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The followinghyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used forthese studies: {it Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M.~jannaschii, M.~kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A.~fulgidus} and threespecies of {it Pyrococcus}. Common genes were annotated and groupedaccording to their roles in cellular processes where such informationwas available and proteins not previously implicated in theheat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additionalexperimental data are needed in order to learn more about theseproteins. To address non-gene based components of thermaladaptation

  6. Evidence of molecular adaptation to extreme environments and applicability to space environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile: Escherichia coli (E. coli K12, will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0ºC (Metarhizium frigidum (M. frigidum and Methanococcoides burtonii (M. burtonii and 110ºC (Methanopyrus kandleri (M. kandleri. Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the chaperones known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved chaperons found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique chaperone TF55. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The following hyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used for these studies: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M. jannaschii, M. kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A. fulgidus and three species of Pyrococcus. Common genes were annotated and grouped according to their roles in cellular processes where such information was available and proteins not previously implicated in the heat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additional experimental data are needed in order to learn more about these proteins. To address non-gene based components of thermal adaptation, all sequenced extremophiles were

  7. Moving in extreme environments:what’s extreme and who decides?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term ‘extreme’ typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals’ behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteopor...

  8. Mitochondrial Plasticity With Exercise Training and Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity and biochemical coupling efficiency may be differentially regulated...... with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial up-regulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level. SUMMARY: Muscle mitochondrial are responsive to training and environment, yet thresholds for volume vs. regulatory changes and their physiological...

  9. New insights into microbial adaptation to extreme saline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vauclare P.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme halophiles are microorganisms adapted to low water activity living at the upper salt concentration that life can tolerate. We review here recent data that specify the main factors, which determine their peculiar salt-dependent biochemistry. The data suggested that evolution proceeds by stage to modify the molecular dynamics properties of the entire proteome. Extreme halophiles therefore represent tractable models to understand how fast and to what extent microorganisms adapt to environmental changes. Halophiles are also robust organisms, capable to resist multiple stressors. Preliminary studies indicated that they have developed a cellular response specifically aimed to survive when the salt condition fluctuates. Because of these properties halophilic organisms deserve special attention in the search for traces of life on other planets.

  10. Flexible Electronics-Based Transformers for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Stoica, Adrian; Ingham, Michel; Thakur, Anubhav

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of the use of modular multifunctional systems, called Flexible Transformers, to facilitate the exploration of extreme and previously inaccessible environments. A novel dynamics and control model of a modular algorithm for assembly, folding, and unfolding of these innovative structural systems is also described, together with the control model and the simulation results.

  11. Quest for the QCD phase diagram in extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Kenji, E-mail: fuku@rk.phys.keio.ac.jp [Keio University, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    We review the state-of-the-art status of the research on the phase diagram of QCD matter out of quarks and gluons. Our discussions particularly include the extreme environments such as the high temperature, the high baryon density, and the strong magnetic field.

  12. Advances in hybrid optics physical sensors for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2010-04-01

    Highlighted are novel innovations in hybrid optical design physical sensors for extreme environments. Various hybrid design compositions are proposed that are suited for a particular sensor application. Examples includes combining freespace (wireless) and fiber-optics (wired) for gas turbine sensing and combining single crystal and sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials for robust extreme environment Coefficent of Thermal Expansion (CTE) matched frontend probe design. Sensor signal processing also includes the hybrid theme where for example Black-Body radiation thermometry (pyrometry) is combined with laser interferometry to provide extreme temperature measurements. The hybrid theme also operates on the optical device level where a digital optical device such as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is combined with an analog optical device such as an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal Length Lens (ECVFL) to deliver a smart and compressive Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging sensor for remote scene and object shape capture including both ambient light (passive) mode and active laser targeting and receive processing. Within a device level, the hybrid theme also operates via combined analog and digital control such as within a wavelength-coded variable optical delay line. These powerful hybrid design optical sensors have numerous applications in engineering and science applications from the military to the commercial/industrial sectors.

  13. Fabrication of Diamond Based Sensors for Use in Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi K. Samudrala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. We demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.

  14. Exascale Co-design for Modeling Materials in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germann, Timothy C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-08

    Computational materials science has provided great insight into the response of materials under extreme conditions that are difficult to probe experimentally. For example, shock-induced plasticity and phase transformation processes in single-crystal and nanocrystalline metals have been widely studied via large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, and many of these predictions are beginning to be tested at advanced 4th generation light sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). I will describe our simulation predictions and their recent verification at LCLS, outstanding challenges in modeling the response of materials to extreme mechanical and radiation environments, and our efforts to tackle these as part of the multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx). ExMatEx has initiated an early and deep collaboration between domain (computational materials) scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and hardware architects, in order to establish the relationships between algorithms, software stacks, and architectures needed to enable exascale-ready materials science application codes within the next decade. We anticipate that we will be able to exploit hierarchical, heterogeneous architectures to achieve more realistic large-scale simulations with adaptive physics refinement, and are using tractable application scale-bridging proxy application testbeds to assess new approaches and requirements. Such current scale-bridging strategies accumulate (or recompute) a distributed response database from fine-scale calculations, in a top-down rather than bottom-up multiscale approach.

  15. Characteristics of tropical cyclone extreme precipitation and its preliminary causes in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenyu; Ren, Fumin; Wu, Liguang; Chen, Lianshou; Ding, Chenchen

    2018-03-01

    Extreme precipitation induced by a tropical cyclone (TC) is of great concern to Southeast China. Regional characteristics of daily TC-induced extreme precipitation (TCEP) between 1958 and 2016 and the associated preliminary causes over Southeast China (Zhejiang, Fujian, and Shanghai) were examined by applying the objective synoptic analysis technique, TC track similarity area index, daily precipitation observations, and reanalysis data. The intensity and frequency of high-intensity TCEP (≥ 100, ≥ 200, ≥ 300 mm) have had an increasing trend over recent decades. Most of TCEP occurs from July to September, with frequency peaks in August for TCEP at all intensity levels, apart from the frequency for TCEP ≥ 300 mm that peaks in September. Regions with high frequency and large TCEP (R-HFLTs) (relatively high frequency for TCEP ≥ 100 mm) were concentrated along the coastline of the southern coastal Fujian (Southern R-HFLT), the regions from northern coastal Fujian to southernmost coastal Zhejiang (Central R-HFLT), and central coastal Zhejiang (Northern R-HFLT), decreasing from the coastline to inland. The Central R-HFLT region had the highest TCEP intensity and frequency for TCEP ≥ 100 mm compared with the other R-HFLTs. Further analysis showed that the special terrain of Southeast China matched the spatial distribution of TCEP, which highlights the significance of the topography of Southeast China. To discover other factors responsible for the heavy TCEP, we compared two TC groups that influence Central R-HFLT. Under a more northerly direction and slow movement combined with the unique terrain, TCs with stronger vortex circulation generated heavier TCEP during landfall in Central R-HFLT. Heavy TCEP occurred with easterly and southeasterly winds interacting with terrain over the eastern coast for Central R-HFLT. Although large changes in the internal and external environment were sensitive to the observed TCEP intensity, the interaction between TC circulation

  16. Overview of Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Mahzari, Milad; Milos, Frank S.; Nishioka, Owen S.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Young, Zion W.; Gage, Peter J.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) projects objective is to mature a 3-D Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) to Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 6 to support future NASA missions to destinations such as Venus and Saturn. The scope of the project, status of which will be discussed, encompasses development of manufacturing and integration processes, fabrication of a prototype 1m diameter engineering test unit (ETU) that will undergo a series of structural tests, characterizing material aerothermal performance including development of a material response model, and structural testing and analysis to develop tools to support design and establish system capability.

  17. Improving diversity in cultures of bacteria from an extreme environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Greenland represent one of the few permanently cold and alkaline environments on Earth, and the interior of the columns is home to a bacterial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The community is characterized by low cell numbers imbedded in a ca...... the diversity of the culture and many hitherto uncharacterized genera could be brought into culture by extended incubation time. Extended incubation time also gave rise to a more diverse community with a significant number of rare species not detected in the initial community....

  18. Development of an Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility at Princeton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.B.; Gentile, C.A.; Tully, C.G.; Austin, R.; Calaprice, F.; McDonald, K.; Ascione, G.; Baker, G.; Davidson, R.; Dudek, L.; Grisham, L.; Kugel, H.; Pagdon, K.; Stevenson, T.; Woolley, R.; Zwicker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The need for a fundamental understanding of material response to a neutron and/or high heat flux environment can yield development of improved materials and operations with existing materials. Such understanding has numerous applications in fields such as nuclear power (for the current fleet and future fission and fusion reactors), aerospace, and other research fields (e.g., high-intensity proton accelerator facilities for high energy physics research). A proposal has been advanced to develop a facility for testing various materials under extreme heat and neutron exposure conditions at Princeton. The Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility comprises an environmentally controlled chamber (48 m 3 ) capable of high vacuum conditions, with extreme flux beams and probe beams accessing a central, large volume target. The facility will have the capability to expose large surface areas (1 m 2 ) to 14 MeV neutrons at a fluence in excess of 10 13 n/s. Depending on the operating mode. Additionally beam line power on the order of 15-75 MW/m 2 for durations of 1-15 seconds are planned. The multi-second duration of exposure can be repeated every 2-10 minutes for periods of 10-12 hours. The facility will be housed in the test cell that held the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which has the desired radiation and safety controls as well as the necessary loading and assembly infrastructure. The facility will allow testing of various materials to their physical limit of thermal endurance and allow for exploring the interplay between radiation-induced embrittlement, swelling and deformation of materials, and the fatigue and fracturing that occur in response to thermal shocks. The combination of high neutron energies and intense fluences will enable accelerated time scale studies. The results will make contributions for refining predictive failure modes (modeling) in extreme environments, as well as providing a technical platform for the development of new alloys, new

  19. LiDAR in extreme environment: surveying in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abate

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed under the patronage of the Italian National Research Programme in Antarctica (PNRA with the aim to realize a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the moraine named "Boulder Clay" which insists approximately 7 km far from the Italian Research Base "Mario Zucchelli Station" in the Terra Nova Bay area. The DEM will be included in the project for the construction of two runways to be used as support facilities for the scientific research campaigns which take place on regular basis each year. Although the research efforts to realize a detailed cartography of the area is on-going, for the specific aim and urgency of this project it was decided to perform a laser scanning survey in this extreme environment in order to obtain contour lines describing the terrain elevation each 50 cm and volume analysis. The final result will be super imposed on a photogrammetric DEM with contour lines each 2.5 m and satellite images. This paper focus both on the final scientific data and on all the challenges have to be faced in such extreme and particular environment during the laser scanning survey.

  20. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  1. PEDESTRIAN PATHFINDING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López-Pazos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.

  2. Pedestrian Pathfinding in Urban Environments: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pazos, G.; Balado, J.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Arias, P.; Scaioni, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the rise of urban population, many initiatives are focused upon the smart city concept, in which mobility of citizens arises as one of the main components. Updated and detailed spatial information of outdoor environments is needed to accurate path planning for pedestrians, especially for people with reduced mobility, in which physical barriers should be considered. This work presents a methodology to use point clouds to direct path planning. The starting point is a classified point cloud in which ground elements have been previously classified as roads, sidewalks, crosswalks, curbs and stairs. The remaining points compose the obstacle class. The methodology starts by individualizing ground elements and simplifying them into representative points, which are used as nodes in the graph creation. The region of influence of obstacles is used to refine the graph. Edges of the graph are weighted according to distance between nodes and according to their accessibility for wheelchairs. As a result, we obtain a very accurate graph representing the as-built environment. The methodology has been tested in a couple of real case studies and Dijkstra algorithm was used to pathfinding. The resulting paths represent the optimal according to motor skills and safety.

  3. Protective Alternatives of SMR against Extreme Threat Scenario – A Preliminary Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, I.M.; Ornai, D.; Gal, E.; Ronen, Y.; Vidra, M.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a preliminary risk analysis of the main features in NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) that includes SMR - Small and Modular Reactors, given an extreme threat scenario. A review of the structure and systems of the SMR is followed by systematic definitions and analysis of the threat scenario to which a preliminary risk analysis was carried out. The article outlines the basic events caused by the referred threat scenario, which had led to possible failure mechanisms according to FTA (Fault-Tree-Analysis),critical protective circuits, and todetecting critical topics for the protection and safety of the reactor

  4. Electro-Mechanical Systems for Extreme Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tyler, Tony R.; Abel, Phillip B.; Levanas, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond low earth orbit presents challenges for hardware that must operate in extreme environments. The current state of the art is to isolate and provide heating for sensitive hardware in order to survive. However, this protection results in penalties of weight and power for the spacecraft. This is particularly true for electro-mechanical based technology such as electronics, actuators and sensors. Especially when considering distributed electronics, many electro-mechanical systems need to be located in appendage type locations, making it much harder to protect from the extreme environments. The purpose of this paper to describe the advances made in the area of developing electro-mechanical technology to survive these environments with minimal protection. The Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), the Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. over the last few years have worked to develop and test electro-mechanical hardware that will meet the stringent environmental demands of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators and electronics have been built and tested. Brushless DC actuators designed by Aeroflex, Inc have been tested with interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Testing of the Aeroflex design has shown that a brushless DC motor with a single stage planetary gearbox can operate in low temperature environments for at least 120 million cycles (measured at motor) if long life is considered as part of the design. A motor control distributed electronics concept developed by JPL was built and operated at temperatures as low as -160 C, with many components still operational down to -245 C. Testing identified the components not capable of meeting the low temperature goal of -230 C. This distributed controller is universal in design with the ability to control different types of motors and read many different types of sensors. The controller

  5. Qualification of Fiber Optic Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Lindensmith, Christian A.; Roberts, William T.; Rainen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Means have been developed for enabling fiber optic cables of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer instrument to survive ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian conditions that include Martian summer and winter seasons. The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the rover external fiber optic cabling of ChemCam for space applications under the extreme thermal environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Flight-representative fiber optic cables were subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling of the same diurnal depth (or delta T) as expected in flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. The survivability of fiber optic cables was tested for 600 cumulative thermal cycles from -130 to +15 C to cover the winter season, and another 1,410 cumulative cycles from -105 to +40 C to cover the summer season. This test satisfies the required 3 times the design margin that is a total of 2,010 thermal cycles (670 x 3). This development test included functional optical transmission tests during the course of the test. Transmission of the fiber optic cables was performed prior to and after 1,288 thermal cycles and 2,010 thermal cycles. No significant changes in transmission were observed on either of the two representative fiber cables subject through the 3X MSL mission life that is 2,010 thermal cycles.

  6. Improving diversity in cultures of bacteria from an extreme environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Greenland represent one of the few permanently cold and alkaline environments on Earth, and the interior of the columns is home to a bacterial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The community is characterized by low cell numbers imbedded in a calcium carbonate matrix, making extraction of bacterial cells and DNA a challenge and limiting molecular and genomic studies of this environment. To utilize this genetic resource, cultivation at high pH and low temperature was studied as a method for obtaining biomass and DNA from the fraction of this community that would not otherwise be amenable to genetic analyses. The diversity and community dynamics in mixed cultures of bacteria from ikaite columns was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA. Both medium composition and incubation time influenced the diversity of the culture and many hitherto uncharacterized genera could be brought into culture by extended incubation time. Extended incubation time also gave rise to a more diverse community with a significant number of rare species not detected in the initial community.

  7. Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments: An Arctic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol E.; Stanford, Kerry L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S. Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions (U.S. Arctic Research Commission). These solutions are also damaging to the environment. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. About one-fourth of Alaska's 86.000 Native residents live in these communities. They are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain (Office of Technology Assessment, 1994). Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) provides a solution to sanitation and safe water problems. The system uses an advanced integrated technology developed for Antarctic and space applications. ALSEE uses the systems approach to address more than waste and water problems. By incorporating hydroponic horticulture and aquaculture into the waste treatment system, ALSEE addresses the quality and quantity of fresh foods available to Arctic residents. A temperate climate is required for year-round plant growth. ALSEE facilities can be designed to include a climate controlled area within the structure. This type of environment is a change from the long periods of darkness and cold found in the Arctic and can help alleviate stress so often associated with these extremes. While the overall concept of ALSEE projects is advanced, system facilities can be operated by village residents with appropriate training. ALSEE provides continuing training and

  8. Biofilms and planktonic cells of Deinococcus geothermalis in extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Guenther; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost; Froesler, Jan

    In addition to the several extreme environments on Earth, Space can be considered as just another exceptional environment with a unique mixture of stress factors comprising UV radiation, vacuum, desiccation, temperature, ionizing radiation and microgravity. Life that processes in these environments can depend on the life forms and their state of living. The question is whether there are different strategies for individual microorganisms compared to communities of the same organisms to cope with the different factors of their surroundings. Comparative studies of the survi-val of these communities called biofilms and planktonic cell samples of Deinococcus geothermalis stand at the focal point of the presented investigations. A biofilm is a structured community of microorganisms that live encapsulated in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances on a surface. Microorganisms living in a biofilm usually have significantly different properties to cooperate than individually living microorganisms of the same species. An advantage of the biofilm is increased resistance to various chemical and physical effects, while the dense extracellular matrix and the outer layer of the cells protect the interior of the microbial consortium. The space experiment BOSS (Biofilm organisms surfing Space) as part the ESA experimental unit EXPOSE R-2 with a planned launch date in July 2014 will be subsequently mounted on the Russian Svesda module outside the ISS. An international team of scientists coordinated by Dr. P. Rettberg will investigate the hypothesis whether microorganisms organized as biofilm outmatch the same microorganisms exposed individually in the long-term survival of the harsh environmental conditions as they occur in space and on Mars. Another protective function in the samples could be dust par-ticles for instance Mars regolith simulant contained inside the biofilms or mixed with the planktonic cells, as additional shelter especially against the extraterrestrial UV

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of a Social Skills Training and Facilitated Play Early Intervention Programme for Extremely Shy Young Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Coplan, Robert J.; Wang, Yuemin; Yin, Jingtong; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Zhuqing; Li, Linhui

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of a social skills and facilitated play early intervention programme to promote social interaction, prosocial behaviours and socio-communicative skills among young extremely shy children in China. Participants were a sample of n = 16 extremely shy young children attending kindergarten…

  10. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  11. Extreme Environment Electronics based on Silicon Carbide, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation tolerant, extreme temperature capable electronics are needed for a variety of planned NASA missions. For example, in-situ exploration of Venus and long...

  12. Extreme Environment Electronics based on Silicon Carbide, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation tolerant, extreme temperature capable electronics are needed for a variety of planned NASA missions. For example, in-situ exploration of Venus and long...

  13. Magnetic Logic Circuits for Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program aims to demonstrate a new genre of all-magnetic logic circuits which are radiation-tolerant and capable of reliable operation in extreme environmental...

  14. Extremity exposure in nuclear medicine: Preliminary results of a European study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merce, M. S.; Ruiz, N.; Barth, I.; Carnicer, A.; Donadille, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fulop, M.; Ginjaume, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Krim, S.; Mariotti, F.; Ortega, X.; Rimpler, A.; Vanhavere, F.; Baechler, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Work Package 4 of the ORAMED project, a collaborative project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is concerned with the optimisation of the extremity dosimetry of medical staff in nuclear medicine. To evaluate the extremity doses and dose distributions across the hands of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments, an extensive measurement programme has been started in 32 nuclear medicine departments in Europe. This was done using a standard protocol recording all relevant information for radiation exposure, i.e. radiation protection devices and tools. This study shows the preliminary results obtained for this measurement campaign. For diagnostic purposes, the two most-used radionuclides were considered: 99m Tc) and 18 F. For therapeutic treatments, Zevalin R and DOTATOC (both labelled with 90 Y) were chosen. Large variations of doses were observed across the hands depending on different parameters. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of the positioning of the extremity dosemeter for a correct estimate of the maximum skin doses. (authors)

  15. Optimization of multi-channel neutron focusing guides for extreme sample environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Julio, D D; Lelièvre-Berna, E; Andersen, K H; Bentley, P M; Courtois, P

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present and discuss simulation results for the design of multichannel neutron focusing guides for extreme sample environments. A single focusing guide consists of any number of supermirror-coated curved outer channels surrounding a central channel. Furthermore, a guide is separated into two sections in order to allow for extension into a sample environment. The performance of a guide is evaluated through a Monte-Carlo ray tracing simulation which is further coupled to an optimization algorithm in order to find the best possible guide for a given situation. A number of population-based algorithms have been investigated for this purpose. These include particle-swarm optimization, artificial bee colony, and differential evolution. The performance of each algorithm and preliminary results of the design of a multi-channel neutron focusing guide using these methods are described. We found that a three-channel focusing guide offered the best performance, with a gain factor of 2.4 compared to no focusing guide, for the design scenario investigated in this work.

  16. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  17. Mechanisms of interfacial reactivity in near surface and extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Balaska, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weare, John [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Fulton, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bogatko, Stuart [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Balasubramanian, Mahalingam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cauet, Emilie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kerisit, Sebastien [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Felmy, Andrew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schenter, Gregory [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weare, Jonathan [U of Chicago

    2017-01-09

    +, Co2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Cr3+. Calculations on these systems are demanding because of their open electronic shells, and high ionic charge. Principal Investigator: Professor John Weare (University of California, San Diego) The prediction of the interactions of geochemical fluids with minerals, nanoparticles, and colloids under extreme near surface conditions of temperature (T) and pressure (P) is a grand challenge research need in geosciences (U.S. DOE 2007, Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating the 21st Energy Systems.). To evaluate the impact of these processes on energy production and management strategies it is necessary to have a high level of understanding of the interaction between complex natural fluids and mineral formations. This program emphasizes 1st principle parameter free simulations of complex chemical processes in solutions, in the mineral phase, and in the interfaces between these phases The development of new computational tools (with emphasis on oxide materials and reaction dynamics) tailored to treat wide range of conditions and time scales experienced in such geochemical applications is has been developed. Because of the sensitivity of the interaction in these systems to electronic structure and local bonding environments, and of the need to describe bond breaking/formation, our simulations are based on interactions calculated at the electronic structure level (ab-initio molecular dynamics, AIMD). The progress in the computational aspects of program may be summarized in terms of the following themes (objectives); Development of efficient parameter free dynamical simulation technology based on 1st principles force and energy calculations especially adapted for geochemical applications (e.g., mineral, interfaces and aqueous solutions) (continuing program); Calculation of the dynamics of water structure of in the surface-water interface of transition metal oxides and oxihydroxides; and

  18. Safety assessment of spent-fuel transportation in extreme environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, R.P.; Weber, J.P.; Newton, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of the health effects and/or consequences resulting from a malevolent attack on a spent fuel truck shipment in downtown New York City have been made. This estimate is based upon a measured quantity (0.78 +- 0.05 g) of respirable radioactive material released from a 1/4 scale event. A linear extrapolation from the 1/4 scale event to the generic full scale event has been made and an aerosolized release fraction (0.0023 percent) of the total heavy metal inventory of a three-PWR assembly truck cask has been calculated. Although scaling of the source term parameters is tentative at this point in the program, a full scale experiment is planned in 1981 to verify the scaling methodology used in these calculations. A preliminary correlation between spent fuel and surrogate fuel source terms has been shown to be feasible and that radionuclide size partitioning can be determined experimentally. Finally, it has been shown, based on our preliminary experimental source term data, that a maximum of 25 total latent cancer fatalities could occur, assuming a release in downtown New York City. This is 20 times smaller than the latent cancer fatalities predicted in the Urban Study

  19. Cell-Sediment Separation and Elemental Stoichiometries in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, M.; Poret-peterson, A. T.; Lee, Z. M.; Anbar, A. D.; Elser, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    counting by epifluorescence microscopy indicated a cell recovery yield between 6 and 40% in field-collected samples (95% for cultured E. coli). Aluminum, assumed to be non-biological in origin, was used to estimate the extent of mineral contamination of isolated cell communities. These results show that our method is successful at separating microbial cells from sediment collected in extreme environments and preserving them for analysis of a broad suite of elements. Photosynthetic sites yielded much more cell material than hotter, chemosynthetic sites (Cox et al., 2011). We are currently measuring cellular elemental abundances and ratios in samples from relatively low-temperature (25 to 65°C), photosynthetic areas, spanning a wide range of pH (2 to 9.5) and composition. These measurements will be compared to existing datasets on the bulk sediment stoichiometry of these ecosystems, and to previous observations of cellular elemental composition. References: Redfield, A.C. (1934) In Daniel, R.J. [Ed.], James Johnstone Memorial Volume, pp. 176-192, Univ. Press Liverpool. Sterner, R.W., Elser, J.J. (2002) Ecological Stoichiometry Princeton Univ. Press, 441p. Havig, J.R., et al. (2011) JGR 116, G01005. Amalfitano, S., Fazi, S. (2008) J. of Microbiol. Methods 75, 237-243. Cox, A., et al. (2011) Chem. Geol. 280, 344-351.

  20. Resistance of Bacillus Endospores to Extreme Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Munakata, Nobuo; Horneck, Gerda; Melosh, Henry J.; Setlow, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for exploration of the resistance of spores to environmental extremes both on Earth and during postulated interplanetary transfer through space as a result of natural impact processes. PMID:10974126

  1. VALIDATION OF HANFORD PERSONNEL AND EXTREMITY DOSIMETERS IN PLUTONIUM ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherpelz, Robert I.; Fix, John J.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2000-02-10

    A study was performed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant to assess the performance of Hanford personnel neutron dosimetry. The study was assessed whole body dosimetry and extremity dosimetry performance. For both parts of the study, the TEPC was used as the principle instrument for characterizing workplace neutron fields. In the whole body study, 12.7-cm-diameter TEPCs were used in ten different locations in the facility. TLD and TED personnel dosimeters were exposed on a water-filled phantom to enable a comparison of TEPC and dosimeter response. In the extremity study, 1.27-cm-diameter TEPCs were exposed inside the fingers of a gloveboxe glove. Extremity dosimeters were wrapped around the TEPCs. The glove was then exposed to six different cans of plutonium, simulating the exposure that a worker's fingers would receive in a glovebox. The comparison of TEPC-measured neutron dose equivalent to TLD-measured gamma dose equivalent provided neutron-to-gamma ratios that can be used to estimate the neutron dose equivalent received by a worker's finger based on the gamma readings of an extremity dosimeter. The study also utilized a Snoopy and detectors based on bubble technology for assessing neutron exposures, providing a comparison of the effectiveness of these instruments for workplace monitoring. The study concludes that the TLD component of the HCND performs adequately overall, with a positive bias of 30%, but exhibits excessive variability in individual results due to instabilities in the algorithm. The TED response was less variable but only 20% of the TEPC reference dose on average because of the low neutron energies involved. The neutron response of the HSD was more variable than the TLD component of the HCND and biased high by a factor of 8 overall due to its calibration to unmoderated 252Cf. The study recommends further work to correct instabilities in the HCND algorithm and to explore the potential shown by the bubble-based dosimeters.

  2. The Classroom Environment Questionnaire (CEQ): Development and preliminary structural validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Carissa; Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen

    2018-04-16

    Occupational therapists offer a unique perspective regarding the contribution of the environment to occupational performance. Therefore, a scale that measures the unique characteristics of the primary school classroom environment where children complete their daily schoolwork occupations is needed. The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a new teacher-report questionnaire that measures a number of environmental characteristics of primary school classrooms. Participants (N = 117) completed the Classroom Environment Questionnaire (CEQ), which utilises a 4-point Likert scale where teachers rate 51 environmental characteristics of their classroom. Teachers also rate the extent to which they believe the physical, social, temporal, institutional and cultural classroom environmental domains contribute to students' schoolwork performance using a 10-point scale. The structural validity of the CEQ was examined using principal component analysis (PCA). Inter-item correlations were examined using Pearson r correlations, while the internal consistency of the CEQ was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. PCA revealed the CEQ to be multidimensional, with 31 items loading onto nine viable factors, representing the unique nature of classroom environments. Based on the PCA results, 20 items were removed from the CEQ. Cronbach's alpha and correlation analysis indicated that most CEQ subsections had acceptable internal consistency (alpha range 0.70-0.82), with four subsections demonstrating a lower level of internal consistency (alpha range 0.55-0.69). Preliminary structural validity and internal consistency analysis findings confirm that the CEQ has potential to be a useful scale for professionals wishing to examine the unique characteristics of primary school classrooms that influence the occupational performance of students. Ongoing analyses will be undertaken to further explore the CEQ's validity and reliability. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. Creating and Understanding Hybrid Interfaces of Multifunctional Composite Laminates for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Due to increasing needs for lightweight and multifunctional structures and materials that can operate at and sustain the extreme environment such as high temperature...

  4. Motor Controller for Extreme Environments Based on SiGe, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a motor-control subsystem capable of operation in extreme environments, including those to be encountered on the Moon and Mars....

  5. Maritime Military Decision Making in Environments of Extreme Information Ambiguity: An Initial Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeves, Andrew T

    2005-01-01

    ... to make effective decisions. An environment of extreme information ambiguity, a dependent variable, is one of the most difficult components of a battle where the decision maker may reach a confusing and debilitating point...

  6. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Assembly of Ordered Multifunctional Ceramic Nanocomposites for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    SUBJECT TERMS carbon nanotubes, composite, electromagnetic shielding , extreme environments, magnetism, fibers, woven composite, boron nitride...The samples were sealed in glass vial and exposed to the magnetic field immediately after deposition prior to crystallization of PEG that allowed

  7. Environment modelling in near Earth space: Preliminary LDEF results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, C. R.; Atkinson, D. R.; Wagner, J. D.; Crowell, L. B.; Allbrooks, M.; Watts, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts by space debris cause not only local cratering or penetrations, but also cause large areas of damage in coated, painted or laminated surfaces. Features examined in these analyses display interesting morphological characteristics, commonly exhibiting a concentric ringed appearance. Virtually all features greater than 0.2 mm in diameter possess a spall zone in which all of the paint was removed from the aluminum surface. These spall zones vary in size from approximately 2 - 5 crater diameters. The actual craters in the aluminum substrate vary from central pits without raised rims, to morphologies more typical of craters formed in aluminum under hypervelocity laboratory conditions for the larger features. Most features also possess what is referred to as a 'shock zone' as well. These zones vary in size from approximately 1 - 20 crater diameters. In most cases, only the outer-most layer of paint was affected by this impact related phenomenon. Several impacts possess ridge-like structures encircling the area in which this outer-most paint layer was removed. In many ways, such features resemble the lunar impact basins, but on an extremely reduced scale. Overall, there were no noticeable penetrations, bulges or spallation features on the backside of the tray. On Row 12, approximately 85 degrees from the leading edge (RAM direction), there was approximately one impact per 15 cm(exp 2). On the trailing edge, there was approximately one impact per 72 cm(exp 2). Currently, craters on four aluminum experiment trays from Bay E09, directly on the leading edge are being measured and analyzed. Preliminary results have produced more than 2200 craters on approximately 1500 cm(exp 2) - or approximately 1 impact per 0.7 cm(exp 2).

  8. Risk analysis for autonomous underwater vehicle operations in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Mario Paulo; Griffiths, Gwyn; Challenor, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are used increasingly to explore hazardous marine environments. Risk assessment for such complex systems is based on subjective judgment and expert knowledge as much as on hard statistics. Here, we describe the use of a risk management process tailored to AUV operations, the implementation of which requires the elicitation of expert judgment. We conducted a formal judgment elicitation process where eight world experts in AUV design and operation were asked to assign a probability of AUV loss given the emergence of each fault or incident from the vehicle's life history of 63 faults and incidents. After discussing methods of aggregation and analysis, we show how the aggregated risk estimates obtained from the expert judgments were used to create a risk model. To estimate AUV survival with mission distance, we adopted a statistical survival function based on the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. We present theoretical formulations for the estimator, its variance, and confidence limits. We also present a numerical example where the approach is applied to estimate the probability that the Autosub3 AUV would survive a set of missions under Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica in January-March 2009. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. A Fault Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKie, Jim

    2014-11-20

    The FOX project, funded under the ASCR X-stack I program, developed systems software and runtime libraries for a new approach to the data and work distribution for massively parallel, fault oblivious application execution. Our work was motivated by the premise that exascale computing systems will provide a thousand-fold increase in parallelism and a proportional increase in failure rate relative to today’s machines. To deliver the capability of exascale hardware, the systems software must provide the infrastructure to support existing applications while simultaneously enabling efficient execution of new programming models that naturally express dynamic, adaptive, irregular computation; coupled simulations; and massive data analysis in a highly unreliable hardware environment with billions of threads of execution. Our OS research has prototyped new methods to provide efficient resource sharing, synchronization, and protection in a many-core compute node. We have experimented with alternative task/dataflow programming models and shown scalability in some cases to hundreds of thousands of cores. Much of our software is in active development through open source projects. Concepts from FOX are being pursued in next generation exascale operating systems. Our OS work focused on adaptive, application tailored OS services optimized for multi → many core processors. We developed a new operating system NIX that supports role-based allocation of cores to processes which was released to open source. We contributed to the IBM FusedOS project, which promoted the concept of latency-optimized and throughput-optimized cores. We built a task queue library based on distributed, fault tolerant key-value store and identified scaling issues. A second fault tolerant task parallel library was developed, based on the Linda tuple space model, that used low level interconnect primitives for optimized communication. We designed fault tolerance mechanisms for task parallel computations

  10. Prevention through policy: Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-11-15

    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic leakage is extremely pertinent. Here, we explore why and how coastal cities can reduce macroplastic leakages during extreme rainfall events. Using nine global cities as a basis, we establish that while cities actively create policies that reduce plastic leakages, more needs to be done. Nonetheless, these policies are economically, socially and environmentally cobeneficial to the city environment. While the lack of political engagement and economic concerns limit these policies, lacking social motivation and engagement is the largest limitation towards implementing policy. We recommend cities to incentivize citizen and municipal engagement with responsible usage of plastics, cleaning the environment and preparing for future extreme rainfall events. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  12. Game-Based Virtual Reality Canoe Paddling Training to Improve Postural Balance and Upper Extremity Function: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Study of 30 Patients with Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Mo; Lee, Kyeong Jin; Song, Chang Ho

    2018-04-27

    BACKGROUND Virtual reality (VR) training with motion-controlled console games can be incorporated into stroke rehabilitation programs. The use of a variety of gaming software can provide the patient with an opportunity to perform activities that are exciting, entertaining, and that may not be feasible in clinical environments. The aim of this preliminary randomized controlled study was to investigate the effects of game-based VR canoe paddling training, when combined with conventional physical rehabilitation programs, on postural balance and upper extremity function in 30 patients with subacute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty patients, who were within six months following the diagnosis of stroke, were randomly allocated to either the experimental group (n=15) or the control group (n=15). All participants participated in a conventional rehabilitation program. Also, the experimental group (n=15) performed the VR canoe paddling training for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for five weeks. After five weeks, outcomes of changes in postural balance and upper extremity function were evaluated and compared between the two groups. RESULTS At five weeks, postural balance and upper extremity function showed significant improvements in both patients groups when compared with the baseline measurements (pGame-based VR canoe paddling training is an effective rehabilitation therapy that enhances postural balance and upper extremity function in patients with subacute stroke when combined with conventional physical rehabilitation programs.

  13. Constructing and Screening a Metagenomic Library of a Cold and Alkaline Extreme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaring, Mikkel A; Vester, Jan K; Stougaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Natural cold or alkaline environments are common on Earth. A rare combination of these two extremes is found in the permanently cold (less than 6 °C) and alkaline (pH above 10) ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland. Bioprospecting efforts have established the ikaite columns as a source of bacteria and enzymes adapted to these conditions. They have also highlighted the limitations of cultivation-based methods in this extreme environment and metagenomic approaches may provide access to novel extremophilic enzymes from the uncultured majority of bacteria. Here, we describe the construction and screening of a metagenomic library of the prokaryotic community inhabiting the ikaite columns.

  14. Examining personal values in extreme environment contexts: Revisiting the question of generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N.; Sandal, G. M.; Leon, G. R.; Kjærgaard, A.

    2017-08-01

    Land-based extreme environments (e.g. polar expeditions, Antarctic research stations, confinement chambers) have often been used as analog settings for spaceflight. These settings share similarities with the conditions experienced during space missions, including confinement, isolation and limited possibilities for evacuation. To determine the utility of analog settings for understanding human spaceflight, researchers have examined the extent to which the individual characteristics (e.g., personality) of people operating in extreme environments can be generalized across contexts (Sandal, 2000) [1]. Building on previous work, and utilising new and pre-existing data, the present study examined the extent to which personal value motives could be generalized across extreme environments. Four populations were assessed; mountaineers (N =59), military personnel (N = 25), Antarctic over-winterers (N = 21) and Mars simulation participants (N = 12). All participants completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Schwartz; 2) capturing information on 10 personal values. Rank scores suggest that all groups identified Self-direction, Stimulation, Universalism and Benevolence as important values and acknowledged Power and Tradition as being low priorities. Results from difference testing suggest the extreme environment groups were most comparable on Self-direction, Stimulation, Benevolence, Tradition and Security. There were significant between-group differences on five of the ten values. Overall, findings pinpointed specific values that may be important for functioning in challenging environments. However, the differences that emerged on certain values highlight the importance of considering the specific population when comparing results across extreme settings. We recommend that further research examine the impact of personal value motives on indicators of adjustment, group working, and performance. Information from such studies could then be used to aid selection and

  15. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field radiation: a preliminary study case in Bangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Wan Nor Liza Mahadi; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohd Amirul Nizam Mohd Thari; Mohd Azizi Jali; Ahmad Fadhil Ahmad Sanusi

    2008-08-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields radiation is known to be hazardous if amount received is excessive. The primary sources of ELF EMF are from the electricity supply system such as transmission line, substation, transformers and switch gears. Due to limited space, many substations were built very close to the residential area. A study was carried out in the selected houses located in Bangi, Selangor which located close to the TNB substation. The study was made in two conditions, before the area fully occupied and after the resident moved into the house. The aim of the study is for assessing the strength of ELF EMF that emitted by the substation. This study was also conducted to assess the potential exposure received by personnel living in the house. The surveys were carried out using PMM model EHP50A and EMDEX instruments based on standard measurement procedures and protocol recommended by IEEE. Results obtained were compared against the permissible exposure limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).This paper highlights some of the findings at the study site. Results obtained suggest that ELF EMF radiation varies with location and the magnetic fields strength measured near the source of ELF EMF was found to be higher than the normal environment. (Author)

  16. Constructing and screening a metagenomic library of a cold and alkaline extreme environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Stougaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Natural cold or alkaline environments are common on Earth. A rare combination of these two extremes is found in the permanently cold (less than 6 °C) and alkaline (pH above 10) ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland. Bioprospecting efforts have established the ikaite columns...

  17. Plants as extreme environments? Ni-resistant bacteria and Ni-hyperaccumulators of serpentine flora.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengoni, A.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the bacterial communities occurring in unusual, often extreme, environments. On serpentine outcrops around the world, a high diversity of plant species showing the peculiar features of metal hyperaccumulation is present. These metal

  18. Mission environments for the Isotope Brayton Flight System (preliminary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The mission environments for the Isotope Brayton Flight Systems (IBFS) are summarized. These are based on (1) those environments established for the MHW-RTG system in the LES 8/9 and Mariner J/S and (2) engineering projections of those likely to exit for the IBFS. The pre-launch environments address transportation, storage, handling and assembly (to spacecraft) and checkout, field transportation, and launch site operations. Launch environments address the Titan IIIC and Shuttle launch vehicles. Operational mission environments address normal space temperature and meteoroide environments. Special environments that may be applicable to DOD missions are not included. Accident environments address explosion and fire for the Titan IIIC and the Shuttle, reentry, earth impact and post impact

  19. A preliminary investigation into genotype x environment interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... Genotype x environment interaction (G x E) in dairy cattle is a contentious ... environments, if it exists, with a negative impact on genetic response ..... interaction for Holstein milk yield in Colombia, Mexico and Puerto Rico.

  20. The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Camp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and localized anthropogenic stressors are driving rapid declines in coral reef health. In vitro experiments have been fundamental in providing insight into how reef organisms will potentially respond to future climates. However, such experiments are inevitably limited in their ability to reproduce the complex interactions that govern reef systems. Studies examining coral communities that already persist under naturally-occurring extreme and marginal physicochemical conditions have therefore become increasingly popular to advance ecosystem scale predictions of future reef form and function, although no single site provides a perfect analog to future reefs. Here we review the current state of knowledge that exists on the distribution of corals in marginal and extreme environments, and geographic sites at the latitudinal extremes of reef growth, as well as a variety of shallow reef systems and reef-neighboring environments (including upwelling and CO2 vent sites. We also conduct a synthesis of the abiotic data that have been collected at these systems, to provide the first collective assessment on the range of extreme conditions under which corals currently persist. We use the review and data synthesis to increase our understanding of the biological and ecological mechanisms that facilitate survival and success under sub-optimal physicochemical conditions. This comprehensive assessment can begin to: (i highlight the extent of extreme abiotic scenarios under which corals can persist, (ii explore whether there are commonalities in coral taxa able to persist in such extremes, (iii provide evidence for key mechanisms required to support survival and/or persistence under sub-optimal environmental conditions, and (iv evaluate the potential of current sub-optimal coral environments to act as potential refugia under changing environmental conditions. Such a collective approach is critical to better understand the future survival of

  1. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: an explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Balboa, C; Baselga-Cervera, B; García-Sanchez, A; Igual, J M; Lopez-Rodas, V; Costas, E

    2013-11-15

    Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These "lucky mutants" could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TransFormers for Ensuring Long-Term Operations in Lunar Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Stoica, A.; Alkalai, L.; Wilcox, B.; Quadrelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    "Surviving Extreme Space Environments" (EE) is one of NASA's Space Technology Grand Challenges. Power generation and thermal control are the key survival ingredients that allow a robotic explorer to cope with the EE using resources available to it, for example, by harvesting the local solar energy or by utilizing an onboard radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). TransFormers (TFs) are a new technology concept designed to transform a localized area within a harsh extreme environment into a survivable micro-environment by projecting energy to the precise location where robots or humans operate. For example, TFs placed at a location on the rim of Shackleton Crater, which is illuminated by solar radiation for most of the year, would be able to reflect solar energy onto robots operating in the dark cold crater. TFs utilize a shape transformation mechanism to un-fold from a compact volume to a large reflective surface, and to control how much-and where-the energy is projected, and by adjusting for the changing position of the sun. TFs would enable in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) activities within locations of high interest that would normally be unreachable because of their extreme environment

  3. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), PO Box 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, V. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, E., E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change.

  4. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B.; García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M.; Lopez-Rodas, V.; Costas, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change

  5. Summary of Research Issues in Behavior and Performance in Isolated and Confined Extreme (ICE) Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    The papers presented in this section describe changes in behavior and performance in various isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments, including Antarctic expeditions and research stations, space simulators and isolation chambers, and submarines. Each of these environments possesses characteristics that are in some way analogous to those found on long-duration space missions. Despite differences in length of mission, characteristics of mission personnel or crew, and characteristics in the physical environment, the various ICE environments described in this collection of papers appear to produce similar changes in behavior and performance. These changes include increased disturbances of mood, increased rates of psychiatric disorder, increased interpersonal tension, and a disruption of circadian rhythms. However, these environments do not inherently produce decrements in performance. Palinkas and colleagues suggest that prolonged exposure to the isolation and confinement in the Antarctic can actually have positive or "salutogenic" effects as well, evidenced by a decrease in mood disturbances and increase in performance measures.

  6. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development and Maturation Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Boghozian, T.; Driver, D.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Kazemba, C.; Kellermann, C.; hide

    2018-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D (Three Dimensional) Woven TPS (Thermal Protection System) being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a TPS capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  7. Vertical GaN Devices for Power Electronics in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Vertical GaN Devices for Power Electronics in Extreme Environments Isik C. Kizilyalli (1), Robert J. Kaplar (2), O. Aktas (1), A. M. Armstrong (2...electronics applications. In this paper vertical p-n diodes and transistors fabricated on pseudo bulk low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) GaN substrates are...discussed. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and being able to control doping has allowed the realization of vertical

  8. Extreme-Environment Silicon-Carbide (SiC) Wireless Sensor Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Phase II objectives: Develop an integrated silicon-carbide wireless sensor suite capable of in situ measurements of critical characteristics of NTP engine; Compose silicon-carbide wireless sensor suite of: Extreme-environment sensors center, Dedicated high-temperature (450 deg C) silicon-carbide electronics that provide power and signal conditioning capabilities as well as radio frequency modulation and wireless data transmission capabilities center, An onboard energy harvesting system as a power source.

  9. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzaes, G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASAs Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Venus or Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  10. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) - Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Venus or Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  11. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development and Maturation Status for NF Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Hamm, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  12. Toxicity at the Edge of Life: A Review on Cyanobacterial Toxins from Extreme Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Cir?s, Samuel; Casero, Mar?a Cristina; Quesada, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In this review, we bring to the forefront the presence of cyanotoxins in extreme environments. Cyanotoxins have been reported especially in polar deserts (both from the Arctic and ...

  13. Generalist feeding strategies in Arctic freshwater fish: A mechanism for dealing with extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Sarah M.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2018-01-01

    Generalist feeding strategies are favoured in stressful or variable environments where flexibility in ecological traits is beneficial. Species that feed across multiple habitat types and trophic levels may impart stability on food webs through the use of readily available, alternative energy pools. In lakes, generalist fish species may take advantage of spatially and temporally variable prey by consuming both benthic and pelagic prey to meet their energy demands. Using stomach content and stable isotope analyses, we examined the feeding habits of fish species in Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) lakes to determine the prevalence of generalist feeding strategies as a mechanism for persistence in extreme environments (e.g. low productivity, extreme cold and short growing season). Generalist and flexible feeding strategies were evident in five common fish species. Fish fed on benthic and pelagic (or nektonic) prey and across trophic levels. Three species were clearly omnivorous, feeding on fish and their shared invertebrate prey. Dietary differences based on stomach content analysis often exceeded 70%, and overlap in dietary niches based on shared isotopic space varied from zero to 40%. Metrics of community‐wide trophic structure varied with the number and identity of species involved and on the dietary overlap and niche size of individual fishes. Accumulation of energy from shared carbon sources by Arctic fishes creates redundancy in food webs, increasing likely resistance to perturbations or stochastic events. Therefore, the generalist and omnivorous feeding strategies employed by ACP fish may maintain energy flow and food web stability in extreme environments.

  14. Alteration of a human intestinal microbiota under extreme life environment in the Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Touyama, Mutsumi; Yamada, Shin; Yamazaki, Takashi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota (HIM) settles from birth and continues to change phenotype by some factors (e.g. host's diet) throughout life. However, the effect of extreme life environment on human HIM composition is not well known. To understand HIM fluctuation under extreme life environment in humans, fecal samples were collected from six Japanese men on a long Antarctic expedition. They explored Antarctica for 3 months and collected their fecal samples at once-monthly intervals. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the composition of HIM in six subjects was investigated. Three subjects presented restoration of HIM after the expedition compared versus before and during the expedition. Two thirds samples collected during the expedition belonged to the same cluster in dendrogram. However, all through the expedition, T-RFLP patterns showed interindividual variability. Especially, Bifidobacterium spp. showed a tendency to decrease during and restore after the expedition. A reduction of Bifidobacterium spp. was observed in five subjects the first 1 month of the expedition. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which is thought to proliferate during emotional stress, significantly decreased in one subject, indicating that other factors in addition to emotional stress may affect the composition of HIM in this study. These findings could be helpful to understand the effect of extreme life environment on HIM.

  15. Karoo biome: a preliminary sythesis. Part 1 - physical environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available . It is a multi-authored publication covering a wide range of topics. This first volume summarizes what is currently known on the physical environment of the biome; namely geology, soils, climate, hydrology, geohydrology and soil erosion. Other aspects...

  16. A preliminary investigation into genotype x environment interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to investigate a possible genotype by environment interaction in first calf South African Holstein cows for both production and reproduction traits. Data from 100 975 cows on a total mixed ration (TMR) and 22 083 pasture based cows were used. These cows were the progeny of 4 391 sires and ...

  17. Consideration of Task Performance for Robots Engaged in Extremely Dangerous Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Mo; Han, Kee Soo; Yi, Sung Deok; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, it is started to pay more attention to operation and accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For domestic nuclear industry, it was recommended to establish corresponding strategies against accidents due to extremely dangerous natural disasters. Each nuclear power plant is also preparing to establish strategies to secure nuclear safety functions by estimating the counterplans for extreme accidents. Robots are particularly being used to access the areas where those are dangerous for human beings to access or to restore the accident. Robot technologies in NPPs are emerging cutting-edge technologies that are just a start except the developed countries like USA, Japan, etc. But they are carefully considered because they have the advantages of performing tasks in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs instead of human beings. In this study, the applicability of robots will be considered in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs. Accurate judgment of the inside situation of the plant and quick actions in the extreme condition like earthquake accompanied by loss of all AC powers should be considered as major function in terms of prevention of accident spread. According to the reported stress test results of domestic NPPs, the difficult things for operators to carry out in extreme conditions can be predictable, therefore the active use of robots as accident mitigation strategies will be helpful to reduce the unnecessary spending for facility improvement. Current trend of domestic and foreign robot technology development focuses on the information search of the inside of the plant and development of preventive maintenance of NPPs. As seen actually in Fukushima Daiichi, main roles of robots place emphasis on measuring the inside radiation level accessing to the area where operator cannot access and delivering information which can support operator's decision-making and actions. Therefore, it is considered that development of

  18. Copahue Geothermal System: A Volcanic Environment with Rich Extreme Prokaryotic Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, María Sofía; Porati, Graciana Willis; Segretín, Ana Belén; González-Toril, Elena; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo Rubén

    2015-07-08

    The Copahue geothermal system is a natural extreme environment located at the northern end of the Cordillera de los Andes in Neuquén province in Argentina. The geochemistry and consequently the biodiversity of the area are dominated by the activity of the Copahue volcano. The main characteristic of Copahue is the extreme acidity of its aquatic environments; ponds and hot springs of moderate and high temperature as well as Río Agrio. In spite of being an apparently hostile location, the prokaryotic biodiversity detected by molecular ecology techniques as well as cultivation shows a rich and diverse environment dominated by acidophilic, sulphur oxidising bacteria or archaea, depending on the conditions of the particular niche studied. In microbial biofilms, found in the borders of the ponds where thermal activity is less intense, the species found are completely different, with a high presence of cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species. Our results, collected during more than 10 years of work in Copahue, have enabled us to outline geomicrobiological models for the different environments found in the ponds and Río Agrio. Besides, Copahue seems to be the habitat of novel, not yet characterised autochthonous species, especially in the domain Archaea.

  19. Copahue Geothermal System: A Volcanic Environment with Rich Extreme Prokaryotic Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sofía Urbieta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Copahue geothermal system is a natural extreme environment located at the northern end of the Cordillera de los Andes in Neuquén province in Argentina. The geochemistry and consequently the biodiversity of the area are dominated by the activity of the Copahue volcano. The main characteristic of Copahue is the extreme acidity of its aquatic environments; ponds and hot springs of moderate and high temperature as well as Río Agrio. In spite of being an apparently hostile location, the prokaryotic biodiversity detected by molecular ecology techniques as well as cultivation shows a rich and diverse environment dominated by acidophilic, sulphur oxidising bacteria or archaea, depending on the conditions of the particular niche studied. In microbial biofilms, found in the borders of the ponds where thermal activity is less intense, the species found are completely different, with a high presence of cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species. Our results, collected during more than 10 years of work in Copahue, have enabled us to outline geomicrobiological models for the different environments found in the ponds and Río Agrio. Besides, Copahue seems to be the habitat of novel, not yet characterised autochthonous species, especially in the domain Archaea.

  20. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-09-01

    Life exists almost everywhere on Earth. Presence of liquid water is a prerequisite for life (Oren, 2008). Living organisms are not only found in `normal' habitats (from the anthropocentric view). Many types, especially of microorganisms, not only tolerate harsh environmental conditions, but even thive in them. Such organisms that resist very harsh physical and chemical conditions in their habitats are termed `extremophiles'. Some extremophilic microorganisms are able to overcome more than one type of extreme conditions in their environment. For example, some `polyextremophiles' grow under hundreds of atmospheres of hydrostatic pressure (barophiles) and at very low, or alternatively at very high temperatures. In many hot springs there are acido-thermophiles that tolerate elevated temperatures and very low pH levels (e.g. the Cyanidium caldarium group, see Seckbach 1994). Members of Cyanidium are able to thrive in pure CO2, a condition not tolerated by most algae (Seckbach et al., 1970). Some thermophilic Archaea grow at temperatures up to 1130C and possibly even higher. In the Arctic and Antarctic regions and in the permafrost region in Siberia there are cold-loving microorganisms (psychrophiles) which are able to grow at -200C. Many types of Bacteria and Archaea tolerate extreme dryness, and spores of Bacillus and relatives that have been encapsulated within salt crystals may have survived in a dormant state for thousands and even millions of years, and still can be revived today. Other extremophiles tolerate salt concentrations up to saturation. Halophilic microorganisms such as found in the Dead Sea or in the Great Salt Lake have developed different strategies to cope with the high osmotic pressure of their environment. Some (e.g. the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina) balance the salts in their medium by accumulating organic compounds such as glycerol. Others (halophilic Archaea of the order Halobacteriales, as well as a few representatives of the

  1. Interstitial MR lymphangiography in patients with lower extremity lymphedema: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qing; Xu Jianrong; Liu Ningfei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of interstitial MR lymphangiography (MRL) with subcutaneous injection of a commercially available, non-ionic, extracellular paramagnetic contrast agent, to visualize lymphatic vessels in patients with primary lymphedema. Methods: Forty lower extremities in 31 patients with clinically advanced stages of primary lymphedema were examined with magnetic resonance lymphangiography. A 1 ml mixed liquor of gadobenate dimeglumine and mepivacainhydrochloride were injected subcutaneously into the dorsal aspect of both feet. For MRL, a 3D fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo T 1 -weighted images with a fat saturation technique (T 1 high resolution isotropic volume excitation, THRIVE) were performed after subcutaneous application of the contrast material. To outline lymphatic vessels, source images were used to reconstruct images of MIP. The SNR and CNR of enhanced lymphatic vessels and veins were measured and calculated respectively. The significance of the differences of the data comparisons was assessed using an unpaired student t test. Results: Of the 40 lower extremities, the beaded appearance of dilated lymphatic vessels was detected in 36 lower legs (90.0%) and 17 upper legs (42.5%). The numbers of the dilated lymphatic vessels displayed in all segments of lower extremities added up to 365 and its mean diameter was (3.4±0.1) mm on MRL MIP image. The average SNR and CNR were 257±130, 207±113 in the dilated lymphatic vessels and 218±129, 152±113 in the vein respectively, which was statistically significant (SNR t=-2.649, CNR t=-3.404, P<0.01). Contrast enhancement was observed in 30/40 inguinal lymph node groups (75.0%). In 26 lower extremities (65.0%) collateral vessels with dermal back-flow areas between lymphatic vessels were seen. Conclusions: As a novel tool to image the pathologically modified lymphatic vessels in patients with clinically advanced stage of primary lymphedema, magnetic resonance lymphangiography is a safe

  2. Enabling Structured Exploration of Workflow Performance Variability in Extreme-Scale Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Stephan, Eric G.; Raju, Bibi; Altintas, Ilkay; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2015-11-15

    Workflows are taking an Workflows are taking an increasingly important role in orchestrating complex scientific processes in extreme scale and highly heterogeneous environments. However, to date we cannot reliably predict, understand, and optimize workflow performance. Sources of performance variability and in particular the interdependencies of workflow design, execution environment and system architecture are not well understood. While there is a rich portfolio of tools for performance analysis, modeling and prediction for single applications in homogenous computing environments, these are not applicable to workflows, due to the number and heterogeneity of the involved workflow and system components and their strong interdependencies. In this paper, we investigate workflow performance goals and identify factors that could have a relevant impact. Based on our analysis, we propose a new workflow performance provenance ontology, the Open Provenance Model-based WorkFlow Performance Provenance, or OPM-WFPP, that will enable the empirical study of workflow performance characteristics and variability including complex source attribution.

  3. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase I and Phase II Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high temperature environmental barrier coating systems, deployable space structures, solid oxide fuel cells, and self-lubricating hard coatings for extreme temperatures. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  4. [Even cigarette butts can impact environment and health: preliminary considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, every year about 72 billion of cigarette butts are thrown away in the environment. Cigarette butts represent 50% of the wastes of urban areas (parks, roads) in the world, and 40% of Mediterranean Sea wastes. In particular, total polluting load is constituted of 1,872 Bq millions of Polonium-210, assuming 75 mBq per cigarette butt, and 1,800 tons of volatile organic compounds. As a matter of fact, according to several surveys, cigarette butts are considered by smokers and non-smokers as a common and acceptable waste in the environment. In 2008, European Union issued a Directive on wastes considering the «extended producer responsibility» (i.e., every industry is liable for costs of collection, transport and disposal of its own products). In October 2012, the Italian Parliament proposed a bill that classifies cigarette butts as special wastes in the frame of this responsibility. It could be interesting in the future to follow the legislative process of that bill in the Italian Parliament in order to show how strong it will be supported.

  5. Results from the European Integrated Project '' New Materials for Extreme Environments (ExtreMat) ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Baluc, N.; Garcia-Rosales, G.; Gualco, G. C.; Simancik, F.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the European Integrated Project '' ExtreMat '' is to provide and to industrialize new materials and their compounds for applications in extreme environments that are beyond reach with incremental materials development only. The R(and)D activities in this project aim to provide a) self-passivating protection materials for sensitive structures operated in physico-chemically aggressive environments at high temperatures; b) new heat sink materials with the capability of very efficient heat removal, often at very high temperature level; c) radiation resistant materials for very high operation temperatures; d) new processing routes for complex heterogeneous compounds that can be operated in extreme environments. Key applications for these new materials are in the sectors of fusion, advanced fission, space, and electronic applications. Further use of these materials is expected in spin-off fields, such as brake applications and energy conversion. The project started in December 2004 for a duration of five years and is supported by the European Community. The 37 project participants are from 13 EU member states and include 6 universities, 7 research institutes, 10 research centres and 14 industrial companies. Research results regarding the development of materials for application in nuclear fusion, especially on protection, heat sink, and radiation resistant materials will be presented. A view to other applications of these materials in the fields of fission, space and electronics will be given in the presentation. ExtreMat Project Partners: see http://www.extremat.org/. (author)

  6. Toxicity at the Edge of Life: A Review on Cyanobacterial Toxins from Extreme Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirés, Samuel; Casero, María Cristina; Quesada, Antonio

    2017-07-24

    Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In this review, we bring to the forefront the presence of cyanotoxins in extreme environments. Cyanotoxins have been reported especially in polar deserts (both from the Arctic and Antarctica) and alkaline lakes, but also in hot deserts, hypersaline environments, and hot springs. Cyanotoxins detected in these ecosystems include neurotoxins-anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a (S), paralytic shellfish toxins, β-methylaminopropionic acid, N -(2-aminoethyl) glycine and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid- and hepatotoxins -cylindrospermopsins, microcystins and nodularins-with microcystins being the most frequently reported. Toxin production there has been linked to at least eleven cyanobacterial genera yet only three of these ( Arthrospira , Synechococcus and Oscillatoria ) have been confirmed as producers in culture. Beyond a comprehensive analysis of cyanotoxin presence in each of the extreme environments, this review also identifies the main knowledge gaps to overcome (e.g., scarcity of isolates and -omics data, among others) toward an initial assessment of ecological and human health risks in these amazing ecosystems developing at the very edge of life.

  7. Notification: Preliminary Research on EPA's Design for the Environment Product Labeling Program OIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY14-4012, November 06, 2013. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) is starting preliminary research on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Design for the Environment (DfE) Product Labeling Program.

  8. Preliminary clinical application of SilverHawk directional atherectomy device in arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jun; Jiang Hong; Xu Gang; Yang Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficiency and security of SilverHawk directional atherectomy device in treating arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity. Methods: Seven patients with lower extremity ischemia were treated with SilverHawk directional atherectomy. The lesions length varied from 1.8 to 14.5 cm. Clinical symptoms (Fontaine classification) included 4 cases of grade Ⅱ b, I case of grade Ⅲ, 2 cases of grade Ⅳ. The ABI varied from 0.28 to 0.65. Patency was evaluated with color duplex sonography or CTA besides clinical examination during follow-up. Results: Seven occlusive lesions were recanalizated successfully. The technical success (residual stenosis < 30%) rate was 100%. Clinical symptoms were obviously improved or disappeared. The ABI varied from 0.82 to 1.18 (P=0.002), and Fontaine classification included 6 cases of Ⅰ; 1 case of Ⅱ a. Patency rate was 100% and the ABI varied from 0.75 to 1.14 (P=0.938). Fontaine classifications keep consistent 1-6 months after operation. Conclusion: SilverHawk directional atherectomy was a safe and effective way for treatment of lower arteriosclerosis obliteran. (authors)

  9. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  10. Biota and biomolecules in extreme environments on Earth: implications for life detection on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Joost W; Röling, Wilfred F M; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2014-10-13

    The three main requirements for life as we know it are the presence of organic compounds, liquid water, and free energy. Several groups of organic compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleobases, lipids) occur in all life forms on Earth and are used as diagnostic molecules, i.e., biomarkers, for the characterization of extant or extinct life. Due to their indispensability for life on Earth, these biomarkers are also prime targets in the search for life on Mars. Biomarkers degrade over time; in situ environmental conditions influence the preservation of those molecules. Nonetheless, upon shielding (e.g., by mineral surfaces), particular biomarkers can persist for billions of years, making them of vital importance in answering questions about the origins and limits of life on early Earth and Mars. The search for organic material and biosignatures on Mars is particularly challenging due to the hostile environment and its effect on organic compounds near the surface. In support of life detection on Mars, it is crucial to investigate analogue environments on Earth that resemble best past and present Mars conditions. Terrestrial extreme environments offer a rich source of information allowing us to determine how extreme conditions affect life and molecules associated with it. Extremophilic organisms have adapted to the most stunning conditions on Earth in environments with often unique geological and chemical features. One challenge in detecting biomarkers is to optimize extraction, since organic molecules can be low in abundance and can strongly adsorb to mineral surfaces. Methods and analytical tools in the field of life science are continuously improving. Amplification methods are very useful for the detection of low concentrations of genomic material but most other organic molecules are not prone to amplification methods. Therefore, a great deal depends on the extraction efficiency. The questions "what to look for", "where to look", and "how to look for it" require more of

  11. Biota and Biomolecules in Extreme Environments on Earth: Implications for Life Detection on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost W. Aerts

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The three main requirements for life as we know it are the presence of organic compounds, liquid water, and free energy. Several groups of organic compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleobases, lipids occur in all life forms on Earth and are used as diagnostic molecules, i.e., biomarkers, for the characterization of extant or extinct life. Due to their indispensability for life on Earth, these biomarkers are also prime targets in the search for life on Mars. Biomarkers degrade over time; in situ environmental conditions influence the preservation of those molecules. Nonetheless, upon shielding (e.g., by mineral surfaces, particular biomarkers can persist for billions of years, making them of vital importance in answering questions about the origins and limits of life on early Earth and Mars. The search for organic material and biosignatures on Mars is particularly challenging due to the hostile environment and its effect on organic compounds near the surface. In support of life detection on Mars, it is crucial to investigate analogue environments on Earth that resemble best past and present Mars conditions. Terrestrial extreme environments offer a rich source of information allowing us to determine how extreme conditions affect life and molecules associated with it. Extremophilic organisms have adapted to the most stunning conditions on Earth in environments with often unique geological and chemical features. One challenge in detecting biomarkers is to optimize extraction, since organic molecules can be low in abundance and can strongly adsorb to mineral surfaces. Methods and analytical tools in the field of life science are continuously improving. Amplification methods are very useful for the detection of low concentrations of genomic material but most other organic molecules are not prone to amplification methods. Therefore, a great deal depends on the extraction efficiency. The questions “what to look for”, “where to look”, and “how to

  12. Correlating Microbial Diversity Patterns with Geochemistry in an Extreme and Heterogeneous Environment of Mine Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Li, Sheng-Jin; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Recent molecular surveys have advanced our understanding of the forces shaping the large-scale ecological distribution of microbes in Earth's extreme habitats, such as hot springs and acid mine drainage. However, few investigations have attempted dense spatial analyses of specific sites to resolve the local diversity of these extraordinary organisms and how communities are shaped by the harsh environmental conditions found there. We have applied a 16S rRNA gene-targeted 454 pyrosequencing approach to explore the phylogenetic differentiation among 90 microbial communities from a massive copper tailing impoundment generating acidic drainage and coupled these variations in community composition with geochemical parameters to reveal ecological interactions in this extreme environment. Our data showed that the overall microbial diversity estimates and relative abundances of most of the dominant lineages were significantly correlated with pH, with the simplest assemblages occurring under extremely acidic conditions and more diverse assemblages associated with neutral pHs. The consistent shifts in community composition along the pH gradient indicated that different taxa were involved in the different acidification stages of the mine tailings. Moreover, the effect of pH in shaping phylogenetic structure within specific lineages was also clearly evident, although the phylogenetic differentiations within the Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes were attributed to variations in ferric and ferrous iron concentrations. Application of the microbial assemblage prediction model further supported pH as the major factor driving community structure and demonstrated that several of the major lineages are readily predictable. Together, these results suggest that pH is primarily responsible for structuring whole communities in the extreme and heterogeneous mine tailings, although the diverse microbial taxa may respond differently to various environmental conditions

  13. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Zheng, S; Wei, C C; Wu, Y; Shao, L; Yang, Y; Hartwig, K T; Maloy, S A; Zinkle, S J; Allen, T R; Wang, H; Zhang, X

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304 L SS with an average grain size of ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500 °C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M(23)C(6) precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments.

  14. Predictors of Behavior and Performance in Extreme Environments: The Antarctic Space Analogue Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Gunderson, E K. Eric; Holland, A. W.; Miller, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    To determine which, if any, characteristics should be incorporated into a select-in approach to screening personnel for long-duration spaceflight, we examined the influence of crewmember social/ demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station physical environments on performance measures in 657 American men who spent an austral winter in Antarctica between 1963 and 1974. During screening, subjects completed a Personal History Questionnaire which obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, the Deep Freeze Opinion Survey which assessed 5 different personality traits, and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale which measured 6 dimensions of interpersonal needs. Station environment included measures of crew size and severity of physical environment. Performance was assessed on the basis of combined peer-supervisor evaluations of overall performance, peer nominations of fellow crewmembers who made ideal winter-over candidates, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Social/demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station environments collectively accounted for 9-17% of the variance in performance measures. The following characteristics were significant independent predictors of more than one performance measure: military service, low levels of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low desire for affection from others. These results represent an important first step in the development of select-in criteria for personnel on long-duration missions in space and other extreme environments. These criteria must take into consideration the characteristics of the environment and the limitations they place on meeting needs for interpersonal relations and task performance, as well as the characteristics of the individuals and groups who live and work in these environments.

  15. Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, Don; Gage, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Heat shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Project is a NASA STMD and SMD co-funded effort. The goal is to develop and mission infuse a new ablative Thermal Protection System that can withstand extreme entry. It is targeted to support NASA's high priority missions, as defined in the latest decadal survey, to destinations such as Venus and Saturn in-situ robotic science missions. Entry into these planetary atmospheres results in extreme heating. The entry peak heat-flux and associated pressure are estimated to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher than those experienced by Mars Science Laboratory or Lunar return missions. In the recent New Frontiers community announcement NASA has indicated that it is considering providing an increase to the PI managed mission cost (PIMMC) for investigations utilizing the Heat Shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) and in addition, NASA is considering limiting the risk assessment to only their accommodation on the spacecraft and the mission environment. The HEEET ablative TPS utilizes 3D weaving technology to manufacture a dual layer material architecture. The 3-D weaving allows for flat panels to be woven. The dual layer consists of a top layer designed to withstand the extreme external environment while the inner or insulating layer by design, is designed to achieve low thermal conductivity, and it keeps the heat from conducting towards the structure underneath. Both arc jet testing combined with material properties have been used to develop thermal response models that allows for comparison of performance with heritage carbon phenolic. A 50% mass efficiency is achieved by the dual layer construct compared to carbon phenolic for a broad range of missions both to Saturn and Venus. The 3-D woven flat preforms are molded to achieve the shape as they are compliant and then resin infusion with curing forms a rigid panels. These panels are then bonded on to the aeroshell structure. Gaps

  16. Solid Lubricants and Coatings for Extreme Environments: State-of-the-Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to survey anticipated requirements for solid lubricants in lunar and Martian environments, as well as the effects of these environments on lubricants and their performance and durability. The success of habitats and vehicles on the Moon and Mars, and ultimately, of the human exploration of and permanent human presence on the Moon and Mars, are critically dependent on the correct and reliable operation of many moving mechanical assemblies and tribological components. The coefficient of friction and lifetime of any lubricant generally vary with the environment, and lubricants have very different characteristics under different conditions. It is essential, therefore, to select the right lubrication technique and lubricant for each mechanical and tribological application. Several environmental factors are hazardous to performance integrity on the Moon and Mars. Potential threats common to both the Moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings (thermal cycling), solar flux, cosmic radiation, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars has the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Solid lubricants and coatings are needed for lunar and Martian applications, where liquid lubricants are ineffective and undesirable, and these lubricants must perform well in the extreme environments of the Moon, Mars, and space, as well as on Earth, where they will be assembled and tested. No solid lubricants and coatings and their systems currently exist or have been validated that meet these requirements, so new solid lubricants must be designed and validated for these applications.

  17. Genomes in Turmoil: Frugality Drives Microbial Community Structure in Extremely Acidic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Extremely acidic environments (To gain insight into these issues, we have conducted deep bioinformatic analyses, including metabolic reconstruction of key assimilatory pathways, phylogenomics and network scrutiny of >160 genomes of acidophiles, including representatives from Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya and at least ten metagenomes of acidic environments [Cardenas JP, et al. pp 179-197 in Acidophiles, eds R. Quatrini and D. B. Johnson, Caister Academic Press, UK (2016)]. Results yielded valuable insights into cellular processes, including carbon and nitrogen management and energy production, linking biogeochemical processes to organismal physiology. They also provided insight into the evolutionary forces that shape the genomic structure of members of acidophile communities. Niche partitioning can explain diversity patterns in rapidly changing acidic environments such as bioleaching heaps. However, in spatially and temporally homogeneous acidic environments genome flux appears to provide deeper insight into the composition and evolution of acidic consortia. Acidophiles have undergone genome streamlining by gene loss promoting mutual coexistence of species that exploit complementarity use of scarce resources consistent with the Black Queen hypothesis [Morris JJ et al. mBio 3: e00036-12 (2012)]. Acidophiles also have a large pool of accessory genes (the microbial super-genome) that can be accessed by horizontal gene transfer. This further promotes dependency relationships as drivers of community structure and the evolution of keystone species. Acknowledgements: Fondecyt 1130683; Basal CCTE PFB16

  18. Prediction of core and lower extremity strains and sprains in collegiate football players: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Gary B; Giles, Jessica L; Seibel, Dustin K

    2012-01-01

    Poor core stability is believed to increase vulnerability to uncontrolled joint displacements throughout the kinetic chain between the foot and the lumbar spine. To assess the value of preparticipation measurements as predictors of core or lower extremity strains or sprains in collegiate football players. Cohort study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football program. All team members who were present for a mandatory physical examination on the day before preseason practice sessions began (n = 83). Preparticipation administration of surveys to assess low back, knee, and ankle function; documentation of knee and ankle injury history; determination of body mass index; 4 different assessments of core muscle endurance; and measurement of step-test recovery heart rate. All injuries were documented throughout the preseason practice period and 11-game season. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify dichotomized predictive factors that best discriminated injured from uninjured status. The 75th and 50th percentiles were evaluated as alternative cutpoints for dichotomization of injury predictors. Players with ≥2 of 3 potentially modifiable risk factors related to core function had 2 times greater risk for injury than those with football injury risk factors that can be identified on preparticipation screening. These predictors need to be assessed in a prospective manner with a larger sample of collegiate football players.

  19. Allograft Cellular Bone Matrix in Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion: Preliminary Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine G. Tohmeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF is a minimally disruptive alternative for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Recently, synthetic and allograft materials have been increasingly used to eliminate donor-site pain and complications secondary to autogenous bone graft harvesting. The clinical use of allograft cellular bone graft has potential advantages over autograft by eliminating the need to harvest autograft while mimicking autograft's biologic function. The objective of this study was to examine 12-month radiographic and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent XLIF with Osteocel Plus, one such allograft cellular bone matrix. Methods. Forty (40 patients were treated at 61 levels with XLIF and Osteocel Plus and included in the analysis. Results. No complications were observed. From preoperative to 12-month postoperative followup, ODI improved 41%, LBP improved 55%, leg pain improved 43.3%, and QOL (SF-36 improved 56%. At 12 months, 92% reported being “very” or “somewhat” satisfied with their outcome and 86% being either “very” or “somewhat likely” to choose to undergo the procedure again. Complete fusion was observed in 90.2% (55/61 of XLIF levels. Conclusions. Complete interbody fusion with Osteocel Plus was shown in 90.2% of XLIF levels, with the remaining 9.8% being partially consolidated and progressing towards fusion at 12 months.

  20. Relations Between Self-Reported and Linguistic Monitoring Assessments of Affective Experience in an Extreme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    Approaches for monitoring psychosocial health in challenging environments are needed to maintain the performance and safety of personnel. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between 2 candidate methods (self-reported and linguistics) for monitoring affective experience during extreme environment activities. A single-subject repeated-measures design was used in the present work. The participant was a 46-year-old individual scheduled to complete a self-supported ski expedition across Arctic Greenland. The expedition lasted 28 days, and conditions included severe cold, low stimulation, whiteouts, limited habitability, and threats to life and limb. During the expedition, the participant completed a daily self-report log including assessment of psychological health (perceptions of control and affect) and a video diary (emotion). Video diary entries were subjected to linguistic inquiry and word count analyses before the links between self-report and linguistic data across the expedition period were tested. Similarities in the pattern of self-reported and linguistic assessments emerged across the expedition period. A number of predictable correlations were identified between self-reported and linguistic assessments of affective/emotional experience. Overall, there was better agreement between self-reports and linguistic analytics for indicators of negative affect/emotion. Future research should build on this initial study to further test the links between self-reported affect and emotional states monitored via linguistics. This could help develop methods for monitoring psychological health in extreme environments and support organizational decision making. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Individual Traits, Personal Values, and Conflict Resolution in an Isolated, Confined, Extreme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneliussen, Jesper G; Leon, Gloria R; Kjærgaard, Anders; Fink, Birgit A; Venables, Noah C

    2017-06-01

    The study of personality traits, personal values, and the emergence of conflicts within groups performing in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment (ICE) may provide insights helpful for the composition and support of space crews for long duration missions. Studied pre/post and over the 2-yr period of the investigation were 10 Danish military personnel deployed to stations in Greenland on a 26-mo staggered rotation. Subjects completed the NEO PI-R, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, and Portrait Values Questionnaire, and participated in structured interviews. During deployment, questionnaires were completed biweekly and a cognitive function test once a month. Personality findings indicated a generally well-adjusted group, above average in positive personality traits [Conscientiousness T-score = 59.4 (11.41); Agreeableness T-score = 54.4 (9.36)] and boldness. Personal values of benevolence and self-direction were highly rated. The decision when to "pick sides" and intervene during disagreements between group members was viewed as an important component of conflict resolution. There were no changes in positive/negative affect or cognitive function over the annual light/dark cycle. The personal values of group members appear highly compatible for living in a small group ICE environment for an extended period. Disagreements between group members impact the functioning of the entire group, particularly in regard to decisions whether to support one of the individuals or let the argument run its course. Extended training in strategies for conflict resolution are needed in planning for future long duration missions to avoid fault lines forming within the group.Corneliussen JG, Leon GR, Kjærgaard A, Fink BA, Venables NC. Individual traits, personal values, and conflict resolution in an isolated, confined, extreme environment. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):535-543.

  2. Composite Materials under Extreme Radiation and Temperature Environments of the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.

    2011-01-01

    In the nuclear energy renaissance, driven by fission reactor concepts utilizing very high temperatures and fast neutron spectra, materials with enhanced performance that exceeds are expected to play a central role. With the operating temperatures of the Generation III reactors bringing the classical reactor materials close to their performance limits there is an urgent need to develop and qualify new alloys and composites. Efforts have been focused on the intricate relations and the high demands placed on materials at the anticipated extreme states within the next generation fusion and fission reactors which combine high radiation fluxes, elevated temperatures and aggressive environments. While nuclear reactors have been in operation for several decades, the structural materials associated with the next generation options need to endure much higher temperatures (1200 C), higher neutron doses (tens of displacements per atom, dpa), and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience on materials accumulated to-date. The most important consideration is the performance and reliability of structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core functions. While there exists a great body of nuclear materials research and operating experience/performance from fission reactors where epithermal and thermal neutrons interact with materials and alter their physio-mechanical properties, a process that is well understood by now, there are no operating or even experimental facilities that will facilitate the extreme conditions of flux and temperature anticipated and thus provide insights into the behaviour of these well understood materials. Materials, however, still need to be developed and their interaction and damage potential or lifetime to be quantified for the next generation nuclear energy. Based on material development advances, composites, and in particular ceramic composites, seem to inherently possess properties suitable for key functions within the

  3. Development of a lower extremity wearable exoskeleton with double compact elastic module: preliminary experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Long

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a double compact elastic module is designed and implemented in the lower extremity exoskeleton. The double compact elastic module is composed of two parts, i.e., physical human robot interaction (pHRI measurement and the elastic actuation system (EAS, which are called proximal elastic module (PEM and distal elastic module (DEM respectively. The PEM is used as the pHRI information collection device while the DEM is used as the compliance device. A novel compact parallelogram-like structure based torsional spring is designed and developed. An iterative finite element analysis (FEA based optimization process was conducted to find the optimal parameters in the search space. In the PEM, the designed torsional spring has an outer circle with a diameter of 60 mm and an inner hole with a diameter of 12 mm, while in the DEM, the torsional spring has the outer circle with a diameter of 80 mm and the inner circle with a diameter of 16 mm. The torsional spring in the PEM has a thickness of 5 mm and a weight of 60 g, while that in the DEM has a thickness of 10 mm and a weight of 80 g. The double compact elastic module prototype is embedded in the mechanical joint directly. Calibration experiments were conducted on those two elastic modules to obtain the linear torque versus angle characteristic. The calibration experimental results show that this torsional spring in the PEM has a stiffness of 60.2 Nm rad−1, which is capable of withstanding a maximum torque of 4 Nm, while that in the DEM has a stiffness of 80.2 Nm rad−1, which is capable of withstanding a maximum torque of 30 Nm. The experimental results and the simulation data show that the maximum resultant errors are 6 % for the PEM and 4 % for the DEM respectively. In this paper, an assumed regression algorithm is used to learn the human motion intent (HMI based on the pHRI collection. The HMI is defined as the angular position of the human limb joint. A

  4. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  5. Vegetation Cover and Furrow Erosion due to Extreme Rain Events in Semiarid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Cárceles-Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the soil resource in semi-arid environments is one of the major challenges of agricultural systems, particularly in the Mediterranean region. In the present study, two types of soil management were compared: minimum tillage (ML and minimum tillage with spontaneous vegetation cover (MLVE. The comparison was conducted in a rainfed almond plantation at slope (35%, under an extraordinary event in 2015 (91.3 mm and EI30 of 2,719.89 mm ha-1 h-1. In this situation in MLVE plots, the development of furrows in contrast to ML were not recorded; the total soil loss was more than 12 times lower than that recorded in the latter. This fact demonstrated the effectiveness of the vegetal cover in the protection of the agricultural soil against the erosion during extreme events. Also, for ML management, furrow erosion represented more than 60% of the total soil loss, demonstrating the dominance of this type of erosion. Finally, it should be noted that this event represents the almost total loss of soil recorded in the experimental plots during the period 2012-2015; and this consequently shows the significant impact of extreme events on erosion rates in the Mediterranean region.

  6. Metaorganisms in extreme environments: do microbes play a role in organismal adaptation?

    KAUST Repository

    Bang, Corinna

    2018-02-15

    From protists to humans, all animals and plants are inhabited by microbial organisms. There is an increasing appreciation that these resident microbes influence the fitness of their plant and animal hosts, ultimately forming a metaorganism consisting of a uni- or multicellular host and a community of associated microorganisms. Research on host–microbe interactions has become an emerging cross-disciplinary field. In both vertebrates and invertebrates a complex microbiome confers immunological, metabolic and behavioural benefits; conversely, its disturbance can contribute to the development of disease states. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling the interactions within a metaorganism are poorly understood and many key interactions between the associated organisms remain unknown. In this perspective article, we outline some of the issues in interspecies interactions and in particular address the question of how metaorganisms react and adapt to inputs from extreme environments such as deserts, the intertidal zone, oligothrophic seas, and hydrothermal vents.

  7. Solar Probe Plus MAG Sensor Thermal Design for Low Heater Power and Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The heater power available for the Solar Probe Plus FIELDS MAG sensor is less than half of the heritage value for other missions. Nominally the MAG sensors are in the spacecraft's umbra. In the worst hot case, approximately 200 spacecraft communication downlinks, up to 10 hours each, are required at 0.7 AU. These downlinks require the spacecraft to slew 45 deg. about the Y-axis, exposing the MAG sensors and boom to sunlight. This paper presents the thermal design to meet the MAG sensor thermal requirements in the extreme thermal environment and with low heater power. A thermal balance test on the MAG sensor engineering model has verified the thermal design and correlated the thermal model for flight temperature predictions.

  8. Microbial ecology of extreme environments: Antarctic yeasts and growth in substrate-limited habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    An extreme environment is by definition one with a depauperate biota. While the Ross Desert is by no means homogeneous, the most exposed and arid habitats, soils in the unglaciated high valleys, do indeed contain a very sparse biota of low diversity. So sparse that the natives could easily be outnumbered by airborne exogenous microbes. Native biota must be capable of overwintering as well as growing in the high valley summer. Tourists may undergo a few divisions before contributing their enzymes and, ultimately, elements to the soil - or may die before landing. The simplest way to demonstrate the indigenicity of a particular microbe is therefore to establish unique distribution; occurrence only in the habitat in question precludes foreign origin.

  9. Metaorganisms in extreme environments: do microbes play a role in organismal adaptation?

    KAUST Repository

    Bang, Corinna; Dagan, Tal; Deines, Peter; Dubilier, Nicole; Duschl, Wolfgang J.; Fraune, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute; Hirt, Heribert; Hü lter, Nils; Lachnit, Tim; Picazo, Devani; Pita, Lucia; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Radecker, Nils; Saad, Maged; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Voolstra, Christian R.; Weiland-Brä uer, Nancy; Ziegler, Maren; Bosch, Thomas C.G.

    2018-01-01

    From protists to humans, all animals and plants are inhabited by microbial organisms. There is an increasing appreciation that these resident microbes influence the fitness of their plant and animal hosts, ultimately forming a metaorganism consisting of a uni- or multicellular host and a community of associated microorganisms. Research on host–microbe interactions has become an emerging cross-disciplinary field. In both vertebrates and invertebrates a complex microbiome confers immunological, metabolic and behavioural benefits; conversely, its disturbance can contribute to the development of disease states. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling the interactions within a metaorganism are poorly understood and many key interactions between the associated organisms remain unknown. In this perspective article, we outline some of the issues in interspecies interactions and in particular address the question of how metaorganisms react and adapt to inputs from extreme environments such as deserts, the intertidal zone, oligothrophic seas, and hydrothermal vents.

  10. Massive stars dying alone: Extremely remote environments of SN2009ip and SN2010jp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2014-10-01

    We propose an imaging study of the astonishingly remote environments of two recent supernovae (SNe): SN2009ip and SN2010jp. Both were unusual Type IIn explosions that crashed into dense circumstellar material (CSM) ejected by the star shortly before explosion. The favored progenitors of these SNe are very massive luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. In fact, SN2009ip presents an extraordinay case where the LBV-like progenitor was actually detected directly in archival HST data, and where we obtained spectra and photometry for numerous pre-SN eruptions. No other SN has this treasure trove of detailed information about the progenitor (not even SN1987A). SN2010jp represents a possible collapsar-powered event, since it showed evidence of a fast bipolar jet in spectra and a low 56Ni mass; this would be an analog of the black-hole forming explosions that cause gamma ray bursts, but where the relativistic jet is damped by a residual H envelope on the star. In both cases, the only viable models for these SNe involve extremely massive (initial masses of 40-100 Msun) progenitor stars. This seems at odds with their extremely remote environments in the far outskirts of their host galaxies, with no detected evidence for an underlying massive star population in ground-based data (nor in the single shallow WFPC2/F606W image of SN2009ip). Here we propose deep UV HST images to search for any mid/late O-type stars nearby, deep red images to detect any red supergiants, and an H-alpha image to search for any evidence of ongoing star formation in the vicinity. These observations will place important and demanding constraints on the initial masses and ages of these progenitors.

  11. Competition and facilitation structure plant communities under nurse tree canopies in extremely stressful environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Namazi, Ali A; El-Bana, Magdy I; Bonser, Stephen P

    2017-04-01

    Nurse plant facilitation in stressful environments can produce an environment with relatively low stress under its canopy. These nurse plants may produce the conditions promoting intense competition between coexisting species under the canopy, and canopies may establish stress gradients, where stress increases toward the edge of the canopy. Competition and facilitation on these stress gradients may control species distributions in the communities under canopies. We tested the following predictions: (1) interactions between understory species shift from competition to facilitation in habitats experiencing increasing stress from the center to the edge of canopy of a nurse plant, and (2) species distributions in understory communities are controlled by competitive interactions at the center of canopy, and facilitation at the edge of the canopy. We tested these predictions using a neighbor removal experiment under nurse trees growing in arid environments. Established individuals of each of four of the most common herbaceous species in the understory were used in the experiment. Two species were more frequent in the center of the canopy, and two species were more frequent at the edge of the canopy. Established individuals of each species were subjected to neighbor removal or control treatments in both canopy center and edge habitats. We found a shift from competitive to facilitative interactions from the center to the edge of the canopy. The shift in the effect of neighbors on the target species can help to explain species distributions in these canopies. Canopy-dominant species only perform well in the presence of neighbors in the edge microhabitat. Competition from canopy-dominant species can also limit the performance of edge-dominant species in the canopy microhabitat. The shift from competition to facilitation under nurse plant canopies can structure the understory communities in extremely stressful environments.

  12. Anhydrobiotic insect Polypedilum vanderplanki: molecular mechanisms of DNA and protein protection against extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Kikawada, Takahiro; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi

    Some organisms showing no sign of living due to complete desiccation are nevertheless able to resume active life after rehydration. This peculiar biological state is referred to as "anhydrobiosis". Larvae of the sleeping chironomid, P. vanderplanki living in temporary pools in semi-arid areas on the African continent become completely desiccated upon drought, but can revive after water becomes available upon the next rain. The dried larvae can stand other extreme conditions, such as exposure to 100˚C, -270˚C, 100We have adopted several methods to evaluated DNA damage in cells of P. vanderplanki and cloned and analyzed expression of the main agent of genetic stress response showing that the larvae possess highly developed anti-stress genetic system, involving anti-oxidative stress genes, hsp and DNA reparation enzymes acting together to provide stability of proteins and DNA in the absence of water. From 2005, dried larvae were included in a number of research programs, including exposition to space environments onboard ISS and long-term exposure to outer space environment outside of ISS ("Expose-R" and"Biorisk" projects) and now are being considered for including into the Phobos-Grunt mission as a testing organism to analyze capability of resting stages of multicellular organism to interplanetary flights.

  13. Genomic insights into microbial iron oxidation and iron uptake strategies in extremely acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, Violaine; Holmes, David S

    2012-07-01

    This minireview presents recent advances in our understanding of iron oxidation and homeostasis in acidophilic Bacteria and Archaea. These processes influence the flux of metals and nutrients in pristine and man-made acidic environments such as acid mine drainage and industrial bioleaching operations. Acidophiles are also being studied to understand life in extreme conditions and their role in the generation of biomarkers used in the search for evidence of existing or past extra-terrestrial life. Iron oxidation in acidophiles is best understood in the model organism Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, recent functional genomic analysis of acidophiles is leading to a deeper appreciation of the diversity of acidophilic iron-oxidizing pathways. Although it is too early to paint a detailed picture of the role played by lateral gene transfer in the evolution of iron oxidation, emerging evidence tends to support the view that iron oxidation arose independently more than once in evolution. Acidic environments are generally rich in soluble iron and extreme acidophiles (e.g. the Leptospirillum genus) have considerably fewer iron uptake systems compared with neutrophiles. However, some acidophiles have been shown to grow as high as pH 6 and, in the case of the Acidithiobacillus genus, to have multiple iron uptake systems. This could be an adaption allowing them to respond to different iron concentrations via the use of a multiplicity of different siderophores. Both Leptospirillum spp. and Acidithiobacillus spp. are predicted to synthesize the acid stable citrate siderophore for Fe(III) uptake. In addition, both groups have predicted receptors for siderophores produced by other microorganisms, suggesting that competition for iron occurs influencing the ecophysiology of acidic environments. Little is known about the genetic regulation of iron oxidation and iron uptake in acidophiles, especially how the use of iron as an energy source is balanced with its need to take up

  14. Extremely environment-hard and low work function transfer-mold field emitter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Masayuki, E-mail: m-nakamoto@rie.shizuoka.ac.jp [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan); Moon, Jonghyun [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Extremely environment-hard and low work function field-emitter arrays (FEAs) were fabricated by a transfer-mold emitter fabrication method to produce highly reliable vacuum nanoelectronic devices able to operate stably at low voltage in highly oxidizing atmospheres. Amorphous carbon (a-C) having a work function of 3.6 eV and sp{sup 3} fraction of 85.6% prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used as the emitter material. The field-emission characteristics of the obtained transfer-mold FEAs strongly depended on their work function and morphology. The environment-hard characteristics of the transfer-mold a-C FEAs were compared with those of the transfer-mold titanium nitride FEAs and nickel FEAs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to confirm the stable chemical states of the FEAs after oxygen radical treatment. The small amount of material oxidized (6.3%) at the surface of the a-C FEAs compared with 11.8% for the TiN-FEAs and 39.0% for Ni FEAs after oxygen radical treatment explained their almost constant work function in oxidizing atmospheres. The emission fluctuation rates of transfer-mold a-C FEAs without resistive layers under in situ radical treatment were as low as ±5.0%, compared with 5–100% for conventional FEAs with resistive layers not under highly oxidizing atmospheres. Therefore, the present environment-hard and low work function transfer-mold a-C FEAs are expected to be useful for reliable vacuum nanoelectronic devices.

  15. An extreme magneto-ionic environment associated with the fast radio burst source FRB 121102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michilli, D.; Seymour, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Spitler, L. G.; Gajjar, V.; Archibald, A. M.; Bower, G. C.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Gourdji, K.; Heald, G. H.; Kaspi, V. M.; Law, C. J.; Sobey, C.; Adams, E. A. K.; Bassa, C. G.; Bogdanov, S.; Brinkman, C.; Demorest, P.; Fernandez, F.; Hellbourg, G.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Lynch, R. S.; Maddox, N.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Siemion, A. P. V.; Tendulkar, S. P.; van Rooy, P.; Wharton, R. S.; Whitlow, D.

    2018-01-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration, extragalactic radio flashes of unknown physical origin. The only known repeating fast radio burst source—FRB 121102—has been localized to a star-forming region in a dwarf galaxy at redshift 0.193 and is spatially coincident with a compact, persistent radio source. The origin of the bursts, the nature of the persistent source and the properties of the local environment are still unclear. Here we report observations of FRB 121102 that show almost 100 per cent linearly polarized emission at a very high and variable Faraday rotation measure in the source frame (varying from +1.46 × 105 radians per square metre to +1.33 × 105 radians per square metre at epochs separated by seven months) and narrow (below 30 microseconds) temporal structure. The large and variable rotation measure demonstrates that FRB 121102 is in an extreme and dynamic magneto-ionic environment, and the short durations of the bursts suggest a neutron star origin. Such large rotation measures have hitherto been observed only in the vicinities of massive black holes (larger than about 10,000 solar masses). Indeed, the properties of the persistent radio source are compatible with those of a low-luminosity, accreting massive black hole. The bursts may therefore come from a neutron star in such an environment or could be explained by other models, such as a highly magnetized wind nebula or supernova remnant surrounding a young neutron star.

  16. TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.; Kuno, Nario; Lisenfeld, Ute

    2009-01-01

    We present a new observational study of the 12 CO(1-0) line emission as an H 2 gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H 2 , H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H 2 )/I CO factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled 12 CO(3-2) and 12 CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width ∼15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 μm and 450 μm dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary 12 CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T C ∼ 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of ∼5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter 'excess'. We show that the dust spectral energy

  17. Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland for treating extremely alkaline (pH 12) steel slag drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Aumônier, J; Jarvis, A P

    2009-01-01

    High pH (> 12) leachates are an environmental problem associated with drainage from lime (CaO)-rich industrial residues such as steel slags, lime spoil and coal combustion residues. Recent research has highlighted the potential for natural ('volunteer') wetlands to buffer extremely alkaline influent waters. This appears ascribable to high CO(2) partial pressures in the wetland waters from microbial respiration, which accelerates precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), and the high specific surface area for mineral precipitation offered by macrophytes. The research presented here builds on this and provides preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland built in March 2008 to buffer drainage from steel slag heaps in north-east England. The drainage water from the slag mounds is characterised by a mean pH of 11.9, high concentrations of Ca (up to 700 mg/L), total alkalinity (up to 800 mg/L as CaCO(3)) and are slightly brackish (Na = 300 mg/L; Cl = 400 mg/L) reflecting native groundwaters at this coastal setting. Documented calcite precipitation rates (mean of 5 g CaCO(3)/m(2)/day) from nearby volunteer sites receiving steel slag drainage were used to scale the constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis; a species found to spontaneously grow in the vicinity of the discharge. Improved performance of the wetland during summer months may at least in part be due to biological activity which enhances rates of calcite precipitation and thus lowering of pH. Secondary Ca-rich precipitates also serve as a sink for some trace elements present at low concentrations in the slag leachate such as Ni and V. The implications for scaling and applying constructed wetlands for highly alkaline drainage are discussed.

  19. Digital Learning Network Education Events of NASA's Extreme Environments Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather; Guillory, Erika

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLN) reaches out to thousands of students each year through video conferencing and web casting. The DLN has created a series of live education videoconferences connecting NASA s Extreme Environment Missions Operations (NEEMO) team to students across the United States. The programs are also extended to students around the world live web casting. The primary focus of the events is the vision for space exploration. During the programs, NEEMO Crewmembers including NASA astronauts, engineers and scientists inform and inspire students about the importance of exploration and share the impact of the project as it correlates with plans to return to the moon and explore the planet Mars. These events highlight interactivity. Students talk live with the aquanauts in Aquarius, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s underwater laboratory. With this program, NASA continues the Agency s tradition of investing in the nation's education programs. It is directly tied to the Agency's major education goal of attracting and retaining students in science, technology, and engineering disciplines. Before connecting with the aquanauts, the students conduct experiments of their own designed to coincide with mission objectives. This paper describes the events that took place in September 2006.

  20. Adaptation to extreme environments: structure-function relationships in Emperor penguin haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Condò, S G; di Prisco, G; Giardina, B

    1994-04-15

    The functional properties of the single haemoglobin (Hb) of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) have been investigated at different temperatures as a function of proton and organic phosphate concentration. The complete amino acid sequence has been established. Comparison with that of human HbA shows 12 substitutions in the contact regions of alpha beta dimers. In addition to overall similarities shared with most of the avian Hbs previously described, this Hb shows significant differences, which could be related to the peculiar behaviour of this penguin. In particular we may consider that: (1) the shape of the Bohr effect curve seems well adapted for gas exchange during very prolonged dives, preserving penguin Hb from a sudden and not controlled stripping of oxygen; (2) the very minor enthalpy change observed at lower pH could be an example of molecular adaptation, through which oxygen delivery becomes essentially insensitive to exposure to the extremely low temperatures of the environment. Moreover, the small alkaline Bohr effect has been found to be only chloride-linked, since the pH dependence of the oxygen affinity is totally abolished in the absence of this ion. These functional characteristics are discussed on the basis of the primary structure of alpha and beta-chains.

  1. An Overview of Materials Structures for Extreme Environments Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I and II projects that specifically address areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments, one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. Each article describes an innovation, defines its technical objective, and highlights NASA applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Ten technologies are featured: metamaterials-inspired aerospace structures, metallic joining to advanced ceramic composites, multifunctional polyolefin matrix composite structures, integrated reacting fluid dynamics and predictive materials degradation models for propulsion system conditions, lightweight inflatable structural airlock (LISA), copolymer materials for fused deposition modeling 3-D printing of nonstandard plastics, Type II strained layer superlattice materials development for space-based focal plane array applications, hydrogenous polymer-regolith composites for radiation-shielding materials, a ceramic matrix composite environmental barrier coating durability model, and advanced composite truss printing for large solar array structures. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, program managers, and other personnel to learn about innovations in this technology area as well as possibilities for collaboration with innovative small businesses that could benefit NASA programs and projects.

  2. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing Areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty three technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as fine-filament superconductor wire, composite oxide cathode materials, nano-composites, high radiation solar cell, wrapped multilayer insulation, thin aerogel, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  3. The benefits of integrating Internet technology with standard communications for telemedicine in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, B M; Satava, R; Angood, P; Merriam, N R; Doarn, C R; Merrell, R C

    2001-12-01

    The ability to continuously monitor the vital signs of a person can be beneficial especially if the environment is hazardous or a person simply has general health concerns. We wanted to ascertain if, by integrating the Internet, ubiquitous switching technologies and off-the-shelf tools, this "suite of services" could provide a topology to enable remote monitoring in extreme and remote locations. An evaluation of this approach was conducted at the base camp of Mount Everest in the spring of 1999. Three climbers were outfitted with wireless, wearable sensors and transmitters for 24 h as they ascended through the Khumbu Icefall toward Camp One. The physiologic data was forwarded to the receiving station at Base Camp where it was forwarded to the U.S. mainland. Two of the three devices delivered physiologic data 95%-100% of the time while the third unit operated at only 78%. According to the climbers, the devices were unobtrusive, however, any additional weight while climbing Everest must provide advantage.

  4. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  5. Prevention through policy: Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic leakage is extremely pertinent. Here, we explore why and how coastal cities can reduce macroplastic leakages during extreme rainfall events. Using nine global cities as a basis, we establish that while c...

  6. Nonhydrostatic and surfbeat model predictions of extreme wave run-up in fringing reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Christopher H.; Roelvink, Dano; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Buckley, Mark L.; Lowe, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    The accurate prediction of extreme wave run-up is important for effective coastal engineering design and coastal hazard management. While run-up processes on open sandy coasts have been reasonably well-studied, very few studies have focused on understanding and predicting wave run-up at coral reef-fronted coastlines. This paper applies the short-wave resolving, Nonhydrostatic (XB-NH) and short-wave averaged, Surfbeat (XB-SB) modes of the XBeach numerical model to validate run-up using data from two 1D (alongshore uniform) fringing-reef profiles without roughness elements, with two objectives: i) to provide insight into the physical processes governing run-up in such environments; and ii) to evaluate the performance of both modes in accurately predicting run-up over a wide range of conditions. XBeach was calibrated by optimizing the maximum wave steepness parameter (maxbrsteep) in XB-NH and the dissipation coefficient (alpha) in XB-SB) using the first dataset; and then applied to the second dataset for validation. XB-NH and XB-SB predictions of extreme wave run-up (Rmax and R2%) and its components, infragravity- and sea-swell band swash (SIG and SSS) and shoreline setup (), were compared to observations. XB-NH more accurately simulated wave transformation but under-predicted shoreline setup due to its exclusion of parameterized wave-roller dynamics. XB-SB under-predicted sea-swell band swash but overestimated shoreline setup due to an over-prediction of wave heights on the reef flat. Run-up (swash) spectra were dominated by infragravity motions, allowing the short-wave (but not wave group) averaged model (XB-SB) to perform comparably well to its more complete, short-wave resolving (XB-NH) counterpart. Despite their respective limitations, both modes were able to accurately predict Rmax and R2%.

  7. Modular SiGe 130 nm Cell Library for Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA space missions utilizing application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) under extreme conditions have a critical need for high performance analog cell...

  8. Evaluation of the Physiological Challenges in Extreme Environments: Implications for Enhanced Training, Operational Performance and Sex-Specific Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Operational Performance and Sex -Specific Responses PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brent C. Ruby CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The University of Montana Missoula...Implications for Enhanced Training, Operational Performance and Sex -Specific Responses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Evaluation of the physiological challenges in extreme environments: Implications for enhanced training, operational performance and sex -specific

  9. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wierzchos, J.; DiRuggiero, J.; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, O.; Souza-Egipsy, V.; Škaloud, P.; Tisza, M.; Davilla, A. F.; Vilchez, C.; Garbayo, I.; Ascaso, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 934 (2015), s. 1-17 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Atacama Desert * carotenoids * endolithic chlorophototrophs * extreme environment * gypsum * scytonemin Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  10. Four newly isolated fuselloviruses from extreme geothermal environments reveal unusual morphologies and a possible interviral recombination mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redder, Peter; Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Spindle-shaped virus-like particles are abundant in extreme geothermal environments, from which five spindle-shaped viral species have been isolated to date. They infect members of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Sulfolobus, and constitute the Fuselloviridae, a family of double-stranded DNA...

  11. Microbial iron management mechanisms in extremely acidic environments: comparative genomics evidence for diversity and versatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Pamela A

    2008-11-01

    uptake systems could reflect their obligatory occupation of extremely low pH environments where high concentrations of soluble iron may always be available and were oxidized sulfur species might not compromise iron speciation dynamics. Presence of bacterioferritin in the Acidithiobacilli, polyphosphate accumulation functions and variants of FieF-like diffusion facilitators in both Acidithiobacilli and Leptospirilla, indicate that they may remove or store iron under conditions of variable availability. In addition, the Fe(II-oxidizing capacity of both A. ferrooxidans and Leptospirilla could itself be a way to evade iron stress imposed by readily available Fe(II ions at low pH. Fur regulatory sites have been predicted for a number of gene clusters including iron related and non-iron related functions in both the Acidithiobacilli and Leptospirilla, laying the foundation for the future discovery of iron regulated and iron-phosphate coordinated regulatory control circuits. Conclusion In silico analyses of the genomes of acidophilic bacteria are beginning to tease apart the mechanisms that mediate iron uptake and homeostasis in low pH environments. Initial models pinpoint significant differences in abundance and diversity of iron management mechanisms between Leptospirilla and Acidithiobacilli, and begin to reveal how these two groups respond to iron cycling and iron fluctuations in naturally acidic environments and in industrial operations. Niche partitions and ecological successions between acidophilic microorganisms may be partially explained by these observed differences. Models derived from these analyses pave the way for improved hypothesis testing and well directed experimental investigation. In addition, aspects of these models should challenge investigators to evaluate alternative iron management strategies in non-acidophilic model organisms.

  12. Preliminary risk assessment database and risk ranking of pharmaceuticals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Emily R.; Siewicki, Thomas C.; Phillips, Karl

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing concern about pharmaceuticals entering surface waters and the impacts these compounds may have on aquatic organisms. Many contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, are not completely removed by wastewater treatment. Discharge of effluent into surface waters results in chronic low-concentration exposure of aquatic organisms to these compounds, with unknown impacts. Exposure of virulent bacteria in wastewater to antibiotic residues may also induce resistance, which could threaten human health. The purpose of this study was to provide information on pharmaceutical threats to the environment. A preliminary risk assessment database for common pharmaceuticals was created and put into a web-accessible database named 'Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, Information for Assessing Risk' (PEIAR) to help others evaluate potential risks of pharmaceutical contaminants in the environment. Information from PEIAR was used to prioritize compounds that may threaten the environment, with a focus on marine and estuarine environments. The pharmaceuticals were ranked using five different combinations of physical-chemical and toxicological data, which emphasized different risks. The results of the ranking methods differed in the compounds identified as high risk; however, drugs from the central nervous system, cardiovascular, and anti-infective classes were heavily represented within the top 100 drugs in all rankings. Anti-infectives may pose the greatest overall risk based upon our results using a combination of factors that measure environmental transport, fate, and aquatic toxicity. The dataset is also useful for highlighting information that is still needed to assuredly assess risk

  13. Survival in extreme environments – on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2011-01-01

    of mechanisms explaining this phenomenon is lacking. Importantly, recent research has shown that tardigrades even in their active states may be extremely tolerant to environmental stress, handling extreme levels of ionizing radiation, large fluctuation in external salinity and avoiding freezing by supercooling...

  14. SiC Sensors in Extreme Environments: Real-time Hydrogen Monitoring for Energy Plant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruby

    2008-03-01

    Clean, efficient energy production, such as the gasification of coal (syngas), requires physical and chemical sensors for exhaust gas monitoring as well as real-time control of the combustion process. Wide-bandgap semiconducting materials systems can meet the sensing demands in these extreme environments consisting of chemically corrosive gases at high temperature and pressure. We have developed a SiC based micro-sensor for detection of hydrogen containing species with millisecond response at 600 C. The sensor is a Pt-SiO2-SiC device with a dense Pt catalytic sensing film, capable of withstanding months of continuous high temperature operation. The device was characterized in robust sensing module that is compatible with an industrial reactor. We report on the performance of the SiC sensor in a simulated syngas ambient at 370 C containing the common interferants CO2, CH4 and CO [1]. In addition we demonstrate that hours of exposure to >=1000 ppm H2S and 15% water vapor does not degrade the sensor performance. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the hydrogen response of the sensor we have modeled the hydrogen adsorptions kinetics at the internal Pt-SiO2 interface, using both the Tempkin and Langmuir isotherms. Under the conditions appropriate for energy plant applications, the response of our sensor is significantly larger than that obtained from ultra-high vacuum electrochemical sensor measurements at high temperatures. We will discuss the role of morphology, at the nano to micro scale, on the enhanced catalytic activity observed for our Pt sensing films in response to a heated hydrogen gas stream at atmospheric pressure. [1] R. Loloee, B. Chorpening, S. Beers & R. Ghosh, Hydrogen monitoring for power plant applications using SiC sensors, Sens. Actuators B:Chem. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.snb.2007.07.118

  15. In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliar, Mikhail [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-03-31

    A gasifier’s temperature is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of temperature sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an extreme gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time temperature distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face temperature of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental temperature distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The temperature in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and temperature. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time temperature monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of temperature sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested

  16. Mobile genetic elements, a key to microbial adaptation in extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, Rob; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Provoost, Ann; Monsieurs, Pieter; Mergeay, Max; Leys, Natalie

    hydrogenotrophy. Five transposons were identified in CH34. Two mercury transposons Tn4378 and Tn4380, respectively located on pMOL28 and pMOL30, were previously described. In addition, 3 novel transposons were identified. The large Tn6048 transposon contained 8 genes highly induced by zinc and lead. Transposon Tn6049 was found in twelve copies in the genome of strain CH34 and is seem-ingly often associated with genomic islands. Finally, Tn6050 was observed twice in the second chromosome with accessory genes not classically associated with transposons, namely a sulfate permease, a universal stress protein (UspA) and a DksA-like DnaK suppressor protein. The role of these genes is unclear but a functional association could be assumed. Finally, a set of 21 IS elements was found, counting in total for 57 copies dispersed over the genome. The number of copies ranged from 1 to 9 (IS1088 ) and 10 (ISRme3 ). The 21 IS elements could be divided into 10 different families. The elements ISRme5 and IS1071 were putatively involved in the recruitment of the genes for hydrogenotrophy and CO2 fixation, with mutants unable to grow on H2 and CO2 appeared to have lost these genes by IS1071 -mediated excision. These data clearly showed that the C. metallidurans CH34 model bacterium and some of it's Cupriavidus and Ralstonia relatives carry a multitude of tools that allowed them to genetically adapt to polluted and extreme soil environments, and that are a key in their success to adapt to the new anthropogenic spacecraft environments. Furthermore, these tools could be exploited to assess and measure genetic effects of spaceflight conditions. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) through the MISSEX and COMICS projects.

  17. Development of in-vessel neutron flux monitor equipped with microfission chambers to withstand the extreme ITER environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Masao, E-mail: ishikawa.masao@jaea.go.jp; Takeda, Keigo; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The in-vessel components of MFC system must withstand the extreme ITER environment. • To verify this, the thermal cycle test and the vibration tests were conducted. • Both tests were conducted under much severer conditions than ITER environment. • Soundness verification tests after the tests indicated that no problemswere found. • It is shown that the in-vessel component is sufficiently robust ITER environment. - Abstract: Via thermal cycling and vibration tests, this study aims to demonstrate that the in-vessel components of the microfission chamber (MFC) system can withstand the extreme International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) environment. In thermal cycle tests, the signal cable of the device was bent into a smaller radius and it was given more bends than those in its actual configuration within ITER. A faster rate of temperature change than that under the typical ITER baking scenario was then imposed on in-vessel components. For the vibration tests, strong 10 G vibrational accelerations with frequencies ranging from 30 Hz to 2000 Hz were imposed to the detector and the connector of the in-vessel components to simulate various types of electromagnetic events. Soundness verification tests of the in-vessel components conducted after thermal cycling and vibration testing indicated that problems related to the signal transmission cable functioning were not found. Thus, it was demonstrated that the in-vessel components of the MFC can withstand the extreme environment within ITER.

  18. Microbial ecology of extreme environments: Antarctic yeasts and growth in substrate-limited habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    The high, dry valleys of the Ross Desert of Antarctic, characterized by extremely low temperatures, aridity and a depauperate biota, are used as an analog of the postulated extreme climates of other planetary bodies of the Solar System to test the hypothesis that if life could be supported by Ross, it might be possible where similar conditions prevail. The previously considered sterility of the Ross Desert soil ecosystem has yielded up an indigenous yeast, Cryptoccus vishniacci, which is able to resist the extremes of cold, wet and dry freezing, and long arid periods, while making minimal nutritional demands on the soil.

  19. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  20. A lesson from science in polar extreme environments: ethics and social values for primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Longa, Federica; Crescimbene, Massimo; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Romano, Vincenzo; Cesaroni, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    experiences (doing); to develop civics path linked to "sense of belonging and citizenship", that will make the children aware that Antarctica does not belong to anyone but it belongs to everybody: it is a common and unique good (being). The proposed work is an example of how it is possible, by means of educational paths, promote and support integration values between human beings and nature also in extreme environments as the Antarctic continent.

  1. Ionospheric Response to Extremes in the Space Environment: Establishing Benchmarks for the Space Weather Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.; Azeem, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    One of the goals of the National Space Weather Action Plan is to establish extreme event benchmarks. These benchmarks are estimates of environmental parameters that impact technologies and systems during extreme space weather events. Quantitative assessment of anticipated conditions during these extreme space weather event will enable operators and users of affected technologies to develop plans for mitigating space weather risks and improve preparedness. The ionosphere is one of the most important regions of space because so many applications either depend on ionospheric space weather for their operation (HF communication, over-the-horizon radars), or can be deleteriously affected by ionospheric conditions (e.g. GNSS navigation and timing, UHF satellite communications, synthetic aperture radar, HF communications). Since the processes that influence the ionosphere vary over time scales from seconds to years, it continues to be a challenge to adequately predict its behavior in many circumstances. Estimates with large uncertainties, in excess of 100%, may result in operators of impacted technologies over or under preparing for such events. The goal of the next phase of the benchmarking activity is to reduce these uncertainties. In this presentation, we will focus on the sources of uncertainty in the ionospheric response to extreme geomagnetic storms. We will then discuss various research efforts required to better understand the underlying processes of ionospheric variability and how the uncertainties in ionospheric response to extreme space weather could be reduced and the estimates improved.

  2. How Do Modern Extreme Hydrothermal Environments Inform the Identification of Martian Habitability? The Case of the El Tatio Geyser Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success in knowledge gained by the Mars missions in the last two decades, the search for traces of life on Mars is still in progress. The reconstruction of (paleo- environments on Mars have seen a dramatic increase, in particular with regard to the potentially habitable conditions, and it is now possible to recognize a significant role to subaerial hydrothermal processes. For this reason, and because the conditions of the primordial Earth—when these extreme environments had to be common—probably resembled Mars during its most suitable time to host life, research on terrestrial extreme hydrothermal habitats may assist in understanding how to recognize life on Mars. A number of geological and environmental reasons, and logistics opportunities, make the geothermal field of El Tatio, in the Chilean Andes an ideal location to study.

  3. A low cost, high precision extreme/harsh cold environment, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    SWIMS III, is a low cost, autonomous sensor data gathering platform developed specifically for extreme/harsh cold environments. Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally inert materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enabling the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. SWIMS III's sophisticated autonomous sensors are designed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. This platform uses low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless solution. The system also incorporates tilt sensors and sonar based ice thickness sensors. The system is light weight and can be deployed by hand by a single person. This presentation covers the technical, and design challenges in developing and deploying these platforms.

  4. Species-specific coral calcification responses to the extreme environment of the southern Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, Emily J.; Dunshea, Glenn John; McParland, Dain

    2018-01-01

    Sustained accretion of calcium carbonate (mostly by scleractinian corals) is fundamental for maintaining the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems, but may be greatly constrained by extreme and rapidly changing environmental conditions. Corals in the southern Persian Gulf already...... experience extreme temperature ranges ( 34°C), chronic hypersalinity (> 43 psu) and frequent light limitation (coral species in the region (Platygyra daedalea and Cyphastrea microphthalma) along marked...... Persian Gulf was lowest at Ras Ghanada, where there was lowest light and highest maximum temperatures. These data reveal striking taxonomic differences in the specific environmental constraints on coral calcification, which will further reinforce changes in the structure of coral assemblages with ongoing...

  5. Prevention through policy : Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic

  6. Blended learning in paediatric emergency medicine: preliminary analysis of a virtual learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, Ruth; Jenner, Rachel; Potier, Katherine; Mackway-Jones, Kevin; Carley, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) currently faces many competing educational challenges. Recent changes to the working patterns have made the delivery of effective teaching to trainees extremely difficult. We developed a virtual learning environment, on the basis of socioconstructivist principles, which allows learning to take place regardless of time or location. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a blended e-learning approach for PEM training. We evaluated the experiences of ST3 trainees in PEM using a multimodal approach. We classified and analysed message board discussions over a 6-month period to look for evidence of practice change and learning. We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with trainees approximately 5 months after they completed the course. Trainees embraced the virtual learning environment and had positive experiences of the blended approach to learning. Socioconstructivist learning did take place through the use of message boards on the virtual learning environment. Despite their initial unfamiliarity with the online learning system, the participants found it easy to access and use. The participants found the learning relevant and there was an overlap between shop floor learning and the online content. Clinical discussion was often led by trainees on the forums and these were described as enjoyable and informative. A blended approach to e-learning in basic PEM is effective and enjoyable to trainees.

  7. Preliminary study on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in Horonobe groundwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Kogawa, Noritaka; Maeda, Kazuto

    2006-08-01

    It is necessary to understand the corrosion behavior of candidate overpack materials to plan the in-situ engineered barrier test at underground laboratory constructing at Horonobe and to design the overpacks suitable to Horonobe environment. The preliminary corrosion tests of carbon steel which is a candidate material for overpacks were carried out using artificial groundwater and actual groundwater sampled at Horonobe. As the results of anodic polarization experiments, the anodic polarization curves of carbon steel in buffer material were active dissolution type, and the corrosion type of carbon steel in Horonobe groundwater environment was expected to be general corrosion. The results of immersion test under air equilibrium condition showed that the degrees of corrosion localization were not exceeded the data obtained in previous studies. The trend of corrosion rates in buffer material under anaerobic condition were similar to the data obtained in previous studies. Based on the experimental results, it was confirmed that the corrosion assessment model and assumed corrosion rate in second progress report (H12 report) can be applied to the assessment for Horonobe groundwater condition. (author)

  8. STRUCTURAL SCALE LIFE PREDICTION OF AERO STRUCTURES EXPERIENCING COMBINED EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    complex loading environments. Today’s state of the art methods cannot address structural reliability under combined environment conditions due to...probabilistically assess the structural life under complex loading environments. Today’s state of the art methods cannot address structural reliability...Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, San Diego, CA, January 4th‐8th, 2016. Clark, L. D., Bae, H., Gobal, K., and Penmetsa, R., “ Engineering

  9. Sialyte(TM)-Based Composite Pressure Vessels for Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While traveling to Venus, electronics and instruments go through enormous pressure, temperature, and atmospheric environment changes. In the past, this has caused...

  10. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter

  11. Extreme environments select for reproductive assurance: evidence from evening primroses (Oenothera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Margaret E K; Hearn, David J; Theiss, Kathryn E; Cranston, Karen; Holsinger, Kent E; Donoghue, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    Competing evolutionary forces shape plant breeding systems (e.g. inbreeding depression, reproductive assurance). Which of these forces prevails in a given population or species is predicted to depend upon such factors as life history, ecological conditions, and geographical context. Here, we examined two such predictions: that self-compatibility should be associated with the annual life history or extreme climatic conditions. We analyzed data from a clade of plants remarkable for variation in breeding system, life history and climatic conditions (Oenothera, sections Anogra and Kleinia, Onagraceae). We used a phylogenetic comparative approach and Bayesian or hybrid Bayesian tests to account for phylogenetic uncertainty. Geographic information system (GIS)-based climate data and ecological niche modeling allowed us to quantify climatic conditions. Breeding system and reproductive life span are not correlated in Anogra and Kleinia. Instead, self-compatibility is associated with the extremes of temperature in the coldest part of the year and precipitation in the driest part of the year. In the 60 yr since this pattern was anticipated, this is the first demonstration of a relationship between the evolution of self-compatibility and climatic extremes. We discuss possible explanations for this pattern and possible implications with respect to anthropogenic climate change. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Women and Couples in Isolated Extreme Environments: Applications for Long-Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, G. R.; Sandal, G. M.

    four women from Greenland, Denmark, UK and Russia who traversed the Greenland ice by ski. The participants did not know each other prior to the expedition. Three were classified as "the right stuff' based on PCI findings. Diary and post-expedition reports indicated that incidents of interpersonal tension were often related to fatigue, homesickness, pain or cold. The participants also indicated that respect and tolerance for differences between them, as weIl as mutual emotional support were crucial factors for the successful completion of the expedition. Group 3 consisted of 3 married couples and the 2 1/2 year old child of the leader and his wife. Five of the crew sailed a small boat from Norway to the Canadian High Arctic; the leader's wife and child joined the team in Greenland. Over a 9 month period, the icelocked boat was ilie center of habitation, scientific, and other activities. Three of the group carried out a 6 week exploratory trek at the end of the winter-over. Participants completed the MPQ prior to the expedition, a WRF over the entire Arctic period, and a semi-structured personality interview at the close of the interval during which the entire group was together. AlI participants scored relatively highest on the Absorption scale, manifested in the salutory experience of enjoying and becoming engrossed in the beauty of the environment. WRF and interview findings indicated that team members consistently reported that the emotional support of and ability to confide in their partner were extremely important in alleviating interpersonal tensions with other team members, and contributed to the overall effective functioning of the group. Reported level of emotional response to stress and coping patterns used while in the stationary habitat were consistent with WRF responses during the later exploratory trek. The woman team member on the trek reported more discomfort regarding personal hygiene issues and fear of injury .In alI groups, the salience of the

  13. Radiation Hardened High Speed Integrated Circuits SERDES I/O for Extreme Operating Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned and robotic space missions require high-performance electronic control systems capable of operating for extended periods in harsh environments subject to...

  14. Modeling of Complex Material Systems in Extreme Environments for Space Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Among the many enabling technologies of space research is the design of materials which are stable in the environments of interest for a given application. At the...

  15. Spacecraft Rendezvous Guidance in Cluttered Dynamical Environments via Extreme Learning Machines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DeepAnalytX, Inc. proposes to investigate a new approach to perform real-time, closed-loop optimal and robust rendezvous guidance in space environments comprising a...

  16. Fiscal 1990 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments); 1990 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    Research and development went on for coal pitch derived and PAN (polyacrylonitrile) based carbon fiber/carbon matrix composite materials for use under high temperature environments, and a comprehensive survey was also conducted on the said materials. For the development of C/C (carbon/carbon) composite materials using coal pitch derived or PAN based carbon fibers, the carbonization process and the like were studied for improvement on carbon based matrix material performance, and basic studies were conducted for the compounding and molding of C/C composite materials under ultrahigh temperature/pressure circumstances. Oxidation resistant coatings were fabricated by use of candidate materials expected to present excellent oxidation resistance, and technical problems were isolated and studied for the optimization of the technology of surface coating. In the comprehensive survey, the latest technical trends inside and outside Japan were investigated, and technical issues were studied for the development of materials usable under extreme environments such as ultrahigh temperatures. (NEDO)

  17. A preliminary estimate of the EUVE cumulative distribution of exposure time on the unit sphere. [Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary study of an all-sky coverage of the EUVE mission is given. Algorithms are provided to compute the exposure of the celestial sphere under the spinning telescopes, taking into account that during part of the exposure time the telescopes are blocked by the earth. The algorithms are used to give an estimate of exposure time at different ecliptic latitudes as a function of the angle of field of view of the telescope. Sample coverage patterns are also given for a 6-month mission.

  18. Species-Specific Coral Calcification Responses to the Extreme Environment of the Southern Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Howells

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustained accretion of calcium carbonate (mostly by scleractinian corals is fundamental for maintaining the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems, but may be greatly constrained by extreme and rapidly changing environmental conditions. Corals in the southern Persian Gulf already experience extreme temperature ranges (<20 to >34°C, chronic hypersalinity (>43 psu and frequent light limitation (<100 μmol photons m−2 s−1. We compared annual rates of calcification for two of the most common coral species in the region (Platygyra daedalea and Cyphastrea microphthalma along marked gradients in environmental conditions in the southern Persian Gulf and into the Oman Sea. Overall calcification rates were 32% higher in P. daedalea colonies (x = 1.103 g cm−2 y−1, n = 46 than in C. microphthalma (x = 0.835 g cm−2 y−1, n = 37, probably reflecting inter-specific differences in energy allocation and skeletal density. There was also considerable variation in calcification rates among individual colonies from the same locations that was unrelated to depth or photosymbiont type. However, most interestingly, P. daedalea and C. microphthalma exhibited contrasting trends in mean annual calcification rates across locations. For P. daedalea, calcification rates were lowest at Delma, where the minimum temperatures were lowest and salinity was highest, and increased across the southern Persian Gulf with increases in minimum temperatures and decreases in salinity. These data suggest that calcification rates of P. daedalea are most constrained by minimum temperatures, which is consistent with the strong relationship between annual calcification rates and minimum local temperatures recorded across the Indo-Pacific. Conversely, linear extension and calcification of C. microphthalma in the southern Persian Gulf was lowest at Ras Ghanada, where there was lowest light and highest maximum temperatures. These data reveal striking taxonomic differences in

  19. Simulating extreme environments: Ergonomic evaluation of Chinese pilot performance and heat stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tian, Yinsheng; Ding, Li; Zou, Huijuan; Ren, Zhaosheng; Shi, Liyong; Feathers, David; Wang, Ning

    2015-06-05

    High-temperatures in the cockpit environment can adversely influence pilot behavior and performance. To investigate the impact of high thermal environments on Chinese pilot performance in a simulated cockpit environment. Ten subjects volunteered to participate in the tests under 40°C and 45°C high-temperature simulations in an environmentally controlled chamber. Measures such as grip strength, perception, dexterity, somatic sense reaction, and analytical reasoning were taken. The results were compared to the Combined Index of Heat Stress (CIHS). CIHS exceeded the heat stress safety limit after 45 min under 40°C, grip strength decreased by 12% and somatic perception became 2.89 times larger than the initial value. In the case of 45°C, CIHS exceeded the safety limit after only 20 min, while the grip strength decreased just by 3.2% and somatic perception increased to 4.36 times larger than the initial value. Reaction and finger dexterity were not statistically different from baseline measurements, but the error rate of analytical reasoning test rose remarkably. Somatic perception was the most sensitive index to high-temperature, followed by grip strength. Results of this paper may help to improve environmental control design of new fighter cockpit and for pilot physiology and cockpit environment ergonomics research for Chinese pilots.

  20. Instrument developments for chemical and physical characterization, mapping and sampling of extreme environments (Antarctic sub ice environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, S. W.; Powell, R. D.; Griffith, I.; Lawson, T.; Schiraga, S.; Ludlam, G.; Oen, J.

    2009-12-01

    A number of instrumentation is currently under development designed to enable the study of subglacial environments in Antarctica through narrow kilometer long boreholes. Instrumentation includes: - slim line Sub-Ice ROV (SIR), - Geochemical Instrumentation Package for Sub Ice Environments (GIPSIE) to study geochemical fluxes in water and across the sediment water interface (CO2, CH4, dO, NH4, NO3, Si, PO4, pH, redox, T, H2, HS, O2, N2O, CTD, particle size, turbidity, color camera, current meter and automated water sampler) with real-time telemetry for targeted sampling, - long term energy-balance mooring system, - active source slide hammer sediment corer, and - integration of a current sensor into the ITP profiler. The instrumentation design is modular and suitable for remote operated as well as autonomous long-term deployment. Of interest to the broader science community is the development of the GIPSIE and efforts to document the effect of sample recovery from depth on the sample chemistry. The GIPSIE is a geochemical instrumentation package with life stream telemetry, allowing for user controlled targeted sampling of water column and the water sediment interphase for chemical and biological work based on actual measurements and not a preprogrammed automated system. The porewater profiler (pH, redox, T, H2, HS, O2, N2O) can penetrate the upper 50 cm of sediment and penetration is documented with real time video. Associated with GIPSIE is an on-site lab set-up, utilizing a set of identical sensors. Comparison between the insitu measurements and measurements taken onsite directly after samples are recovered from depth permits assessing the effect of sample recovery on water and sediment core chemistry. Sample recovery related changes are mainly caused by changes in the pressure temperature field and exposure of samples to atmospheric conditions. Exposure of anaerobic samples to oxygen is here a specific concern. Recovery from depth effects in generally p

  1. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek eWierzchos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits – conceptually called rock’s habitable architecture. Additionally self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another

  2. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits-conceptually called "rock's habitable architecture." Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of adaptation.

  3. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S.; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  4. Extreme poverty and affluence, the two sides of our world. Energy, raw materials, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, G

    1987-07-01

    The author discusses the different economic situtions in the industrialized and in the developing parts of the world, and the resulting fears of the populations. These feelings of fear and apprehension are traced back to their manifold causes, discussing among others unsecure raw material supply and the damage to the environment, hostile attitudes towards industrial exploitation or technical sciences, the role of the press and other media in the 'making' of fear of life, the fear of becoming slave of the machines. The problems' solution lies in the supply and utilisation of energy, and any efforts towards maintaining our natural environment so that life may go on will have to be based, the author says, on the technological development from nuclear power to thermonuclear fusion. (HSCH).

  5. Polar Microalgae: New Approaches towards Understanding Adaptations to an Extreme and Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara R. Lyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar Regions are unique and highly prolific ecosystems characterized by extreme environmental gradients. Photosynthetic autotrophs, the base of the food web, have had to adapt physiological mechanisms to maintain growth, reproduction and metabolic activity despite environmental conditions that would shut-down cellular processes in most organisms. High latitudes are characterized by temperatures below the freezing point, complete darkness in winter and continuous light and high UV in the summer. Additionally, sea-ice, an ecological niche exploited by microbes during the long winter seasons when the ocean and land freezes over, is characterized by large salinity fluctuations, limited gas exchange, and highly oxic conditions. The last decade has been an exciting period of insights into the molecular mechanisms behind adaptation of microalgae to the cryosphere facilitated by the advancement of new scientific tools, particularly “omics” techniques. We review recent insights derived from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics studies. Genes, proteins and pathways identified from these highly adaptable polar microbes have far-reaching biotechnological applications. Furthermore, they may provide insights into life outside this planet, as well as glimpses into the past. High latitude regions also have disproportionately large inputs into global biogeochemical cycles and are the region most sensitive to climate change.

  6. Characterization and antimicrobial potential of extremely halophilic archaea isolated from hypersaline environments of the Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Inès; Hassani, Imene Ikrame; l'Haridon, Stéphane; Chalopin, Morgane; Hacène, Hocine; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Halophilic archaea were isolated from different chotts and sebkha, dry salt lakes and salt flat respectively, of the Algerian Sahara and characterized using phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches. From 102 extremely halophilic strains isolated, forty three were selected and studied. These strains were also screened for their antagonistic potential and the production of hydrolytic enzymes. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis allowed the identification of 10 archaeal genera within the class Halobacteria: Natrinema (13 strains), Natrialba (12 strains), Haloarcula (4 strains), Halopiger (4 strains), Haloterrigena (3 strains), Halorubrum (2 strains), Halostagnicola (2 strains), Natronococcus, Halogeometricum and Haloferax (1 strain each). The most common producers of antimicrobial compounds belong to the genus Natrinema while the most hydrolytic isolates, with combined production of several enzymes, belong to the genus Natrialba. The strain affiliated to Halopiger djelfamassilliensis was found to produce some substances of interest (halocins, anti-Candida, enzymes). After partial purification and characterization of one of the strains Natrinema gari QI1, we found similarities between the antimicrobial compound and the halocin C8. Therefore, the gene encoding halocin C8 was amplified and sequenced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical implementation of time-dependent density functional theory for extended systems in extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, DFT-MD has been shown to be a useful computational tool for exploring the properties of WDM. These calculations achieve excellent agreement with shock compression experiments, which probe the thermodynamic parameters of the Hugoniot state. New X-ray Thomson Scattering diagnostics promise to deliver independent measurements of electronic density and temperature, as well as structural information in shocked systems. However, they require the development of new levels of theory for computing the associated observables within a DFT framework. The experimentally observable x-ray scattering cross section is related to the electronic density-density response function, which is obtainable using TDDFT - a formally exact extension of conventional DFT that describes electron dynamics and excited states. In order to develop a capability for modeling XRTS data and, more generally, to establish a predictive capability for rst principles simulations of matter in extreme conditions, real-time TDDFT with Ehrenfest dynamics has been implemented in an existing PAW code for DFT-MD calculations. The purpose of this report is to record implementation details and benchmarks as the project advances from software development to delivering novel scienti c results. Results range from tests that establish the accuracy, e ciency, and scalability of our implementation, to calculations that are veri ed against accepted results in the literature. Aside from the primary XRTS goal, we identify other more general areas where this new capability will be useful, including stopping power calculations and electron-ion equilibration.

  8. Anatomy and histology as socially networked learning environments: some preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafferty, Frederic W; Castellani, Brian; Hafferty, Philip K; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-09-01

    An exploratory study to better understand the "networked" life of the medical school as a learning environment. In a recent academic year, the authors gathered data during two six-week blocks of a sequential histology and anatomy course at a U.S. medical college. An eight-item questionnaire captured different dimensions of student interactions. The student cohort/network was 48 first-year medical students. Using social network analysis (SNA), the authors focused on (1) the initial structure and the evolution of informal class networks over time, (2) how informal class networks compare to formal in-class small-group assignments in influencing student information gathering, and (3) how peer assignment of professionalism role model status is shaped more by informal than formal ties. In examining these latter two issues, the authors explored not only how formal group assignment persisted over time but also how it functioned to prevent the tendency for groupings based on gender or ethnicity. The study revealed an evolving dynamic between the formal small-group learning structure of the course blocks and the emergence of informal student networks. For example, whereas formal group membership did influence in-class questions and did prevent formation of groups of like gender and ethnicity, outside-class questions and professionalism were influenced more by informal group ties where gender and, to a much lesser extent, ethnicity influence student information gathering. The richness of these preliminary findings suggests that SNA may be a useful tool in examining an array of medical student learning encounters.

  9. Mechanical Development of a Very Non-Standard Patch Array Antenna for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard; Chamberlain, Neil; Jakoboski, Julie; Petkov, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical development of patch antenna arrays for the Juno mission. The patch arrays are part of a six-frequency microwave radiometer instrument that will be used to measure thermal emissions from Jupiter. The very harsh environmental conditions in Jupiter orbit, as well as a demanding launch environment, resulted in a design that departs radically from conventional printed circuit patch antennas. The paper discusses the development and qualification of the Juno patch array antennas, with emphasis on the materials approach that was devised to mitigate the effects of electron charging in Jupiter orbit.

  10. Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR

  11. Psychological Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Effects of Team Composition on Individual Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J.; Hysong, S. J.; Lugg, D. J.; Harm, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing program of research examining the psychological effects of isolation and confinement on individual adaptation, productivity and group relations in Antarctic winter personnel. This environment is used as an analogue for long-duration space mission scenarios, such as a space station sojourn, or a mission to Mars. Earlier results from this and other environments have demonstrated that: (1) most changes in psychological well-being are event-related and of relatively short duration; and (2) the greatest problem facing most individuals is interpersonal conflict. Content analysis of responses to open-ended questions has identified the numerous enjoyable aspects of Antarctic living, and confirmed that many of the problems reported were interpersonal in nature, and that problems varied significantly by station. Current work is exploring the effects of team assignment on the self-reported psychological changes and self-evaluations of members of isolated teams. This work includes identifying the dimensions by which subjects determine how well they are functioning. These dimensions (e.g., work, social life, internal emotional state) appear to play an important role in how subjects evaluate many aspects of life in isolation.

  12. Thermal-Acoustic Fatigue of a Multilayer Thermal Protection System in Combined Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure integrity of thermal protection system (TPS structure for hypersonic vehicles exposed to severe operating environments, a study is undertaken to investigate the response and thermal-acoustic fatigue damage of a representative multilayer TPS structure under combined thermal and acoustic loads. An unsteady-state flight of a hypersonic vehicle is composed of a series of steady-state snapshots, and for each snapshot an acoustic load is imposed to a static steady-state TPS structure. A multistep thermal-acoustic fatigue damage intensity analysis procedure is given and consists of a heat transfer analysis, a nonlinear thermoelastic analysis, and a random response analysis under a combined loading environment and the fatigue damage intensity has been evaluated with two fatigue analysis techniques. The effects of thermally induced deterministic stress and nondeterministic dynamic stress due to the acoustic loading have been considered in the damage intensity estimation with a maximum stress fatigue model. The results show that the given thermal-acoustic fatigue intensity estimation procedure is a viable approach for life prediction of TPS structures under a typical mission cycle with combined loadings characterized by largely different time-scales. A discussion of the effects of the thermal load, the acoustic load, and fatigue analysis methodology on the fatigue damage intensity has been provided.

  13. Evolution of genomic diversity and sex at extreme environments: Fungal life under hypersaline Dead Sea stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P.; Nevo, Eviatar

    2003-01-01

    We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1–3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g·liter–1 total dissolved salts, ≈10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the “rise and fall” pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern. PMID:14645702

  14. Does Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection with Low-Dose Lidocaine Cause Objective Upper Extremity Weakness? A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Nelson, Ariana; Kendall, Mark C; McCarthy, Robert J; Nagpal, Geeta; Walega, David R

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose local anesthetic is often used in cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (CIESI), yet its effect on upper extremity strength has not been studied. The presence of consequent weakness has potential implications for postprocedure safety. This study aimed to determine whether low-dose lidocaine in a C7-T1 CIESI causes objective weakness. Prospective case series. Academic pain center. Adults, cervical radicular pain. Participants underwent CIESI with 1 mL of 1% lidocaine (3 mL total injectate). Elbow flexion (EF), wrist extension (WE), elbow extension (EE), and handgrip strength were measured by dynamometry at baseline, 15 minutes, and 30 minutes postinjection. Changes in strength from baseline and the proportion of participants with a minimum perceptible change in EF, WE, EE, and handgrip strength (≥20%) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty-seven participants were included. At 15 and 30 minutes postinjection, there was no within-participant difference in EF, WE, EE, and handgrip strength from baseline overall. Nonetheless, five (19%, 95% CI = 4-33) of the participants demonstrated a 20% or greater strength decrease in at least one myotomal distribution. A 20% or greater decrease in strength was present in left EF 4% (95% CI = 0-11%), right EF 7% (95% CI = 0-17%), left WE 4% (95% CI = 0-11%), and right WE 7% (95% CI = 0-17%). The present data suggest that CIESI with an injectate volume of 3 mL that includes 1 mL of 1% lidocaine may result in objective upper extremity weakness that is above the minimum threshold of perception in a subset of patients. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Nanomaterials under extreme environments: A study of structural and dynamic properties using reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Adarsh

    Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important with the continuing advances in experimental techniques. As researchers around the world are trying to expand the current understanding of the behavior of materials at the atomistic scale, the limited resolution of equipment, both in terms of time and space, act as roadblocks to a comprehensive study. Numerical methods, in general and molecular dynamics, in particular act as able compliment to the experiments in our quest for understanding material behavior. In this research work, large scale molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the mechano-chemical behavior under extreme conditions of a variety of systems with many real world applications. The body of this work is divided into three parts, each covering a particular system: 1) Aggregates of aluminum nanoparticles are good solid fuel due to high flame propagation rates. Multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations reveal the mechanism underlying higher reaction rate in a chain of aluminum nanoparticles as compared to an isolated nanoparticle. This is due to the penetration of hot atoms from reacting nanoparticles to an adjacent, unreacted nanoparticle, which brings in external heat and initiates exothermic oxidation reactions. 2) Cavitation bubbles readily occur in fluids subjected to rapid changes in pressure. We use billion-atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations on a 163,840-processor BlueGene/P supercomputer to investigate chemical and mechanical damages caused by shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water near amorphous silica. Collapse of an empty nanobubble generates high-speed nanojet, resulting in the formation of a pit on the surface. The pit contains a large number of silanol groups and its volume is found to be directly proportional to the volume of the nanobubble. The gas-filled bubbles undergo partial collapse and consequently the damage on the silica surface is mitigated. 3) The structure and dynamics of water confined in

  16. Chameleon Coatings: Adaptive Surfaces to Reduce Friction and Wear in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, C.; Voevodin, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    Adaptive nanocomposite coating materials that automatically and reversibly adjust their surface composition and morphology via multiple mechanisms are a promising development for the reduction of friction and wear over broad ranges of ambient conditions encountered in aerospace applications, such as cycling of temperature and atmospheric composition. Materials selection for these composites is based on extensive study of interactions occurring between solid lubricants and their surroundings, especially with novel in situ surface characterization techniques used to identify adaptive behavior on size scales ranging from 10-10 to 10-4 m. Recent insights on operative solid-lubricant mechanisms and their dependency upon the ambient environment are reviewed as a basis for a discussion of the state of the art in solid-lubricant materials.

  17. Galaxy evolution in extreme environments: Molecular gas content star formation and AGN in isolated void galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mousumi; Iono, Daisuke; Saito, Toshiki; Subramanian, Smitha

    Since the early redshift surveys of the large scale structure of our universe, it has become clear that galaxies cluster along walls, sheet and filaments leaving large, empty regions called voids between them. Although voids represent the most under dense parts of our universe, they do contain a sparse but significant population of isolated galaxies that are generally low luminosity, late type disk galaxies. Recent studies show that most void galaxies have ongoing star formation and are in an early stage of evolution. We present radio, optical studies of the molecular gas content and star formation in a sample of void galaxies. Using SDSS data, we find that AGN are rare in these systems and are found only in the Bootes void; their black hole masses and radio properties are similar to bright spirals galaxies. Our studies suggest that close galaxy interactions and gas accretion are the main drivers of galaxy evolution in these systems despite their location in the underdense environment of the voids.

  18. Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Karen; Trchounian, Armen

    2016-06-01

    Millimeter waves (MMW) or electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies at low intensity is a new environmental factor, the level of which is increased as technology advance. It is of interest that bacteria and other cells might communicate with each other by electromagnetic field of sub-extremely high frequency range. These MMW affected Escherichia coli and many other bacteria, mainly depressing their growth and changing properties and activity. These effects were non-thermal and depended on different factors. The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The effects might have applications in the development of technique, therapeutic practices, and food protection technology.

  19. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica.

  20. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE): Promoting Earth Systems Science Literacy Through Student Inquiry and Real Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, E. C.; Carlsen, W.; Larsen, J.; Simms, E.; Smith, M.

    2007-12-01

    From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) is an innovative new project of the GLOBE Program that involves middle and high school students in systematic, facilitated analyses and comparisons of real environmental data. Through FLEXE, students collect and analyze data from various sources, including the multi-year GLOBE database, deep-sea scientific research projects, and direct measurements of the local environment collected by students using GLOBE sampling protocols. Initial FLEXE materials and training have focused on student understanding of energy transfer through components of the Earth system, including a comparison of how local environmental conditions differ from those found at deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. While the importance of data acquisition, accuracy and replication is emphasized, FLEXE is also uniquely structured to deepen students' understanding of multiple aspects of the process and nature of science, including written communication of results and on-line peer review. Analyses of data are facilitated through structured, web-based interactions and culminating activities with at-sea scientists through an online forum. The project benefits from the involvement of a professional evaluator, and as the model is tested and refined, it may serve as a template for the inclusion of additional "extreme" earth systems. FLEXE is a partnership of the international GLOBE web- based education program and the NSF Ridge 2000 mid-ocean ridge and hydrothermal vent research program, and includes the expertise of the Center for Science and the Schools at Penn State University. International collaborators also include the InterRidge and ChEss international research programs.

  1. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hänsch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C and pH (2 to 4. Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus, indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR, DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches.

  2. Predictive characterization of aging and degradation of reactor materials in extreme environments. Final report, December 20, 2013 - September 20, 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jianmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Understanding of reactor material behavior in extreme environments is vital not only to the development of new materials for the next generation nuclear reactors, but also to the extension of the operating lifetimes of the current fleet of nuclear reactors. To this end, this project conducted a suite of unique experimental techniques, augmented by a mesoscale computational framework, to understand and predict the long-term effects of irradiation, temperature, and stress on material microstructures and their macroscopic behavior. The experimental techniques and computational tools were demonstrated on two distinctive types of reactor materials, namely, Zr alloys and high-Cr martensitic steels. These materials are chosen as the test beds because they are the archetypes of high-performance reactor materials (cladding, wrappers, ducts, pressure vessel, piping, etc.). To fill the knowledge gaps, and to meet the technology needs, a suite of innovative in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization techniques (heating, heavy ion irradiation, He implantation, quantitative small-scale mechanical testing, and various combinations thereof) were developed and used to elucidate and map the fundamental mechanisms of microstructure evolution in both Zr and Cr alloys for a wide range environmental boundary conditions in the thermal-mechanical-irradiation input space. Knowledge gained from the experimental observations of the active mechanisms and the role of local microstructural defects on the response of the material has been incorporated into a mathematically rigorous and comprehensive three-dimensional mesoscale framework capable of accounting for the compositional variation, microstructural evolution and localized deformation (radiation damage) to predict aging and degradation of key reactor materials operating in extreme environments. Predictions from this mesoscale framework were compared with the in situ TEM observations to validate the model.

  3. Predictive characterization of aging and degradation of reactor materials in extreme environments. Final report, December 20, 2013 - September 20, 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of reactor material behavior in extreme environments is vital not only to the development of new materials for the next generation nuclear reactors, but also to the extension of the operating lifetimes of the current fleet of nuclear reactors. To this end, this project conducted a suite of unique experimental techniques, augmented by a mesoscale computational framework, to understand and predict the long-term effects of irradiation, temperature, and stress on material microstructures and their macroscopic behavior. The experimental techniques and computational tools were demonstrated on two distinctive types of reactor materials, namely, Zr alloys and high-Cr martensitic steels. These materials are chosen as the test beds because they are the archetypes of high-performance reactor materials (cladding, wrappers, ducts, pressure vessel, piping, etc.). To fill the knowledge gaps, and to meet the technology needs, a suite of innovative in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization techniques (heating, heavy ion irradiation, He implantation, quantitative small-scale mechanical testing, and various combinations thereof) were developed and used to elucidate and map the fundamental mechanisms of microstructure evolution in both Zr and Cr alloys for a wide range environmental boundary conditions in the thermal-mechanical-irradiation input space. Knowledge gained from the experimental observations of the active mechanisms and the role of local microstructural defects on the response of the material has been incorporated into a mathematically rigorous and comprehensive three-dimensional mesoscale framework capable of accounting for the compositional variation, microstructural evolution and localized deformation (radiation damage) to predict aging and degradation of key reactor materials operating in extreme environments. Predictions from this mesoscale framework were compared with the in situ TEM observations to validate the model.

  4. Extreme precipitation variability, forage quality and large herbivore diet selection in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, James W.; Gedir, Jay V.; Marshal, Jason P.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Jansen, Brian; Morgart, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional ecology forms the interface between environmental variability and large herbivore behaviour, life history characteristics, and population dynamics. Forage conditions in arid and semi-arid regions are driven by unpredictable spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall. Diet selection by herbivores should be directed towards overcoming the most pressing nutritional limitation (i.e. energy, protein [nitrogen, N], moisture) within the constraints imposed by temporal and spatial variability in forage conditions. We investigated the influence of precipitation-induced shifts in forage nutritional quality and subsequent large herbivore responses across widely varying precipitation conditions in an arid environment. Specifically, we assessed seasonal changes in diet breadth and forage selection of adult female desert bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis mexicana in relation to potential nutritional limitations in forage N, moisture and energy content (as proxied by dry matter digestibility, DMD). Succulents were consistently high in moisture but low in N and grasses were low in N and moisture until the wet period. Nitrogen and moisture content of shrubs and forbs varied among seasons and climatic periods, whereas trees had consistently high N and moderate moisture levels. Shrubs, trees and succulents composed most of the seasonal sheep diets but had little variation in DMD. Across all seasons during drought and during summer with average precipitation, forages selected by sheep were higher in N and moisture than that of available forage. Differences in DMD between sheep diets and available forage were minor. Diet breadth was lowest during drought and increased with precipitation, reflecting a reliance on few key forage species during drought. Overall, forage selection was more strongly associated with N and moisture content than energy content. Our study demonstrates that unlike north-temperate ungulates which are generally reported to be energy-limited, N and moisture

  5. Sensing capabilities of piezoelectric wafer active sensors in extreme nuclear environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal Haider, Mohammad; Lin, Bin; Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2017-04-01

    There is considerable demand for structural health monitoring (SHM) at locations where there are substantial radiation fields such as nuclear reactor components, dry cask storage canister, irradiated fuel assemblies, etc. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) have been emerged as one of the major SHM sensing technologies. In order to use PWAS to perform SHM in nuclear environment, radiation influence on sensor and sensing capability needs to be investigated to assure the reliability of the PWAS based method. Radiation may cause degradation or even complete failure of sensors. Gamma radiation is one of the major radiation sources near the nuclear source. Therefore, experimental investigation was completed on the gamma radiation endurance of piezoelectric sensors. The irradiation test was done in a Co-60 Gamma Irradiator. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4) PWAS were exposed under gamma radiation at 100 Gy/hr rate for 20 hours. Electro-mechanical (E/M) admittance signatures and electrical capacitance were measured to evaluate the PWAS performance before and after every 4 hours exposure to gamma radiation. PWAS were kept at room temperature for 6 days after each 4 hours radiation exposure to investigate the effect of time on PWAS by gamma radiation. It was found that, PZT-PWAS show variation in resonance frequency for both in plane and thickness mode E/M admittance. Where, the changes in resonance amplitudes are larger for PZT-PWAS. GaPO4-PWAS E/M impedance/admittance spectra don't show any reasonable change after gamma irradiation. A degradation behavior of electrical properties in the PZT-PWAS was observed. Capacitance value of PZT-PWAS decreases from 3.2 nF to 3.07 nF after exposing to gamma radiation for 20 hours at 100Gy/hour. This degradation behavior of electrical properties may be explained by the pinning of domain walls by some radiation induced effect. GaPO4-PWAS doesn't show reasonable degradation in electrical properties

  6. The use of Saildrones as Long Endurance, Ocean Research Platforms in Remote and Extreme Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R.; Peacock, D.; Jones, E.

    2016-02-01

    The world's oceans are experiencing significant change, which will have a profound impact on ecosystems, fish stocks and climate. Furthermore, the areas where some of the biggest changes are occurring are also some of the least measured and understood. This is largely due to their remote location and/or harsh environment, where the cost of deploying sensors is significant. New technologies are required to supplement ships and mooring data to meet the demand for longer, more economical deployments with the ability for real-time data and adaptive sampling. The Saildrone was designed to meet this need, providing the ability to reach almost any part of the world's oceans, without requiring a ship. Deployed from the dock, the unmanned Saildrone navigates autonomously to the area of interest, where it operates for extended periods before returning to shore for servicing and subsequent re-deployment. The Saildrone is propelled by wind power from a 4 m solid wing. Stability is provided by static weight in the keel and outrigger hulls. The 5.8 m hull includes several payload bays, with a payload capacity of 100 kg. Working with the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), under a collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the Saildrone platform was equipped with a suite of meteorological and oceanographic sensors that would enable a wide variety of ocean research missions to be undertaken. After field tests in San Francisco Bay, a 3 month mission was conducted in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2015. The mission included rough sea-trials, sensor comparisons in coordination with the NOAAS Oscar Dyson, and a survey of the northern Bering Sea shortly after ice retreat. The mission was completed as planned, with the two Saildrones (SD-126 & SD-128) returning to the dock from which they were deployed after 97 days and each completing 4400 nautical miles. During the second half of 2015, two subsequent missions were conducted in the Gulf of Mexico. Two

  7. Extreme mass flux from the glaciated, collisional St. Elias Orogen: Preliminary results from IODP Expedition 341 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, S. P.; Jaeger, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 drilled a cross-margin transect to investigate the linkages between global climate change, modification of the dynamics of surficial processes, and subsequent tectonic responses. The Gulf of Alaska (GoA) borders the St. Elias orogen, the highest coastal mountain range on Earth. Exp. 341 drilled five sites within a regional seismic reflection grid that spans from the distal Surveyor Fan to the continental shelf. More than 3000 m of high-quality core coupled with seismic reflection profiles collected with nested vertical resolution allows us to address the major objectives of drilling in the GoA. These objectives were to: 1) document the tectonic response of an active orogenic system to late Miocene to recent climate change; 2) establish the timing of advance/retreat phases of the northern Cordilleran ice sheet to test its relation to dynamics of other global ice sheets; 3) implement an expanded source-to-sink study of the interactions between glacial, tectonic, and oceanographic processes responsible for creation of one of the thickest Neogene high-latitude continental margin sequences; 4) understand the dynamics of productivity, nutrients, freshwater input to the ocean, and ocean circulation in the northeast Pacific and their role in the global carbon cycle, and 5) document the spatial and temporal behavior of the geomagnetic field at extremely high temporal resolution in an under-sampled region of the globe. The Exp. 341 cross-margin transect discovered transitions in sediment accumulation rates from >100 m/Ma at the distal site to > 1000 m/Ma in the proximal fan, slope and on the continental shelf that provide a telescoping view of strata formation from the Miocene to the Holocene. Complete recovery and development of spliced sedimentary records of the Pleistocene through Holocene were achieved at the distal, proximal, and slope Sites U1417, U1418, and U1419, respectively, because of exceptional piston core

  8. Detection of Stress Levels from Biosignals Measured in Virtual Reality Environments Using a Kernel-Based Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongrae; Ham, Jinsil; Oh, Jooyoung; Park, Jeanho; Kim, Sayup; Lee, Nak-Kyu; Lee, Boreom

    2017-10-24

    Virtual reality (VR) is a computer technique that creates an artificial environment composed of realistic images, sounds, and other sensations. Many researchers have used VR devices to generate various stimuli, and have utilized them to perform experiments or to provide treatment. In this study, the participants performed mental tasks using a VR device while physiological signals were measured: a photoplethysmogram (PPG), electrodermal activity (EDA), and skin temperature (SKT). In general, stress is an important factor that can influence the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart-rate variability (HRV) is known to be related to ANS activity, so we used an HRV derived from the PPG peak interval. In addition, the peak characteristics of the skin conductance (SC) from EDA and SKT variation can also reflect ANS activity; we utilized them as well. Then, we applied a kernel-based extreme-learning machine (K-ELM) to correctly classify the stress levels induced by the VR task to reflect five different levels of stress situations: baseline, mild stress, moderate stress, severe stress, and recovery. Twelve healthy subjects voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiological signals were measured in stress environment generated by VR device. As a result, the average classification accuracy was over 95% using K-ELM and the integrated feature (IT = HRV + SC + SKT). In addition, the proposed algorithm can embed a microcontroller chip since K-ELM algorithm have very short computation time. Therefore, a compact wearable device classifying stress levels using physiological signals can be developed.

  9. Contribution of eukaryotic microbial communities to the formation of Fe-rich accretions in an extreme acidic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L.; Valente, T.; Correia, A.; Alves, A.; Foing, B.; Davies, G. R.

    2012-04-01

    In the acid mine drainage of Valdarcas, northern Portugal, Fe-rich tubular and spherical macroaccretions are directly associated with the presence of eukaryotic microorganisms. This raises the question whether they are biogenically-derived or the result of an abiotic process mediated by microeukaryotic phototrophs. The drainage water at Valdarcas is characterized by very low pH values (pHhigh metal solubility and presence of iron colloids. Mineralogical analysis (XRD and SEM) of the precipitates indicates a mixture of goethite, schwertmannite and jarosite. Euglenophyta and Chlorophyta acidophilic algal were previously identified in this site. The spatial distribution of Euglena mutabilis indicated that it has a preference to grow up on schwertmannite-rich precipitates. Field observations demonstrate the existence of oxygenated microenvironments created by algal activity suggesting that algae influence iron minerals precipitation, especially schwertmannite. The mineral-microorganism interactions are relevant to understanding this unique and extreme environment. Further investigations regarding the mineralogical and chemical characterization of these deposits, and the identification of microorganisms involved in the process could be helpful to enhance our knowledge of past Fe formations throughout Earth's primordial environment. It is expectable that this information will contribute to establish a framework for recognition of biosignatures on other planets and extraterrestrial bodies. In this study, results on the chemical and mineralogical composition of the structures are presented. The biological context is characterised based on observations made by optical microscopy complemented with molecular data on the microbial communities obtained by culture independent methods. The results are discussed within the context of two models: the studied Fe-rich stromatolites are microeukaryotic-mediated as described by previous workers from similar environments or are the

  10. Two spatial scales in a bleaching event: Corals from the mildest and the most extreme thermal environments escape mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Pineda, Jesús

    2013-07-28

    In summer 2010, a bleaching event decimated the abundant reef flat coral Stylophora pistillata in some areas of the central Red Sea, where a series of coral reefs 100–300 m wide by several kilometers long extends from the coastline to about 20 km offshore. Mortality of corals along the exposed and protected sides of inner (inshore) and mid and outer (offshore) reefs and in situ and satellite sea surface temperatures (SSTs) revealed that the variability in the mortality event corresponded to two spatial scales of temperature variability: 300 m across the reef flat and 20 km across a series of reefs. However, the relationship between coral mortality and habitat thermal severity was opposite at the two scales. SSTs in summer 2010 were similar or increased modestly (0.5°C) in the outer and mid reefs relative to 2009. In the inner reef, 2010 temperatures were 1.4°C above the 2009 seasonal maximum for several weeks. We detected little or no coral mortality in mid and outer reefs. In the inner reef, mortality depended on exposure. Within the inner reef, mortality was modest on the protected (shoreward) side, the most severe thermal environment, with highest overall mean and maximum temperatures. In contrast, acute mortality was observed in the exposed (seaward) side, where temperature fluctuations and upper water temperature values were relatively less extreme. Refuges to thermally induced coral bleaching may include sites where extreme, high-frequency thermal variability may select for coral holobionts preadapted to, and physiologically condition corals to withstand, regional increases in water temperature.

  11. Feasibility and preliminary effects of a virtual environment for adults with type 2 diabetes: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Constance; Feinglos, Mark; Pereira, Katherine; Hassell, Nancy; Blascovich, Jim; Nicollerat, Janet; Beresford, Henry F; Levy, Janet; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2014-04-08

    Innovative interventions that empower patients in diabetes self-management (DSM) are needed to provide accessible, sustainable, cost-effective patient education and support that surpass current noninteractive interventions. Skills acquired in digital virtual environments (VEs) affect behaviors in the physical world. Some VEs are programmed as real-time three-dimensional representations of various settings via the Internet. For this research, a theoretically grounded VE that facilitates DSM was developed and pilot tested. It offered weekly synchronous DSM education classes, group meetings, and social networking in a community in which participants practiced real world skills such as grocery shopping, exercising, and dining out, allowing for interactive knowledge application. The VE was available 24/7 on the Internet, minimizing access barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of participation in a VE for DSM education and support. This study utilized a single group, pre-mid-post measure design. At 0, 3, and 6 months, we assessed participants' perceived VE usability and usefulness, self-efficacy, diabetes self-management behaviors, perceived social support, and diabetes knowledge using validated survey measures; and we recorded metabolic indicators (HbA1c, BP, BMI). Process data were continuously collected in the VE (log-ins, voice recordings, locations visited, objects interacted with, and movement). Data analysis included descriptive statistics, t tests to evaluate changes in mediators and outcomes over time, and depiction of utilization and movement data. We enrolled 20 participants (13/20, 65% white, 7/20, 35% black), with an age range of 39-72 years (mean age, 54 years) and diabetes duration from 3 months to 25 years. At baseline, 95% (18/19) and 79% (15/19) of participants rated usefulness and ease of use as high on validated surveys with no significant changes at 3 or 6 months. Participants logged into the site a mean

  12. Preliminary screening analysis of the off-site environment downstream of the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee, have introduced airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams that ultimately drain into the Clinch River. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. A preliminary screening was conducted of contaminants in the off-site surface water environments downstream of the DOE ORR. This screening analysis represents part of a scoping phase of the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Facilities Investigation (CRRFI). The purpose of this preliminary screening analysis is to use existing data on off-site contaminant concentrations to identify and prioritize potential contaminants of concern for further evaluation and investigation. The primary objective of this screening analysis is to ensure that CRRFI sampling and analysis efforts focus on those contaminants that may possibly contribute to human health or environmental risk. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W

    2016-01-01

    they are set; present the pros and cons for self versus prescribed acute and chronic exposure; describe humans' (mal)adaptations; and finally suggest future directions for practice and research. In summary, we describe adaptation patterns that are often U or J shaped and that over time minimal or no load...... be studied in this perspective. With improved access to insightful and portable technologies, there are some exciting possibilities to explore these questions in this context....

  14. Preliminary criteria for shallow-land storage/disposal of low-level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shord, A.L.

    1979-09-01

    Preliminary criteria for shallow land storage/disposal of low level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment were developed. Criteria which address the establishment and operation of a storage/disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid wastes are discussed. These were developed from the following sources: (1) a literature review of solid waste burial; (2) a review of the regulations, standards, and codes pertinent to the burial of radioactive wastes; (3) on site experience; and (4) evaluation of existing burial grounds and practices

  15. Social Network Analysis in E-Learning Environments: A Preliminary Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Karina L.; Sicilia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    E-learning occupies an increasingly prominent place in education. It provides the learner with a rich virtual network where he or she can exchange ideas and information and create synergies through interactions with other members of the network, whether fellow learners or teachers. Social network analysis (SNA) has proven extremely powerful at…

  16. Radioassay for hydrogenase activity in viable cells and documentation of aerobic hydrogen-consuming bacteria living in extreme environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schink, B.; Lupton, F.S.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    An isotopic tracer assay based on the hydrogenase-dependent formation of tritiated water from tritium gas was developed for in life analysis of microbial hydrogen transformation. This method allowed detection of bacterial hydrogen metabolism in pure cultures or in natural samples obtained from aquatic ecosystems. A differentiation between chemical-biological and aerobic-anaerobic hydrogen metabolism was established by variation of the experimental incubation temperature or by addition of selective inhibitors. Hydrogenase activity was shown to be proportional to the consumption or production of hydrogen by cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Clostridium pasteurianum, and Methanosarcina barkeri. This method was applied, in connection with measurements of free hydrogen and most-probable-number enumerations, in aerobic natural source waters to establish the activity and document the ecology of hydrogen-consuming bacteria in extreme acid, thermal, or saline environments. The utility of the assay is based in part on the ability to quantify bacterial hydrogen transformation at natural hydrogen partial pressures, without the use of artificial electron acceptors

  17. Silicified virus-like nanoparticles in an extreme thermal environment: implications for the preservation of viruses in the geological record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X; Xu, H; Jones, B; Chen, S; Zhou, H

    2013-11-01

    Biofilms that grow around Gumingquan hot spring (T = 71 °C, pH = 9.2) in the Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, China, are formed of various cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Aquificae, Thermodesulfobacteria, Desulfurococcales, and Thermoproteales. Silicified virus-like nanoparticles, 40-200 nm in diameter, are common inside the microbial cells and the extracellular polymeric substances around the cells. These nanoparticles, which are formed of a core encased by a silica cortex, are morphologically akin to known viruses and directly comparable to silicified virus-like particles that were produced in biofilms cultured in the laboratory. The information obtained from examination of the natural and laboratory-produced samples suggests that viruses can be preserved by silicification, especially while they are still encased in their host cells. These results expand our views of virus-host mineral interaction in extreme thermal environments and imply that viruses can be potentially preserved and identified in the geological record. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Measurement and Analysis of the Extreme Physical Shock Environment Experienced by Crane-Mounted Radiation Detection Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, M [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Erchinger, J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marianno, C [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kallenbach, Gene A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grypp, M [US Dept. of the Navy

    2017-09-01

    Potentially, radiation detectors at ports of entry could be mounted on container gantry crane spreaders to monitor cargo containers entering and leaving the country. These detectors would have to withstand the extreme physical environment experienced by these spreaders during normal operations. Physical shock data from the gable ends of a spreader were recorded during the loading and unloading of a cargo ship with two Lansmont SAVER 9X30 units (with padding) and two PCB Piezotronics model 340A50 accelerometers (hard mounted). Physical shocks in the form of rapid acceleration were observed in all accelerometer units with values ranging from 0.20 g’s to 199.99 g’s. The majority of the shocks for all the Lansmont and PCB accelerometers were below 50 g’s. The Lansmont recorded mean shocks of 21.83 ± 13.62 g’s and 24.78 ± 11.49 g’s while the PCB accelerometers experienced mean shocks of 34.39 ± 25.51 g’s and 41.77 ± 22.68 g’s for the landside and waterside units, respectively. Encased detector units with external padding should be designed to withstand at least 200 g’s of acceleration without padding and typical shocks of 30 g’s with padding for mounting on a spreader.

  19. Exascale Co-Design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx) Annual Report - Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germann, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McPherson, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-25

    All activities of the Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (Ex- MatEx) are focused on the two ultimate goals of the project: (1) demonstrating and delivering a prototype scale-bridging materials science application based upon adaptive physics refinement, and (2) identifying the requirements for the exascale ecosystem that are necessary to perform computational materials science simulations (both single- and multi-scale). During the first year of ExMatEx, our focus was on establishing how we do computational materials science, by developing an initial suite of flexible proxy applications. These “proxy apps” are the primary vehicle for the co-design process, involving assessments and tradeoff evaluations both within the ExMatEx team, and with the entire exascale ecosystem. These interactions have formed the basis of our second year activities. The set of artifacts from these co-design interactions are the lessons learned, that are used to re-express the applications and algorithms within the context of emerging architectures, programming models, and runtime systems.

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of Hot Springs in Central India Reveals Hydrocarbon Degrading Thermophiles and Pathways Essential for Survival in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rituja; Dhakan, Darshan B.; Mittal, Parul; Waiker, Prashant; Chowdhury, Anirban; Ghatak, Arundhuti; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5–55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5–98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together

  1. The Relationship between Family Environment and Parenting Style: A Preliminary Study of African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of parenting style on aspects of family environment was studied with 174 9th graders, 11th graders and college freshmen (96% African American). Findings demonstrate that types of parenting styles are significantly related to outcome measures of family environment as predicted. Implications of authoritative parenting among blacks are…

  2. The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer R.; Hebert, Angel; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Carey, Gale; Colby, Sarah; Brown-Esters, Onikia N.; Greene, Geoffrey; Hoerr, Sharon; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Kidd, Tandalayo; Koenings, Mallory; Phillips, Beatrice; Shelnutt, Karla P.; White, Adrienne A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test the validity of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS) for identifying the importance and changeability of nutrition, exercise, and stress management behavior and related aspects of the environment. Design: A cross-sectional, online survey of the BECS and selected validated instruments. Setting:…

  3. Role of short-term dispersal on the dynamics of Zika virus in an extreme idealized environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In November 2015, El Salvador reported their first case of Zika virus (ZIKV infection, an event followed by an explosive outbreak that generated over 6000 suspected cases in a period of two months. National agencies began implementing control measures that included vector control and recommending an increased use of repellents. Further, in response to the alarming and growing number of microcephaly cases in Brazil, the importance of avoiding pregnancies for two years was stressed. In this paper, we explore the role of mobility within communities characterized by extreme poverty, crime and violence. Specifically, the role of short term mobility between two idealized interconnected highly distinct communities is explored in the context of ZIKV outbreaks. We make use of a Lagrangian modeling approach within a two-patch setting in order to highlight the possible effects that short-term mobility, within highly distinct environments, may have on the dynamics of ZIKV outbreak when the overall goal is to reduce the number of cases not just in the most affluent areas but everywhere. Outcomes depend on existing mobility patterns, levels of disease risk, and the ability of federal or state public health services to invest in resource limited areas, particularly in those where violence is systemic. The results of simulations in highly polarized and simplified scenarios are used to assess the role of mobility. It quickly became evident that matching observed patterns of ZIKV outbreaks could not be captured without incorporating increasing levels of heterogeneity. The number of distinct patches and variations on patch connectivity structure required to match ZIKV patterns could not be met within the highly aggregated model that is used in the simulations. Keywords: Vector-borne diseases, Zika virus, Residence times, Multi-patch model

  4. Acoustic Environment of Haro Strait: Preliminary Propagation Modeling and Data Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Christopher D; Wolfson, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Field measurements and acoustic propagation modeling for the frequency range 1 10 kHz are combined to analyze the acoustic environment of Haro Strait of Puget Sound, home to the southern resident killer whales...

  5. Understanding Creative Design Processes by Integrating Sketching and CAD Modelling Design Environments: A Preliminary Protocol Result from Architectural Designers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Teng Shih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a preliminary protocol study of the cognitive behaviour of architectural designers during the design process. The aim is to better understand the similarities and differences in cognitive behaviour using Sequential Mixed Media (SMM and Alternative Mixed Media (AMM approaches, and how switching between media may impact on design processes. Two participants with at least one-year’s professional design experience and a Bachelor of Design degree, and competence in both sketching and computer-aid design (CAD modelling participated in the study. Video recordings of participants working on different projects were coded using the Function-Behaviour-Structure (FBS coding scheme. Participants were also interviewed and their explanations about their switching behaviours were categorised into three types: S→C, S/C↹R and C→S. Preliminary results indicate that switching between media may influence how designers identify problems and develop solutions. In particular, two design issues were identified.  These relate to the FBS coding scheme, where structure (S and behaviour derived from structure (Bs, change to documentation (D after switching from sketching to CAD modelling (S→C. These switches make it possible for designers to integrate both approaches into one design medium and facilitate their design processes in AMM design environments.

  6. Preliminary investigation for the development of surrogate debris from nuclear detonations in marine-urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seybert, A.G.; Auxier II, J.D.; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Hall, H.L.; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    2017-01-01

    Since no nuclear weapon surface detonations have occurred in urban harbor environments, the nuclear forensic community has no actual debris from which to develop and validate analytical methods for radiochemistry analysis, making the development of surrogate debris representative of this a marine-urban detonation a vital undertaking. This work seeks to build a robust model that accounts for natural and manmade environmental variations in harbor environments and vessel compositions to statistically define the elemental composition of vaporized debris from a marine-urban nuclear detonation. This initial work is necessary for follow-on neutron-activation and debris formation analysis. (author)

  7. A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.; Darley, P.J.

    1986-06-01

    A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The assessment was based on measurements of airborne radionuclide concentrations, ground deposition and nuclide concentrations in rainwater, tapwater, grass, milk and green vegetables. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be as follows:- Adult - 200 μSv, 1 year old child - 500 μSv, the 10 year old child receiving a dose intermediate between these two values. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. However, it is believed that the inclusion of a range of other nuclides of potential significance, which may have been present but not measured, and potential intakes from additional routes is unlikely to increase the above estimates by more than a factor of 2. (author)

  8. A Motor Drive Electronics Assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover: An Example of Assembly Qualification for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth; Chen, Yuan; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tudryn Weber, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the technology development and infusion of the motor drive electronics assembly, along with the technology qualification and space qualification, is described and detailed. The process is an example of the qualification methodology for extreme environmen

  9. Preliminary Study on the Role of Social Presence in Blended Learning Environment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing body of knowledge which identifies benefits for Blended Learning in the understanding of social processes role. It reports on an exploratory study into the role of social presence in blended learning environment. Employing a qualitative methodology, the study sought to understand social presence of learners in…

  10. A Preliminary Model of Motivation for Pornography Consumption Among Men Participating in Zoophilic Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Although zoophilic blogs and websites attract the attention of zoophiles and others who are curious about this sexual activity, the motivations for consuming this type of pornography are not clear. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in an online sample of men with sexual interest in animals, and to construct an association model between motivations for pornography consumption and the following psychological variables: depression, sexual impulsiveness, and strength of sexual interest in animals. In this cross-sectional study, we located a website that catered to a network of people with a sexual interest in animals. Subsequently, a questionnaire was made available online to members of this network. Results support the 4-factor model of the Pornography Consumption Inventory. Depression and strength of sexual interest in animals were negatively and positively correlated with the sexual curiosity factor, respectively. Sexual impulsiveness was positively associated with the emotional avoidance, excitement seeking, and sexual pleasure factors. Depression and sexual impulsiveness were positively correlated. Psychological factors can differently motivate the consumption of pornography among men who visit zoophilic blogs and websites. With these preliminary data, we can identify some characteristics of this population.

  11. Designing Geometry 2.0 learning environments: a preliminary study with primary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglar Prieto, Nuria; María Sordo Juanena, José; Star, Jon R.

    2014-04-01

    The information and communication technologies of Web 2.0 are arriving in our schools, allowing the design and implementation of new learning environments with great educational potential. This article proposes a pedagogical model based on a new geometry technology-integrated learning environment, called Geometry 2.0, which was tested with 39 sixth grade students from a public school in Madrid (Spain). The main goals of the study presented here were to describe an optimal role for the mathematics teacher within Geometry 2.0, and to analyse how dynamic mathematics and communication might affect young students' learning of basic figural concepts in a real setting. The analyses offered in this article illustrate how our Geometry 2.0 model facilitates deeply mathematical tasks which encourage students' exploration, cooperation and communication, improving their learning while fostering geometrical meanings.

  12. Preliminary field dose rate determination in the environment of the Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, I.; Zombori, P.; Koblinger, L.; Andrasi, A.; Deme, S.

    1983-01-01

    The in situ measurements were performed by a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer and a GM detector at 23 points in the environment of the power plant. During the sophisticated calibration procedure the energy and direction dependences of the detector responses were also taken into account. The dose rates were also determined by the POKER-CAMP computer code for natural radionuclides with an assumed source distribution. On the basis of the good agreement between the measured and calculated values the sensitivity of the measuring system was assessed for some given distributed radionuclides released from the power plant. (author)

  13. Preliminary findings of Salmonella spp. in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M A; Shane, S M

    2000-06-12

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling iguanas at this facility.

  14. Performance environment and nested task constraints influence long jump approach run: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Flora; Smirniotou, Athanasia; Theodorou, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate possible changes at step pattern and technical performance of the long jump approach run in seven young long jumpers by modifying the performance environment (long jump runway versus track lane) and the nested actions (run-through with take-off versus complete long jump). Our findings suggest that the step pattern and technical aspects of the approach run are affected by environmental context and nested task constraints. In terms of environmental context, it appears that practising the training routine of run-through followed by take-off on the long jump runway allows athletes to simulate competition conditions in terms of step regulation and technical efficacy. The task of run-through followed by take-off on the track lane failed to initiate visual perception, step regulation and technical efficiency at the steps preceding the instant of take-off. In terms of nested task constraints, when run-ups were followed by jump for distance instead of only a take-off, a higher level of consistency was achieved and step regulation was based on perception-action coupling. Practising long jump run-up accuracy at a setting not containing the informational elements of the performance environment fails to develop the key elements of the skill.

  15. Preliminary results of thermal igniter experiments in H2-air-steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal igniters (glow plugs), proposed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for intentional ignition of hydrogen in nuclear reactor containment, have been tested for functionability in mixtures of air, hydrogen, and steam. Test environments included 6% to 16% hydrogen concentrations in air, and 8%, 10%, and 12% hydrogen in mixtures with 30% and 40% steam fractions. All were conducted in a 10.6 ft 3 insulated pressure vessel. For all of these tests the glow plug successfully initiated combustion. Dry air/hydrogen tests exhibited a distinct tendency for complete combustion at hydrogen concentrations between 8% and 9%. Steam suppressed both peak pressures and completeness of combustion. No combustion could be initiated at or above a 50% steam fraction. Circulation of the mixture with a fan increased the completeness of combustion. The glow plug showed no evidence of performance degradation throughout the program

  16. THE PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF SHOOTING RANGES ON ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Wodnik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the shooting activity on the environment. The studies were conducted in the area of the sports shooting range. The invertebrates assemblages were identified to the family level as well as morphospecies. The second method do not require the proficiency in identification. The following indices of the biodiversity were used for the assessment of the impact of sports shooting ranges: Simpson, Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, Berger-Parker and Menhinick. A decreased biodiversity was observed at two studied sites comparing to the reference site what proves the influence of shooting activity on the biodiversity and suggest disturbance of the ecosystem integrity because of shooting activity.

  17. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor

    2016-01-01

    -year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard rate...

  18. Preliminary design of high temperature ultrasonic transducers for liquid sodium environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Qiao, H.; Good, M. S.; Larche, M. R.; Sexton, S. S.; Ramuhalli, P.

    2018-04-01

    Advanced reactor concepts include fast reactors (including sodium-cooled fast reactors), gas-cooled reactors, and molten-salt reactors. Common to these concepts is a higher operating temperature (when compared to light-water-cooled reactors), and the proposed use of new alloys with which there is limited operational experience. Concerns about new degradation mechanisms, such as high-temperature creep and creep fatigue, that are not encountered in the light-water fleet and longer operating cycles between refueling intervals indicate the need for condition monitoring technology. Specific needs in this context include periodic in-service inspection technology for the detection and sizing of cracking, as well as technologies for continuous monitoring of components using in situ probes. This paper will discuss research on the development and evaluation of high temperature (>550°C; >1022°F) ultrasonic probes that can be used for continuous monitoring of components. The focus of this work is on probes that are compatible with a liquid sodium-cooled reactor environment, where the core outlet temperatures can reach 550°C (1022°F). Modeling to assess sensitivity of various sensor configurations and experimental evaluation have pointed to a preferred design and concept of operations for these probes. This paper will describe these studies and ongoing work to fabricate and fully evaluate survivability and sensor performance over extended periods at operational temperatures.

  19. Study on the interaction mechanism between the special geological environment and their extreme geo-microbes in Dagang Oilfield by combined methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Geo-microbes and their function were widespread ever since life appeared on the earth. Geo-microbiological process has left a rich and colorful material record in the geological body of earth, the most critical record of which is all sorts of organic hieroglyph and various forms of organic matter derived from bio-organisms, and oil field is the most ideal geological location to preserve these organic matters. It have already produced or might produce petroleum and natural gas sedimentary rocks under natural conditions, also known as olefiant (gas) rock or the parent rock, which is the product of the interaction between the life-system and earth environmental system in the specific geological conditions and integrate the whole microbial ecosystem in the geological time. The microbial community under extreme geological environment of Dagang Oilfield is relatively simple, therefore it is quite easy to investigate the special relationship between geo-microbes and biogeochemistry. We have mastered a large number of information related with the geological condition and biological species of Dagang Oilfield; what's more we also have isolated a number of archimycetes strains with different extremophiles capacity from the core samples collected in the Dagang oil field. At present, we are to proceed with the cooperative research at Environment School of Yale University and Institute of the Earth's biosphere using these strains. In the future, we will work together to carry out geological surveys in the field using international first-class equipment and methods and study the geological environment of Dagang Oilfield utilizing isotope techniques and mineral phase analysis method. Meanwhile we are going to undertake the on-line monitoring of the overall microbial activity of these collected geological samples, the specific metabolic activity of these extreme strains of microorganisms and the biomarkers produced during their metabolic processes under laboratory conditions

  20. Cardio-respiratory Physiology of the European Eel (em>Agunilla anguilla)em> in Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, Caroline

    The main objective of this PhD thesis was to study the cardio-respiratory capabilities of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) under extreme conditions. Three environmental conditions were studied i.e. temperature, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, while a fourth condition was physiological an......), body wave speed (v) and Strouhal number (St). The results demonstrate that energy expenditure, swimming performance and efficiency all are significantly affected in migrating eels fitted with external tags....

  1. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  2. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 2, Preliminary impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Risoe (Denmark); Larsen, S.G. [DEMEX A/S (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    As described in the project proposal `Research and Development of Technologies for Safe and Environmentally optimal recovery and Disposal of Explosive Wastes`, dated 31. May 1996, the objective of Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety, is to: Analyse the environmental impact of noise and emissions to air, water and soil; Assess the risk of hazards to workers` health and safety and to the public. Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety (EIA), has been performed from August 1997 to September 1998. First, a methodology has been established, based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to select the `best` technology on the basis of clearly defined objectives, including minimal impacts on environment, health and safety. This included a review of different types of explosive waste with a focus on the environment implications, identifying the issues relevant to defining the criteria or objectives with respect to environment and safety in the framework of explosive waste, as well as the preliminary definition of objectives for the final impact assessment. Second, the previously identified recovery and disposal technologies (Task 1) have been qualitatively assessed on the basis of the relevant objectives. This qualitative assessment includes also economic considerations and an attempt to rank the technologies in an MCDA framework. (au)

  3. WISE/NEOWISE PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS AND HIGHLIGHTS OF THE 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO NEAR NUCLEUS ENVIRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, James M.; Kramer, Emily; Mainzer, A. K.; Stevenson, Rachel; Masiero, Joseph R.; Weissman, Paul R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-401, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, Tommy [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); Walker, Russell G. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, 200 Eighth Street, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Fernandez, Yan R. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, P.S. Building, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Meech, Karen J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Dailey, John W.; Masci, Frank J.; Pearman, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tholen, David J. [NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: bauer@scn.jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Collaboration: WISE Team

    2012-10-10

    On 2010 January 18-19 and June 28-29, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft imaged the Rosetta mission target, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We present a preliminary analysis of the images, which provide a characterization of the dust environment at heliocentric distances similar to those planned for the initial spacecraft encounter, but on the outbound leg of its orbit rather than the inbound. Broadband photometry yields low levels of CO{sub 2} production at a comet heliocentric distance of 3.32 AU and no detectable production at 4.18 AU. We find that at these heliocentric distances, large dust grains with mean grain diameters on the order of a millimeter or greater dominate the coma and evolve to populate the tail. This is further supported by broadband photometry centered on the nucleus, which yield an estimated differential dust particle size distribution with a power-law relation that is considerably shallower than average. We set a 3{sigma} upper limit constraint on the albedo of the large-grain dust at {<=}0.12. Our best estimate of the nucleus radius (1.82 {+-} 0.20 km) and albedo (0.04 {+-} 0.01) are in agreement with measurements previously reported in the literature.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushie, P. O.; Nwankwo, U.J.V.; Osahun, O. D.; Ayinmode, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm 2 or 10 7 μW/m 2 ) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm 2 or 10 7 μW/m 2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

  5. Teaching ecosystem and environment and its effect on the environmental consciousness of grade 9 students: A preliminary self study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantongkam, Monta; Wongboonnak, Sompratana; Khumwong, Pinit

    2018-01-01

    This research is a self-study research. The aims of the research were to reflect a teaching and learning process in a classroom on the topic of ecosystem and environment; a part of basic science subjects, and investigate the effect of a teaching on environmental consciousness. As a self-study research, the first author was a practitioner who taught grade ninth students classroom consisting of 50 students of an extra-large high school in Bangkok during the second semester of 2016 academic year. Data of the teaching method was collected by using teaching logs and critical friend interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed by using content analysis. The effectiveness of teaching the environmental consciousness was investigated by using a 5 level-rating scale the environmental consciousness questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered three times, at the beginning of the semester, before and after learning the topic ecosystem and environment. The data was statistically analyzed by mean, standard deviation, and analysis of variance (one -way ANOVA). The results were indicated that: 1. The teacher directed all classroom activities, used power point to show the contents and pictures while she was talking and students were listening. The teacher often asked questions and mostly assigned students to work alone and sometimes in a group. Students only studied in the classroom. After learning, the students were assigned to do work sheets alone such as searching for information and making reports. 2. The grade 9 students had no significantly different level of the environmental consciousness comparing between the beginning of the semester (x ¯ = 3.33), before learning (x ¯ = 3.35) and after learning (x ¯ = 3.40). It can be concluded that this teaching and learning process cannot promote the environmental consciousness. This study was a preliminary study, the results indicate the need for change of teaching practice in the classroom.

  6. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  7. Radiation Hardened High Speed Integrated Circuits Double Data Rate I/O for Extreme Operating Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned and robotic space missions require high-performance electronic control systems capable of operating for extended periods in harsh environments that are...

  8. External perforated window Solar Screens: The effect of screen depth and perforation ratio on energy performance in extreme desert environments

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, A.; El-Zafarany, A.; Arafa, R.

    2012-01-01

    In hot arid desert environments, the solar radiation passing through windows increases the cooling loads and the energy consumption of buildings. Shading of windows can reduce these loads. Unlike the woven solar screens, wooden solar screens have a

  9. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources; Conception, realisation et metrologie de miroirs multicouches pour l'extreme ultraviolet resistants aux environnements du spatial et des sources EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-15

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  10. In Situ Raman Spectral Characteristics of Carbon Dioxide in a Deep-Sea Simulator of Extreme Environments Reaching 300 ℃ and 30 MPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfu; Du, Zengfeng; Zhang, Xin; Xi, Shichuan; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Lian, Chao; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle and directly affects the living environment of marine organisms. In situ Raman detection technology is an effective approach to study the behavior of deep-sea CO 2 . However, the Raman spectral characteristics of CO 2 can be affected by the environment, thus restricting the phase identification and quantitative analysis of CO 2 . In order to study the Raman spectral characteristics of CO 2 in extreme environments (up to 300 ℃ and 30 MPa), which cover most regions of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps around the world, a deep-sea extreme environment simulator was developed. The Raman spectra of CO 2 in different phases were obtained with Raman insertion probe (RiP) system, which was also used in in situ Raman detection in the deep sea carried by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "Faxian". The Raman frequency shifts and bandwidths of gaseous, liquid, solid, and supercritical CO 2 and the CO 2 -H 2 O system were determined with the simulator. In our experiments (0-300 ℃ and 0-30 MPa), the peak positions of the symmetric stretching modes of gaseous CO 2, liquid CO 2 , and supercritical CO 2 shift approximately 0.6 cm -1 (1387.8-1388.4 cm -1 ), 0.7 cm -1 (1385.5-1386.2 cm -1 ), and 2.5 cm -1 (1385.7-1388.2 cm -1 ), and those of the bending modes shift about 1.0 cm -1 (1284.7-1285.7 cm -1 ), 1.9 cm -1 (1280.1-1282.0 cm -1 ), and 4.4 cm -1 (1281.0-1285.4 cm -1 ), respectively. The Raman spectral characteristics of the CO 2 -H 2 O system were also studied under the same conditions. The peak positions of dissolved CO 2 varied approximately 4.5 cm -1 (1282.5-1287.0 cm -1 ) and 2.4 cm -1 (1274.4-1276.8 cm -1 ) for each peak. In comparison with our experiment results, the phases of CO 2 in extreme conditions (0-3000 m and 0-300 ℃) can be identified with the Raman spectra collected in situ. This qualitative research on CO 2 can also support the

  11. Nitrogen cycling in an extreme hyperarid environment inferred from δ15N analyses of plants, soils and herbivore diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Francisca P.; Frugone, Matías; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Climate controls on the nitrogen cycle are suggested by the negative correlation between precipitation and δ15N values across different ecosystems. For arid ecosystems this is unclear, as water limitation among other factors can confound this relationship. We measured herbivore feces, foliar and soil δ15N and δ13C values and chemically characterized soils (pH and elemental composition) along an elevational/climatic gradient in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Although very positive δ15N values span the entire gradient, soil δ15N values show a positive correlation with aridity as expected. In contrast, foliar δ15N values and herbivore feces show a hump-shaped relationship with elevation, suggesting that plants are using a different N source, possibly of biotic origin. Thus at the extreme limits of plant life, biotic interactions may be just as important as abiotic processes, such as climate in explaining ecosystem δ15N values.

  12. Nitrogen cycling in an extreme hyperarid environment inferred from δ(15)N analyses of plants, soils and herbivore diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Francisca P; Frugone, Matías; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-03-09

    Climate controls on the nitrogen cycle are suggested by the negative correlation between precipitation and δ(15)N values across different ecosystems. For arid ecosystems this is unclear, as water limitation among other factors can confound this relationship. We measured herbivore feces, foliar and soil δ(15)N and δ(13)C values and chemically characterized soils (pH and elemental composition) along an elevational/climatic gradient in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Although very positive δ(15)N values span the entire gradient, soil δ(15)N values show a positive correlation with aridity as expected. In contrast, foliar δ(15)N values and herbivore feces show a hump-shaped relationship with elevation, suggesting that plants are using a different N source, possibly of biotic origin. Thus at the extreme limits of plant life, biotic interactions may be just as important as abiotic processes, such as climate in explaining ecosystem δ(15)N values.

  13. Kinect Xbox 360 as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy in a school environment: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Oliva, Laura; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Rosa María; Cano-de la Cuerda, Roberto; Piédrola, Rosa Martínez; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M; Sánchez-Camarero, Carlos; Martínez Culebras, María Del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Limited evidence is available about the effectiveness of virtual reality using low cost commercial consoles for children with developmental delay. The aim of this preliminary study is to evaluate the usefulness of a videogame system based on non-immersive virtual reality technology (Xbox 360 KinectTM) to support conventional rehabilitation treatment of children with cerebral palsy. Secondarily, to objectify changes in psychomotor status of children with cerebral palsy after receiving rehabilitation treatment in addition with this last generation game console. 11 children with cerebral palsy were included the study. A baseline, a post-treatment and a follow-up assessment were performed related to motor and the process skills, balance, gait speed, running and jumping and fine and manual finger dexterity. All the participants completed 8 weeks of videogame treatment, added to their conventional physiotherapy treatment, with Xbox 360 Kinect™ (Microsoft) game console. The Friedman test showed significant differences among the three assessments for each variable: GMFM (p = 0.001), AMPS motor (p = 0.001), AMPS process (p = 0.010), PRT (p = 0.005) and 10 MW (p = 0.029). Wilcoxon test showed significant statistically differences pre and post-treatment, in all the values. Similarly, results revealed significant differences between basal and follow-up assessment. There were not statistical differences between post-treatment and follow-up evaluation, indicating a long-term maintenance of the improvements achieved after treatment. Low cost video games based on motion capture are potential tools in the rehabilitation context in children with CP. Our Kinect Xbox 360 protocol has showed improvements in balance and ADL in CP participants in a school environment, but further studies are need to validate the potential benefits of these video game systems as a supplement for rehabilitation of children with CP.

  14. Preliminary study of the 129I distribution in environment of La Hague reprocessing plant with the help of a terrestrial moss: Homalotecium sericeum. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The preliminary study of the 129 I distribution has allowed to underline the limits of use of a Homalotecium sericeum type terrestrial moss as biological indicator. However, this preliminary study allowed all the same to give a spatial distribution of this radioelement around La Hague reprocessing plant (source term) that underlines the existence of four geographic areas in function of collected activities. The levels are generally under 99 Bq/kg dry. It is recommended to improve the knowledge that we can have of transfers and quantity of iodine 129 from the marine environment to the terrestrial environment, but also, the one that we can have of factors able to modify the spatial distribution of this radionuclide. (N.C.)

  15. Diatom diversity and response in metal-polluted river environment: preliminary reports from Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Marco; Tolotti, Raffaella; Bernabè, Dimitri; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Cutroneo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    riverbed from the hard surface of selected cobblestone by scraping. In laboratory all the samples were washed (by digestion with hydrogen peroxide) and mounted according to the protocol used by the DISTAV Laboratories (University of Genoa). Identification and enumeration of diatom valves was performed using an LM Reichert Jung-Polyvar microscope with 1000x oil-immersion lens. Moreover, a representative subsample of each preparation was observed using SEM images providing an interesting iconographic dataset. Preliminary results show that diatom assemblages are characteristic (in both quality and quantity) in the three different environmental conditions highlighted: a) in AMD environment diatoms are quantitatively scarcely, represented by both typically pioneer and highly tolerant species; b) in the Gromolo torrent diatoms are well represented with fairly well-structured communities, but present specific types and different frequencies in teratological frustula, whereas c) in marine environment they are very poorly represented.

  16. Diet, Environments, and Gut Microbiota. A Preliminary Investigation in Children Living in Rural and Urban Burkina Faso and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta De Filippo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a “globalized” Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy. We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11, of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5 and of a group of Italian children (n = 13. We observed that when foods of animal origin, those rich in fat and simple sugars are introduced into a traditional African diet, composed of cereals, legumes and vegetables, the gut microbiota profiles changes. Microbiota of rural children retain a geographically unique bacterial reservoir (Prevotella, Treponema, and Succinivibrio, assigned to ferment fiber and polysaccharides from vegetables. Independently of geography and ethnicity, in children living in urban areas these bacterial genera were progressively outcompeted by bacteria more suited to the metabolism of animal protein, fat and sugar rich foods, similarly to Italian children, as resulted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, a predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene. Consequently, we observed a progressive reduction of SCFAs measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in urban populations, especially in Italian children, respect to rural ones. Our results even if in a limited number of individuals point out that dietary habit modifications

  17. Frequency Analysis of Extreme Sub-Daily Precipitation under Stationary and Non-Stationary Conditions across Two Contrasting Hydroclimatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, E. M.; Goodrich, D. C.; Keefer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Observed sub-daily precipitation intensities from contrasting hydroclimatic environments in the USA are used to evaluate temporal trends and to develop Intensity-Duration Frequency (IDF) curves under stationary and nonstationary climatic conditions. Analyses are based on observations from two United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) experimental watersheds located in a semi-arid and a temperate environment. We use an Annual Maximum Series (AMS) and a Partial Duration Series (PDS) approach to identify temporal trends in maximum intensities for durations ranging from 5- to 1440-minutes. A Bayesian approach with Monte Carlo techniques is used to incorporate the effect of non-stationary climatic assumptions in the IDF curves. The results show increasing trends in observed AMS sub-daily intensities in both watersheds whereas trends in the PDS observations are mostly positive in the semi-arid site and a mix of positive and negative in the temperate site. Stationary climate assumptions lead to much lower estimated sub-daily intensities than those under non-stationary assumptions with larger absolute differences found for shorter durations and smaller return periods. The risk of failure (R) of a hydraulic structure is increased for non-stationary effects over those of stationary effects, with absolute differences of 25% for a 100-year return period (T) and a project life (n) of 100 years. The study highlights the importance of considering non-stationarity, due to natural variability or to climate change, in storm design.

  18. effect of extreme seasonal variations and environments on some stress hormones and clotting factors of type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    the present study aimed to to investigate the effect of seasons (summer and winter) and environments (Cairo and Assiut) on some serum components including fasting and postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin cholesterol and triglycerides in type Il diabetic patients . measure also included prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, plasma fibrinogen, factor Vlll and plasminogen . the study also aimed to investigate the effect of season and environments on serum insulin, glucagon, cortisol and prolactin. twenty male diabetics and ten normal control have shared from each governorate during summer and winter. data from this study showed: 1- during summer, there was an increase in postprandial glucose of normal volunteers and in fasting and postprandial glucose in cairo diabetics. 2- normal assiut volunteers experienced increased FBG in summer while diabetics experienced lower postprandial glucose during summer. 3- during winter, cairo diabetics had significantly lower fasting and postprandial glucose than assiut diabetics.4- during summer, cairo diabetics had increased postprandial serum glucose in comparison to assiut. 5-the more the level of glucose the less the effect of seasons on blood glucose. 6- serum triglycerides were higher in cairo during summer, while serum cholesterol was higher in assiut in summer than in winter

  19. FOX: A Fault-Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment Boston University Final Report Project Number: DE-SC0005365

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appavoo, Jonathan [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2013-03-17

    Exascale computing systems will provide a thousand-fold increase in parallelism and a proportional increase in failure rate relative to today's machines. Systems software for exascale machines must provide the infrastructure to support existing applications while simultaneously enabling efficient execution of new programming models that naturally express dynamic, adaptive, irregular computation; coupled simulations; and massive data analysis in a highly unreliable hardware environment with billions of threads of execution. The FOX project explored systems software and runtime support for a new approach to the data and work distribution for fault oblivious application execution. Our major OS work at Boston University focused on developing a new light-weight operating systems model that provides an appropriate context for both multi-core and multi-node application development. This work is discussed in section 1. Early on in the FOX project BU developed infrastructure for prototyping dynamic HPC environments in which the sets of nodes that an application is run on can be dynamically grown or shrunk. This work was an extension of the Kittyhawk project and is discussed in section 2. Section 3 documents the publications and software repositories that we have produced. To put our work in context of the complete FOX project contribution we include in section 4 an extended version of a paper that documents the complete work of the FOX team.

  20. Tolerance to cadmium in Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlorophyta) strains isolated from an extreme acidic environment, the Tinto River (SW, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of selected concentrations of Cd on the growth and ultrastructure of three strains of Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from a highly acidic river, Rio Tinto (SW Spain) were examined. The river is characterized by its extreme physico-chemical conditions in terms of low pH, mean 2.2 and high concentrations of heavy metals. Growth, Cd accumulation, chlorophyll a, influence of Fe in Cd toxicity and ultrastructural localization were determined. The strains were cultured in both, artificial chemically defined media as well as in natural water from the river. Since iron is the main component of the river water, the effect of different concentrations of this element in relation with Cd toxicity was also analysed. The three strains analysed showed comparable growth and ultrastructural changes. Cd concentration corresponding to 50% growth inhibition (EC 5 ) was 0.2 mM when cells were grown in artificial media. When cells were grown in natural water, no significant differences were found between the controls and the Cd supplemented media even at the highest concentration of 0.8 mM. At an inhibitory level of 0.1 mM of Cd, increasing the concentration of iron up to 90 or 180 mM resulted in a dramatic recovery in algal growth rates in artificial media, reaching normal growth curves. The accumulation of Cd depended on dose and time in the artificial media. The maximal accumulation of Cd was reached after 3 days for all Cd doses, and remained almost unchanged in the subsequent period of time. Chlorophyll a amount depended on dose but not on time in the artificial growth media. At the ultrastructural level, an increase in the periplasmalemmal space was observed due to the presence of a large number of vacuoles, together with a decrease in the relative volume of the nucleus when the cells were incubated in the presence of Cd. Pyrenoid and starch granules were observed and accumulation of spherical electron-dense bodies were also detected. X-ray spectra of these bodies for

  1. Tolerance to cadmium in Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlorophyta) strains isolated from an extreme acidic environment, the Tinto River (SW, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, Angeles [Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera de Ajalvir Km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: aaguilera@cbm.uam.es; Amils, Ricardo [Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera de Ajalvir Km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Biologia Molecular (UAM-CSIC), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-30

    The effects of selected concentrations of Cd on the growth and ultrastructure of three strains of Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from a highly acidic river, Rio Tinto (SW Spain) were examined. The river is characterized by its extreme physico-chemical conditions in terms of low pH, mean 2.2 and high concentrations of heavy metals. Growth, Cd accumulation, chlorophyll a, influence of Fe in Cd toxicity and ultrastructural localization were determined. The strains were cultured in both, artificial chemically defined media as well as in natural water from the river. Since iron is the main component of the river water, the effect of different concentrations of this element in relation with Cd toxicity was also analysed. The three strains analysed showed comparable growth and ultrastructural changes. Cd concentration corresponding to 50% growth inhibition (EC{sub 5}) was 0.2 mM when cells were grown in artificial media. When cells were grown in natural water, no significant differences were found between the controls and the Cd supplemented media even at the highest concentration of 0.8 mM. At an inhibitory level of 0.1 mM of Cd, increasing the concentration of iron up to 90 or 180 mM resulted in a dramatic recovery in algal growth rates in artificial media, reaching normal growth curves. The accumulation of Cd depended on dose and time in the artificial media. The maximal accumulation of Cd was reached after 3 days for all Cd doses, and remained almost unchanged in the subsequent period of time. Chlorophyll a amount depended on dose but not on time in the artificial growth media. At the ultrastructural level, an increase in the periplasmalemmal space was observed due to the presence of a large number of vacuoles, together with a decrease in the relative volume of the nucleus when the cells were incubated in the presence of Cd. Pyrenoid and starch granules were observed and accumulation of spherical electron-dense bodies were also detected. X-ray spectra of these bodies for

  2. In-situ TEM observation of the response of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten to extreme irradiation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atwani, O; Hinks, J A; Greaves, G; Gonderman, S; Qiu, T; Efe, M; Allain, J P

    2014-05-06

    The accumulation of defects, and in particular He bubbles, can have significant implications for the performance of materials exposed to the plasma in magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors. Some of the most promising candidates for deployment into such environments are nanocrystalline materials as the engineering of grain boundary density offers the possibility of tailoring their radiation resistance properties. In order to investigate the microstructural evolution of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten under conditions similar to those in a reactor, a transmission electron microscopy study with in situ 2 keV He(+) ion irradiation at 950 °C has been completed. A dynamic and complex evolution in the microstructure was observed including the formation of defect clusters, dislocations and bubbles. Nanocrystalline grains with dimensions less than around 60 nm demonstrated lower bubble density and greater bubble size than larger nanocrystalline (60-100 nm) and ultrafine (100-500 nm) grains. In grains over 100 nm, uniform distributions of bubbles and defects were formed. At higher fluences, large faceted bubbles were observed on the grain boundaries, especially on those of nanocrystalline grains, indicating the important role grain boundaries can play in trapping He and thus in giving rise to the enhanced radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials.

  3. Development of Multiscale Materials Modeling Techniques and Coarse- Graining Strategies for Predicting Materials Degradation in Extreme Irradiation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Exposure of metallic structural materials to irradiation environments results in significant microstructural evolution, property changes and performance degradation, which limits the extended operation of current generation light water reactors and restricts the design of advanced fission and fusion reactors [1-8]. This effect of irradiation on materials microstructure and properties is a classic example of an inherently multiscale phenomenon, as schematically illustrated in Figure 1a. Pertinent processes range from the atomic nucleus to structural component length scales, spanning more than 15 orders of magnitude. Time scales bridge more than 22 orders of magnitude, with the shortest being less than a femtosecond [1,8]. Further, the mix of radiation-induced features formed and the corresponding property degradation depend on a wide range of material and irradiation variables. This emphasizes the importance of closely integrating models with high-resolution experimental characterization of the evolving radiation- damaged microstructure, including measurements performed in-situ during irradiation. In this article, we review some recent successes through the use of closely coordinated modeling and experimental studies of the defect cluster evolution in irradiated body-centered cubic materials, followed by a discussion of outstanding challenges still to be addressed, which are necessary for the development of comprehensive models of radiation effects in structural materials.

  4. External perforated window Solar Screens: The effect of screen depth and perforation ratio on energy performance in extreme desert environments

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, A.

    2012-09-01

    In hot arid desert environments, the solar radiation passing through windows increases the cooling loads and the energy consumption of buildings. Shading of windows can reduce these loads. Unlike the woven solar screens, wooden solar screens have a thickness that provides selective shading properties. Perforated wooden solar screens were traditionally used for windows shading. Developing modern types of these shading systems can lead to significant energy savings. The paper addresses the influence of changing the perforation percentage and depth of these screens on the annual energy loads, hence defining the optimum depth/perforation configurations for various window orientations. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical residential building in the Kharga Oasis, located in the Egyptian desert. A range of perforation percentages and depths were tested. Conclusions prove that external fixed deep perforated solar screens could effectively achieve energy savings up to 30% of the total energy consumption in the West and South orientations. Optimum range of depths and perforation percentages were recommended. These are: 80-90% perforation rate and 1:1 depth/opening width ratio. These lighter and deeper solar screen configurations were found to be more efficient in energy consumption in comparison with the traditional ones. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. LEVELS OF EXTREMELY LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM OVERHEAD POWER LINES IN THE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT OF RAMALLAH CITY-PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuasbi, Falastine; Lahham, Adnan; Abdel-Raziq, Issam Rashid

    2018-05-01

    In this study, levels of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields originated from overhead power lines were investigated in the outdoor environment in Ramallah city, Palestine. Spot measurements were applied to record fields intensities over 6-min period. The Spectrum Analyzer NF-5035 was used to perform measurements at 1 m above ground level and directly underneath 40 randomly selected power lines distributed fairly within the city. Levels of electric fields varied depending on the line's category (power line, transformer or distributor), a minimum mean electric field of 3.9 V/m was found under a distributor line, and a maximum of 769.4 V/m under a high-voltage power line (66 kV). However, results of electric fields showed a log-normal distribution with the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of 35.9 and 2.8 V/m, respectively. Magnetic fields measured at power lines, on contrast, were not log-normally distributed; the minimum and maximum mean magnetic fields under power lines were 0.89 and 3.5 μT, respectively. As a result, none of the measured fields exceeded the ICNIRP's guidelines recommended for general public exposures to extremely low-frequency fields.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of eCGP123, an extremely stable monomeric green fluorescent protein with reversible photoswitching properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don Paul, Craig; Traore, Daouda A. K.; Byres, Emma; Rossjohn, Jamie; Devenish, Rodney J.; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Prescott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    eCGP123, an extremely stable GFP with photoswitching properties, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set has been collected at 2.10 Å resolution. Enhanced consensus green protein variant 123 (eCGP123) is an extremely thermostable green fluorescent protein (GFP) that exhibits useful negative reversible photoswitching properties. eCGP123 was derived by the application of both a consensus engineering approach and a recursive evolutionary process. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant eCGP123 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The eCGP123 crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.10 Å resolution. The data were indexed in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.63, b = 75.38, c = 84.51 Å, α = 90.96, β = 89.92, γ = 104.03°. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.26 Å 3 Da −1 ) and a solvent content of 46% indicated that the asymmetric unit contained eight eCGP123 molecules

  7. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  8. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and the Hypothetical Cold Response Mode of Saussurea involucrata in Extreme Cold Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Liu, Hailiang; Xia, Wenwen; Mu, Jianqiang; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Ruina; Yan, Panyao; Wang, Aiying; Lin, Zhongping; Guo, Yong; Zhu, Jianbo; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-06-07

    Saussurea involucrata grows in high mountain areas covered by snow throughout the year. The temperature of this habitat can change drastically in one day. To gain a better understanding of the cold response signaling pathways and molecular metabolic reactions involved in cold stress tolerance, genome-wide transcriptional analyses were performed using RNA-Seq technologies. A total of 199,758 transcripts were assembled, producing 138,540 unigenes with 46.8 Gb clean data. Overall, 184,416 (92.32%) transcripts were successfully annotated. The 365 transcription factors identified (292 unigenes) belonged to 49 transcription factor families associated with cold stress responses. A total of 343 transcripts on the signal transduction (132 upregulated and 212 downregulated in at least any one of the conditions) were strongly affected by cold temperature, such as the CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase ( CIPKs ), receptor-like protein kinases , and protein kinases . The circadian rhythm pathway was activated by cold adaptation, which was necessary to endure the severe temperature changes within a day. There were 346 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to transport, of which 138 were upregulated and 22 were downregulated in at least any one of the conditions. Under cold stress conditions, transcriptional regulation, molecular transport, and signal transduction were involved in the adaptation to low temperature in S. involucrata . These findings contribute to our understanding of the adaptation of plants to harsh environments and the survival traits of S. involucrata . In addition, the present study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of chilling and freezing tolerance.

  9. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  10. The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Williams, Tim M; Sessa, Ben; Tyacke, Robin J; Rich, Ann S; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that are psychologically and physiologically well tolerated. With appropriate care, this study supports the viability of functional magnetic resonance imaging work with psilocybin.

  11. Concurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Final Report: Advanced Long-Life Lander Investigating the Venus Environment (ALIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    The COncurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive (power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission.

  12. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  13. Aerospace Materials for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    6.0% 8.0% 35.0 45.0 55.0 Zr [at%] Icosahedron Fraction • Chosen Method: Green - Kubo  =  t B t dstPstP Tk V 0 00 )()(lim  Zr Al Ni...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A – Unclassified, Unlimited Distribution 15 February 2013 Integrity  Service  Excellence Dr. Ali Sayir Program Officer...Liquid Crystal Crystallization inhibitors: 1. Driving Force: Icosahedra 2. Kinetics: Viscosity (fragility) Direct Measurement: Critical Cooling

  14. Fiscal 1992 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Development of high efficiency power generation component creation technology); 1992 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu hatsuden'yo buzai no sosei gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    Studies were made to develop technologies for creating carbon based advanced composite materials for use under extreme environments, and a comprehensive technology survey was conducted in this connection. Studied in the comprehensive survey were coordination between various technology developing activities, research on trends of relevant technologies, and technical tasks to discharge for the development of materials usable under extreme environments. In addition, interim evaluation was performed. Carried out in the development of C/C (carbon/carbon) composite materials using coal pitch derived fibers were carbon matrix optimization and studies of rupture mechanism, and the fabrication of specimens by compounding and molding under the hot press method and HIP (hot isostatic process). Carried out in the development of C/C composite materials using PAN (polyacrylonitrile) based carbon fibers were studies of rupture mechanism and the like, fabrication of specimens by compounding and molding, and performance enhancement under the high pressure impregnation carbonization method and the like. Oxidation resistant coatings were fabricated and tested for performance, and preliminary experiments were conducted toward the development of a novel coating technology. (NEDO)

  15. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques. Part 2; Preliminary System Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.; Weiss, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance results of the artificial intelligence monitoring system in full operational mode using near real time acceleration data downlinked from the International Space Station. Preliminary microgravity environment characterization analysis result for the International Space Station (Increment-2), using the monitoring system is presented. Also, comparison between the system predicted performance based on ground test data for the US laboratory "Destiny" module and actual on-orbit performance, using measured acceleration data from the U.S. laboratory module of the International Space Station is presented. Finally, preliminary on-orbit disturbance magnitude levels are presented for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space, which are compared with on ground test data. The ground test data for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space were acquired from the Microgravity Emission Laboratory, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The artificial intelligence was developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment of time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a dynamic graphical display, implemented in Java, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments, whenever that is an option, based on the acceleration magnitude and frequency sensitivity associated with that experiment. This monitoring system detects primarily the vibratory disturbance sources. The system has built-in capability to detect both known

  16. Modeling and preliminary characterization of passive, wireless temperature sensors for harsh environment applications based on periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfin Manriquez, Diego I.

    Wireless temperature sensing has attained significant attention in recent years due to the increasing need to develop reliable and affordable sensing solutions for energy conversion systems and other harsh environment applications. The development of next generation sensors for energy production processing parameters, such as temperature and pressure, can result in better performance of the system. Particularly, continuous temperature monitoring in energy conversion systems can result in enhancements such as better system integrity, less pollution and higher thermal efficiencies. However, the conditions experienced in these system components hinder the performance of current solutions due to the presence of semi-conductor materials and welded joints. Additionally, the use of wired systems can result in complex wiring networks, increasing the cost of installation, maintenance and sensor replacement. Therefore, next generation sensing solutions must be developed to overcome current challenges in systems where adverse conditions are present. This research project proposes two novel passive, wireless temperature sensor designs based on concepts of guided mode resonance filters (GMRF) and metamaterials. For the GMRF, a tri-layer structure using a metallic encasing and a circular aperture grating layer was developed to have a resonance frequency of 10 GHz. While for the metamaterial-based sensor a continuation of previous work was presented by utilizing a dielectric substrate and an array of commercially available metallic washers divided in two layers. For both designs, High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) from ANSYSRTM was employed to assess the feasibility of the sensor as well as to optimize the geometry and guide the fabrication process. A systematic approach consisting of evaluating the unit cell, then assessing the number of periods needed, and finally characterizing the response of the final sensor was followed for each case. After the modeling process was

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Activities in a Non-Formal Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Morrison, Dirk; Daniel, Ben K.

    2009-01-01

    This research considers how professional participants in a non-formal self-directed learning environment (NFSDL) made use of self-directed learning activities in a blended face-to-face and on line learning professional development course. The learning environment for the study was a professional development seminar on teaching in higher education…

  18. Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merroun, Mohamed L; Nedelkova, Marta; Ojeda, Jesus J; Reitz, Thomas; Fernández, Margarita López; Arias, José M; Romero-González, María; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2011-12-15

    This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U-bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B, the U(VI) precipitate was bound to the cell wall. Whereas for Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, the U(VI) precipitates were observed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values in the absence of an organic phosphate substrate. The biomineralization of uranium was not observed at pH 2.0, and U(VI) formed complexes with organophosphate ligands from the cells. This study increases the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of crown architecture for light harvesting and carbon gain in extreme light environments assessed with a structurally realistic 3-D model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares, Fernando

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Main results from different studies of crown architecture adaptation to extreme light environments are presented. Light capture and carbon gain by plants from low (forest understory and high (open Mediterranean-type ecosystems light environments were simulated with a 3-D model (YPLANT, which was developed specifically to analyse the structural features that determine light interception and photosynthesis at the whole plant level. Distantly related taxa with contrasting architectures exhibited similar efficiencies of light interception (functional convergence. Between habitats large differences in architecture existed depending on whether light capture must be maximised or whether excess photon flux density must be avoided. These differences are realised both at the species level and within a species because of plastic adjustments of crown architecture to the external light environment. Realistic, 3-D architectural models are indispensable tools in this kind of comparative studies due to the intrinsic complexity of plant architecture. Their efficient development requires a fluid exchange of ideas between botanists, ecologists and plant modellers.Se presentan los resultados principales de varios estudios sobre las adaptaciones del follaje a ambientes lumínicos extremos. Plantas de ambientes oscuros (sotobosques de bosques templados y tropicales y de ambientes muy luminosos (ecosistemas abiertos de tipo Mediterráneo han sido estudiadas mediante un modelo (YPLANT que permite la reconstrucción tridimensional de la parte aérea de las plantas e identificar los rasgos estructurales que determinan la interceptación de luz y la fotosíntesis y transpiraci6n potencial a nivel de toda la copa. Taxones no relacionados y con arquitecturas muy diferentes mostraron una eficiencia en la interceptaci6n de luz similar (convergencia funcional. La comparación entre hábitat revelo grandes diferencias arquitecturales dependiendo de si la absorción de luz deb

  20. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols in selected consumer products and preliminary investigation of their fate in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an ongoing effort to identify the major perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) sources in nonoccupational indoor environments and characterize their transport and fate. This study determined the concentrations of perfluorote...

  1. Morphological selection in an extreme flow environment: body shape and waterfall-climbing success in the Hawaiian stream fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob, Richard W; Bridges, William C; Ptacek, Margaret B; Maie, Takashi; Cediel, Roberto A; Bertolas, Morgan M; Julius, Matthew L; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2008-12-01

    Flow characteristics are a prominent factor determining body shapes in aquatic organisms, and correlations between body shape and ambient flow regimes have been established for many fish species. In this study, we investigated the potential for a brief period of extreme flow to exert selection on the body shape of juvenile climbing Hawaiian gobiid fishes. Because of an amphidromous life history, juvenile gobies that complete an oceanic larval phase return to freshwater habitats, where they become adults. Returning juveniles often must scale waterfalls (typically with the use of a ventral sucker) in order to reach the habitats they will use as adults, thereby exposing these animals to brief periods of extreme velocities of flow. Hydrodynamic theory predicts that bodies with larger suckers and with lower heights that reduce drag would have improved climbing success and, thus, be well suited to meet the demands of the flows in waterfalls. To test the potential for the flow environment of waterfalls to impose selection that could contribute to differences in body shape between islands, we subjected juvenile Sicyopterus stimpsoni to climbing trials up artificial waterfalls (∼100 body lengths) and measured differences in body shape between successful and unsuccessful climbers. Waterfalls appear to represent a significant selective barrier to these fishes, as nearly 30% failed our climbing test. However, the effects of selection on morphology were not straightforward, as significant differences in shape between successful and unsuccessful climbers did not always match hydrodynamic predictions. In both selection experiments and in adult fish collected from habitats with different prevailing conditions of flow (the islands of Hawai'i versus Kaua'i), lower head heights were associated with exposure to high-flow regimes, as predicted by hydrodynamic theory. Thus, a premium appears to be placed on the reduction of drag via head morphology throughout the ontogeny of this

  2. Preliminary investigation of a sensitive biomarker of organotin pollution in Chinese coastal aquatic environment and marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qunfang; Li Zhongyang; Jiang Guibin; Yang Ruiqiang

    2003-01-01

    A new sensitive biomarker can be potentially used to indicate the pollution status of organotin in oceanic environment. - In nine batches of sea bivalves collected from Chinese coastal cities during the year of 2000 to 2002, a special sample named Mya arenaria was found to have strong ability of butyltin accumulation compared with the other sampled bivalves in the corresponding batches. Tributyltin compound was the predominant pollutant with the detection rate high up to 100%. Special high levels of μg Sn/g were detected in some Mya arenaria samples. The results obtained showed that Mya arenaria was potentially a biomarker to indicate organotin pollution in coastal aquatic environment

  3. Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merroun, Mohamed L., E-mail: merroun@ugr.es [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Nedelkova, Marta [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ojeda, Jesus J. [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Reitz, Thomas [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Fernandez, Margarita Lopez; Arias, Jose M. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Romero-Gonzalez, Maria [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Selenska-Pobell, Sonja [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation of uranium as U phosphates by natural bacterial isolates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uranium biomineralization involves the activity of acidic phosphatase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uranium bioremediation could be achieved via the biomineralization of U(VI) in phosphate minerals. - Abstract: This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U-bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B, the U(VI) precipitate was bound to the cell wall. Whereas for Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, the U(VI) precipitates were observed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values in the absence of an organic phosphate substrate. The biomineralization of uranium was not observed at pH 2.0, and U(VI) formed complexes with organophosphate ligands from the cells. This study increases the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase.

  4. Does Apolipoprotein e4 Status Moderate the Association of Family Environment with Long-Term Child Functioning following Early Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury? A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L; Kurowski, Brad G

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether apolipoprotein e4 (APOE) status moderates the association of family environment with child functioning following early traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-five children with moderate to severe TBI and 70 children with orthopedic injury (OI) completed assessments 6, 12, 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years post injury. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and genotyped for APOE e4 status. Linear mixed models examined moderating effects of APOE e4 status on associations between two family environment factors (parenting style, home environment) and three child outcomes (executive functioning, behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning). Children with TBI who were carriers of the e4 allele showed poorer adaptive functioning relative to non-carriers with TBI and children with OI in the context of low authoritarianism. At high levels of authoritarianism, non-carriers with TBI showed the poorest adaptive functioning among groups. There were no main effects or interactions involving APOE and executive functioning or behavioral adjustment. The APOE e4 allele was detrimental for long-term adaptive functioning in the context of positive parenting, whereas in less optimal parenting contexts, being a non-carrier was detrimental. We provide preliminary evidence for an interaction of APOE e4 status and parenting style in predicting long-term outcomes following early TBI. (JINS, 2016, 22, 859-864).

  5. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  6. Reconstruction of the Paleoproterozoic deeper ocean environment: Preliminary Report of the Ghana Birimian Greenstone Belt Drilling Project (GHB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Yoshimaru, S.; Miki, T.; Sakai, S.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Ito, T.; Onoue, T.; Takehara, M.; Tetteh, G. M.; Nyame, F. K.

    2016-12-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Era are one of the most rapid environmental change when the earth surface environment was affected by formation of continents and increasing atmospheric oxygen levels. Major oxidation of Great Oxidation Event (GOE) are reported this ages (eg. Holland, 2006; Condie, 2001; Lyons et al., 2014). The nature of deep sea environments at this time have not been clearly identified and oceanic sediments are mostly involved in subduction. The Paleoproterozoic Birimian Greenstone Belt is an ophiolitic volcaniclastic sequence in Ghana, with depositional age of over 2.3-2.2 Ga (Petersson et al., 2016). Detail research was conducted of the Ashanti (Axim-Konongo) Belt of the Birimian Greenstone Belt along the coast near Cape Three Points area. Very thick volcaniclastic and organic-rich sedimentary rocks, which we now refer to as the Cape Three Points Group, crop out in the lower part of the Birimian Greenstone Belt. Stratigraphically, three unit identified; the lower portion contains thick vesicular volcaniclastic rocks, the middle portion is made up of laminated volcaniclastics and black shale, and the upper portion dominated by fine laminated volcaniclastics with more black shale sequence. Continuous core drilling from Dec 3-12th 2015 of the upper part of the sequence intersected saprolite to a depth of 30m and fresh, well preserved stratigraphy with graded bedding and lamination to a depth of 195m. Half cut cores show well laminated organic rich black shale and relative carbonate rich layers with very fine pyrite grains. SHRIMP age data from a porphyry intrusion into this sequence indicate an age of 2250 Ma. Carbon isotope analysis shows δ13C = -43 to -37‰ for black shale with the very light isotope values for cyanobacterial signature.The fining-upward sequences, well laminated bed and black shales and REE data suggest this sequence situated partly silent stagnant with volcanic activity ocean floor environment around an oceanic island arc condition.

  7. The Impact of Changing Land Use upon the Environment in the Metropolitan Area of Bucharest. Preliminary Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INES GRIGORESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight the major changes in land use during the transition from the centralised to the market economy (1989-2005. Agricultural de-collectivisation and privatisation have caused major structural changes in land uses with direct effects upon the quality of the environment. An urban area appeared around the metropolis where the most important environmental changes took place by dint of those from agriculture, because of agricultural policies and urban expansion. Within the interior ring of the metropolitan area several regional disparities have been highlighted. These are caused by the unequal development of its southern and southeastern areas, on the one hand, and of the western area, on the other hand.

  8. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Alía, Rubén García; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Brugger, Markus; Cerutti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh), running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee) as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  9. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infantino Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh, running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he. In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  10. Preliminary studies on environment assessment around Wahkyn uranium deposit, West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya: a hydro-pedo geochemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umamaheswar, K.; Sinha, K.K.; Murugan, M.G.; Balasubramani, S.; Pandey, Alok

    2004-01-01

    Environmental baseline study is an important step in the environmental impact assessment of the uranium deposit. It forms background for mining and milling project, on the local environment. Baseline data collection programme was initiated in the later part of 2001 after identifying sampling sites covering the Wahkyn uranium deposit. Workable size of uranium with an average grade of 0.101 % U 3 O 8 has been established in coarse to medium grained, immature, grey to dark grey feldspathic sandstone with abundant carbonaceous matter and pyrite. Systematic stream water samples in conjunction with soil and stream sediment samples were collected periodically from 20 permanent sample sites spread over 4.5 sq km, located in perennial streams draining through the Wahkyn uranium deposit area

  11. Understanding karst environments by thermo-hygrometric monitoring: preliminary results from the Cesi Mountain karst system (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Di Matteo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of karst systems is of paramount importance for the protection and valorisation of these environments. A multidisciplinary study is presented to investigate the possible interconnection between karst features of a karst area located in the south-western part of the Martani chain (Cesi Mountain, Central Italy. This hydrogeological structure contributes to recharge a deep regional aquifer. The latter feeds the high discharge and salinity Stifone springs. In the southwestern part of Martani chain, seven caves have been mapped, five of which are hosted in the Calcare Massiccio Formation. The analysis of thermo-hygrometric data collected since Autumn 2014 into the caves and those from external meteorological stations, showed the timing of the airflow inversion occurring on late winter/early spring and summer/ early autumn. Despite the complexity of the morphology of caves and of conceptual models of airflow pattern, these data seem to indicate that the monitored small caves could be interconnected to a considerably wider cave system. Data here presented coupled with the knowledge on hydrogeological and geological-structural setting of the limestone massif are useful to drive future speleological explorations, aiming to discover new large cavities and to better understand the water recharge process.

  12. Study on a Preliminary Survey and Analysis of HLW Management Technology Suitable for Nuclear Industrial Environment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Ka; Suh, In Suk; Ro, Seong Gy; Yoo, Kun Joong; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Cho, Sung Soo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to suggest development direction of related technologies to analyze patented technology filed as a leading technology and to identify the technology trend for developing HLW management technology suitable for atomic industrial environment in Korea. For patent analysis of HLW management technology, international patent data were collected. And international application number, patent share of applicant and nationality, annual number of applications, application trends of assignees and detail technology, and frequency of patent citations / citations-to were analyzed by statistical analysis. Technical level and competitiveness through quantitative analysis by indicators of patent analysis were confirmed. And technology developments of blank technology, similarity analysis, the point of the main patent and a range of patent rights were analyzed through in-depth analysis. Trends of the patented technology of our country and world patent technology in such results have been identified, and statistical data on patents were secured. Especially in HLW management technology, patent application in Korea compared ti United States, Japan and European Union was began much later for the '90s, and are showing the annual increase on trend of patent application. Patent trend in Korea corresponds to development generation, while declining in foreign patent. The result of this study will be usefully applied to setting a development direction and blank technology of patent technology to pursue future in Korea

  13. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  14. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  15. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  17. PRELIMINARY COUPLING OF THE MONTE CARLO CODE OPENMC AND THE MULTIPHYSICS OBJECT-ORIENTED SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT (MOOSE) FOR ANALYZING DOPPLER FEEDBACK IN MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Ellis; Derek Gaston; Benoit Forget; Kord Smith

    2011-07-01

    In recent years the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling reactors has become feasible due to the increasing availability of massively parallel computer systems. One of the primary challenges yet to be fully resolved, however, is the efficient and accurate inclusion of multiphysics feedback in Monte Carlo simulations. The research in this paper presents a preliminary coupling of the open source Monte Carlo code OpenMC with the open source Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). The coupling of OpenMC and MOOSE will be used to investigate efficient and accurate numerical methods needed to include multiphysics feedback in Monte Carlo codes. An investigation into the sensitivity of Doppler feedback to fuel temperature approximations using a two dimensional 17x17 PWR fuel assembly is presented in this paper. The results show a functioning multiphysics coupling between OpenMC and MOOSE. The coupling utilizes Functional Expansion Tallies to accurately and efficiently transfer pin power distributions tallied in OpenMC to unstructured finite element meshes used in MOOSE. The two dimensional PWR fuel assembly case also demonstrates that for a simplified model the pin-by-pin doppler feedback can be adequately replicated by scaling a representative pin based on pin relative powers.

  18. The flora and fauna of a proposed wind turbine site near Royal Road, Prince Edward County, Ontario : preliminary screening of the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, M.; Leggett, A. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-15

    Calgary based Vision Quest Windelectric has been given zoning approval to install a 22 MW windfarm in Ontario's Prince Edward County. Following a preliminary screening to determine the effect of the windfarm on the natural environment, the Royal Road Windfarm will be developed in stages with up to 32 turbines. Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd. conducted an environmental study which showed that an exploratory wind turbine in the area is not likely to cause major adverse impacts on local fauna and flora. The proposed location of the wind turbine is not in an important bird area (IBA). An IBA is defined as a site providing essential habitat for one of more species of breeding or non-breeding birds. In 1999, Vision Quest initiated a program to examine bird interactions with wind turbines in southern Alberta. It was shown that most species choose flight paths to avoid turbines. The Royal Road site hosts rare alvars which are naturally open landscapes found in shallow soils on flat limestones. The alvars are subject to seasonal drought and flooding and have specific types of vegetation and animals. Since the exploratory wind turbine will be placed outside the IBA area, its impact on birds will be minimized, and it will have minimal effect on migrant, breeding and wintering birds. It was recommended that monitoring take place at the site during the first year of operation. It is also presumed that the wind turbine will not have any impact on mammals, reptiles and amphibians, or insects. However, it was recommended that more information be gathered on bat movement in the area. If placed appropriately, the wind turbine is not expected to impact on rare plants. It was emphasized that in the past, Vision Quest Windelectric has conducted environmental screening activities, and has acted on recommendations to place wind turbines in locations where environmental impact will be minimized. 26 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs., 2 appendices.

  19. Influence of the extreme millennial values of the physical data of the natural environment on the ground and near underground. Application to waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinle-Thenevin, I.

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with effects of extreme climatic events in France on perenniality of radioactive or toxic waste disposal coverings or of tailing storage barriers. Three phenomena are quantified: erosion or scraping produced by storm showers, ground freezing depth caused by harsh winters and ground drying resulted from arid summers. To quantify this phenomena, we need statistical evaluation of the climatic events (erosivity of rain showers, frost severity index, drought severity indices), a study of the soil characteristics (petrography, thermal and hydraulic properties) and numeric models of soils (finite elements or finite differences methods). Last but not least, each method is applied to French sites chosen for their climate and their proximity to real or possible storage. Therefore, we show critical parameters for the design of waste disposal covering which takes into account extreme climatic events. (author)

  20. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast

  1. Extreme Temperature Performance of Automotive-Grade Small Signal Bipolar Junction Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Kristen; Damron, Benny; Gray, Josh; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Electronics designed for space exploration missions must display efficient and reliable operation under extreme temperature conditions. For example, lunar outposts, Mars rovers and landers, James Webb Space Telescope, Europa orbiter, and deep space probes represent examples of missions where extreme temperatures and thermal cycling are encountered. Switching transistors, small signal as well as power level devices, are widely used in electronic controllers, data instrumentation, and power management and distribution systems. Little is known, however, about their performance in extreme temperature environments beyond their specified operating range; in particular under cryogenic conditions. This report summarizes preliminary results obtained on the evaluation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) automotive-grade NPN small signal transistors over a wide temperature range and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on functionality of these transistors and to determine suitability for use outside their recommended temperature limits.

  2. Fluorescent minerals - A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark.

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of sulfate-reducing bacteria in extreme environment of Rogoznica Lake revealed by 16S rRNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čanković, Milan; Petrić, Ines; Marguš, Marija; Ciglenečki, Irena

    2017-08-01

    Highly eutrophic and euxinic seawater system of Rogoznica Lake (Croatia) was used as a study site for investigation of distribution, diversity and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) during stratified conditions in the summer and winter season, by targeting 6 phylogenetic subgroups of SRB. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that community cannot be directly related to cultured SRB species but rather that Rogoznica Lake harbors habitat-specific SRB populations associated to bacteria belonging to δ-Proteobacteria with few Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobium-related populations. Clear spatial-temporal shifts in the SRB community structure were observed. Results implied existence of distinct SRB populations between the water column and sediment, as well as higher diversity of the SRB occupying water layer then the ones found in the sediment. Likewise, seasonal variations in populations were observed. While SRB community was more diverse in the winter compared to the summer season in the water layer, situation was opposite in the sediment. Water layer communities seem to be more susceptible to changes of physico-chemical parameters, while those in the sediment have prorogated response to these changes. Results indicate that SRB diversity is still highly underestimated in natural environments, especially in specific habitats such as Rogoznica Lake. Presented data show a complex SRB diversity and distribution supporting the idea that habitat-specific SRB communities are important part of the anaerobic food chain in degradation of organic matter as well as cycling of sulfur and carbon species in the Lake and similar anoxic environment.

  4. Fluorescent minerals--A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Standard Test Method for Measuring Extreme Heat-Transfer Rates from High-Energy Environments Using a Transient, Null-Point Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...

  6. Fiscal 1989 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments; 1989 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This project was initiated to study basic technologies involving advanced materials, usable under high temperature environments and expected to be incorporated into aerospace and energy equipment. Fiscal 1989 was the first year of the eight-year program. Activities were conducted in the three fields of the development of high specific strength intermetallic compounds and high melting point intermetallic compounds, the development of C/C (carbon/carbon) composites reinforced by carbon fibers derived from coal pitch or PAN (polyacrylonitrile) and intermetallic composite materials reinforced by silicon carbide fibers, and the implementation of a comprehensive research. In the effort to develop intermetallic compounds, basic problems in the manufacturing process were studied and preliminary studies were conducted for the preparation of phase diagrams. In the effort to develop composite materials, heat resistant reinforcing fibers were developed, and studies were conducted of the basics of C/C composite compounding and molding technologies. In the comprehensive survey, trends of associated technologies were surveyed, and basic technical tasks were studied involving the development of materials for use under high temperature environments. (NEDO)

  7. Distributional records of Antarctic fungi based on strains preserved in the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE Mycological Section associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selbmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes information regarding fungal strains collected during several Antarctic expeditions: the Italian National Antarctic Research program (PNRA expeditions “X” (1994/1995, “XII” (1996/1997, “XVII” (2001/2002, “XIX” (2003/2004, “XXVI” (2010/2011, the Czech “IPY Expedition” (2007–2009 and a number of strains donated by E. Imre Friedmann (Florida State University in 2001, isolated from samples collected during the U.S.A. Antarctic Expeditions of 1980-1982. Samples, consisting of colonized rocks, mosses, lichens, sediments and soils, were collected in Southern and Northern Victoria Land of the continental Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula. A total of 259 different strains were isolated, belonging to 32 genera and 38 species, out of which 12 represented new taxa. These strains are preserved in the Antarctic section of the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE, which represents one of the collections associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, Italy, located at the Laboratory of Systematic Botany and Mycology, Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB, Tuscia University (Viterbo, Italy. The CCFEE hosts a total of 486 Antarctic fungal strains from worldwide extreme environments. Distributional records are reported here for 259 of these strains. The holotypes of the 12 new species included in this dataset are maintained at CCFEE and in other international collections: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Utrecht, Netherlands; DBVPG, Industrial Yeasts Collection (University of Perugia, Italy; DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (Brunswick, Germany; IMI, International Mycological Institute (London, U.K..

  8. Evaluation of the relationship between extremity soft tissue sarcomas and adjacent major vessels using contrast-enhanced multidetector CT and three-dimensional volume-rendered CT angiography - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, YangKang; Lin, JianBang; Cai, AiQun; Zhou, XiuGuo; Zheng, Yu; Wei, XiaoLong; Cheng, Ying; Liu, GuoRui

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accurate description of the relationship between extremity soft tissue sarcoma and the adjacent major vessels is crucial for successful surgery. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or in patients who cannot undergo MRI, two-dimensional (2D) postcontrast computed tomography (CT) images and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered CT angiography may be valuable alternative imaging techniques for preoperative evaluation of extremity sarcomas. Purpose: To preoperatively assess extremity sarcomas using multidetector CT (MDCT), with emphasis on postcontrast MDCT images and 3D volume-rendered MDCT angiography in evaluating the relationship between tumors and adjacent major vessels. Material and Methods: MDCT examinations were performed on 13 patients with non-metastatic extremity sarcomas. Conventional CT images and 3D volume-rendered CT angiography were evaluated, with focus on the relationship between tumors and adjacent major vessels. Kappa consistency statistics were performed with surgery serving as the reference standard. Results: The relationship between sarcomas and adjacent vessels was described as one of three patterns: proximity, adhesion, and encasement. Proximity was seen in five cases on postcontrast CT images or in eight cases on volume-rendered images. Adhesion was seen in three cases on both postcontrast CT images and volume-rendered images. Encasement was seen in five cases on postcontrast CT images or in two cases on volume-rendered images. Compared to surgical results, postcontrast CT images had 100% sensitivity, 83.3% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 92.3% accuracy in the detection of vascular invasion (κ = 0.843, P = 0.002). 3D volume-rendered CT angiography had 71.4% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 75% negative predictive value, and 84.6% accuracy in the detection of vascular invasion (κ = 0.698, P = 0.008). On volume-rendered images, all cases

  9. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.

  11. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  12. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  13. Using mobile, internet connected deep sea crawlers for spatial and temporal analysis of cold seep ecosystems and the collection of real-time classroom data for extreme environment education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Autun; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Duda, Alexander; Schwendner, Jakob; Bamberg, Marlene; Sohl, Frank; Doya, Carol; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Best, Mairi; Llovet, Neus Campanya I.; Scherwath, Martin; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2015-04-01

    Cabled internet and power connectivity with the deep sea allow instruments to operate in the deep sea at higher temporal resolutions than was possible historically, with the reliance on battery life and data storage capacities. In addition to the increase in sensor temporal frequency, cabled infrastructures now allow remote access to and control of mobile platforms on the seafloor. Jacobs University Bremen, in combination with collaborators from the Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments (ROBEX) project, CSIC Barcelona and Ocean Networks Canada have been operating tracked deep sea crawler vehicles at ~890 m depth at the dynamic Barkley Canyon methane seep site, Pacific Canada during the last ~4 years. The vehicle has been able to explore an area of ~50 m radius, allowing repeated visits to numerous microhabitats. Mounting a range of sensors, including temperature, pressure, conductivity, fluorescence, turbidity, flow and methane concentration sensors, as well as various camera systems a large dataset has been compiled. Several methane pockmarks are present in the survey area, and geological, biological and oceanographic changes have been monitored over a range of timescales. Several publications have been produced, and in this presentation we introduce further data currently under analysis. Cabled internet connectivity further allows mobile platforms to be used directly in education. As part of the ROBEX project, researchers and students from both terrestrial and planetary sciences are using the crawler in an ongoing study project. Students are introduced to statistical methods from both fields during the course and in later stages they can plan their own research using the in-situ crawler, and follow the progress of their investigations live, then analyse the collected data using the techniques introduced during the course. Cabled infrastructures offer a unique facility for spatial investigation of extreme ecosystems over time, and for the 'hands on

  14. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  15. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we were able to demonstrate that sample return missions utilizing high velocity penetrators (0.1- 1 km/s) could provide substantial new capabilities for...

  16. Stability of model membranes in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Trishool; Deamer, David W

    2008-08-01

    The first forms of cellular life required a source of amphiphilic compounds capable of assembling into stable boundary structures. Membranes composed of fatty acids have been proposed as model systems of primitive membranes, but their bilayer structure is stable only within a narrow pH range and low ionic strength. They are particularly sensitive to aggregating effects of divalent cations (Mg+2, Ca+2, Fe+2) that would be present in Archaean sea water. Here we report that mixtures of alkyl amines and fatty acids form vesicles at strongly basic and acidic pH ranges which are resistant to the effects of divalent cations up to 0.1 M. Vesicles formed by mixtures of decylamine and decanoic acid (1:1 mole ratio) are relatively permeable to pyranine, a fluorescent anionic dye, but permeability could be reduced by adding 2 mol% of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon such as pyrene. Permeability to the dye was also reduced by increasing the chain length of the amphiphiles. For instance, 1:1 mole ratio mixtures of dodecylamine and dodecanoic acid were able to retain pyranine dye during and following gel filtration. We conclude that primitive cell membranes were likely to be composed of mixtures of amphiphilic and hydrophobic molecules that manifested increased stability over pure fatty acid membranes.

  17. Microenvironmental Ecology of Phototrophs from Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trampe, Erik

    In the three manuscripts presented in part one of this thesis, I analyse the physicochemical parameters, microenvironmental ecology and species composition of microbial phototrophs in ikaite tufa columns. This work was not easy, and encompassed underwater sampling and microsensor work demanding...... of the ikaite matrix, ii) measurements of diurnal fluctuations in irradiance and O2 under different light scenarios, and iii) the first in situ measurements of photosynthetic activity in the tufa columns (Manuscript 1). This was followed up with more detailed lab-based measurements close to the field site...... on spatial distribution of major taxonomic groups of phototrophs, detailed measurements of the optical properties of the ikaite matrix, in combination with various microscopic investigations of the phototrophic biofilms in the ikaite (Manuscript 2). Samples brought back for more advanced microscopy...

  18. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to design, develop and test a hard impact penetrator/sampler that can withstand the hard impact and enable the sample to be returned to...

  19. Les milieux extrêmes. Journées d'études du CESTA, Paris, 4-5 octobre 1983 Extreme Environments. Cesta Conference, Paris, 4-5 October 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A. R. V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ces journées d'études étaient consacrées aux problèmes impliqués par l'exploration et l'exploitation des milieux extrêmes. On n'a pas cherché à approfondir la notion de milieu extrême mais à en étudier trois principaux : l'espace, les grands fonds marins, les enceintes soumises à de forts rayonnements nucléaires, à travers quatre thèmes de problèmes communs : la robotique, la sécurité, les matériaux et l'intervention humaine. Cette réunion a mis en évidence : - le dilemme constitué par la nécessité d'assurer d'une part la sécurité de la population par l'emploi de techniques fiables donc éprouvées et d'autre part le progrès scientifique dont les techniques nouvelles peuvent être fiables sans être encore éprouvées ; - l'emploi généralisé de la robotique (soudage sous-marin profond, engin submersible non habité à intelligence artificielle. . . ; - la création de matériaux nouveaux (composites à matrice métallique, fibres optique en verre chloré, lubrifiant opérant sous vide. . . - la mise au point de méthodes nouvelles pour l'analyse probabiliste des risques. This conference concentrated on the problems raised by the exploration and productive use of extreme environments. No effort was made to define the concept of an extreme environnent, but three specific ones were considered: space, great sea depths, enclosures subjected Io intense nuclear radiation. There were four topics covering problems encountered in such environments: robotics, safety, materials and human intervention. This meeting brought out the following points: - The dilemma brought on by the need to ensure part of the safety of the population by using reliable, hence proven, techniques at the saure time as scientific progress in which new techniques may be reliable without yet being proven. - The generalized use of robotics (deep subsea welding, unmanned submersible with artificial intelligence, etc. . - The creation of new materials

  20. Does curricular change improve faculty perceptions of student experiences with the educational environment? A preliminary study in an institution undergoing curricular change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ilyas Shehnaz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The study showed that the faculty perceived the organ system-based integrated curriculum as providing a better educational environment for the students than the discipline based curriculum.

  1. Preliminary characterization of calcium chemical environment in apatitic and non-apatitic calcium phosphates of biological interest by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichert, D.; Salome, M.; Banu, M.; Susini, J.; Rey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Several reports have mentioned the existence of non-apatitic environments of phosphate and carbonate ions in synthetic and biological poorly crystalline apatites. However there were no direct spectroscopic evidences for the existence of non-apatitic environment of calcium ions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, at the K-edge of calcium, allows the discrimination between different calcium phosphates of biological interest despite great spectral similarities. A primary analysis of the spectra reveals the existence, in synthetic poorly crystalline apatites, of variable features related to the maturation stage of the sample and corresponding to the existence of non-apatitic environments of calcium ions. Although these features can also be found in several other calcium phosphate salts, and do not allow a clear identification of the ionic environments of calcium ions, they give a possibility to directly determine the maturity of poorly crystalline apatite from calcium X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectra

  2. Complex Plasma Research Under Extreme Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Complex plasma research under extreme conditions is described. The extreme conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.

  3. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  4. Mathematical Analysis of Extremity Immersion Cooling for Brain Temperature Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Santee, William; Berglund, Larry; Gonzalez, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... As blood flow rates and surface-to-volume ratios are generally high in the extremities, heat exchange between the body and the environment through the extremities is an important path for heat exchange...

  5. Fiscal 1991 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments; 1991 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Research and development was carried out for coal pitch derived and PAN (polyacrylonitrile) based carbon fiber/carbon matrix composite materials for use under high temperature environments. A comprehensive survey was also conducted on the same. For the development of C/C (carbon/carbon) composite materials using coal pitch derived or PAN based carbon fibers, fiber characteristics, surface treatment, matrix characteristics, and the like were studied for the optimization of fibers and matrices. In addition, studies were conducted of rupture mechanism and oxidation resistance and of compounding and molding technologies. An effort was made to study detailed conditions for systems of materials and methods for coating them, oxidation resistant coatings were fabricated and tested for performance, and basics were studied for the development of novel coating technologies. In the comprehensive survey, the latest technical trends inside and outside Japan were investigated, and studies were conducted about technical tasks necessary to discharge for the development of materials for use under extreme circumstances such as ultrahigh temperatures. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1993 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology (Advanced materials for extreme environments - Development of methane fueled aeroengine); 1993 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Efforts were exerted to develop advanced materials for use under extreme environments, which were intermetallic compounds and fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials excellent in heat resistance, specific strength, oxidation resistance, or the like. For the development of intermetallic compounds, efforts were made to develop Ti-Al-X (X=metal) high specific strength intermetallic compounds and Nb-Al-X (X=metal) high melting point intermetallic compounds. Ternary phase diagrams were prepared and the effect of added elements on basic characteristics was investigated. Basics of element technologies (texture control, melting, casting, and isothermal rolling) for manufacturing panel materials were studied and, in the case of Ti-Al-X systems, Ti-Al thin panels were fabricated. In the case of Nb-Al-X systems, items were experimentally fabricated by casting in an effort to study precision casting technology optimization. For the development of composite materials, efforts were made to develop SiC based and SiMC (M=metal) based fibers, and studies were carried out to complex them with Ti-Al based matrices. (NEDO)

  7. A Non-Stationary Approach for Estimating Future Hydroclimatic Extremes Using Monte-Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, K.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that observed hydrologic extremes (e.g. floods, extreme stormwater events, and low flows) are changing and that climate change will continue to alter the probability distributions of hydrologic extremes over time. These non-stationary risks imply that conventional approaches for designing hydrologic infrastructure (or making other climate-sensitive decisions) based on retrospective analysis and stationary statistics will become increasingly problematic through time. To develop a framework for assessing risks in a non-stationary environment our study develops a new approach using a super ensemble of simulated hydrologic extremes based on Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Specifically, using statistically downscaled future GCM projections from the CMIP5 archive (using the Hybrid Delta (HD) method), we extract daily precipitation (P) and temperature (T) at 1/16 degree resolution based on a group of moving 30-yr windows within a given design lifespan (e.g. 10, 25, 50-yr). Using these T and P scenarios we simulate daily streamflow using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model for each year of the design lifespan and fit a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) probability distribution to the simulated annual extremes. MC experiments are then used to construct a random series of 10,000 realizations of the design lifespan, estimating annual extremes using the estimated unique GEV parameters for each individual year of the design lifespan. Our preliminary results for two watersheds in Midwest show that there are considerable differences in the extreme values for a given percentile between conventional MC and non-stationary MC approach. Design standards based on our non-stationary approach are also directly dependent on the design lifespan of infrastructure, a sensitivity which is notably absent from conventional approaches based on retrospective analysis. The experimental approach can be applied to a wide range of hydroclimatic variables of interest.

  8. Neuroimaging results, short-term assessment of psychomotor development and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in extremely premature infants (≤28 GA) - a prospective cohort study (preliminary report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Magdalena; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Kmita, Grażyna; Terczyńska, Iwona; Polak, Katarzyna; Kalisiak, Marcin; Prażmowska, Dorota; Kiepura, Eliza; Szkudlińska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Seroczyńska, Małgorzata; Helwich, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    cerebellum in this group. In the remaining 5 children (42#37;) psychomotor development was rated as delayed. All of them had cerebellar haemorrhage. An increased risk of ASD was observed in 4 children who developed cerebellar hemorrhage. Conclusions: 1. The use of MRI at a term-equivalent age may contribute to the prognosis of neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely premature infants, allowing risk stratification and thus enhancing early monitoring of a child's development and functional status 2. There is a clear tendency towards abnormal psychomotor development and positive screening for ASD to co-occur with abnormal MRI findings in the cerebellum.

  9. Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Itani, Houssam H; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Saade, Maya F; Harakeh, Steve; Nour, Afif M Abdel; Shaib, Houssam A

    2012-01-01

    Three objectives were included in this research work. The first objective compared different immune components in healthy mature males, mature females, and female kids of local and imported Saanen goats, reared under a sub-tropical environment. The significantly differing immune components were the blood monocyte percent, blood CD8 count, and the total white blood cell count. The second objective compared the performance of Saanen versus local does. The means of the milk yield and prolificacy of the imported Saanen does were significantly higher than those of the local does (pgoats on protection potential against prevalent diseases in the sub-tropical zone of the eastern Mediterranean countries is discussed.

  10. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation for the Department of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The report falls under the headings: vertical crustal movements - a manifestation of intraplate geological processes (reports of vertical crustal movements observed by geodetic levelling in intraplate environments; vertical crustal movements and the geological record; possible causes of vertical crustal movements); an investigation of recent crustal movements in a test area of the United Kingdom by comparison of geodetic levelling records; vertical crustal movements and the isolation of nuclear waste in intraplate geological systems (conventional methods of site appraisal - a perspective of geological hazard assessment; the role of vertical crustal movements as a tool for rationalisation of hazard assessment, site selection and the assessment of future geological change); research options. (U.K.)

  11. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  12. Preliminary results of effect of environment on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of type 316 stainless steel and 9% Cr ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.; Slattery, G.F.; Wynn, J.; Connaughton, M.D.; Lambert, M.E.

    1976-06-01

    Strain controlled fatigue tests on Type 316 steel at 625 0 C and 9% Cr steel at 525 0 C have been performed in air and in helium containing 200 μ atm H 2 and 1 μ atm H 2 O. In rapid cycling the endurance of Type 316 steel in this helium mixture was found to be about five times longer than in air. When a hold time was introduced into the tension part of the cycle however the endurance in the two environments was found to be virtually identical. Fractomicrographic examinations have been performed which have helped to explain some of these findings which are attributed to differences in oxidation behaviour at the crack tip. In the case of the 90% Cr steel the endurance in the helium mixture was found to be only slightly better than in air. The implications of these results are considered in relation to thermal shock effects on sodium cooled fast reactor components. (author)

  13. A preliminary assessment on the use of biochar as a soil additive for reducing soil-to-plant uptake of cesium isotopes in radioactively contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Martinelli, R.E.; Kehl, S.R.; Peters, S.K.G.; Tamblin, M.W.; Schmitt, C.L.; Hawk, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A series of K d tracer batch experiments were conducted to assess the absorptive-desorption properties of Biochar as a potential agent to selectively sequester labile soil Cs or otherwise help reduce the uptake of Cs isotopes into plants. A parallel experiment was conducted for strontium. Fine-grained fractionated Woodlands tree Biochar was found to have a relatively high affinity for Cs ions (K d > 100) relative to coral soil (K d < 10) collected from the Marshall Islands. The Biochar material also contains an abundance of K (and Mg). These findings support a hypothesis that the addition of Biochar as a soil amendment may provide a simple yet effective method for reducing soil-to-plant transfer of Cs isotopes in contaminated environments. (author)

  14. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  15. Laboratory and in situ determination of the migration processes of actinide complexes and colloids in a fissured granitic environment. El Berrocal project (preliminary activities - phase 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astudillo, J.; Del Olmo, C.; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1993-01-01

    The experimental site of El Berrocal has been chosen for a study of the migration of natural radionuclides in a fractured granitic environment. The granite is classified as an alkaline feldspar-rich quartz granite with two micas. The fresh granite is affected by hydrothermal alteration processes related to fractures, which has led to a strong sericitization of albite, and the precipitation of secondary chlorites and carbonates. The most important U-bearing and Th-bearing accessory minerals are uraninite, thorite-auerlite, monazite, anatase, apatite and zircon. Approximately 65% of the total of U in the rock is held as uraninite. In the altered granite, most of the U is held as autunite. Hydrogeochemical data show that Co 2 /H 2 CO 3 is the dominant system, followed by the silica-silicate system. Based on their stability analyses, two zones can be defined: (i) waters north of the dyke and from deep zones where calcite is in equilibrium and albite and gibbsite precipitate, and (ii) surface waters, south of the dyke, subsaturated in relation to calcite, producing the alteration of albite and the precipitation of montmorillonite. The size distribution of the colloids varies, depending on the treatment given to the water samples. The particles are mainly composed of K-feldspars and clay minerals (smectite) and occasionally by quartz, mica, calcite and pollen. The El Berrocal groundwaters have a very low amount of organic matter. Column migration tests have been carried out and were performed with intact granitic cores and with crushed granite. Np proved to be an adequate radionuclide for these experiments. Under oxic conditions and in the absence of organic matter, it was completely retained in both types of columns, whereas in the presence of organic matter a more rapid breakthrough was observed. Under anoxic conditions, and with or without organic matter, Np was found to move faster than under oxic conditions. (author). 13 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs

  16. Optimization with Extremal Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon G.

    2001-01-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard discrete optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively updates extremely undesirable variables of a single suboptimal solution, assigning them new, random values. Large fluctuations ensue, efficiently exploring many local optima. We use extremal optimization to elucidate the phase transition in the 3-coloring problem, and we provide independent confirmation of previously reported extrapolations for the ground-state energy of ±J spin glasses in d=3 and 4

  17. Extreme 13Ccarb enrichment in ca. 2.0 Ga magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' association in a global context: a case for the world-wide signal enhanced by a local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melezhik, Victor A.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Medvedev, Pavel V.; Makarikhin, Vladimir V.

    1999-12-01

    basins, evaporative ephemeral ponds, coastal sabkhas and playa lakes. The carbonate rocks exhibit extreme 13C enrichment with δ 13C values ranging from +5.7 to +17.2‰ vs. V-PDB (mean+9.9±2.3‰) and δ 18O from 18.6 to 26.0‰ vs. V-SMOW (mean 22.0±1.6‰). The Tulomozerskaya isotopic excursion is characteristic of the global 2.4-2.06 Ga positive shifts of carbonate 13C/ 12C, although it reveals the greatest enrichment in 13C known from this interval. An external basin(s) is considered to have provided an enhanced C org burial and global seawater enrichment in 13C: the global background value for the isotopic shift at Tulomozero time (ca. 2.0 Ga) is roughly estimated at around +5‰. An explosion of stromatolite-forming microbial communities in shallow-water basins, evaporative and partly restricted environments, high bioproductivity, enhanced uptake of 12C, and pene-contemporaneous recycling of organic material in cyanobacterial mats with the production and consequent loss of CO 2 (and CH 4?) are believed to be additional local factors which may have enhanced δ 13C from +5‰ up to +17‰. Such factors should be taken into account when interpreting carbon isotopic data and attempting to discriminate between the local enrichment in 13C and globally enhanced δ 13C values. We propose that many previously reported δ 13C values from other localities, where environmental interpretations are not available or have not been taken into account may not represent the global δ 13C values.

  18. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  19. Extreme Science (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajo-Franklin, Caroline; Klein, Spencer; Minor, Andrew; Torok, Tamas

    2012-02-27

    On Feb. 27, 2012 at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, four Berkeley Lab scientists presented talks related to extreme science - and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in extreme environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel.

  20. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  1. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  2. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.; Huser, Raphaë l

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event

  3. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  4. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  5. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  6. How good are remote sensors at measuring extreme winds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.; Courtney, M.; Mann, J.; Wagner, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some preliminary efforts within the SafeWind project, aimed to identify the possible added value of using wind lidars to detect extreme wind events. Exceptionally good performance is now regularly reported in the measurement of the mean wind speed with some wind lidars in flat

  7. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra M; White, Piran C L; Ewertowski, Marek W

    2016-01-15

    A continued supply of ecosystem services (ES) from a system depends on the resilience of that system to withstand shocks and perturbations. In many parts of the world, climate change is leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather events, potentially influencing ES provision. Our study of the effects of an intense rainfall event in Gorce National Park, Poland, shows: (1) the intense rainfall event impacted heavily on the supply of ES by limiting potential recreation opportunities and reducing erosion prevention; (2) these negative impacts were not only restricted to the period of the extreme event but persisted for up to several years, depending on the pre-event trail conditions and post-event management activities; (3) to restore the pre-event supply of ES, economic investments were required in the form of active repairs to trails, which, in Gorce National Park, were an order of magnitude higher than the costs of normal trail maintenance; and (4) when recreational trails were left to natural restoration, loss of biodiversity was observed, and recovery rates of ES (recreation opportunities and soil erosion prevention) were reduced in comparison to their pre-event state. We conclude that proper trail design and construction provides a good solution to avoid some of the negative impacts of extreme events on recreation, as well as offering co-benefits in terms of protecting biodiversity and enhancing the supply of regulating services such as erosion prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atomic collisions under extreme conditions in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    1987-01-01

    In space, atoms and molecules are often placed under the extreme conditions which are very difficult to be realized on Earth. For instance, extremely hot and dense plasmas are found in and around various stellar objects (e.g., neutron stars) on one hand and extremely cold and diffuse gases prevail in interstellar space on the other. There is so strong a magnetic field that electron clouds in atoms and molecules are distorted. The study of atomic collisions under the extreme conditions is not only helpful in understanding the astrophysical environment but also reveals new aspects of the physics of atoms and molecules. This paper is an invitation to the study. (References are not exhaustive but only provide a clue with which more details can be found.) (author)

  9. Global patterns of NDVI-indicated vegetation extremes and their sensitivity to climate extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guo; Liu Hongyan; Yin Yi

    2013-01-01

    Extremes in climate have significant impacts on ecosystems and are expected to increase under future climate change. Extremes in vegetation could capture such impacts and indicate the vulnerability of ecosystems, but currently have not received a global long-term assessment. In this study, a robust method has been developed to detect significant extremes (low values) in biweekly time series of global normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1982 to 2006 and thus to acquire a global pattern of vegetation extreme frequency. This pattern coincides with vegetation vulnerability patterns suggested by earlier studies using different methods over different time spans, indicating a consistent mechanism of regulation. Vegetation extremes were found to aggregate in Amazonia and in the semi-arid and semi-humid regions in low and middle latitudes, while they seldom occurred in high latitudes. Among the environmental variables studied, extreme low precipitation has the highest slope against extreme vegetation. For the eight biomes analyzed, these slopes are highest in temperate broadleaf forest and temperate grassland, suggesting a higher sensitivity in these environments. The results presented here contradict the hypothesis that vegetation in water-limited semi-arid and semi-humid regions might be adapted to drought and suggest that vegetation in these regions (especially temperate broadleaf forest and temperate grassland) is highly prone to vegetation extreme events under more severe precipitation extremes. It is also suggested here that more attention be paid to precipitation-induced vegetation changes than to temperature-induced events. (letter)

  10. Investigating Extreme Lifestyles through Mangrove Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Maheshi

    2009-01-01

    Mangroves represent phylogenetically diverse taxa in tropical coastal terrestrial habitats. They are extremophiles, evolutionarily adapted to tolerate flooding, anoxia, high temperatures, wind, and high and extremely variable salt conditions in typically resource-poor environments. The genetic basis for these adaptations is, however, virtually…

  11. Isolation and characterization of extreme halophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, Madlen; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). HZDR Young Investigator Group

    2017-06-01

    Extreme halophilic archaea from the family Halobactereacea represent a dominant part of the microbial community present in saline soils as well as rock salts. By using a culture-dependent approach different Haloarchaea could be isolated and were phylogenetic analysed. Interestingly, isolates closely related to different Halobacterium spp. were found in both environments.

  12. Isolation and characterization of extreme halophilic archaea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, Madlen; Cherkouk, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Extreme halophilic archaea from the family Halobactereacea represent a dominant part of the microbial community present in saline soils as well as rock salts. By using a culture-dependent approach different Haloarchaea could be isolated and were phylogenetic analysed. Interestingly, isolates closely related to different Halobacterium spp. were found in both environments.

  13. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  14. Contaminação do ambiente aquático por pesticidas. Estudo de caso: águas usadas para consumo humano em Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso - análise preliminar Aquatic environment contamination by pesticides. Case study: water used for human consumption in Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso - preliminary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Freire Gaspar de Carvalho Dores

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary analyses of the possible contamination of superficial and underground water by the active ingredients of the pesticide products used in the surroundings of the urban area of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso, Brazil, was carried out. A description of the study region and of its environmental characteristics, which can favor the contamination of the local aquatic environment, was presented. The EPA screening criteria, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS and the criteria proposed by Goss were used to evaluate which pesticides might contaminate the local waters. Among the active ingredients studied, several present risks to the local aquatic environment.

  15. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.

    2017-12-01

    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  16. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  17. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  18. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  19. Telescience - Concepts And Contributions To The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Will; Dobson, Carl; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Malina, Roger F.

    1987-10-01

    A goal of the telescience concept is to allow scientists to use remotely located instruments as they would in their laboratory. Another goal is to increase reliability and scientific return of these instruments. In this paper we discuss the role of transparent software tools in development, integration, and postlaunch environments to achieve hands on access to the instrument. The use of transparent tools helps to reduce the parallel development of capability and to assure that valuable pre-launch experience is not lost in the operations phase. We also discuss the use of simulation as a rapid prototyping technique. Rapid prototyping provides a cost-effective means of using an iterative approach to instrument design. By allowing inexpensive produc-tion of testbeds, scientists can quickly tune the instrument to produce the desired scientific data. Using portions of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) system, we examine some of the results of preliminary tests in the use of simulation and tran-sparent tools. Additionally, we discuss our efforts to upgrade our software "EUVE electronics" simulator to emulate a full instrument, and give the pros and cons of the simulation facilities we have developed.

  20. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  1. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  2. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  3. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  4. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  5. [The heart in extreme sports: hyperbaric activity and microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, Umberto; Landolfi, Angelo; Patteri, Giovanna

    2008-10-01

    The study of the cardiovascular and respiratory modifications in extreme environments could be useful for the understanding of the adaptive mechanisms of the body in particular conditions. The knowledge of how different environmental conditions in terms of extreme pressure, temperature and gravity modify the neurovegetative and cardiovascular system could be useful in daily practice for hypobaric and hyperbaric sports.

  6. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  7. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  8. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Bhaskar N

    1997-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma accounting for almost 55%. These tumors arise from unsegmented mesoderm or primitive mesenchyma, which have the capacity to differentiate into muscle. Less than 5% occur in the first year of life. Extremity rhabdomyosarcoma are mainly seen in the adolescent years. The most common histologic subtype is the alveolar variant. Other characteristics of extremity rhabdomyosarcoma include a predilection for lymph node metastasis, a high local failure, and a relatively low survival rate. They often present as slow painless masses; however, lesions in the hand and foot often present as painful masses and imaging studies may show invasion of the bone. Initial diagnostic approaches include needle biopsy or incisional biopsy for larger lesions. Excisional biopsy is indicated preferably for lesions less than 2.5 cm. following this in most instances therapy is initiated with multi agent chemotherapy depending upon response, the next modality may be either surgery with intent to cure or radiation therapy. Amputation of an extremity for local control is not considered in most instances. Prognostic factors that have been determined over the years to be of significance by multi variant analysis have included age, tumor size, invasiveness, presence of either nodal or distant metastasis, and complete excision whenever feasible, with supplemental radiation therapy for local control

  9. The Engineering for Climate Extremes Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; Tye, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy and the recent floods in Thailand have demonstrated not only how sensitive the urban environment is to the impact of severe weather, but also the associated global reach of the ramifications. These, together with other growing extreme weather impacts and the increasing interdependence of global commercial activities point towards a growing vulnerability to weather and climate extremes. The Engineering for Climate Extremes Partnership brings academia, industry and government together with the goals encouraging joint activities aimed at developing new, robust, and well-communicated responses to this increasing vulnerability. Integral to the approach is the concept of 'graceful failure' in which flexible designs are adopted that protect against failure by combining engineering or network strengths with a plan for efficient and rapid recovery if and when they fail. Such an approach enables optimal planning for both known future scenarios and their assessed uncertainty.

  10. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chromatic

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  11. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  12. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  13. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served

  14. Fiscal 1993 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Research and development of advanced composite materials using oil as raw material); 1993 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekiyu genryokei senshin fukugo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    There was a progress in the development of oil based C/C (carbon/carbon) composite technology. Studied in a comprehensive endeavor were coordination between various technology developing activities, surveys of trends of relevant technologies, and technological tasks to discharge for the development of materials usable under extreme environments. Technologies developed for advanced composite materials involved (1) oil pitch derived random structure carbon fibers, (2) oil pitch derived onion structure carbon fibers, and (3) oil pitch derived double structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials. Under item (1), random structure carbon fibers were examined for high reproducibility of physical properties, continuous surface coating technology for fibers, and weavability. Under item (2), onion structure carbon fibers were studied for development into C/C composite reinforced fibers. Under item (3), the mechanical structure of double structure carbon fibers was clarified, and C/C composite materials were fabricated using experimental prepregs worked out after studying matrix composition and impregnation techniques. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1991 research report. Research trend survey for next-generation industrial structure technology research and development project - Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments; 1991 nendo jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu project ni kakawaru kenkyu doko chosa hokokusho. Chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu (sekitoku sekiyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Efforts were exerted to develop intermetallic compounds and advanced C/C (carbon/carbon) composite materials usable under extreme environments such as high temperatures. In relation with advanced composite materials, especially with projects for developing composite materials using oil as raw material, a survey was conducted of the three fields of (1) summarization of activities conducted up to fiscal 1991, (2) contents of associated aerospace projects, and (3) oil based composite material technology. In Field (1), past achievements are summarized. In Field (2), aerospace projects under way across the world are broken down by airframe and engine, and are reviewed from the viewpoint of needs for materials. In Field (3), the present and future of heat resisting thermosetting composite materials, thermoplastic composite materials, and C/C composites are discussed. Characteristics such materials are supposed to finally assume and tasks to discharge for technical development are also taken up. (NEDO)

  16. Preliminary assessments the shortcut to remediation (category III-surplus facility assessments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the preliminary assessments for the shortcut of decontamination of surplus nuclear facilities. Topics discussed include: environment, health and safety concerns; economic considerations; reduction of transition time; preliminary characterization reports; preliminary project plan; health and safety plan; quality assurance plan; surveillance and maintenance plan; and waste management plan

  17. Modelling of extreme gusts for design calculations (NewGust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbooms, W; Cheng, Po-Wen [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands); Larsen, G [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Juul Pedersen, B [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Hansen, K [Tecnical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The main objective of the NewGust project is to come to a realistic and verified description of extreme gusts based on the stochastic properties of wind. In this paper the first results of the project are presented. Theoretical considerations indicate that the shape of extreme gusts is very sharp. Based on simulated wind time series, mean gust shapes (for several amplitudes and mean wind speeds) are determined and compared with the theoretical curves. The resemblance turned out to be very good. Furthermore, the influence of the sampling rate and the dynamics of a cup anemometer on the empirical mean gust shape are examined. The promising results are confirmed by a (preliminary) verification based on measured wind time series, available from the database on wind characteristics. The mean shape of gusts, of certain amplitude, together with their probability of occurrence can be used to obtain the distribution of the extreme response of wind turbines to gust loading. (au)

  18. Are BALQSOs extreme accretors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M. J.; Wills, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs are QSOs with massive absorbing outflows up to 0.2c. Two hypothesis have been suggested in the past about the nature of BALQSOs: Every QSO might have BAL outflow with some covering factor. BALQSOs are those which happen to have outflow along our line of sight. BALQSOs have intrinsically different physical properties than non-BALQSOs. Based on BALQSO's optical emission properties and a large set of correlations linking many general QSO emission line and continuum properties, it has been suggested that BALQSOs might accrete at near Eddington limit with abundant of fuel supplies. With new BALQSO Hβ region spectroscopic observation conducted at UKIRT and re-analysis of literature data for low and high redshift non-BALQSOs, We confirm that BALQSOs have extreme Fe II and [O III] emission line properties. Using results derived from the latest QSO Hβ region reverberation mapping, we calculated Eddington ratios (˙ {M}/˙ {M}Edd) for our BAL and non-BALQSOs. The Fe II and [O III] strengths are strongly correlated with Eddington ratios. Those correlations link Eddington ratio to a large set of general QSO properties through the Boroson & Green Eigenvector 1. We find that BALQSOs have Eddington ratios close to 1. However, all high redshift, high luminosity QSOs have rather high Eddington ratios. We argue that this is a side effect from selecting the brightest objects. In fact, our high redshift sample might constitute BALQSO's high Eddington ratio orientation parent population.

  19. A note on extreme sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Cymer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In decomposition theory, extreme sets have been studied extensively due to its connection to perfect matchings in a graph. In this paper, we first define extreme sets with respect to degree-matchings and next investigate some of their properties. In particular, we prove the generalized Decomposition Theorem and give a characterization for the set of all extreme vertices in a graph.

  20. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaë l; Davison, Anthony C.; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  1. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  2. Further outlooks: extremely uncomfortable; Die weiteren Aussichten: extrem ungemuetlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resenhoeft, T.

    2006-07-01

    Climate is changing extremely in the last decades. Scientists dealing with extreme weather, should not only stare at computer simulations. They have also to turn towards psyche, seriously personal experiences, knowing statistics, relativise supposed sensational reports and last not least collecting more data. (GL)

  3. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events ... frequency and extreme intensity indices, suggesting that extreme events are more frequent and intense during years with high rainfall. The proportion of total rainfall from ...

  4. 40 CFR 355.12 - What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMERGENCY PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION Emergency Planning Who Must Comply § 355.12 What quantities of extremely... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements? 355.12 Section 355.12 Protection of Environment...

  5. Preliminary study of the {sup 129}I distribution in environment of La Hague reprocessing plant with the help of a terrestrial moss: Homalotecium sericeum. Study report; Etude preliminaire de la repartition de {sup 129}I dans l'environnement de l'usine de retraitement de La Hague a l'aide d'une mousse terrestre: Homalotecium sericeum. Rapport d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The preliminary study of the {sup 129}I distribution has allowed to underline the limits of use of a Homalotecium sericeum type terrestrial moss as biological indicator. However, this preliminary study allowed all the same to give a spatial distribution of this radioelement around La Hague reprocessing plant (source term) that underlines the existence of four geographic areas in function of collected activities. The levels are generally under 99 Bq/kg dry. It is recommended to improve the knowledge that we can have of transfers and quantity of iodine 129 from the marine environment to the terrestrial environment, but also, the one that we can have of factors able to modify the spatial distribution of this radionuclide. (N.C.)

  6. Management of the mangled extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Helfet, David L.; Kloen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The management of a mangled extremity continues to be a matter of debate. With modern advances in trauma resuscitation, microvascular tissue transfer, and fracture fixation, severe traumatic extremity injuries that would historically have been amputated are often salvaged. Even if preserving a

  7. A decade of weather extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The ostensibly large number of recent extreme weather events has triggered intensive discussions, both in- and outside the scientific community, on whether they are related to global warming. Here, we review the evidence and argue that for some types of extreme - notably heatwaves, but also

  8. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  9. Preliminary analysis of public dose from CFETR gaseous tritium release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Baojie [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ni, Muyi, E-mail: muyi.ni@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lian, Chao; Jiang, Jieqiong [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Present the amounts and limit dose of tritium release to the environment for CFETR. • Perform a preliminary simulation of radiation dose for gaseous tritium release. • Key parameters about soil types, wind speed, stability class, effective release height and age were sensitivity analyzed. • Tritium release amount is recalculated consistently with dose limit in Chinese regulation for CFETR. - Abstract: To demonstrate tritium self-sufficiency and other engineering issues, the scientific conception of Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) has been proposed in China parallel with ITER and before DEMO reactor. Tritium environmental safety for CFETR is an important issue and must be evaluated because of the huge amounts of tritium cycling in reactor. In this work, different tritium release scenarios of CFETR and dose limit regulations in China are introduced. And the public dose is preliminarily analyzed under normal and accidental events. Furthermore, after finishing the sensitivity analysis of key input parameters, the public dose is reevaluated based on extreme parameters. Finally, tritium release amount is recalculated consistently with the dose limit in Chinese regulation for CFETR, which would provide a reference for tritium system design of CFETR.

  10. Environmental Sustainability of Agriculture Stressed by Changing Extremes of Drought and Excess Moisture: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Wheaton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the climate changes, the effects of agriculture on the environment may change. In the future, an increasing frequency of climate extremes, such as droughts, heat waves, and excess moisture, is expected. Past research on the interaction between environment and resources has focused on climate change effects on various sectors, including agricultural production (especially crop production, but research on the effects of climate change using agri-environmental indicators (AEI of environmental sustainability of agriculture is limited. The aim of this paper was to begin to address this knowledge gap by exploring the effects of future drought and excess moisture on environmental sustainability of agriculture. Methods included the use of a conceptual framework, literature reviews, and an examination of the climate sensitivities of the AEI models. The AEIs assessed were those for the themes of soil and water quality, and farmland management as developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Additional indicators included one for desertification and another for water supply and demand. The study area was the agricultural region of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. We found that the performance of several indicators would likely decrease in a warming climate with more extremes. These indicators with declining performances included risks for soil erosion, soil salinization, desertification, water quality and quantity, and soil contamination. Preliminary trends of other indicators such as farmland management were not clear. AEIs are important tools for measuring climate impacts on the environmental sustainability of agriculture. They also indicate the success of adaptation measures and suggest areas of operational and policy development. Therefore, continued reporting and enhancement of these indicators is recommended.

  11. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Alexander Y; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  12. Military Performance and Health Monitoring in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    radiation and wind to give a true temperature reading . At high ambient temperatures, in particular in combination with solar radiation, objects may...Equivital multi-sensor unit enabling the real-time, parallel and continuous assessment of EKG (and heart rate), respiration (and respiration rate), skin

  13. Visual Propaganda and Extremism in the Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    for their communications.4 The Internet also provides: . . . easy access, little to no regulation, censorship or other forms of government control...download films , song, book, posters, and so forth), and the ability to shape coverage in the tradi- tional mass media, which increasingly use the...Aryan Resistance, the United Klan of America , the White Patriot Party, and Aryan Nation. Radicalized Groups. Finally, this book discusses radicalized

  14. Computer Aided Design Tools for Extreme Environment Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to provide Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools for radiation-tolerant, wide-temperature-range digital, analog, mixed-signal, and radio-frequency...

  15. LiDAR in extreme environment: surveying in Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, D.; Pierattini, S.; Bianchi Fasani, G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed under the patronage of the Italian National Research Programme in Antarctica (PNRA) with the aim to realize a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the moraine named "Boulder Clay" which insists approximately 7 km far from the Italian Research Base "Mario Zucchelli Station" in the Terra Nova Bay area. The DEM will be included in the project for the construction of two runways to be used as support facilities for the scientific research campaigns wh...

  16. The Educational Environment as a Means for Overcoming Youth Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panina, G. V.

    2010-01-01

    During Russia's societal transition extremist behavior by young people shows signs of increasing. An extra effort is required on the part of Russian educators to try to contain this phenomenon. The increasing extremist activity on the part of young people is linked to a particular stage of the development of society. It appears that youth…

  17. Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Exploration road map contains an expanded portfolio of destinations including asteroids, comets, Phobos and Deimos, Titan, Ganymede, Mars and the Moon. The...

  18. Fungi living in diverse extreme habitats of the marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Manohar, C.S.

    has shown the common presence of terrestrial species. Cryptic species and novel lineages have also been discovered . Extremophilic, or extremotolerant marine fungi could prove to be useful for biotechnological applications....

  19. Unconditionally Stable Low Dropout Regulators for Extreme Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a low dropout (LDO) regulator using a patented MESFET transistor technology that can be manufactured in commercial CMOS foundries with no changes...

  20. Conference Support - Surgery in Extreme Environments - Center for Surgical Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    technology accelerator. Lunar capability concerns include (1) optimization of safety, habitability, and biomechanics ; (2) clinical infrastructure, limited... remove the tissue from the animals, we would then immerse them, fixating the tissues as well. A couple of interesting things though were strange. We had...cellular surgery, new surgical tools, intelligent prosthesis , tissue engineering, and suspended animation. Each of these concepts has a potential for

  1. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...

  2. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success

  3. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  4. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-01-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES and H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the

  5. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-11-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility

  6. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  7. NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations 10 - Evaluation of Robotic and Sensor Technologies for Surgery in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Mitre AI, Lima SV, et al. Telementoring between Brazil and the United States: Initial Experience. J Endourol 2003; 17(4):217-20. 22. Marescaux J...next leg until you observe the “ beach ” indicator in the upper left rotate 90 degrees. If it does not rotate push the “leg” button again until it...sample contamination for example), an accurate bearing and range or grid coordinate of that sample will ensure that it can be located when desired. Real

  8. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  9. Racial Extremism in the Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Walter M

    1998-01-01

    ... modem phenomenon of "skinheads." I then discuss the history of white supremacist extremism in the Army, culminating in the December, 1995 murders of two black civilians by soldiers assigned to the 82d Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina...

  10. Fiscal 1991 research report. Research trend survey for next-generation industrial structure technology research and development project - Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments; 1991 nendo jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu project ni kakawaru kenkyu doko chosa hokokusho. Chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu (sekitoku daiene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Efforts were exerted to develop intermetallic compounds and C/C (carbon/carbon) composites to serve as advanced materials for extreme environments. In relation with advanced materials, especially with intermetallic compounds and fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials, a technical research survey was conducted covering the three fields of (1) summarization of activities conducted up to fiscal 1991, (2) contents of associated aerospace projects, and (3) aeroengine components. In Field (1), the ground on which the project was created and the project's basic plans, goals, and systems, and its ripple effects are discussed, and the fruits produced so far are summarized. In Field (2), aeroengine component related projects of America, Britain, France, Germany, and Japan are investigated. In Field (3), aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, alloy steel, superalloys, intermetallic compounds, and intermetallic compound composite materials are discussed with attention paid to their current status and future trend, characteristics they are supposed to finally assume, and technical tasks to discharge for the development of technologies concerned. (NEDO)

  11. Life cycle analysis in preliminary design stages

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo , Lina-Maria; Mejía-Gutiérrez , Ricardo; Nadeau , Jean-Pierre; PAILHES , Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a design process the product is decomposed into systems along the disciplinary lines. Each stage has its own goals and constraints that must be satisfied and has control over a subset of design variables that describe the overall system. When using different tools to initiate a product life cycle, including the environment and impacts, its noticeable that there is a gap in tools that linked the stages of preliminary design and the stages of materialization. Differen...

  12. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  13. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  14. Legacies from extreme drought increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; Knapp, A.; Hoover, D. L.; Avolio, M. L.; Felton, A. J.; Wilcox, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, are increasing in frequency and intensity, and the ecological consequences of these extreme events can be substantial and widespread. Although there is still much to be learned about how ecosystems will respond to an intensification of drought, even less is known about the factors that determine post-drought recovery of ecosystem function. Such knowledge is particularly important because post-drought recovery periods can be protracted depending on the extent to which key plant populations, community structure and biogeochemical processes are affected. These drought legacies may alter ecosystem function for many years post-drought and may impact future sensitivity to climate extremes. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season droughts in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of repeated droughts on ecosystem resistance (response) and resilience (recovery). We found that this grassland was not resistant to the first extreme drought due to reduced productivity and differential sensitivity of the co-dominant C4 grass (Andropogon gerardii) and C3 forb (Solidago canadensis) species. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, the grassland was highly resilient post-drought, due to increased abundance of the dominant C4 grass. Because of this shift to increased C4 grass dominance, we expected that previously-droughted grassland would be more resistant to a second extreme drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted grassland was more sensitive to drought than grassland that had not experienced drought. Thus, our result suggest that legacies of drought (shift in community composition) may increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extreme events.

  15. Global predictability of temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van Aalst, Maarten; Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; Mason, Simon; Nissan, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian; Stephens, Elisabeth; Zsoter, Ervin; van den Hurk, Bart

    2018-05-01

    Extreme temperatures are one of the leading causes of death and disease in both developed and developing countries, and heat extremes are projected to rise in many regions. To reduce risk, heatwave plans and cold weather plans have been effectively implemented around the world. However, much of the world’s population is not yet protected by such systems, including many data-scarce but also highly vulnerable regions. In this study, we assess at a global level where such systems have the potential to be effective at reducing risk from temperature extremes, characterizing (1) long-term average occurrence of heatwaves and coldwaves, (2) seasonality of these extremes, and (3) short-term predictability of these extreme events three to ten days in advance. Using both the NOAA and ECMWF weather forecast models, we develop global maps indicating a first approximation of the locations that are likely to benefit from the development of seasonal preparedness plans and/or short-term early warning systems for extreme temperature. The extratropics generally show both short-term skill as well as strong seasonality; in the tropics, most locations do also demonstrate one or both. In fact, almost 5 billion people live in regions that have seasonality and predictability of heatwaves and/or coldwaves. Climate adaptation investments in these regions can take advantage of seasonality and predictability to reduce risks to vulnerable populations.

  16. Towards a People-Oriented Knowledge Management Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, V.

    2000-01-01

    In this preliminary report we present ongoing research on intelligent knowledge management (KM) environments supporting communication in a virtual environment. An agent community handles the interaction between knowledge sources of different degrees of formality and knowledge users and

  17. Spatial extreme value analysis to project extremes of large-scale indicators for severe weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M

    2013-09-01

    Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts ( W max ) and 0-6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently provides a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having extreme energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional extreme value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to extreme river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such extreme events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Wireless pilot monitoring system for extreme race conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Esteban J; Arias, Diego E; Aqueveque, Pablo; Melin, Pedro; Curtis, Dorothy W

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an assistive device to monitor car drivers under extreme conditions. In particular, this system is designed in preparation for the 2012 Atacama Solar Challenge to be held in the Chilean desert. Actual preliminary results show the feasibility of such a project including physiological and ambient sensors, real-time processing algorithms, wireless data transmission and a remote monitoring station. Implementation details and field results are shown along with a discussion of the main problems found in real-life telemetry monitoring.

  19. E.X.T.R.E.M.E. project. Launch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Charmasson, S.; Masson, O.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the drastic decrease in artificial radioactivity levels from primary sources such as atmospheric fallout or industrial releases, radioactive storages constituted in the past within several environmental compartments act today as non negligible secondary sources. These delayed sources are particularly active during extreme weather or climatic events such as rainfalls or atmospheric deposits, floods, storms, etc...that may remove important mass, generate activity levels higher than the predicted ones from modeling based on mean transfer process, and produce in a couple of hours or days fluxes similar to those accrued over several month or years. Extreme aims at assessing the consequences on man and its environment of natural events that generate extreme radioactive stocks and/or fluxes within several environmental compartments (atmosphere, soils, rivers, coastal marine environment and deep sea areas). (authors)

  20. Ideologies and Discourses: Extreme Narratives in Extreme Metal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Radovanović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, metal music has always been about provoking a strong reaction. Depending on the characteristics of different sub-genres, one can focus on the sound, technique, visual appearance, and furthermore, the ideologies and ideas that are the foundation for each of the sub-genres. Although the majority of the metal community rejects accusations of being racially intolerant, some ideologies of extreme sub-genres (such as black metal are in fact formed around the ideas of self-conscious elitism expressed through interest in pagan mythology, racism, Nazism and fascism. There has been much interest in the Nazi era within the extreme metal scene thus influencing other sub-genres and artists. The aim of this paper is to examine various appearances of extreme narratives such as Nazism and racism in  different sub-genres of metal, bearing in mind variations dependent on geographical, political, and other factors.

  1. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  2. Variations in morphological and life-history traits under extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two extremely stressful temperatures (18°C and 32°C) and one standard ... and non-stressful environments on the morphological and life-history traits in males and ... Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, ...

  3. Lower extremity kinetics in tap dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Lester; Bronner, Shaw; Agraharasamakulam, Sujani; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2010-01-01

    Tap dance is a unique performing art utilizing the lower extremities as percussion instruments. In a previous study these authors reported decreased injury prevalence among tap dancers compared to other dance and sports participants. No biomechanical analyses of tap dance exist to explain this finding. The purpose of the current pilot study was to provide a preliminary overview of normative peak kinetic and kinematic data, based on the hypothesis that tap dance generates relatively low ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments. Six professional tap dancers performed four common tap dance sequences that produced data captured by the use of a force platform and a five-camera motion analysis system. The mean vertical ground reaction force for all sequences was found to be 2.06+/-0.55 BW. Mean peak sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane joint moments (hip, knee, and ankle) ranged from 0.07 to 2.62 N.m/kg. These small ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments support our hypothesis, and may explain the relatively low injury incidence in tap dancers. Nevertheless, the analysis is highly complex, and other factors remain to be studied and clarified.

  4. Extremely Re-Rich Molybdenite from Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au Prospects in Northeastern Greece: Mode of Occurrence, Causes of Enrichment, and Implications for Gold Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kartal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely Re-rich molybdenite occurs with pyrite in sodic–calcic, sodic–sericitic and sericitic-altered porphyritic stocks of granodioritic–tonalitic and granitic composition in the Sapes–Kirki–Esymi, Melitena and Maronia areas, northeastern Greece. Molybdenite in the Pagoni Rachi and Sapes deposits is spatially associated with rheniite, as well as with intermediate (Mo,ReS2 and (Re,MoS2 phases, with up to 46 wt % Re. Nanodomains and/or microinclusions of rheniite may produce the observed Re enrichment in the intermediate molybdenite–rheniite phases. The extreme Re content in molybdenite and the unique presence of rheniite in porphyry-type mineralization, combined with preliminary geochemical data (Cu/Mo ratio, Au grades may indicate that these deposits have affinities with Cu–Au deposits, and should be considered potential targets for gold mineralization in the porphyry environment. In the post-subduction tectonic regime of northern Greece, the extreme Re and Te enrichments in the magmatic-hydrothermal systems over a large areal extent are attributed to an anomalous source (e.g., chemical inhomogenities in the mantle-wedge triggered magmatism, although local scale processes cannot be underestimated.

  5. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Maria Chiara; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Fuselli, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6), concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a) node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b) node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c) node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%); most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  6. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Mura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6, concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%; most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  7. Extreme Space Weather Events: From Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Baker, Dan; Liu, Ying D.; Verronen, Pekka; Singer, Howard; Güdel, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Extreme space weather events, while rare, can have a substantial impact on our technologically-dependent society. And, although such events have only occasionally been observed, through careful analysis of a wealth of space-based and ground-based observations, historical records, and extrapolations from more moderate events, we have developed a basic picture of the components required to produce them. Several key issues, however, remain unresolved. For example, what limits are imposed on the maximum size of such events? What are the likely societal consequences of a so-called "100-year" solar storm? In this review, we summarize our current scientific understanding about extreme space weather events as we follow several examples from the Sun, through the solar corona and inner heliosphere, across the magnetospheric boundary, into the ionosphere and atmosphere, into the Earth's lithosphere, and, finally, its impact on man-made structures and activities, such as spacecraft, GPS signals, radio communication, and the electric power grid. We describe preliminary attempts to provide probabilistic forecasts of extreme space weather phenomena, and we conclude by identifying several key areas that must be addressed if we are better able to understand, and, ultimately, predict extreme space weather events.

  8. Forecasting extreme temperature health hazards in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hot temperatures, such as those experienced during a heat wave, represent a dangerous meteorological hazard to human health. Heat disorders such as sunstroke are harmful to people of all ages and responsible for excess mortality in the affected areas. In 2003 more than 50,000 people died in western and southern Europe because of a severe and sustained episode of summer heat [1]. Furthermore, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change heat waves are expected to get more frequent in the future thus posing an increasing threat to human lives. Developing appropriate tools for extreme hot temperatures prediction is therefore mandatory to increase public preparedness and mitigate heat-induced impacts. A recent study has shown that forecasts of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) provide a valid overview of extreme temperature health hazards on a global scale [2]. UTCI is a parameter related to the temperature of the human body and its regulatory responses to the surrounding atmospheric environment. UTCI is calculated using an advanced thermo-physiological model that includes the human heat budget, physiology and clothing. To forecast UTCI the model uses meteorological inputs, such as 2m air temperature, 2m water vapour pressure and wind velocity at body height derived from 10m wind speed, from NWP models. Here we examine the potential of UTCI as an extreme hot temperature prediction tool for the European area. UTCI forecasts calculated using above-mentioned parameters from ECMWF models are presented. The skill in predicting UTCI for medium lead times is also analysed and discussed for implementation to international health-hazard warning systems. This research is supported by the ANYWHERE project (EnhANcing emergencY management and response to extreme WeatHER and climate Events) which is funded by the European Commission's HORIZON2020 programme. [1] Koppe C. et al., Heat waves: risks and responses. World Health Organization. Health and

  9. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested.

  10. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su

    2016-01-01

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested

  11. Seasonal temperature extremes in Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew; Huang, Shaochun

    2010-12-01

    The awareness of global warming is well established and results from the observations made on thousands of stations. This paper complements the large-scale results by examining a long time-series of high-quality temperature data from the Secular Meteorological Station in Potsdam, where observation records over the last 117 years, i.e., from January 1893 are available. Tendencies of change in seasonal temperature-related climate extremes are demonstrated. "Cold" extremes have become less frequent and less severe than in the past, while "warm" extremes have become more frequent and more severe. Moreover, the interval of the occurrence of frost has been decreasing, while the interval of the occurrence of hot days has been increasing. However, many changes are not statistically significant, since the variability of temperature indices at the Potsdam station has been very strong.

  12. Lymphoscintigraphy of the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, N.Z.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty one lower extremities of 26 normal healthy volunteers and 26 extremities of 13 patients with oedema have been studied. Dynamic quantitative lymphoscintigraphy using 99Tc-m antimony sulphide colloid during passive exercise as well as before and after active exercise was performed. parameters of lymphatic function including percentage of radioactivity cleared from the injection site, the percentage uptake by the inguinal lymph nodes, the time of arrival of activity at the regional lymph nodes and the lymphatic reserve index have been evaluated. The percentage clearance of activity from the injection site was found technically difficult to standardize and proved to be an unreliable parameter of lymphatic function. However, the quantitation of nodal uptake, the lymphatic transit time and the lymphatic reserve capacity accurately depicted the lymphatic functional status of an individual. The physiologic parameters of lymphatic function of the contralateral lower extremities were compared and a physiologic difference in the lymphatic capacity of the two limbs was scintigraphically documented. (author)

  13. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  14. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronov, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  15. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  16. Extreme states in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Theory of hot nuclear fireballs consisting of all possible finite size hadronic constituents in chemical and thermal equilibrium is presented. As a complement of this hadronic gas phase characterized by maximal temperature and energy density, the quark bag description of the hadronic fireball is considered. Preliminary calculations of temperatures and mean transverse momenta of particles emitted in high multiplicity relativistic nuclear collisions together with some considereations on the observability of quark matter are offered. (orig.)

  17. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  18. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    ‘‘Extreme Ocean Waves’’ is a collection of ten papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif that followed the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, includ- ing deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (alternatively termed freak waves), storm surges from cyclones, and internal waves. Other types of waves such as tsunamis or rissaga (meteotsunamis) are not discussed in this volume. It is generally implied that ‘‘extreme’’ has a statistical connotation relative to the average or significant wave height specific to each type of wave. Throughout the book, in fact, the reader will find a combination of theoretical and statistical/ empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting several dramatic instances of damaging extreme waves that occurred in 2007. 

  19. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  20. Effects of aquatic PNF lower extremity patterns on balance and ADL of stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of aquatic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) patterns in the lower extremity on balance and activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty poststroke participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed lower extremity patterns in an aquatic environment, and the control group performed lower extremity patterns on the ground. Both exe...

  1. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  2. Bioprospecting Archaea: Focus on Extreme Halophiles

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, André

    2016-12-12

    In 1990, Woese et al. divided the Tree of Life into three separate domains: Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. Archaea were originally perceived as little more than “odd bacteria” restricted to extreme environmental niches, but later discoveries challenged this assumption. Members of this domain populate a variety of unexpected environments (e.g. soils, seawater, and human bodies), and we currently witness ongoing massive expansions of the archaeal branch of the Tree of Life. Archaea are now recognized as major players in the biosphere and constitute a significant fraction of the earth’s biomass, yet they remain underexplored. An ongoing surge in exploration efforts is leading to an increase in the (a) number of isolated strains, (b) associated knowledge, and (c) utilization of Archaea in biotechnology. They are increasingly employed in fields as diverse as biocatalysis, biocomputing, bioplastic production, bioremediation, bioengineering, food, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. This chapter provides a general overview on bioprospecting Archaea, with a particular focus on extreme halophiles. We explore aspects such as diversity, ecology, screening techniques and biotechnology. Current and future trends in mining for applications are discussed.

  3. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Richard Strimbeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40˚C and minimum temperatures below -60˚C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196˚C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature. Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at extreme low temperature: 1. Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to 30˚C, preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. 2. High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. 3. Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane-membrane interactions.

  4. Nutrition security under extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrition security under extreme events. Zero hunger being one of the Sustainable Development Goal from the United Nations, food security has become a trending research topic. However extreme events impact on global food security is not yet 100% understood and there is a lack of comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of global food trade and nutrition security to improve countries resilience to extreme events. In a globalized world, food is still a highly regulated commodity and a strategic resource. A drought happening in a net food-exporter will have little to no effect on its own population but the repercussion on net food-importers can be extreme. In this project, we propose a methodology to describe and quantify the impact of a local drought to human health at a global scale. For this purpose, nutrition supply and global trade data from FAOSTAT have been used with domestic food production from national agencies and FAOSTAT, global precipitation from the Climate Research Unit and health data from the World Health Organization. A modified Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) has been developed to measure the level of resilience of one country to a drought happening in another country. This index describes how a country is dependent of importation and how diverse are its importation. Losses of production and exportation due to extreme events have been calculated using yield data and a simple food balance at country scale. Results show that countries the most affected by global droughts are the one with the highest dependency to one exporting country. Changes induced by droughts also disturbed their domestic proteins, fat and calories supply resulting most of the time in a higher intake of calories or fat over proteins.

  5. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  6. Extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John; Park, Thomas J

    2009-12-09

    Mammalian brains have extremely high levels of aerobic metabolism and typically suffer irreversible damage after brief periods of oxygen deprivation such as occur during stroke or cardiac arrest. Here we report that brain tissue from naked mole-rats, rodents that live in a chronically low-oxygen environment, is remarkably resistant to hypoxia: naked mole-rat neurons maintain synaptic transmission much longer than mouse neurons and can recover from periods of anoxia exceeding 30 min. We suggest that brain tolerance to hypoxia may result from slowed or arrested brain development in these extremely long-lived animals.

  7. A Generalized Framework for Non-Stationary Extreme Value Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragno, E.; Cheng, L.; Sadegh, M.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Empirical trends in climate variables including precipitation, temperature, snow-water equivalent at regional to continental scales are evidence of changes in climate over time. The evolving climate conditions and human activity-related factors such as urbanization and population growth can exert further changes in weather and climate extremes. As a result, the scientific community faces an increasing demand for updated appraisal of the time-varying climate extremes. The purpose of this study is to offer a robust and flexible statistical tool for non-stationary extreme value analysis which can better characterize the severity and likelihood of extreme climatic variables. This is critical to ensure a more resilient environment in a changing climate. Following the positive feedback on the first version of Non-Stationary Extreme Value Analysis (NEVA) Toolbox by Cheng at al. 2014, we present an improved version, i.e. NEVA2.0. The upgraded version herein builds upon a newly-developed hybrid evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for numerical parameters estimation and uncertainty assessment. This addition leads to a more robust uncertainty estimates of return levels, return periods, and risks of climatic extremes under both stationary and non-stationary assumptions. Moreover, NEVA2.0 is flexible in incorporating any user-specified covariate other than the default time-covariate (e.g., CO2 emissions, large scale climatic oscillation patterns). The new feature will allow users to examine non-stationarity of extremes induced by physical conditions that underlie the extreme events (e.g. antecedent soil moisture deficit, large-scale climatic teleconnections, urbanization). In addition, the new version offers an option to generate stationary and/or non-stationary rainfall Intensity - Duration - Frequency (IDF) curves that are widely used for risk assessment and infrastructure design. Finally, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the package is provided, making NEVA

  8. Pediatric lower extremity mower injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sean M; Elwood, Eric T

    2011-09-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children represent an unfortunate common problem to the plastic reconstructive surgeon. There are approximately 68,000 per year reported in the United States. Compounding this problem is the fact that a standard treatment algorithm does not exist. This study follows a series of 7 pediatric patients treated for lower extremity mower injuries by a single plastic surgeon. The extent of soft tissue injury varied. All patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy as a bridge to definitive closure. Of the 7 patients, 4 required skin grafts, 1 required primary closure, 1 underwent a lower extremity amputation secondary to wounds, and 1 was repaired using a cross-leg flap. Function limitations were minimal for all of our patients after reconstruction. Our basic treatment algorithm is presented with initial debridement followed by the simplest method possible for wound closure using negative pressure wound therapy, if necessary.

  9. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  10. Extreme project. Progress report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Masson, O.; Charmasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    The E.X.T.R.E.M.E. project introduced in 2005 to the S.E.S.U.R.E. / L.E.R.C.M. has for objectives to acquire data on the consequences of the extreme climatic meteorological episodes on the distribution of the artificial radioisotopes within the various compartments of the geosphere. This report presents the synthesis of the actions developed in 2006 in positioning and in co financing of the project by means of regional or national research programs (C.A.R.M.A., E.X.T.R.E.M.A., E.C.C.O.R.E.V.I.), of data acquisition, valuation and scientific collaboration. (N.C.)

  11. On causality of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.

  12. Extreme Nonlinear Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wegener, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Following the birth of the laser in 1960, the field of "nonlinear optics" rapidly emerged. Today, laser intensities and pulse durations are readily available, for which the concepts and approximations of traditional nonlinear optics no longer apply. In this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a large variety of novel and unusual effects arise, for example frequency doubling in inversion symmetric materials or high-harmonic generation in gases, which can lead to attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. Other examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" cover diverse areas such as solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic free electrons in a vacuum and even the vacuum itself. This book starts with an introduction to the field based primarily on extensions of two famous textbook examples, namely the Lorentz oscillator model and the Drude model. Here the level of sophistication should be accessible to any undergraduate physics student. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. The followi...

  13. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  14. Racial Extremism in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    of Deference ...................................................................................................... 46 1. The Separation of Powers Doctrine...to the military. This deference has a two-fold basis. First, the separation of powers in the U.S. Constitution gives authority to the executive (and...Why should there be judicial deference to the Army’s policy on extremism? There are two principal reasons. First, the Constitution’s separation of powers doctrine

  15. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  16. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  18. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  19. Attribution of climate extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  20. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  1. Prospect for extreme field science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, T. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ. and Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto and KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The kind of laser extreme light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of extreme fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, extreme fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the 'material' property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some extreme regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other extreme lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most important features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. (authors)

  2. CO2-DSA in lower extremity veins: a clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinhe; Teng Gaojun; Zhu Guangyu; Liu Zhensheng; Li Guozhao; Ding Huijuan; Shen Zhiping; He Shicheng; Deng Gang; Fang Wen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and usefulness of carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO 2 -DSA) in deep veins of lower extremity via the dorsal is pedis vein. Methods: CO 2 -DSA in lower extremity veins was performed in 15 patients (15 limbs affected, male 9, female 6) by injection of CO 2 via the dorsal is pedis vein. Among them, 8 patients were suspected with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 6 patients with saphena magna dilation, and 1 patient with a follow-up after thrombolysis due to DVT. Results: Excellent image was obtained in 12 cases, which showed branches of the venous system clearly, as well as the details of DVT. Good image was obtained in 2 cases. Technical failure was encountered in one patient due to inaccessible puncture veins. Mild discomfort (transient pain at the percutaneous site) during the procedure was demonstrated in 11 patients. There was no severe side effects or complications in this series. Conclusion: CO 2 -DSA in lower extremity veins is feasible and safe, the preliminary result is satisfactory. (authors)

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  5. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  6. Crenarchaeal biofilm formation under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koerdt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. CONCLUSION: The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

  7. The hovercraft environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, E J

    1970-06-01

    In just over a decade the hovercraft has progressed from first prototype to a successful commercial form of transport which also has the ability to penetrate many environments hitherto virtually inaccessible to manned vehicles. Comparison with rival short range vehicles such as the helicopter and hydrofoil show that the hovercraft has become one of the most versatile forms of transport available. This versatility and ability to operate in unusual or extreme environments has been accompanied by the problems of control and of protection of the occupants of the hovercraft from the hazards associated with these environments. Several of these problems are discussed, together with their possible solutions. This article is based on a paper given to the Nederlands Vereniging Voor Ergonomie/Ergonomics Research Society joint conference at Noordwijk in Holland, 11-13 June, 1969.

  8. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aswini Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review.

  9. A Preliminary Study on Cathodic Prevention in Reinforced Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; Mol, J.M.C.; De Wit, J.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary tests on the performance of cathodic prevention (CPre) in reinforced mortar, subjected to aggressive (10% NaCl environment). Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique for minimizing, actually "preventing" any eventual corrosion of the steel bars in

  10. Extreme Environment Basing:Contingency Basing in Dense Urban and Megacity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    railroads and military installations .................. 22 10 Slums surrounding the Mumbai International Airport...Quality of Government Institute, Jan. 2015 12.0 1.0 6.2 7.0 3.3 Systems Politics/ Culture / Info/ Human capital/ Business Higher is better City...China 1.9 Kolkata (Calcutta) India 1.9 Mumbai (Bombay) India 1.9 Lima Peru 1.9 Beijing China 1.9 Chennai (Madras) India 1.9 Hyderabad India 1.9

  11. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  12. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler periods of the day or are indeterminate so flowering occurs over a longer period of the growing season. In controlled environment studies, warm temperatures increased the rate of phenological development; however, there was no effect on leaf area or vegetative biomass compared to normal temperatures. The major impact of warmer temperatures was during the reproductive stage of development and in all cases grain yield in maize was significantly reduced by as much as 80−90% from a normal temperature regime. Temperature effects are increased by water deficits and excess soil water demonstrating that understanding the interaction of temperature and water will be needed to develop more effective adaptation strategies to offset the impacts of greater temperature extreme events associated with a changing climate.

  13. Performance assessment of a dynamic current allocator for the JET eXtreme Shape Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varano, G.; Ambrosino, G.; Tommasi, G.De; Galeani, S.; Pironti, A.; Zaccarian, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a recently proposed dynamic allocation technique that can be effectively adopted to handle the current saturations of the Poloidal Field coils with the eXtreme Shape Controller. The proposed approach allows to automatically relax the plasma shape regulation when the reference shape requires current levels out of the available ranges, finding in real-time an optimal trade-off between shape control precision and currents saturation avoidance. In this paper the results attained during preliminary analysis are presented, showing the advantage arising from the use of the dynamic allocator, versus the bare use of the eXtreme Shape Controller.

  14. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  15. Extreme Temperature Gearhead, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the need for actuators, particularly, gear heads, that can operate in the harsh Venusian environment for extended periods of time, on the order of...

  16. Extreme Temperature Gearhead, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the need for actuators that can operate in the harsh Venusian environment for extended periods of time, Honeybee Robotics conducted extensive research...

  17. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  18. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  19. Specimen environments in thermal neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This report is an attempt to collect into one place outline information concerning the techniques used and basic design of sample environment apparatus employed in neutron scattering experiments. Preliminary recommendations for the specimen environment programme of the SNS are presented. The general conclusion reached is that effort should be devoted towards improving reliability and efficiency of operation of specimen environment apparatus and developing systems which are robust and easy to use, rather than achieving performance at the limits of technology. (author)

  20. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  1. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  2. Identifying Patterns in Extreme Precipitation Risk and the Related Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Tye, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation can harm human life and assets through flooding, hail, landslides, or debris flows. Flood risk assessments typically concentrate on river or mountain torrent channels, using water depth, flow velocity, and/or sediment deposition to quantify the risk. In addition, extreme events with high recurrence intervals are often the main focus. However, damages from short-term and localized convective showers often occur away from watercourses. Also, damages from more frequent small scale extremes, although usually less disastrous, can accumulate to considerable financial burdens. Extreme convective precipitation is expected to intensify in a warmer climate, and vulnerability patterns might change in tandem with changes in the character of precipitation and flood types. This has consequences for adaptation planners who want to establish effective protection measures and reduce the cost from natural hazards. Here we merge hydrological and exposure data to identify patterns of risk under varying synoptic conditions. Exposure is calculated from a database of 76k damage claims reported to the national disaster fund in 480 municipalities in south eastern Austria from 1990-2015. Hydrological data comprise sub-daily precipitation (59 gauges) and streamflow (62 gauges) observations. We use synoptic circulation types to identify typical precipitation patterns. They indicate the character of precipitation even if a gauge is not in close proximity, facilitating potential future research with regional climate model data. Results show that more claims are reported under synoptic conditions favouring convective precipitation (on average 1.5-3 times more than on other days). For agrarian municipalities, convective precipitation damages are among the costliest after long low-intensity precipitation events. In contrast, Alpine communities are particularly vulnerable to convective high-intensity rainfall. In addition to possible observational error, uncertainty is present

  3. The greenhouse effect and extreme weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Kvamstoe, Nils Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    The article asserts that an anthropogenic global warming is occurring. This greenhouse effect is expected to cause more occurrences of extreme weather. It is extremely difficult, however, to relate specific weather catastrophes to global warming with certainty, since such extreme weather conditions are rare historically. The subject is controversial. The article also discusses the public debate and the risk of floods

  4. Effects of phosphate environments on turbine materials: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.C.; Shalvoy, R.S.; Gould, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a serious hazard to large steam turbines. In many cases, this cracking is thought caused by concentrated deposits of caustics or chlorides, formed from the steam by concentrating mechanisms. To minimize the likelihood of forming these corrosive deposits, turbine manufacturers recommend that the levels of contaminants in the steam be maintained at low levels. The steam purity needed to prevent the formation of corrosive deposits is at present uncertain. As an aid in judging the steam purity needed to avoid corrosive deposits, the General Electric Company surveyed the utility industry to determine current feedwater practices, the levels of steam purity attained, and the nature of the corrosion problems encountered. One hypothesis to explain the lower corrosivity of steam from drum boilers concerns the sodium phosphate to compounds commonly added to drum boiler water for pH control. To test this hypothesis, the present program was undertaken to study the effect of sodium phosphate on the corrosivity of the two most common corrosive turbine deposits, sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide. Four turbine materials - a rotor steel, a disc steel, and two turbine blade steels - were chosen for this study. The results from the first half of a two-year project are described. So far the corrosivity of the deposits without phosphate has been determined. Work to determine the corrosivity of deposits with phosphate is presently under way and only the electrochemical test results are discussed

  5. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Critical care at extremes of temperature: effects on patients, staff and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Elise M; Henning, J D

    2014-12-01

    Modern travel and military operations have led to a significant increase in the need to provide medical care in extreme climates. Presently, there are few data on what happens to the doctor, their drugs and equipment when exposed to these extremes. A review was undertaken to find out the effects of 'extreme heat or cold' on anaesthesia and critical care; in addition, subject matter experts were contacted directly. Both extreme heat and extreme cold can cause a marked physiological response in a critically ill patient and the doctor treating these patients may also suffer a decrement in both physical and mental functioning. Equipment can malfunction when exposed to extremes of temperature and should ideally be stored and operated in a climatically controlled environment. Many drugs have a narrow range of temperatures in which they remain useable though some have been shown to remain effective if exposed to extremes of temperature for a short period of time. All personnel embarking on an expedition to an extreme temperature zone should be of sufficient physical robustness and ideally should have a period of acclimatisation which may help mitigate against some of the physiological effects of exposure to extreme heat or extreme cold. Expedition planners should aim to provide climatic control for drugs and equipment and should have logistical plans for replenishment of drugs and medical evacuation of casualties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. A Multi-Environment Thermal Control System With Freeze-Tolerant Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; Fogg, David; Mancini, Nick; Steele, John; Quinn, Gregory; Bue, Grant; Littibridge, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions require advanced thermal control systems (TCS) to dissipate heat from spacecraft, rovers, or habitats operating in environments that can vary from extremely hot to extremely cold. A lightweight, reliable TCS is being developed to effectively control cabin and equipment temperatures under widely varying heat loads and ambient temperatures. The system uses freeze-tolerant radiators, which eliminate the need for a secondary circulation loop or heat pipe systems. Each radiator has a self-regulating variable thermal conductance to its ambient environment. The TCS uses a nontoxic, water-based working fluid that is compatible with existing lightweight aluminum heat exchangers. The TCS is lightweight, compact, and requires very little pumping power. The critical characteristics of the core enabling technologies were demonstrated. Functional testing with condenser tubes demonstrated the key operating characteristics required for a reliable, freeze-tolerant TCS, namely (1) self-regulating thermal conductance with short transient responses to varying thermal loads, (2) repeatable performance through freeze-thaw cycles, and (3) fast start-up from a fully frozen state. Preliminary coolant tests demonstrated that the corrosion inhibitor in the water-based coolant can reduce the corrosion rate on aluminum by an order of magnitude. Performance comparison with state-of-the-art designs shows significant mass and power saving benefits of this technology.

  8. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment

  9. Extremity doses to interventional radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihtby, M.; Martin, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Radiologists performing interventional procedures are often required to stand close to the patient's side when carrying out manipulations under fluoroscopic control. This can result in their extremities receiving a high radiation dose, due to scattered radiation. These doses are sometimes high enough to warrant that the radiologist in question be designated a classified radiation worker. Classification in the UK is a result of any worker receiving or likely to receive in the course of their duties in excess of 3/10ths of any annual dose limit (500mSv to extremities, skin). The doses to the legs of radiologists have received less attention than those to the hands, however the doses may be high, due to the proximity of the legs and feet to scattered radiation. The legs can be exposed to a relatively high level of scattered radiation as the radiation in produced from scatter of the un attenuated beam from the bottom of the patient couch. The routine monitoring of extremity doses in interventional radiology is difficult due to several factors. Firstly a wide range of interventional procedures in undertaken in every radiology department, and these procedures require many different techniques, equipment and skills. This means that the position the radiologist adopts in relation to scattering medium and therefore their exposure, depends heavily on the type of procedure. As the hands which manipulate the catheters within the patient are often located close to the patients side and to the area under irradiation, the distribution of dose across the hands can be variable, with very high localised doses, making routine monitoring difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of dose to the hands and legs of interventional radiologists carrying out a wide range of both diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures. To ascertain the most effective method of monitoring the highest dose in accordance with the Basic safety standards

  10. Exploring societal solidarity in the context of extreme prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Manya J; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Klein, Sabine D; Streuli, Jürg C; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Fauchère, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-21

    Extreme prematurity can result in long-term disabilities. Its impact on society is often not taken into account and deemed controversial. Our study examined attitudes of the Swiss population regarding extreme prematurity and people's perspectives regarding the question of solidarity with disabled people. We conducted a nationwide representative anonymous telephone survey with 1210 Swiss residents aged 18 years or older. We asked how people estimate their own personal solidarity, the solidarity of their social environment and the solidarity across the country with disabled persons. Spearman's correlation calculations were used to assess if a correlation exists between solidarity and setting financial limits to intensive care and between solidarity and withholding neonatal intensive care. According to 36.0% of the respondents intensive medical care should not be withheld from extremely preterm infants, even if their chances for an acceptable quality of life were poor. For 28.8%, intensive care should be withheld from these infants, and 26.9% held an intermediate position depending on the situation. A total of 31.5% were against setting a financial limit to treatment of extremely preterm newborns with an uncertain future quality of life, 34.2% were in favour and 26.9% were deliberating. A majority (88.8%) considered their solidarity toward disabled people as substantial; the solidarity of their personal environment and of the society at large was estimated as high by 79.1% and 48.6%, respectively. The Swiss population expressed a high level of solidarity which may alleviate some pressure on parents and health care providers in the decision-making process in neonatal intensive care units. In addition, there was no relationship between solidarity and people's willingness to pay for the care or withholding treatment of extremely preterm babies.

  11. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  12. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  13. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  14. Pneumatic tourniquets in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    Pneumatic tourniquets maintain a relatively bloodless field during extremity surgery, minimize blood loss, aid identification of vital structures, and expedite the procedure. However, they may induce an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. Modern pneumatic tourniquets are designed with mechanisms to regulate and maintain pressure. Routine maintenance helps ensure that these systems are working properly. The complications of tourniquet use include postoperative swelling, delay of recovery of muscle power, compression neurapraxia, wound hematoma with the potential for infection, vascular injury, tissue necrosis, and compartment syndrome. Systemic complications can also occur. The incidence of complications can be minimized by use of wider tourniquets, careful preoperative patient evaluation, and adherence to accepted principles of tourniquet use.

  15. Predictability of extreme weather events for NE U.S.: improvement of the numerical prediction using a Bayesian regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Astitha, M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hartman, B.; Kallos, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Weather prediction accuracy has become very important for the Northeast U.S. given the devastating effects of extreme weather events in the recent years. Weather forecasting systems are used towards building strategies to prevent catastrophic losses for human lives and the environment. Concurrently, weather forecast tools and techniques have evolved with improved forecast skill as numerical prediction techniques are strengthened by increased super-computing resources. In this study, we examine the combination of two state-of-the-science atmospheric models (WRF and RAMS/ICLAMS) by utilizing a Bayesian regression approach to improve the prediction of extreme weather events for NE U.S. The basic concept behind the Bayesian regression approach is to take advantage of the strengths of two atmospheric modeling systems and, similar to the multi-model ensemble approach, limit their weaknesses which are related to systematic and random errors in the numerical prediction of physical processes. The first part of this study is focused on retrospective simulations of seventeen storms that affected the region in the period 2004-2013. Optimal variances are estimated by minimizing the root mean square error and are applied to out-of-sample weather events. The applicability and usefulness of this approach are demonstrated by conducting an error analysis based on in-situ observations from meteorological stations of the National Weather Service (NWS) for wind speed and wind direction, and NCEP Stage IV radar data, mosaicked from the regional multi-sensor for precipitation. The preliminary results indicate a significant improvement in the statistical metrics of the modeled-observed pairs for meteorological variables using various combinations of the sixteen events as predictors of the seventeenth. This presentation will illustrate the implemented methodology and the obtained results for wind speed, wind direction and precipitation, as well as set the research steps that will be

  16. Extreme Rainfall In A City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim, Lawrence

    Cities contain many structures and activities that are vulnerable to severe weather. Heavy precipitation cause floods which can damage structures, compromise transportation and water supply systems, and slow down economic and social activities. Rain induced flood patterns in cities must be well understood to enable effective placement of flood control and other regulatory measures. The planning goal is not to eliminate all floods but to reduce their frequency and resulting damage. Possible approaches to such planning include probability based extreme event analysis. Precipitation is normally the most variable hydrologic element over a given area. This variability results from the distribution of clouds and in cloud processes in the atmosphere, the storm path, and the distribution of topographical features on the ground along path. Some studies suggest that point rainfall patterns are also affected by urban industrial effects hence some agreement that cities are wetter than the country surrounding them. However, there are still questions regarding the intra- urban distribution of precipitation. The sealed surfaces, urban structures, and the urban heat anomaly increase convection in cities which may enhance the generation of clouds. Increased dust and gaseous aerosols loads are effective condensation and sublimation nuclei which may also enhance the generation of precipitation. Based on these associations, the greatest amount of convection type rainfall should occur at city center. A study of summer rainfall in Calgary showed that frequencies of trace amounts of rainfall and events under 0.2mm are highest downtown than elsewhere. For amounts greater than than 0.2 mm, downtown sites were not favored. The most compelling evidence for urban-industrial precipitation enhancement came from the Metromex project around St. Loius, Missouri where maximum increases of between 5 to 30 per cent in summer rainfall downwind of the city was linked to urbanization and

  17. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity

  18. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  19. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of prompt-effect technology for innovative energy environment (Research and development of extremely low power consuming LSI for information terminal); 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gokuteidenryoku joho tanmatsuyo LSI no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the advancement of information technologies, multimedia information terminals such as handyphone systems and mobile computers are increasing in number and improving in quality, sharply increasing power consumption in this domain. So as to suppress the power consumption, efforts are exerted to develop technologies for information terminal LSI (large-scale integration) substrates consuming extremely low power and still capable of high-speed operation. Studied are a device technology of SOI (silicon on insulator) to realize a remarkable reduction in power consumption and enable high-speed operation and a circuit technology of the multi-threshold CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) advantageous to the achievement of low-voltage high-speed operation. In concrete terms, the efforts center about an extremely thin film SOI device of the full depletion type higher in transistor driving capability, lower in load capacity, and smaller in surface area than those currently in use, and aim to put such an SOI device on an optimized multi-threshold CMOS circuit for the establishment of techniques toward the embodiment of an LSI substrate consuming extremely low electric power. (NEDO)

  20. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.