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Sample records for extreme conditions high

  1. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García

    Full Text Available Extremely hot days (EHD in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955–1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5°C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous

  2. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Prieto, L.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Camplutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-02-01

    Extremely hot days (EHD) in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955-1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5 C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high. (orig.)

  3. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  4. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  5. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  6. Laboratory measurements of materials in extreme conditions; The use of high energy radiation sources for high pressure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1998-06-01

    High energy lasers can be used to study material conditions that are appropriate fort inertial confinement fusion: that is, materials at high densities, temperatures, and pressures. Pulsed power devices can offer similar opportunities. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a high energy multi-beam laser designed to achieve the thermonuclear ignition of a mm-scale DT-filled target in the laboratory. At the same time, NE will provide the physics community with a unique tool for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers and pulsed power tools can contribute to investigations of high energy density matter in the areas of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  7. Survival in Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Martin; Halsema, James

    1983-01-01

    Explores the psychosocial and environmental configurations involved in the survival of 500 civilians in a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines during World War II. Although conditions were very harsh, the survival rate of this group was better than expected. Discusses available demographic, social organizational, and cultural information.…

  8. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  9. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Bremset Hansen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of “extreme” weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus to use marine habitat in late winter 2010. A thick coat of ground ice covered 98% of the lowland ranges, almost completely blocking access to terrestrial forage. Accordingly, a population census revealed that 13% of the total population (n=26 of 206 individuals and 21% of one sub-population were feeding on washed-up kelp and seaweed on the sea-ice foot. Calves were overrepresented among the individuals that applied this foraging strategy, which probably represents a last attempt to avoid starvation under particularly severe foraging conditions. The study adds to the impression that extreme weather events such as heavy ROS and associated icing can trigger large changes in the realized foraging niche of Arctic herbivores.

  10. High-fidelity numerical modeling of the Upper Mississippi River under extreme flood condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Le, Trung; DeWall, Petra; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-12-01

    We present data-driven numerical simulations of extreme flooding in a large-scale river coupling coherent-structure resolving hydrodynamics with bed morphodynamics under live-bed conditions. The study area is a ∼ 3.2 km long and ∼ 300 m wide reach of the Upper Mississippi River, near Minneapolis MN, which contains several natural islands and man-made hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Rivers) model, a recently developed in-house code, to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 100-year flood event. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. We integrate data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), sub-aqueous sonar apparatus on-board a boat and in-situ laser scanners to construct a digital elevation model of the river bathymetry and surrounding flood plain, including islands and bridge piers. A field campaign under base-flow condition is also carried out to collect mean flow measurements via Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to validate the hydrodynamic module of the VFS-Rivers model. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river under the 100-year flood reveal complex sediment transport dynamics near the bridge piers consisting of both scour and refilling events due to the continuous passage of sand dunes. We find that the scour depth near the bridge piers can reach to a maximum of ∼ 9 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems.

  11. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  12. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  13. Synchrotron Radiation and High Pressure: New Light on Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Current technological advances now make it possible to perform experiments on materials subjected to static or sustained conditions up to multimegabar pressures (>300 GPa) and from cryogenic temperatures to several thousand degrees (˜0.5 eV range). With these techniques, densities of condensed matter can be increased over an order of magnitude, causing numerous transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area largely been made possible by accelerating developments in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with new synchrotron radiation techniques. Significant advances have occurred in x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy. With recent developments, structure refinements based on polycrystalline data up to multimegabar pressures have been possible. Single-crystal methods have been extended to megabar pressure, with the prospect of full crystallographic refinements. `Three- dimensional' diffraction data can be collected for determining strength, deformation, and elastic tensors at high P-T conditions. Studies carried out during the past three years provide numerous breakthroughs in high-pressure x-ray spectroscopy and a broad range of inelastic scattering methods. Other experiments have exploited the use of x-ray radiography over a range of pressures. Finally, synchrotron infrared measurements have revealed a wealth of high-pressure phenomena, particularly for molecular systems. Examples to be discussed include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials.

  14. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  15. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of ‘‘extreme’’ weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rang...

  16. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E S

    2015-01-01

    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  17. Conditional simulations for fields of extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Aurélien; Vrac, Mathieu; Bel, Liliane

    2014-05-01

    Many environmental models, such as hydrological models, require input data, e.g. precipitation values, correctly simulated and distributed, even at locations where no observation is available. This is particularly true for extreme events that may be of high importance for impact studies. The last decade has seen max-stable processes emerge as a powerful tool for the statistical modeling of spatial extremes. Recently, such processes have been used in climate context to perform simulations at ungauged sites based on empirical distributions of a spatial field conditioned by observed values in some locations. In this work conditional simulations of extremal t process are investigated, taking benefits of its spectral construction. The methodology of conditional simulations proposed by Dombry et al. [2013] for Brown-Resnick and Schlather models is adapted for the extremal t process with some improvements which enlarge the possible number of conditional points. A simulation study enables to highlight the role of the different parameters of the model and to emphasize the importance of the steps of the algorithm. In this work, we focus on the French Mediterranean basin, which is a key spot of occurrences of meteorological extremes such as heavy precipitation. Indeed, major extreme precipitation are regularly observed in this region near the 'cévenol" mountains. The modeling and the understanding of these extreme precipitation - the so-called 'cévenol events" - are of major importance for hydrological studies in this complex terrain since they often trigger major floods in this region. The application of our methodology on real data in this region shows that the model and the algorithm perform well provided the stationary assumptions are fulfilled.

  18. Reaction of Basaltic Materials under High-Fidelity Venus Surface Conditions using the Glenn Extreme Environment Rig: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoman-Shaw, Brandon; Harvey, Ralph; Costa, Gustavo; Nakley, Leah Michelle; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Both historical and current investigations of Venus suggest that atmosphererock interactions play a critical role in the evolution of its atmosphere and crust. We have begun a series of systematic experiments designed to further our understanding of atmosphere-driven weathering and secondary mineralization of basaltic materials that may be occurring on Venus today. Our experiments expose representative igneous phases (mineral, glasses and rocks) to a high-fidelity simulation of Venus surface conditions using the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. GEER is a very large (800L) vessel capable of producing a long-term, high fidelity simulation of both the physical conditions (750 K and 92 bar) and atmospheric chemistry (down to the ppb-level) asso-ciated with the Venusian surface. As of this writing we have just finished the first of several planned experiments: a 42-day exposure of selected mineral, rocks and volcanic glasses. Our goal is to identify and prioritize the reactions taking place and better our understanding of their importance in Venus' climate history.

  19. High genetic variation in marginal fragmented populations at extreme climatic conditions of the Patagonian Cypress Austrocedrus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, María Verónica; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Pastorino, Mario J; Sebastiani, Federico; Marchelli, Paula

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge about current patterns of genetic structure of populations together with the evolutionary history of a species helps to understand and predict the adaptation of populations to future climate change. We assayed variation at nuclear microsatellite markers among peripheral vs. continuous populations of the temperate South American species Austrocedrus chilensis, to investigate the role of historical vs. demographical forces in shaping population genetic structure. This species occurs in continuous populations in the west and central distribution range, but becomes highly fragmented at the eastern limit, which comprised ice-free areas during Quaternary glaciations and has extreme climatic conditions at present times. Bayesian analysis methods identified two contrasting patterns of genetic structure; (I) populations from humid, mesic and peri-glacial regions formed a single deme with relatively low genetic differentiation and high admixture levels whereas (II) a highly heterogeneous genetic structure with low level of admixture was found in the steppe, towards the east and northeast limit of the distribution range. In the steppe, population fragmentation, restricted gene flow and isolation-by-distance were also inferred. In addition, several small steppe populations showed high genetic diversity and divergent gene pools, suggesting that they constitute ancient refuges from pre-Holocene glaciations with just a subgroup of them contributing significantly to post-glacial spread. These results are discussed in relation to patterns of genetic variation found for other temperate species and the contribution of the particular southern Andes topography and climate to post-glacial spread.

  20. Raman spectroscopy under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, A F; Crowhurst, J C

    2004-11-05

    We report the results of Raman measurements of various materials under simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in the diamond anvil cell (DAC). High temperatures are generated by laser heating or internal resistive (ohmic) heating or a combination of both. We present Raman spectra of cubic boron nitride (cBN) to 40 GPa and up to 2300 K that show a continuous pressure and temperature shift of the frequency of the transverse optical mode. We have also obtained high-pressure Raman spectra from a new noble metal nitride, which we synthesized at approximately 50 GPa and 2000 K. We have obtained high-temperature spectra from pure nitrogen to 39 GPa and up to 2000 K, which show the presence of a hot band that has previously been observed in CARS measurements. These measurements have also allowed us to constrain the melting curve and to examine changes in the intramolecular potential with pressure.

  1. Energetic materials at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, David I.A. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). EaStCHEM Research School of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the high-pressure structural behaviour of a series of energetic compounds that includes the widely used explosive RDX and gas generators such as sodium azide. Using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques, crystal structures of these compounds have been obtained under conditions of elevated pressure and temperature. Such studies present significant technical challenges associated with both data collection and analysis, especially for compounds containing conformationally flexible molecules, but the structural information obtained is crucial for enhancing the understanding of the characteristics of energetic materials. Particularly significant is the observation that a high-pressure, high-temperature form of RDX may be recovered to ambient pressure. This has implications for the discovery of new forms of energetic materials that may exhibit enhanced properties, e.g. reduced sensitivity to accidental initiation. The rich high-pressure behaviour of the simple inorganic azides is also noteworthy. All of the six compounds studied in this work were found to undergo at least one phase transition and a total of ten polymorphs have been identified at variable pressure and/or temperature. For example, at high pressure sodium azide adopts the same structure observed for the larger alkali metal azides at atmospheric conditions. The first two chapters of this thesis provide a very accessible introduction to high-pressure research and energetic materials. The subsequent chapters detail the results of these high-pressure studies of energetic materials, demonstrating excellent clarity of expression and highly developed critical analysis. The final chapter points clearly to future opportunities for extending these studies to other energetic materials and for alternative methodologies for their structural modification. (orig.)

  2. Development of a high-resolution apparatus to monitor physiological state of a person undergoing extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodermyatov Radik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research has shown that ECG recordings and parameters of the body functional state are crucial for all kinds of the astronaut pre-flight preparations (centrifuge, thermal chamber, pressure chamber, pressure chamber with special equipment. It is, therefore, important to develop methods and tools for early detection of the preclinical forms of the functional state disorders in patients undergoing high-intensity loads of mixed character. The method based on the hardware-software compleх (HSC with nanosensors of high resolution has been proposed to measure the electrophysiological characteristics and bioelectrical impedance of the body tissues directly exposed to loading. The hardware-software compleх is subjected to clinical trials in Tomsk Research Institute for Cardiology. The obtained results show that the use of nanosensors of high resolution in the HSC without standard filters allows elimination of the power-line interference in ECG recordings. Monitoring of the tissue bioimpedance parameters under test loads enables the detection of preclinical (latent forms of various diseases. After clinical trials in Tomsk Institute for Cardiology the developed apparatus will be proposed for in-depth study of the cardiovascular system and the functional state of the body of astronauts and other persons exposed to extreme loads.

  3. Injuries in an Extreme Conditioning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Kyle T; Powers, Joseph M

    2016-10-19

    Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. This is a retrospective survey of injuries reported by athletes participating in an ECP. An injury survey was sent to 1100 members of Iron Tribe Fitness, a gym franchise with 5 locations across Birmingham, Alabama, that employs exercises consistent with an ECP in this study. An injury was defined as a physical condition resulting from ECP participation that caused the athlete to either seek medical treatment, take time off from exercising, or make modifications to his or her technique to continue. A total of 247 athletes (22%) completed the survey. The majority (57%) of athletes were male (n = 139), and 94% of athletes were white (n = 227). The mean age of athletes was 38.9 years (±8.9 years). Athletes reported participation in the ECP for, on average, 3.6 hours per week (± 1.2 hours). Eighty-five athletes (34%) reported that they had sustained an injury while participating in the ECP. A total of 132 injuries were recorded, yielding an estimated incidence of 2.71 per 1000 hours. The shoulder or upper arm was the most commonly injured body site, accounting for 38 injuries (15% of athletes). Athletes with a previous shoulder injury were 8.1 times as likely to injure their shoulder in the ECP compared with athletes with healthy shoulders. The trunk, back, head, or neck (n = 29, 12%) and the leg or knee (n = 29, 12%) were the second most commonly injured sites. The injury incidence rate among athletes with < 6 months of experience in the ECP

  4. Conditional simulation of extremal Gaussian processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dombry, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Recently the regular conditional distributions of max-infinitely divisible processes were derived by \\citet{Dombry2011} and although these conditional distributions have complicated closed forms, \\citet{Dombry2011b} introduce an algorithm to get conditional realizations of Brown-Resnick processes. In this paper we derive the regular conditional distributions of the max-stable process introduced by \\citet{Schlather2002} and adapt the framework of \\citet{Dombry2011b} to this specific process. We test the methods on simulated data and give an application to extreme temperatures in Switzerland. Results show that the proposed sampling scheme provide accurate conditional simulations and can handle real-sized problems.

  5. Extraordinary survival of nanobacteria under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria show high resistance to gamma irradiation. To further examine their survival in extreme conditions several disinfecting and sterilizing chemicals as well as autoclaving, UV light, microwaves, heating and drying treatments were carried out. The effect of antibiotics used in cell culture were also evaluated. Two forms of nanobacteria were used in the tests: nanobacteria cultured in serum containing medium, and nanobacteria cultured in serum-free medium, the latter being more mineralized. Nanobacteria, having various amounts of apatite on their surfaces, were used to analyze the degree of protection given by the mineral. The chemicals tested included ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formalin, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, detergents, and commercial disinfectants at concentrations generally used for disinfection. After chemical and physical treatments for various times, the nanobacteria were subcultered to detect their survival. The results show unique and wide resistance of nanobacteria to common agents used in disinfection. It can also be seen that the mineralization of the nanobacterial surface furthermore increases the resistance. Survival of nanobacteria is unique among living bacteria, but it can be compared with that observed in spores. Interestingly, nanobacteria have metabolic rate as slow as bacterial spores. A slow metabolic rate and protective structures, like mineral, biofilm and impermeable cell wall, can thus explain the observations made.

  6. The Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2 and the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liermann, H.-P., E-mail: hanns-peter.liermann@desy.de; Konôpková, Z. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Morgenroth, W. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Glazyrin, K.; Bednarčik, J.; McBride, E. E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Petitgirard, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Delitz, J. T.; Wendt, M.; Bican, Y.; Ehnes, A.; Schwark, I.; Rothkirch, A.; Tischer, M.; Heuer, J.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Kracht, T.; Franz, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-06-19

    Performance description of the Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB, P02.2) at PETRA III that is optimized for micro-diffraction at simultaneous high pressure and high and low temperatures created in different diamond anvil cells environments. Additional information of the capabilities of the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure for DAC work is provided. A detailed description is presented of the Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2 for micro X-ray diffraction studies of matter at simultaneous high pressure and high/low temperatures at PETRA III, in Hamburg, Germany. This includes performance of the X-ray optics and instrumental resolution as well as an overview of the different sample environments available for high-pressure studies in the diamond anvil cell. Particularly emphasized are the high-brilliance and high-energy X-ray diffraction capabilities of the beamline in conjunction with the use of fast area detectors to conduct time-resolved compression studies in the millisecond time regime. Finally, the current capability of the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure to support high-pressure research at the Extreme Conditions Beamline and other PETRA III beamlines is described.

  7. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael G; Peterson, Sarah H; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize POP compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual POP compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict POP concentrations in one tissue from another tissue remains rare. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) forage on mesopelagic fish and squid for months at a time in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, interspersed with two periods of fasting on land, which results in dramatic seasonal fluctuations in body condition. Using northern elephant seals, we examined commonly studied tissues in mammalian toxicology to describe relationships and determine predictive equations among tissues for a suite of POP compounds, including ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes, and ΣPBDEs. We collected paired blubber (inner and outer) and blood serum samples from adult female and male seals in 2012 and 2013 at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California, USA). For females (N = 24), we sampled the same seals before (late in molting fast) and after (early in breeding fast) their approximately seven month foraging trip. For males, we sampled different seals before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) their approximately four month foraging trip. We observed strong relationships among tissues for many, but not all compounds. Serum POP concentrations were strong predictors of inner blubber POP concentrations for both females and males, while serum was a more consistent predictor of outer blubber for males than females. The ability to estimate POP blubber concentrations from serum, or vice versa, has the potential to enhance toxicological assessment and physiological modeling. Furthermore, predictive equations may illuminate commonalities or

  8. High energy x-ray and neutron studies of disordered energy-related materials at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, John [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-05-16

    The fundamental scientific accomplishments are: (1) advances in a general description of the liquid state by employing structural models constrained by measurements to interpret experimental results and extend them to liquids in general, with special emphasis on (2) The structure of the high-temperature crystal and molten UO2 and 3) water. Specifically, samples of UO2 and water were probed using high-energy x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source. The high Z of UO2, and the 2-3mm diameter droplet shape of the molten sample, means that >100keV X-rays are required to minimize absorption and multiple scattering, which can distort the measured structure factor. A high flux of x-rays is also required to obtain sufficient statistical accuracy in short (a few seconds) measurement times. The scattered x-ray data were analyzed and pair distribution functions, extracted that characterize the local and long-range atomic structure of the material. The measurements of the hot UO2 solid show a substantial increase in oxygen disorder and, upon melting, the average U-O coordination was found to decrease from 8 to 6.7±0.5. The research incorporated development of diffraction techniques, sample environment optimization and state-of-the-art simulation techniques. The symbiotic nature of the advances in simulation and experiment allowed for a more focused and informed development of future experiments, effective use of expensive beam time and generated new research agendas for the growing number of research groups, within the US and internationally, that focus on the structure of liquids. Molecular dynamics (MD) provided detailed information when combined with high-quality XN data including addressing key issues in liquids; the relationship between cooling path, structure and fictive temperature, and the trade-offs between network over connectedness in liquids containing low-coordination cations.

  9. High energy x-ray and neutron studies of disordered energy-related materials at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, John [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-05-16

    The fundamental scientific accomplishments are: (1) advances in a general description of the liquid state by employing structural models constrained by measurements to interpret experimental results and extend them to liquids in general, with special emphasis on (2) The structure of the high temperature crystal and molten UO2 and 3) water. Specifically, samples of UO2 and water were probed using high energy x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source. The high-Z of UO2, and the 2-3mm diameter droplet shape of the molten sample, means that >100keV X-rays are required to minimize absorption and multiple scattering, which can distort the measured structure factor. A high flux of x-rays is also required to obtain sufficient statistical accuracy in short (a few seconds) measurement times. The scattered x-ray data were analyzed and pair distribution functions extracted that characterize the local and long-range atomic structure of the material. The measurements of the hot UO2 solid show a substantial increase in oxygen disorder and upon melting, the average U-O coordination was found to decrease from 8 to 6.7±0.5. The research incorporated development of diffraction techniques, sample environment optimization and state-of-the-art simulation techniques. The symbiotic nature of the advances in simulation and experiment allowed for a more focused and informed development of future experiments, effective use of expensive beam time and generated new research agendas for the growing number of research groups, within the US and internationally, that focus on the structure of liquids. Molecular dynamics (MD) provided detailed information when combined with high quality XN data including addressing key issues in liquids; the relationship between cooling path, structure and fictive temperature, and the trade-offs between network over connectedness in liquids containing low-coordination cations.

  10. Galaxy Transformation Under Extreme Conditions: The Evolution of Galaxies in the Largest Structures in the High Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaux, Brian Clark

    This dissertation describes research performed in the field of observational astrophysics as part of the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environment (ORELSE) survey. The general motivation of the research presented in this dissertation is to investigate the processes responsible for the evolution of galaxies in a wide range of physical conditions over cosmic time. Throughout this dissertation, galaxy populations will be considered in the very nearby universe (i.e., within one billion light years from Earth), the middle-aged universe (i.e., eight billion years ago), and in the very early universe (i.e., just one billion years after the beginning of the universe). In each chapter I present unique data from observations taken and analyzed specifically for the ORELSE survey. In the first part of this dissertation I describe the context, aims, and current state of the ORELSE survey. The studies presented in this dissertation span a large range of galaxy samples and investigate a variety of different astrophysical phenomena. As all of these studies fall under the context of galaxy evolution, these initial sections will set the framework for the variety of studies presented in this thesis. In the second part of this dissertation I present four studies undertaken to investigate various aspects of galaxy evolution. The first of these studies is an investigation of a large population of very distant galaxies detected in one of the ORELSE fields. The survey in this field represents the deepest survey of a particular kind of very distant galaxy population known as Lymanalpha Emitter (LAEs). The number of LAEs found in this survey far exceeded expectations for such galaxies and are shown to be in excess of every other survey of similar galaxies at similar distances. This result has important consequences for galaxy evolution studies, as it suggests that faint LAEs may be much more numerous than previously thought. This work also has important consequences for

  11. Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years

    CERN Document Server

    Keeler, R Norris

    2010-01-01

    Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent kinetic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10^113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >10^25 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because “dark-energy” antigravity forces vanish when inflation ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoi...

  12. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  13. MACS-Himalaya: A photogrammetric aerial oblique camera system designed for highly accurate 3D-reconstruction and monitoring in steep terrain and under extreme illumination conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, Joerg; Berger, Ralf; Hein, Daniel; Bucher, Tilman

    2017-04-01

    The DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed the MACS-Himalaya, a custom built Modular Aerial Camera System specifically designed for the extreme geometric (steep slopes) and radiometric (high contrast) conditions of high mountain areas. It has an overall field of view of 116° across-track consisting of a nadir and two oblique looking RGB camera heads and a fourth nadir looking near-infrared camera. This design provides the capability to fly along narrow valleys and simultaneously cover ground and steep valley flank topography with similar ground resolution. To compensate for extreme contrasts between fresh snow and dark shadows in high altitudes a High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was implemented, which typically takes a sequence of 3 images with graded integration times, each covering 12 bit radiometric depth, resulting in a total dynamic range of 15-16 bit. This enables dense image matching and interpretation for sunlit snow and glaciers as well as for dark shaded rock faces in the same scene. Small and lightweight industrial grade camera heads are used and operated at a rate of 3.3 frames per second with 3-step HDR, which is sufficient to achieve a longitudinal overlap of approximately 90% per exposure time at 1,000 m above ground at a velocity of 180 km/h. Direct georeferencing and multitemporal monitoring without the need of ground control points is possible due to the use of a high end GPS/INS system, a stable calibrated inner geometry of the camera heads and a fully photogrammetric workflow at DLR. In 2014 a survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried in a wingpod by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at altitudes up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced in regions and outcrops normally inaccessible to

  14. Ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under impact: experimental analysis of the mechanical response in extreme conditions and modelling using the Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin; Pontiroli, Christophe; Buzaud, Eric

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the vulnerability of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) infrastructure to rigid projectile penetration, over the last few years CEA-Gramat has led an experimental and numerical research programme in collaboration with French universities. During the penetration process, concrete is subjected to extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate. Plasticity mechanisms as well as dynamic tensile and/or shear damage are activated during the tunnelling phase and the cratering of the concrete target. Each mechanism has been investigated independently at the laboratory scale and the role of steel fibres especially has been analysed to understand their influence on the macroscopic behaviour. To extend the experimental results to the structural scale, penetration tests on UHPFRC slabs have been conducted by CEA-Gramat. The analysis of this dataset combined with material characterization experiments allows the role of steel fibres to be identified in the different plasticity and damage mechanisms occurring during penetration. In parallel, some improvements have been introduced into the concrete model developed by Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars (PRM model), especially to take into account the contribution made by the fibres in the tensile fracture process. After a primary phase of validation, the capabilities of the PRM model are illustrated by performing numerical simulations of projectile penetration into UHPFRC concrete structures. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  15. Ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under impact: experimental analysis of the mechanical response in extreme conditions and modelling using the Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin; Pontiroli, Christophe; Buzaud, Eric

    2017-01-28

    To evaluate the vulnerability of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) infrastructure to rigid projectile penetration, over the last few years CEA-Gramat has led an experimental and numerical research programme in collaboration with French universities. During the penetration process, concrete is subjected to extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate. Plasticity mechanisms as well as dynamic tensile and/or shear damage are activated during the tunnelling phase and the cratering of the concrete target. Each mechanism has been investigated independently at the laboratory scale and the role of steel fibres especially has been analysed to understand their influence on the macroscopic behaviour. To extend the experimental results to the structural scale, penetration tests on UHPFRC slabs have been conducted by CEA-Gramat. The analysis of this dataset combined with material characterization experiments allows the role of steel fibres to be identified in the different plasticity and damage mechanisms occurring during penetration. In parallel, some improvements have been introduced into the concrete model developed by Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars (PRM model), especially to take into account the contribution made by the fibres in the tensile fracture process. After a primary phase of validation, the capabilities of the PRM model are illustrated by performing numerical simulations of projectile penetration into UHPFRC concrete structures.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  16. Tribological behaviour of plasma nitrided cast iron D6510 and cast steel S0050A under the inclined-impact sliding condition with extremely high contact pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, J.; Nie, X.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma nitriding as a surface modification was applied on two substrate materials: cast iron D6510 and cast steel S0050A. After measurement of the friction coefficients of the treated samples using a pin-on-disc tribotester, an inclined impact-sliding wear tester was utilized to investigate their tribological behaviour under tilting contact with extremely high contact pressure. While numerous surface fatigue cracks, severe chipping, and peeling of the compound layer were observed for the treated cast steel sample, the treated cast iron sample had far fewer surface fatigue cracks without chipping or peeling of the compound at the same test condition. The governing mechanisms of the treated cast iron sample’s superior resistance to surface fatigue failure were revealed by studying the cross-sectional hardness and nitrogen concentration profile. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated that the treated cast iron sample had a smaller nitrogen concentration gradient, which led to a smaller hardness gradient as measured. The results suggest that a smaller hardness gradient between the compound layer and the diffusion zone and a thicker hardened case was able to improve the wear resistance and surface fatigue cracking resistance against high contact loads. Moreover, the smaller friction coefficient of the treated cast iron sample could also be beneficial for improving the wear resistance.

  17. Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, R. Norris; Gibson, Carl H.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent ki- netic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >1025 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because "dark-energy" antigravity forces vanish when infla- tion ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoids produce weak tur- bulence until the plasma-gas transition give chains of protogalaxies with the morphology of tur- bulence. Chain galaxy clusters observed at large redshifts ~8.6 support this interpretation. Pro- togalaxies fragment into clumps, each with a trillion Earth-mass H-He gas planets. These make stars, supernovae, the first chemicals, the first oceans and the first life soon after the cosmologi- cal event.

  18. Crenarchaeal biofilm formation under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koerdt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. CONCLUSION: The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

  19. Atomistic Simulations of Material Properties under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi

    Extreme conditions involve low or high temperatures (> 1500 K), high pressures (> 30 MPa), high strains or strain rates, high radiation fluxes (> 100 dpa), and high electromagnetic fields (> 15T). Material properties under extreme conditions can be extremely different from those under normal conditions. Understanding material properties and performance under extreme conditions, including their dynamic evolution over time, plays an essential role in improving material properties and developing novel materials with desired properties. To understand material properties under extreme conditions, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with recently developed reactive force fields (ReaxFF) and traditional embedded atom methods (EAM) potentials to examine various materials (e.g., energetic materials and binary liquids) and processes. The key results from the simulations are summarized below. Anisotropic sensitivity of RDX crystals: Based on the compress-and-shear reactive dynamics (CS-RD) simulations of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) crystals, we predict that for mechanical shocks between 3 and 7 GPa, RDX is the most sensitive to shocks perpendicular to the (100) and (210) planes, while it is insensitive to those perpendicular to the (120), (111), and (110) planes. The simulations demonstrate that the molecular origin of anisotropic shock sensitivity is the steric hindrance to shearing of adjacent slip planes. Mechanisms of hotspot formation in polymer bonded explosives (PBXs): The simulations of a realistic model of PBXs reveal that hotspots may form at the nonplanar interfaces where shear relaxation leads to a dramatic temperature increase that persists long after the shock front has passed the interface. For energetic materials this temperature increase is coupled to chemical reactions that eventually lead to detonation. We show that decreasing the density of the binder eliminates the hotspots or reduces the sensitivity. Cavitation in binary metallic liquids

  20. Prebiotic cell membranes that survive extreme environmental pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shobhna; Berghaus, Melanie; Suladze, Saba; Prumbaum, Daniel; Grobelny, Sebastian; Degen, Patrick; Raunser, Stefan; Winter, Roland

    2014-08-04

    Attractive candidates for compartmentalizing prebiotic cells are membranes comprised of single-chain fatty acids. It is generally believed that life may have originated in the depth of the protoocean, that is, under high hydrostatic pressure conditions, but the structure and physical-chemical properties of prebiotic membranes under such conditions have not yet been explored. We report the temperature- and pressure-dependent properties of membranes composed of prebiotically highly-plausible lipids and demonstrate that prebiotic membranes could not only withstand extreme temperatures, but also serve as robust models of protocells operating in extreme pressure environments. We show that pressure not only increases the stability of vesicular systems but also limits their flexibility and permeability to solutes, while still keeping the membrane in an overall fluid-like and thus functional state. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric JIGUET, Lluis BROTONS, Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate [Current Zoology 57 (3: 406–413, 2011].

  2. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frédéric JIGUET; Lluis BROTONS; Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-01-01

    Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. Soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes) have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate.

  3. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymantas Kazys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%.

  4. Relativistic QED Plasma at Extremely High Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2016-01-01

    Renormalization scheme of QED (Quantum Electrodynamics) at high temperatures is used to calculate the effective parameters of relativistic plasma in the early universe. Renormalization constants of QED play role of effective parameters of the theory and can be used to determine the collective behavior of the medium. We explicitly show that the dielectric constant, magnetic reluctivity, Debye length and the plasma frequency depend on temperature in the early universe. Propagation speed, refractive index, plasma frequency and Debye shielding length of a QED plasma are computed at extremely high temperatures in the early universe. We also found the favorable conditions for the relativistic plasma from this calculations.

  5. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  6. [Guidelines on asthma in extreme environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Franchek; Borderías Clau, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic disease which, if not properly controlled, can limit the patient's activities and lifestyle. In recent decades, owing to the diffusion of educational materials, the application of clinical guidelines and, most importantly, the availability of effective pharmacological treatment, most patients with asthma are now able to lead normal lives. Significant social changes have also taken place during the same period, including more widespread pursuit of sporting activities and tourism. As a result of these changes, individuals with asthma can now participate in certain activities that were inconceivable for these patients only a few years ago, including winter sports, underwater activities, air flight, and travel to remote places with unusual environmental conditions (deserts, high mountain environments, and tropical regions). In spite of the publication of several studies on this subject, our understanding of the effects of these situations on patients with asthma is still limited. The Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) has decided to publish these recommendations based on the available evidence and expert opinion in order to provide information on this topic to both doctors and patients and to avert potentially dangerous situations that could endanger the lives of these patients.

  7. The Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Bob

    2015-06-01

    The last five years have seen the commissioning of and first user experiments on both the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Stanford, and more are slated to come online in the next couple of years . The high photon frequency (i.e. larger than the plasma frequency of solid density), short pulse length (i.e. 10s to 100s of femtoseconds) and large photon number per pulse (i.e. 1012 photons per pulse) make it an ideal source to create and study states of matter at high energy density, a long-standing scientific challenge. Indeed, while matter in extreme conditions, which for the purpose of this talk we define as states under pressure up to hundreds of GPa and with temperatures ranging between 1eV and 1000eV, has been studied through dynamic shock compression and there has been significant progress made over many decades. However, large uncertainties still exist in the atomic structure and crystallographic structure, existence of high pressure phases, scattering factors, and equation of state of matter in extreme conditions. The Matter in Extreme Condition (MEC) instrument at LCLS is designed to overcome the unique experimental challenges that the study of matter in extreme conditions bring. It combines a suite of diagnostics and high power and energy optical lasers, which are standard fare in this research field, with the unmatched LCLS X-ray beam, to create an instrument that will be at the forefront of, and have a major impact on MEC science, in particular in the field of high pressure, warm dense matter, high energy density, and ultra-high intensity laser-matter interaction studies. The LCLS beam allows for unique investigation in all these extreme states using diagnostic methods such as X-ray Thomson Scattering, X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray phase-contrast imaging, and pumping specific absorption lines to study (dense) plasma kinetics. Augmented with optical

  8. Large Chip Production Mechanism under the Extreme Load Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianli; HE Genghuang; YAN Fugang; CHENG Yaonan; LIU Li

    2015-01-01

    There has existed a great deal of theory researches in term of chip production and chip breaking characteristics under conventional cutting and high speed cutting conditions, however, there isn’t sufficient research on chip formation mechanism as well as its influence on cutting state regarding large workpieces under extreme load cutting. This paper presents a model of large saw-tooth chip through applying finite element simulation method, which gives a profound analysis about the characteristics of the extreme load cutting as well as morphology and removal of the large chip. In the meantime, a calculation formula that gives a quantitative description of the saw-tooth level regarding the large chip is established on the basis of cutting experiments on high temperature and high strength steel 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V. The cutting experiments are carried out by using the scanning electron microscope and super depth of field electron microscope to measure and calculate the large chip produced under different cutting parameters, which can verify the validity of the established model. The calculating results show that the large saw-toothed chip is produced under the squeezing action between workpiece and cutting tools. In the meanwhile, the chip develops a hardened layer where contacts the cutting tool and the saw-tooth of the chip tend to form in transverse direction. This research creates the theoretical model for large chip and performs the cutting experiments under the extreme load cutting condition, as well as analyzes the production mechanism of the large chip in the macro and micro conditions. Therefore, the proposed research could provide theoretical guidance and technical support in improving productivity and cutting technology research.

  9. X-ray diffraction at Matter in Extreme Conditions endstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhou; Galtier, Eric; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob

    2015-11-01

    Understanding dynamic response at the atomic level under extreme conditions is highly sought after goal to science frontiers studying warm dense matter, high pressure, geoscience, astrophysics, and planetary science. Thus it is of importance to determine the high pressure phases or metastable phases of material under shock compression. In situ X-ray diffraction technique using LCLS free electron laser X-ray is a powerful tool to record structural behavior and microstructure evolution in dense matter. Shock-induced compression and phase transitions of material lead to changes of the lattice spacing or evolution of new X-ray diffraction patterns. In this talk, we describe a platform dedicated for the X-ray diffraction studies at Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC), which can be used to reconstruct a complete diffraction pattern from numerous detectors, optimize detector positioning in a timely manner, extract the lattice spacing profiles and texture features. This platform is available to the user community for real-time analysis. We will also discuss experimental results, using this platform, on the crystalline silicon phase transitions up to 60 GPa.

  10. Triticale in the years with extreme weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nožinić Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other grain crops, the area under triticale in the Republic of Srpska has been expanding every year. Since the introduction of this plant species in the broad production began a few years ago, the finding of the optimal variety agrotechnique in different environmental conditions has great importance. This paper deals with the results of the trials from seven locations in two very extreme vegetation seasons (2002/03, 2006/07. High yield of triticale on the location Banja Luka (150 m alt. with five triticale varieties in four sowing rates in the replication trial in very unfavorable weather conditions in 2003, points to emphasized triticale tolerance to high temperatures and drought. High grain yield of triticale in the trials on the locations Banja Luka, Butmir (460 m alt. and Živince (230 m alt. was obtained in 2007 too, when all vegetation months had higher mean temperature than long term average, what is a unique appearance in the entire 'meteorological history'. In the paper the appearance of the earliest triticale heading is described and explained. It happened at one production trial on Manjača (250 m alt. in the first decade of March in 2007. On the another location on Manjača (450 m alt., in the macrotrial, rye showed much higher tolerance to extreme soil acidity, than triticale. Obtained results and unusual appearances on triticale are helpful for the further research of the stability and adaptability of more important triticale traits. .

  11. Numerical modeling of materials under extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The book presents twelve state of the art contributions in the field of numerical modeling of materials subjected to large strain, high strain rates, large pressure and high stress triaxialities, organized into two sections. The first part is focused on high strain rate-high pressures such as those occurring in impact dynamics and shock compression related phenomena, dealing with material response identification, advanced modeling incorporating microstructure and damage, stress waves propagation in solids and structures response under impact. The latter part is focused on large strain-low strain rates applications such as those occurring in technological material processing, dealing with microstructure and texture evolution, material response at elevated temperatures, structural behavior under large strain and multi axial state of stress.

  12. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor under extreme conditions (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Sierra, J.D.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors ensure biomass retention by the application of micro or ultrafiltration processes. This allows operation at high sludge concentrations. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic membrane bioreactors is an efficient way to retain specialist microorganisms for treating wastewater

  13. Effective interactions for extreme isospin conditions; Interactions effectives pour des conditions extremes d`isospin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanat, E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main goal in nuclear physics research is the study of nuclei in extreme conditions of spin and isospin. The more performing tools for theoretical predictions in this field are microscopic methods such as the Hartree-Fock one based on independent particle approximation. The main ingredient for such an approach is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The actual trend being the study of nuclei more and more far from the stability valley, it is necessary to cast doubt over the validity of usual effective interaction. This work constitute a study on the way one can construct a new interaction allowing some theoretical predictions on nuclei far from the stability. We have thus made a complete study of symmetric infinite nuclear matter and asymmetric one up to pure neutron matter. One shows that the asymmetry coefficient, which was considered until now as fixing isospin properties, is not sufficient to have a correct description of very exotic isospin states. A new type of constraint is shown for fixing this degree of freedom: the neutron matter equation of state. One include this equation of state, taken from a theoretical model giving a good description of radii and masses of neutron stars. One can thus expect to build up new Skyrme interaction with realistic properties of ground state of very neutron-rich nuclei. (author). 63 refs., 68 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Extreme fog events in Poland with respect to circulation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustrnul, Z.; Czekierda, D.; Wypych, A.

    2010-09-01

    Fog is a phenomenon which belongs to a group of so-called hydrometeorites and, according to the different dictionaries, it is a suspension of water droplets or ice crystals in the ground layer of the air that impairs visibility in the horizontal direction below 1 km. The phenomenon of fog, although much less dynamic or violent than other extreme phenomena, such as thunderstorms or hail, is equally dangerous and brings about huge social and economic complications. Land and air transportation suffer and fog may sometimes leads to a complete crippling of the whole economy in an area where fog occurs. The main objective of the study is determination of the circulation types bringing extreme fog events in Poland. The duration of fog at each meteorological station was considered as the main input data originated from 54 synoptic stations located across the country. The mentioned data series cover the period of 56 years (1951-2006). The occurrence of fog depends on meteorological conditions caused to a large extent by a given synoptic situation and local terrain conditions. In this study, according to its objectives, only circulation conditions are taken into consideration. These have been described by 5 different circulation classifications (Grosswetterlagen, Litynski, Osuchowska-Klein, Niedzwiedz and Ustrnul). Situations when this phenomenon occurred across a large part of the country were taken into detailed consideration. Special attention was paid to fog coverage during 24-hour periods. In this work, in light of certain doubts about the homogeneity of the observation material available, the intensity of fog was not included, as it requires additional and very tedious analysis. In the first step all cases of fog during the 1966-2006 study period which lasted 24 hours at more than 10 of the considered weather stations, i.e: at least 5 stations have been considered. As expected, in most cases, either a centre of a classical high pressure system or a high pressure wedge

  15. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional

  16. Variance swap payoffs, risk premia and extreme market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    This paper estimates the Variance Risk Premium (VRP) directly from synthetic variance swap payoffs. Since variance swap payoffs are highly volatile, we extract the VRP by using signal extraction techniques based on a state-space representation of our model in combination with a simple economic...... constraint. Our approach, only requiring option implied volatilities and daily returns for the underlying, provides measurement error free estimates of the part of the VRP related to normal market conditions, and allows constructing variables indicating agents' expectations under extreme market conditions....... The latter variables and the VRP generate different return predictability on the major US indices. A factor model is proposed to extract a market VRP which turns out to be priced when considering Fama and French portfolios....

  17. Material dynamics under extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A; Allen, P; Bringa, E; Hawreliak, J; Ho, D; Lorenz, K T; Lorenzana, H; Meyers, M A; Pollaine, S W; Rosolankova, K; Sadik, B; Schneider, M S; Swift, D; Wark, J; Yaakobi, B

    2005-09-06

    Solid state experiments at extreme pressures (10-100 GPa) and strain rates ({approx}10{sup 6}-10{sup 8}s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities, and offer the possibility for exploring new regimes of materials science. These extreme solid-state conditions can be accessed with either shock loading or with a quasi-isentropic ramped pressure drive. Velocity interferometer measurements establish the high pressure conditions. Constitutive models for solid-state strength under these conditions are tested by comparing 2D continuum simulations with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples. Lattice compression, phase, and temperature are deduced from extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, from which the shock-induced {alpha}-{omega} phase transition in Ti and the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition in Fe are inferred to occur on sub-nanosec time scales. Time resolved lattice response and phase can also be measured with dynamic x-ray diffraction measurements, where the elastic-plastic (1D-3D) lattice relaxation in shocked Cu is shown to occur promptly (< 1 ns). Subsequent large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations elucidate the microscopic dynamics that underlie the 3D lattice relaxation. Deformation mechanisms are identified by examining the residual microstructure in recovered samples. The slip-twinning threshold in single-crystal Cu shocked along the [001] direction is shown to occur at shock strengths of {approx}20 GPa, whereas the corresponding transition for Cu shocked along the [134] direction occurs at higher shock strengths. This slip-twinning threshold also depends on the stacking fault energy (SFE), being lower for low SFE materials. Designs have been developed for achieving much higher pressures, P > 1000 GPa, in the solid state on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser.

  18. Observational Simulation of Icing in Extreme Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Komar, John; Elfstrom, Garry; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2017-04-01

    Observations and prediction of icing in extreme weather conditions are important for aviation, transportation, and shipping applications, and icing adversely affects the economy. Icing environments can be studied either in the outdoor atmosphere or in the laboratory. There have been several aircraft based in-situ studies related to weather conditions affecting aviation operations, transportation, and marine shipping that includes icing, wind, and turbulence. However, studying severe weather conditions from aircraft observations are limited due to safety and sampling issues, instrumental uncertainties, and even the possibility of aircraft producing its own physical and dynamical effects. Remote sensing based techniques (e.g. retrieval techniques) for studying severe weather conditions represent usually a volume that cannot characterize the important scales and also represents indirect observations. Therefore, laboratory simulations of atmospheric processes can help us better understand the interactions among microphysical and dynamical processes. The Climatic Wind Tunnel (CWT) in ACE at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) has a large semi-open jet test chamber with flow area 7-13 m2 that can precisely control temperatures down to -40°C, and up to 250 km hr-1 wind speeds, for heavy or dry snow conditions with low visibility, similar to ones observed in the Arctic and cold climate regions, or at high altitude aeronautical conditions. In this study, the ACE CWT employed a spray nozzle array suspended in its settling chamber and fed by pressurized water, creating various particle sizes from a few microns up to mm size range. This array, together with cold temperature and high wind speed, enabled simulation of severe weather conditions, including icing, visibility, strong wind and turbulence, ice fog and frost, freezing fog, heavy snow and blizzard conditions. In this study, the test results will be summarized, and their application to aircraft

  19. Crystallization conditions of porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the extreme northeastern Borborema Province, NE Brazil, and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Benedita Cleide Souza; Vilalva, Frederico Castro Jobim; Nascimento, Marcos Antônio Leite do; Galindo, Antônio Carlos

    2016-10-01

    An integrated textural and chemical study on amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, titanite, epidote, and magnetite was conducted in order to estimate crystallization conditions, along with possible geodynamic implications, for six Ediacaran porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granite plutons (Monte das Gameleiras, Barcelona, Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha) intrusive into Archean to Paleoproterozoic rocks of the São José do Campestre (SJCD) and Rio Piranhas-Seridó (RPSD) domains, northern Borborema Province. The studied rocks include mainly porphyritic leucocratic monzogranites, as well as quartz-monzonites and granodiorites. Textures are marked by K-feldspar megacrysts (5-15 cm long) in a fine-to medium-grained matrix composed of quartz, plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, as well as titanite, epidote, Fesbnd Ti oxides, allanite, apatite, and zircon as accessory minerals. Amphibole, biotite and titanite share similar compositional variations defined by increasing Al and Fe, and decreasing Mg contents from the plutons emplaced into the SJCP (Monte das Gameleiras and Barcelona) towards those in the RPSD (Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha). Estimated intensive crystallization parameters reveal a weak westward range of increasing depth of emplacement, pressure and temperature in the study area. The SJCD plutons (to the east) crystallized at shallower crustal depths (14-21 km), under slightly lower pressure (3.8-5.5 kbar) and temperature (701-718 °C) intervals, and high to moderate oxygen fugacity conditions (+0.8 plutons (to the west) were emplaced at slightly deeper depths (18-23 km), under higher, yet variable pressures (4.8-6.2 kbar), temperatures (723-776 °C), and moderate to low oxygen fugacity conditions (-1.0 < ΔFQM < +1.8). These results reinforce the contrasts between the tectono-strutuctural domains of São José do Campestre and Rio Piranhas-Seridó in the northern Borborema Province.

  20. Directional analysis of extreme winds under mixed climate conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 European-African Conference on Wind Engineering 2013, Robinson College, Cambridge, July 2013 Directional Analysis of Extreme Winds under Mixed Climate Conditions *Andries Kruger1, Adam Goliger2 and Johan Retief3 1Climate Service, South African...

  1. Host-parasite interactions under extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. MARTINEZ; S. MERINO

    2011-01-01

    The effect that climatic changes can exert on parasitic interactions represents a multifactor problem whose results are difficult to predict. The actual impact of changes will depend on their magnitude and the physiological tolerance of affected organisms. When the change is considered extreme (I.e. Unusual weather events that are at the extremes of the historical distribution for a given area), the probability of an alteration in an organisms' homeostasis increases dramatically. However, factors determining the altered dynamics of host-parasite interactions due to an extreme change are the same as those acting in response to changes of lower magnitude. Only a deep knowledge of these factors will help to produce more accurate predictive models for the effects of extreme changes on parasitic interactions. Extreme environmental conditions may affect pathogens directly when they include free-living stages in their life-cycles and indirectly through reduced resource availability for hosts and thus reduced ability to produce efficient anti-parasite defenses, or by effects on host density affecting transmission dynamics of diseases or the frequency of intraspecific contact. What are the consequences for host-parasite interactions? Here we summarize the present knowledge on three principal factors in determining host-parasite associations; biodiversity, population density and immunocompetence. In addition, we analyzed examples of the effects of environmental alteration of anthropogenic origin on parasitic systems because the effects are analogous to that exerted by an extreme climatic change.

  2. Uncertainties in extreme precipitation under climate change conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    of adaptation strategies, but these changes are subject to uncertainties. The focus of this PhD thesis is the quantification of uncertainties in changes in extreme precipitation. It addresses two of the main sources of uncertainty in climate change impact studies: regional climate models (RCMs) and statistical...... by extreme precipitation pose a threat to human life and cause high economic losses for society. Thus, strategies to adapt to changes in extreme precipitation are currently being developed and established worldwide. Information on the expected changes in extreme precipitation is required for the development...... downscaling methods (SDMs). RCMs provide information on climate change at the regional scale. SDMs are used to bias-correct and downscale the outputs of the RCMs to the local scale of interest in adaptation strategies. In the first part of the study, a multi-model ensemble of RCMs from the European ENSEMBLES...

  3. Fast temperature spectrometer for samples under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E Ercan; Toellner, Thomas S; Hu, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multi-wavelength Fast Temperature Readout (FasTeR) spectrometer to capture a sample's transient temperature fluctuations, and reduce uncertainties in melting temperature determination. Without sacrificing accuracy, FasTeR features a fast readout rate (about 100 Hz), high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and a well-constrained focus. Complimenting a charge-coupled device spectrometer, FasTeR consists of an array of photomultiplier tubes and optical dichroic filters. The temperatures determined by FasTeR outside of the vicinity of melting are, generally, in good agreement with results from the charge-coupled device spectrometer. Near melting, FasTeR is capable of capturing transient temperature fluctuations, at least on the order of 300 K/s. A software tool, SIMFaster, is described and has been developed to simulate FasTeR and assess design configurations. FasTeR is especially suitable for temperature determinations that utilize ultra-fast techniques under extreme conditions. Working in parallel with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we have applied the FasTeR spectrometer to measure the melting temperature of (57)Fe0.9Ni0.1 at high pressure.

  4. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  5. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  6. Conditional probability of rainfall extremes across multiple durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Dong; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2017-04-01

    The conditional probability that extreme rainfall will occur at one location given that it is occurring at another location is critical in engineering design and management circumstances including planning of evacuation routes and the sitting of emergency infrastructure. A challenge with this conditional simulation is that in many situations the interest is not so much the conditional distributions of rainfall of the same duration at two locations, but rather the conditional distribution of flooding in two neighbouring catchments, which may be influenced by rainfall of different critical durations. To deal with this challenge, a model that can consider both spatial and duration dependence of extremes is required. The aim of this research is to develop a model that can take account both spatial dependence and duration dependence into the dependence structure of extreme rainfalls. To achieve this aim, this study is a first attempt at combining extreme rainfall for multiple durations within a spatial extreme model framework based on max-stable process theory. Max-stable processes provide a general framework for modelling multivariate extremes with spatial dependence for just a single duration extreme rainfall. To achieve dependence across multiple timescales, this study proposes a new approach that includes addition elements representing duration dependence of extremes to the covariance matrix of max-stable model. To improve the efficiency of calculation, a re-parameterization proposed by Koutsoyiannis et al. (1998) is used to reduce the number of parameters necessary to be estimated. This re-parameterization enables the GEV parameters to be represented as a function of timescale. A stepwise framework has been adopted to achieve the overall aims of this research. Firstly, the re-parameterization is used to define a new set of common parameters for marginal distribution across multiple durations. Secondly, spatial interpolation of the new parameter set is used to

  7. Focusing adaptive-optics for neutron spectroscopy at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeoni, G. G., E-mail: ggsimeoni@outlook.com [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E13, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Valicu, R. G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E13, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borchert, G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Böni, P. [Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rasmussen, N. G. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yang, F.; Kordel, T.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Kargl, F.; Meyer, A. [Institut für Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, D-51170 Köln (Germany)

    2015-12-14

    Neutron Spectroscopy employing extreme-conditions sample environments is nowadays a crucial tool for the understanding of fundamental scientific questions as well as for the investigation of materials and chemical-physical properties. For all these kinds of studies, an increased neutron flux over a small sample area is needed. The prototype of a focusing neutron guide component, developed and produced completely at the neutron source FRM II in Garching (Germany), has been installed at the time-of-flight (TOF) disc-chopper neutron spectrometer TOFTOF and came into routine-operation. The design is based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept for finite-size divergent sources. It represents a unique device combining the supermirror technology with Adaptive Optics, suitable for broad-bandwidth thermal-cold TOF neutron spectroscopy (here optimized for 1.4–10 Å). It is able to squeeze the beam cross section down to a square centimeter, with a more than doubled signal-to-background ratio, increased efficiency at high scattering angles, and improved symmetry of the elastic resolution function. We present a comparison between the simulated and measured beam cross sections, as well as the performance of the instrument within real experiments. This work intends to show the unprecedented opportunities achievable at already existing instruments, along with useful guidelines for the design and construction of next-generation neutron spectrometers.

  8. Orographic Signature on Multiscale Statistics of Extreme Rainfall: Conditional downscaling with emphasis on extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ebtehaj, M.

    2010-09-01

    Rainfall intensity and spatio-temporal patterns often show a strong dependency on the underlying terrain. The main objective of this work is to study the statistical signature imprinted by orography on the spatial structure of rainfall and its temporal evolution at multiple scales, with the aim to develop a consistent theoretical basis for conditional downscaling of precipitation given the topographic information of the underlying terrain. The results of an extensive analysis of the high resolution stage II Doppler radar data of the Rapidan storm, June 1995, over the Appalachian Mountains is reported in this study. The orographic signature on the elementary statistical structure of the precipitation fields is studied via a variable-intensity thresholding scheme. This signature is further explored at multiple scales via analysis of the dependence of precipitation fields on the underlying terrain both in Fourier and Wavelet domains. The Generalized Normal distribution is found to be a suitable probability model to explain the variability of the rainfall wavelet coefficients and its dependence on the underlying elevations. These results provide a new perspective for more accurate statistical downscaling of the orographic precipitation over complex terrain with emphasis on extremes.

  9. Thorium Chemistry in Oxo-Tellurium System under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bin; Kegler, Philip; Bosbach, Dirk; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2017-03-06

    Through the use of a high-temperature/high-pressure synthesis method, four thorium oxo-tellurium compounds with different tellurium valence states were isolated. The novel inorganic phases illustrate the intrinsic complexity of the actinide tellurium chemistry under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. Th2Te3O11 is the first instance of a mixed-valent oxo-tellurium compound, and at the same time, Te exhibits three different coordination environments (Te(IV)O3, Te(IV)O4, and Te(VI)O6) within a single structure. These three types of Te polyhedra are further fused together, resulting in a [Te3O11](8-) fragment. Na4Th2(Te(VI)3O15) and K2Th(Te(VI)O4)3 are the first alkaline thorium tellurates described in the literature. Both compounds are constructed from ThO9 tricapped trigonal prisms and Te(VI)O6 octahedra. Na4Th2(Te(VI)3O15) is a three-dimensional framework based on Th2O15 and Te2O10 dimers, while K2Th(Te(VI)O4)3 contains tungsten oxide bronze like Te layers linked by ThO9 polyhedra. The structure of β-Th(Te(IV)O3)(SO4) is built from infinite thorium chains cross-linked by Te(IV)O3(2-) and SO4(2-) anions. Close structural analysis suggests that β-Th(Te(IV)O3)(SO4) is highly related to the structure of α-Th(SeO4)2. Additionally, the Raman spectra are recorded and the characteristic peaks are assigned based on a comparison of reported tellurites or tellurates.

  10. The Reactivity of Energetic Materials At Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, L E

    2006-10-23

    shock conditions, for example, energetic materials undergo rapid heating to a few thousand degrees and are subjected to a compression of hundreds of kilobars, resulting in almost 30% volume reduction. Complex chemical reactions are thus initiated, in turn releasing large amounts of energy to sustain the detonation process. Clearly, understanding of the various chemical events at these extreme conditions is essential in order to build predictive material models. Scientific investigations into the reactive process have been undertaken over the past two decades. However, the sub-{micro}s time scale of explosive reactions, in addition to the highly exothermic conditions of an explosion, make experimental investigation of the decomposition pathways difficult at best. More recently, new computational approaches to investigate condensed-phase reactivity in energetic materials have been developed. Here we focus on two different approaches to condensed-phase reaction modeling: chemical equilibrium methods and atomistic modeling of condensed-phase reactions. These are complementary approaches to understanding the chemical reactions of high explosives. Chemical equilibrium modeling uses a highly simplified thermodynamic picture of the reaction process, leading to a convenient and predictive model of detonation and other decomposition processes. Chemical equilibrium codes are often used in the design of new materials, both at the level of synthesis chemistry and formulation. Atomistic modeling is a rapidly emerging area. The doubling of computational power approximately every 18 months has made atomistic condensed-phase modeling more feasible. Atomistic calculations employ far fewer empirical parameters than chemical equilibrium calculations. Nevertheless, the atomistic modeling of chemical reactions requires an accurate global Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Traditionally, such a surface is constructed by representing the potential energy surface with an analytical fit

  11. Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incera, Vivian [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Ferrer, Efrain [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report “Reaching for the Horizon” has been “to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.” The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.

  12. Extreme Conditioning Programs: Potential Benefits and Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit, Insanity, Gym Jones, and P90X are examples of extreme conditioning programs (ECPs). ECPs typically involve high-volume and high-intensity physical activities with short rest periods between movements and use of multiple joint exercises. Data on changes in fitness with ECPs are limited to CrossFit investigations that demonstrated improvements in muscle strength, muscular endurance, aerobic fitness, and body composition. However, no study has directly compared CrossFit or other ECPs to other more traditional forms of aerobic and resistance training within the same investigation. These direct comparisons are needed to more adequately evaluate the effectiveness of ECPs. Until these studies emerge, the comparisons with available literature suggest that improvements in CrossFit, in terms of muscular endurance (push-ups, sit-ups), strength, and aerobic capacity, appear to be similar to those seen in more traditional training programs. Investigations of injuries in ECPs are limited to two observational studies that suggest that the overall injury rate is similar to that seen in other exercise programs. Several cases of rhabdomyolysis and cervical carotid artery dissections have been reported during CrossFit training. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these are reviewed here. Until more data on ECPs emerge, physical training should be aligned with US Army doctrine. If ECPs are included in exercise programs, trainers should (1) have appropriate training certifications, (2) inspect exercise equipment regularly to assure safety, (3) introduce ECPs to new participants, (4) ensure medical clearance of Soldiers with special health problems before participation in ECPs, (4) tailor ECPs to the individual Soldier, (5) adjust rest periods to optimize recovery and reduce fatigue, (6) monitor Soldiers for signs of overtraining, rhabdomyolysis, and other problems, and (7) coordinate exercise programs with other unit training activities to eliminate redundant activities

  13. The dissociation constant of water at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Otto; Giacomazzi, Luigi; Pinilla, C.; Scandolo, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    Only one out of 107 water molecules is dissociated in liquid water at ambient conditions, but the concentration of dissociated molecules increases with pressure ad temperature, and water eventually reaches a fully dissociated state when pressure exceeds 50-100 GPa and temperature reaches a few thousand Kelvin. The behavior of the dissociation constant of water (pKa) at conditions intermediate between ambient and the fully dissociated state is poorly known. Yet, the water pKa is a parameter of primary importance in the aqueous geochemistry as it controls the solubility of ions in geological fluids. We present results of molecular dynamics calculations of the pKa water at extreme conditions. Free-energy differences between the undissociated and the dissociated state are calculated by thermodynamic integration along the dissociation path. The calculations are based on a recently developed all-atom polarizable force-field for water, parametrized on density-functional theory calculations.

  14. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  15. Extremely compliant and highly stretchable patterned graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shuze; Huang, Yinjun; Li, Teng, E-mail: LiT@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Graphene is intrinsically ultra-stiff in its plane. Its huge mechanical mismatch when interfacing with ultra-compliant biological tissues and elastomers (7–9 orders of magnitude difference in stiffness) poses significant challenge in its application to functional devices such as epidermal electronics and sensing prosthesis. We offer a feasible and promising solution to this significant challenge by suitably patterning graphene into a nanomesh. Through systematic coarse-grained simulations, we show that graphene nanomesh can be made extremely compliant with nearly zero stiffness up to about 20% elongation and then remain highly compliant up to about 50% elongation.

  16. [Sports and extreme conditions. Cardiovascular incidence in long term exertion and extreme temperatures (heat, cold)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, B; Savourey, G

    2001-06-30

    During ultra-endurance exercise, both increase in body temperature and dehydration due to sweat losses, lead to a decrease in central blood volume. The heart rate drift allows maintaining appropriate cardiac output, in order to satisfy both muscle perfusion and heat transfer requirements by increasing skin blood flow. The resulting dehydration can impair thermal regulation and increase the risks of serious accidents as heat stroke. Endurance events, lasting more than 8 hours, result in large sweat sodium chloride losses. Thus, ingestion of large amounts of water with poor salt intake can induce symptomatic hyponatremia (plasma sodium extreme condition.

  17. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  18. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  19. Cosmic Matter under Extreme Conditions: CSQCD II Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Wambach, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    After the first meeting in Copenhagen in 2001 QSQCD II is the second workshop in this series dealing with cosmic matter at very high density and its astrophysical implications. The aim is to bring together reseachers in the physics of compact stars, both theoretical and observational. Consequently a broad range of topics was presented, reviewing extremely energetic cosmological events and their relation to the high-density equation of state of strong-interaction matter. This summary elucidates recent progress in the field, as presented by the participants, and comments on pertinent questions for future developments.

  20. Green roof establishment in extreme conditions : two case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothe, R. [Aloha Landscaping, Inc., Mendota Heights, MN (United States); Trichie, J. [Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, MN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Green roof construction in the United States is growing at a rate of 60 to 80 per cent per year. This paper presented two case studies of green roof construction in Minnesota. In both cases, construction and budgeting delays moved the installation of the green roofs from early-May to mid-July. The first case study was a 20,000 square foot extensive green roof on the new Minneapolis Central Library which was completed in 2005. The second case study was a 30,000 square foot extensive green roof on the Mdewakanton Sioux Waste Water Treatment Plant in Shakopee, which was completed in 2006. This paper demonstrated that in order for green roofs to serve the functions for which they were intended, clear guidelines and specifications are needed to ensure that they are healthy. The size and locations of the two roofs were quite different, but they were identical in terms of waterproofing. State-of-the-art inverted hot-applied roof membrane technology was used in both roofs along with sub-surface irrigation systems. A mycorrhizae fungi was used in both cases to amend the growing medium. Both roofs used a diverse pallet of native and traditional sedum plant material. This paper highlighted preventative measures taken to ensure the successful installation and establishment of the two roofs built during extreme heat and drought-like conditions. The positive results confirm that it is possible to install green roofs during extremely harsh summer conditions. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides; however, there remain large uncertainties in characterizing the distribution of these hazards and meteorological triggers at the global scale. Researchers have evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local and regional scale primarily using in situ data, yet few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This research uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurence of precipitation and rainfall-triggered landslides globally. The GLC, available from 2007 to the present, contains information on reported rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world using online media reports, disaster databases, etc. When evaluating this database, we observed that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This research also considers the sources for this extreme rainfall, citing

  2. Proceedings of the second symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The second symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on January 24 to 26, 2000. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as nuclear matter, high-energy nuclear reactions, quantum chromodynamics, supernovae and nucleosynthesis to understand various aspects of hadrons under extreme conditions. The 26 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  4. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John C. WINGFIELD; J. Patrick KELLEY; Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-01-01

    Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a) modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b) reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c) a combination of (a) and (b). Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP) buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11β-hydroxysteroid dehy-drogenase and variants) can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather.

  5. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  6. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  7. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed

  8. Extreme wind conditions for a Danish offshore site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of extreme wind speed gust values measured at a shallow water offshore site and at a coastal onshore site in Denmark. An estimate of 50-year extreme values has been evaluated using a new statistical method. In addition a mean gust shape is determined, based on a la...

  9. Matter under extreme conditions probed by a seeded free-electron-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencivenga, F.; Principi, E.; Cucini, R.; Danailov, M. B.; Demidovich, A.; D’Amico, F.; Di Fonzo, S.; Gessini, A.; Kurdi, N.; Mahne, N.; Raimondi, L.; Zangrando, M.; Masciovecchio, C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Italy); Giangrisostomi, E.; Battistoni, A.; Svetina, C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, Piazzale Europa, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Gunnella, R.; Hatada, K. [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Filipponi, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita' dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); and others

    2015-08-17

    FERMI is the first user dedicated seeded free-electron-laser (FEL) working in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray range. The EIS-TIMEX experimental end-station was availabe to external users since from the beginning of the user operation of the facility, in Dicember 2012. EIS-TIMEX has been conceived to exploit the unique properties of the FERMI source to study matter under extreme and metastable thermodynamic conditions. We hereby report on its basic parameters and applications, which includes very low jitter (i.e., high time resolution) pump-probe measurements.

  10. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating...

  11. 21st century increases in the likelihood of extreme hydrologic conditions for the mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Carrillo, Carlos A.; McIntosh, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Extreme hydrologic conditions, such as floods, droughts, and elevated stream temperatures, significantly impact the societal fabric and ecosystems, and there is rising concern about increases in the frequency of extreme conditions with projected climate changes. Here we ask what changes in the occurrence of extreme hydrologic conditions can be expected by the end of the century for the important water-generating, mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States, namely the Sierra Nevada and Upper Colorado River Basins. The extreme conditions considered are very high flows, low flows, and elevated stream temperature as derived from historic and future simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model and downscaled output from a General Circulation Model ensemble. Results indicate noteworthy differences in the frequency changes of extremes based on geographic region, season, elevation, and stream size. We found wide-spread increases in the occurrence of stream flows exceeding 150% of historic monthly averages for winter by the end of the century, and extensive increases in the occurrence of both extreme low flows (representing 3 °C of monthly averages) during the summer months, with some basins expecting extreme conditions 90-100% of the time by the end of the century. Understanding the differences in the changes of extreme conditions can identify climate-sensitive regions and assist in targeted planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

  12. Proceedings of the third symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The third symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on January 29 to 31, 2001. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of hadron physics such as nuclear matter, high-energy nuclear reactions, quantum chromodynamics, neutron stars, supernovae, nucleosynthesis as well as finite nuclei to understand various aspects of hadrons under extreme conditions. Twenty two papers on these topics presented at the symposium, including a special talk on the present status of JAERI-KEK joint project on high-intensity proton accelerator, aroused lively discussions among approximately 40 participants. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: a multilevel perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-10-01

    Resilience has been conceptualized as a dynamic developmental process encompassing the attainment of positive adaptation within the context of significant threat, severe adversity, or trauma. Until the past decade, the empirical study of resilience predominantly focused on behavioral and psychosocial correlates of, and contributors to, the phenomenon and did not examine neurobiological or genetic correlates of and contributors to resilience. Technological advances in molecular genetics and neuroimaging, and in measuring other biological aspects of behavior, have made it more feasible to begin to conduct research on pathways to resilient functioning from a multilevel perspective. Child maltreatment constitutes a profound immersion in severe stress that challenges and frequently impairs development across diverse domains of biological and psychological functioning. Research on the determinants of resilience in maltreated children is presented as an illustration of empirical work that is moving from single-level to multilevel investigations of competent functioning in the face of adversity and trauma. These include studies of personality, neural, neuroendocrine, and molecular genetic contributors to resilient adaptation. Analogous to neural plasticity that takes place in response to brain injury, it is conjectured that it may be possible to conceptualize resilience as the ability of individuals to recover functioning after exposure to extreme stress. Multilevel randomized control prevention and intervention trials have substantial potential for facilitating the promotion of resilient functioning in diverse high-risk populations that have experienced significant adversity. Determining the multiple levels at which change is engendered through randomized control trials will provide insight into the mechanisms of change, the extent to which neural plasticity may be promoted, and the interrelations between biological and psychological processes in the development of

  14. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. WINGFIELD, J. Patrick KELLEY, Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c a combination of (a and (b. Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and variants can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather [Current Zoology 57 (3: 363–374, 2011].

  15. Thin film composite nanofiltration membranes for extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, Mayur Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on development and performance evaluation of thin film composite (TFC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes, with special attention to extreme pH applications. In Chapter 2 a new method that allows molecular weight cut off (MWCO) characterization of NF membran

  16. Reducing uncertainty in prediction of dune erosion during extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, C.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Van de Graaff, J.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal dunes protect low lying coastal areas against the sea. Extreme waves and water levels during severe storms may cause breaching of the dunes. Consequently, serious damage due to flooding and direct wave attack could occur, resulting in loss of life and property. Proper coastal management impl

  17. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meco, Halim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  18. Life at extreme conditions: Neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joseph (Giuseppe) Zaccai

    2008-10-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37°C) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4°C, 37°C, 75°C and 85°C. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells.

  19. Water-CO2 Mixtures Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, D. L.; Somayazulu, M.

    2010-12-01

    In situ high pressure-temperature Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the formation of clathrates in water-CO2 mixtures and to study the chemical interactions between water and CO2 at supercritical conditions. Diamond anvil cell’s (DAC) were loaded with ruby, water, CO2, and a gold plated gasket. Quartz was later added to the cell as a pressure sensor for supercritical phase analysis. At 25 °C and within the pressure range of 0.8 to 2.6 GPa, no clathrate was observed. Our results confirm recent findings which also dispute claims of clathrate existence at our conditions. A decrease in the temperature required to reach the supercritical phase of water-CO2 mixtures was observed from 0.35 GPa to 4.5 GPa. Furthermore, at 4.4 GPa and 290 °C, a chemical reaction between CO2 and water occurred. The resulting compound has a Raman peak with a frequency shift of 1000 cm-1. This reaction and the compound it produces are of great interest and are currently being investigated.

  20. Life under multiple extreme conditions: diversity and physiology of the halophilic alkalithermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Noha M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-06-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth.

  1. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Träger-Chatterjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture–atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958–2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with

  2. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Müller, R. W.; Bendix, J.

    2013-05-01

    Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958-2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with extremely low precipitation

  3. EXISTENCE OF EXTREME SOLUTION TO FIRST-ORDER IMPULSIVE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH NONLINEAR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the existence of extreme solutions to three-point boundary value problems with nonlinear boundary conditions for a class of first order impulsive differential equations. We obtain suficient conditions for the existence of extreme solutions by the upper and lower solutions method coupled with a monotone iterative technique.

  4. Rational Calibration of Four IEC 61400-1 Extreme External Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2008-01-01

    Based on a set of asymptotic statistical models on closed form this paper presents a rational and consistent calibration of four extreme external conditions defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-1 standard: extreme operating gust, extreme wind shear, extreme coherent...... gust with direction change and extreme wind direction change. These four extreme external conditions are used in the definition of six of the IEC 61400-1 ultimate load cases. The statistical models are based on simple and easily accessible mean wind speed and turbulence characteristics...... of the atmospheric boundary layer. Using the wind climate characteristics prescribed in the IEC 61400-1 standard as input to the set of statistical models ensures consistency between the specified wind climate and the proposed extreme gust magnitudes. Differences and equalities between the present IEC specifications...

  5. Some traits of low temperature germplasm wheat under extremely unfavorable weather conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嵩午; 王长发; 冯佰利; 苗芳; 周春菊; 张荣萍

    2001-01-01

    Through a long-term observation on the canopy temperature and some traits of wheat the temperature germplasm of wheat was found to result in the wheats having either a high or a low plant temperature. Under normal weather conditions, the wheat having a low temperature germplasm (LTG) demonstrated several advantageous physiologi-cal and agronomic traits than those having a high temperature germplasm (HTG). Under the extremely unfavorableweather conditions, such as rainy weather or severe drought, LTG wheat still could maintain its superiority to HTG wheat in physiological and agronomic traits including leaf functional duration, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, root vitality and kernel plumpness. The wide adaptability of LTG wheat to awide range of meteoro-ecological conditions could provide a valuable germplasm in breeding of good strains with broad-spectrum stress resistance.

  6. Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer players in ... and fitness and not wearing shin guards are risk factors for injury in female soccer ... do not differ from the studies done in male adolescent and adult soccer players.

  7. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) is a joint service satellite communications system that provides global , survivable, secure, protected, and jam...three satellites fully integrated into the Milstar constellation. October 2014: On October 16, 2014, the program received PEO certification for the...Combined Orbital Operation, Logistics Sustainment ( COOLS ) contract, it will be completed and coordinated in CY 2016. The AEHF system being sustained

  8. Extremely high Q-factor toroidal metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Basharin, Alexey A; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N; Ustinov, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that, owing to the unique topology of the toroidal dipolar mode, its electric/magnetic field can be spatially confined within subwavelength, externally accessible regions of the metamolecules, which makes the toroidal planar metamaterials a viable platform for high Q-factor resonators due to interfering toroidal and other dipolar modes in metamolecules.

  9. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  10. Innovative Molybdenum Alloy for Extreme Operating Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Molybdenum has been identified as a promising material for many high temperature NASA applications due to its high melting temperature, resistance to liquid metals,...

  11. The Phase-Contrast Imaging Instrument at the Matter in Extreme Conditions Endstation at LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C; Arnold, Brice; Brown, Shaughnessy B; Fry, Alan; Gleason, Arianna; Granados, Eduardo; Hashim, Akel; Hastings, Jerome B; Samberg, Dirk; Seiboth, Frank; Tavella, Franz; Xing, Zhou; Lee, Hae Ja; Schroer, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Phase-Contrast Imaging instrument at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The instrument can image phenomena with a spatial resolution of a few hundreds of nanometers and at the same time reveal the atomic structure through X-ray diffraction, with a temporal resolution better than 100 femtosecond. It was specifically designed for studies relevant to High-Energy-Density Science and can monitor, e.g., shock fronts, phase transitions, or void collapses. This versatile instrument was commissioned last year and is now available to the MEC user community.

  12. Proceedings of the first symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki [eds.

    1999-08-01

    The first symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on March 11 and 12, 1999. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as observation of X-ray pulsars, theoretical studies of nuclear matter, nuclear structure, low- and high-energy nuclear reactions and QCD. Thirty seven papers on these topics presented at the symposium are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Probing the local, electronic and magnetic structure of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torchio, R.; Boccato, S.; Cerantola, V.;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present recent achievements in the field of investigation of the local, electronic and magnetic structure of the matter under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These results were obtained thanks to the coupling of a compact laser heating system to the energy......-dispersive XAS technique available on the ID24 beamline at the ESRF synchrotron. The examples chosen concern the melting and the liquid structure of 3d metals and alloys under high pressures (HPs) and the observation of temperature-induced spin crossover in FeCO3 at HP....

  14. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    and peak enhancement factors, based on cyclonic storm conditions (Wehmeyer et al., 2012). 2. Based on Wehmeyer et al. (2012), a physical model test campaign was drafted, where an industry inspired floating offshore wind turbine was tested (Wehmeyer et al., 2013). 3. A comparison of measured pitch responses...

  15. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  16. Treatment algorithms for high-energy traumas of lower extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-energy traumas are open or closed injuries caused by force (missile, traffic injuries, crush or blust injuries, falling from heights, affecting the body surface and transferring high amount of kinetic energy inducing great damage to the tissue. Management of such lower extremity injuries has evolved over past several decades, but still remains a difficult task for every surgical team. Specific anatomic and functional characteristics combined with extensive injuries demands specific treatment protocols. Multiple injuries In a multiple injured patient the first priority is management of life-threatening trauma. Despite other injuries, surgical treatment of limb-threatening injuries must start as soon as life-threatening condition has been managed. Treatment algorithms Algorithms are especially beneficial in management of severely injured, but salvageable extremities and in making decision on amputation. Insight into mechanisms of injury, as well as systematic examination of the affected limb, should help us understand the extensiveness of trauma and make an adequate management plan. Prevention of infection and surgical approach Prevention of wound infection and surgical approach to high- energy limb trauma, which includes wound extension, wound excision, skeletal stabilization and if necessary muscle compartment release, should be done in the first 6 hours after injury. Methods of soft tissue reconstruction Commonly used methods for soft tissue defects must provide wound coverage in less than five days following injury. Rehabilitation Early passive and active mobilization and verticalization of patients is very important for successful treatment. Conclusion Good and timely evaluation of the injured and collaboration between plastic and orthopedic surgeons from the beginning of treatment, are crucial for final outcome.

  17. The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Jaclyn Nicole; Yang, Jingzhen; Thomas, Geb; Wu, Hongqian; Schiltz, Trisha; Foster, Danny T

    2013-08-01

    Considerable improvement has been made in football field surfaces and types of shoe, yet relatively few epidemiological studies have investigated their roles in the risk of football injuries. This study examined the effects of field surface, surface condition and shoe type on the likelihood of lower extremity football injuries. Deidentified data from 188 players from one division I university football team during the 2007-2010 seasons were analysed. Lower extremity injury rate and rate ratio, along with 95% confidence limits, were calculated by football activity, playing surface condition and shoe type. A total of 130 lower extremity injuries were sustained, with an overall lower extremity injury rate of 33.5/10 000 athlete-sessions. The lower extremity injury rate was 2.61 times higher when the surface condition was abnormal compared with when the surface condition was normal. During games, the risk for lower extremity injury was 3.34 times higher (95% CI 1.70 to 6.56) on artificial turf compared with natural grass. However, this trend was not statistically significant in practice sessions. Furthermore, neither the number of shoe cleats nor the height of the shoe top was statistically associated with risk of lower extremity injuries. Football players who played on artificial turf or when the surface condition was abnormal were susceptible to lower extremity injuries. Evidence from this study suggests that further research into playing surfaces and shoe types may provide fruitful opportunities to reduce injuries to collegiate football players.

  18. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  19. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  20. Inference for Extremal Conditional Quantile Models, with an Application to Market and Birthweight Risks

    CERN Document Server

    Chernozhukov, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Quantile regression is an increasingly important empirical tool in economics and other sciences for analyzing the impact of a set of regressors on the conditional distribution of an outcome. Extremal quantile regression, or quantile regression applied to the tails, is of interest in many economic and financial applications, such as conditional value-at-risk, production efficiency, and adjustment bands in (S,s) models. In this paper we provide feasible inference tools for extremal conditional quantile models that rely upon extreme value approximations to the distribution of self-normalized quantile regression statistics. The methods are simple to implement and can be of independent interest even in the non-regression case. We illustrate the results with two empirical examples analyzing extreme fluctuations of a stock return and extremely low percentiles of live infants' birthweights in the range between 250 and 1500 grams.

  1. Matter under Extreme Conditions: Advances Based on Static Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2008-04-01

    Current technological advances make it possible to perform experiments on materials at static or sustained conditions to multimegabar pressures (several hundred GPa) and several thousand degree (˜1 eV) temperatures. Densities of condensed matter can now be increased over an order of magnitude, causing novel transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area has been made possible by advances in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with a wide range of probes, including x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. Examples include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials. Particularly exciting are new developments in time resolved methods and coupling of static and dynamic compression techniques made possible by the creation of new large-scale facilities and novel technologies.

  2. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    and peak enhancement factors, based on cyclonic storm conditions (Wehmeyer et al., 2012). 2. Based on Wehmeyer et al. (2012), a physical model test campaign was drafted, where an industry inspired floating offshore wind turbine was tested (Wehmeyer et al., 2013). 3. A comparison of measured pitch responses...... versus responses from an in-house developed numerical tool, as well as a code to code comparison in regular non-linear waves served as initial key performance indicator of numerical model quality and good agreement was found (Wehmeyer et al., 2014). 4. As a final step, the numerical model was extended...... in order to include non-linear irregular incident waves as well as non-linear irregular incident waves with an embedded Stream-function wave. A linear background sea state into which a Stream-function wave was embedded was assumed no longer appropriate. Therefore a 2nd order sea state model was developed...

  3. Fatigue testing of materials under extremal conditions by acoustic method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranov, VM; Bibilashvili, YK; Karasevich, VA; Sarychev, GA

    2004-01-01

    Increasing fuel cycle time requires fatigue testing of the fuel clad materials for nuclear reactors. The standard high-temperature fatigue tests are complicated and tedious. Solving this task is facilitated by the proposed acoustic method, which ensures observation of the material damage dynamics, m

  4. Stability of llama heavy chain antibody fragments under extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Camelids have next to their normal antibodies, a unique subset of antibodies lacking light chains. The resulting single binding domain, VHH, of these heavy chain antibodies consequently have unique properties. A high stability is one of these properties, which was investigated in this thesis. The a

  5. Quantitative evaluation of the mitochondrial proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to extreme oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Songyue; Xue, Jin; Sun, Haidan; Wen, Bo; Wang, Quanhui; Perkins, Guy; Zhao, Huiwen W; Ellisman, Mark H; Hsiao, Yu-hsin; Yin, Liang; Xie, Yingying; Hou, Guixue; Zi, Jin; Lin, Liang; Haddad, Gabriel G; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively), examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional) in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of the mitochondrial proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to extreme oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyue Yin

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively, examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells.

  7. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  8. Development of a system for simultaneously generating triple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Shigeju [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    We have developed new system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of : (1) a liquid-helium cryostat which enables the sample temperature range of 1.7 K to 200 K, (2) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to 5 Tesla with antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (3) a non-magnetic clamping high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 Gpa. In the workshop, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests using the system at JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  9. Orbital-Free Molecular Dynamics Simulations at Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, J. D.; Collins, L. A.; Ticknor, C.

    2015-06-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in an orbital-free (OF) density-functional theory (DFT) formulation have been performed for pure and mixed species over a broad range of temperatures (T) and densities (ρ) that includes the warm, dense matter and high-energy density physics regimes. A finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi-Dirac form with a local-density exchange-correlation potential and a regularized electron-ion interaction represents the quantum nature of the electrons. In particular, we examine the efficacy of the OFMD approach as an effective bridge between Kohn-Sham DFT MD at low temperatures and simple, fully-ionized plasma models at high temperatures. Comparisons against intermediate-range constructions such as the Yukawa and one-component plasmas are also made. We examine the mass transport (diffusion, viscosity) properties of various systems, ranging from light to heavy elements, including lithium hydride (LiH), mixtures of LiH with uranium, mixtures of deuterium-tritium (DT) with plutonium and mixtures of DT with plastic (CH). The OFMD mass transport results have been fitted to simple functions of ρ and T suitable for use in hydrodynamics simulation codes.

  10. Optical studies of crystalline organic superconductors under extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, R D

    2001-01-01

    the aim being to make an optical measurement of the pressure dependence of the charge carrier effective mass. Chapter 4 concentrates on the vibrational modes of kappa-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 Cu(SCN) sub 2. This chapter reports the first Raman scattering experiments on an organic superconductor at high pressure. Comparison of the infrared reflectance and Raman scattering measurements are used to elucidate the role of electron-phonon coupling in this material's superconductivity. Chapter 5 reports the first non-resonant measurements of the GHz conductivity of an organic molecular superconductor. These experiments probe the unconventional metallic properties of an organic superconductor during the onset of superconductivity. This thesis reports experiments which involve the interaction of light and matter to probe the properties of crystalline organic superconductors. The organic superconductors of the BEDT-TTF family are prototypical correlated electron systems; their low-temperature ground states are dominated by man...

  11. Small-scale characteristics of extremely high latitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cumnock

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine 14 cases of an interesting type of extremely high latitude aurora as identified in the precipitating particles measured by the DMSP F13 satellite. In particular we investigate structures within large-scale arcs for which the particle signatures are made up of a group of multiple distinct thin arcs. These cases are chosen without regard to IMF orientation and are part of a group of 87 events where DMSP F13 SSJ/4 measures emissions which occur near the noon-midnight meridian and are spatially separated from both the dawnside and duskside auroral ovals by wide regions with precipitating particles typical of the polar cap. For 73 of these events the high-latitude aurora consists of a continuous region of precipitating particles. We focus on the remaining 14 of these events where the particle signatures show multiple distinct thin arcs. These events occur during northward or weakly southward IMF conditions and follow a change in IMF By. Correlations are seen between the field-aligned currents and plasma flows associated with the arcs, implying local closure of the FACs. Strong correlations are seen only in the sunlit hemisphere. The convection associated with the multiple thin arcs is localized and has little influence on the large-scale convection. This also implies that the sunward flow along the arcs is unrelated to the overall ionospheric convection.

  12. On Impact Dynamics under Complex or Extreme Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    The impact of a spherical object onto a surface of a liquid, solid or granular material, is a configuration which occurs in numerous industrial and natural phenomena. The resulting dynamics can produce complex outcomes and often occur on very short time-scales. Their study thereby requires high-speed video imaging, as is done herein. This three-part dissertation investigates widely disparate but kindred impact configurations, where the impacting object is a solid steel sphere, or a molten metal droplet. The substrate, on the other hand, is either granular material, a liquid, or solid ice. Therefore both fluid mechanics and thermodynamics play a key role in some of these dynamics. Part I, investigates the penetration depth of a steel sphere which impacts onto a granular bed containing a mixture of grains of two different sizes. The addition of smaller grains within a bed of larger grains can promote a “lubrication” effect and deeper penetration of the sphere. However, there needs to be enough mass fraction of the smaller grains so that they get lodged between the larger grains and are not simply like isolated rattlers inside the voids between the larger grains. This lubrication occurs even though the addition of the small grains increases the overall packing fraction of the bed. We compare the enhanced penetration for the mixtures to a simple interpolative model based on the results for monodispersed media of the constitutive sizes. The strongest lubrication is observed for large irregular shaped Ottawa sand grains, which are seeded with small spherical glass beads. Part II, tackles the topic of a molten metal drop impacting onto a pool of water. When the drop temperature is far above the boiling temperature of water, a continuous vapor layer can form at the interface between the metal and water, in what is called the Leidenfrost phenomenon. This vapor layer can become unstable forming what is called a vapor explosion, which can break up the molten metal drop

  13. Pulsed NMR studies of water under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFries, Timothy Hatmaker

    1978-01-01

    The dynamic structure of water and heavy water was studied using NMR spin-lattice relaxation and self-diffusion techniques. For both compounds, the relaxation rate is proportional to the ratio of viscosity to absolute temperature at constant density. The coupling between rotational and translational motions decreases with increasing temperature and increasing density. The temperature and density dependence of the deuteron quadrupole coupling constant in D/sub 2/O was determined. The proton spin-lattice relaxation times of supercritical H/sub 2/O were measured from 400 to 700/sup 0/C and to 1 kbar. The times were found to be roughly proportional to density and were found to decrease with temperature. The angular momentum correlation times tau/sub J/ were calculated and compared with the times between collisions for a hard sphere fluid, the Enskog times, tau/sub E/. The values of tau/sub E//tau/sub J/ were roughly 6 at 400/sup 0/C and low densities. The values decreased at higher densities and higher temperatures. The proton spin-lattice relaxation times of H/sub 2/O were also measured from 90 to 350/sup 0/C up to 2 to 5 kbar. The data clearly show the change from dipolar to spin-rotation relaxation as a function of temperature and density. Both the low and the high temperature results agree with the idea that it is the strong and anisotropic intermolecular potential which causes the dynamic behavior of water to be so different from that of normal liquids.

  14. Multimillion to billion atom simulations of nanosystems under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishta, P.

    2008-12-01

    Advanced materials and devices with nanometer grain/feature sizes are being developed to achieve higher strength and toughness in ceramic materials and greater speeds in electronic devices. Below 100 nm, however, continuum description of materials and devices must be supplemented by atomistic descriptions. Current state of the art atomistic simulations involve 10 million - 1 billion atoms. We investigate initiation, growth and healing of wing cracks in confined silica glass by multimillion atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Under dynamic compression, frictional sliding of pre-crack surfaces nucleates nanovoids, which evolve into nanocrack columns at the pre-crack tip. Nanocrack columns merge to form a wing crack, which grows via coalescence with nanovoids in the direction of maximum compression. Lateral confinement arrests the growth and partially heals the wing crack. Growth and arrest of the wing crack occur repeatedly, as observed in dynamic compression experiments on brittle solids under lateral confinement. MD simulation of hypervelocity projectile impact in aluminum nitride and alumina has also been studied. The simulations reveal strong interplay between shock- induced structural phase transformation, plastic deformation and brittle cracks. The shock wave splits into an elastic precursor and a wurtzite-to-rocksalt structural transformation wave. When the elastic wave reflected from the boundary of the sample interacts with the transformation wave front, nanocavities are generated along the penetration path of the projectile and dislocations in adjacent regions. The nanocavities coalesce to form mode I brittle cracks while dislocations generate kink bands that give rise to mode II cracks. These simulations provide a microscopic view of defects associated with simultaneous tensile and shear cracking at the structural phase transformation boundary due to shock impact in high-strength ceramics. Initiation of chemical reactions at shock fronts prior to

  15. Extreme midlatitude cyclones and their implications for precipitation and wind speed extremes in simulations of the Maunder Minimum versus present day conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raible, C.C.; Casty, C. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Yoshimori, M. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Rutgers University, Center for Environmental Prediction, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Stocker, T.F. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, SOEST, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Extreme midlatitude cyclone characteristics, precipitation, wind speed events, their inter-relationships, and the connection to large-scale atmospheric patterns are investigated in simulations of a prolonged cold period, known as the Maunder Minimum from 1640 to 1715 and compared with today. An ensemble of six simulations for the Maunder Minimum as well as a control simulation for perpetual 1990 conditions are carried out with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, i.e., the Climate Community System Model (CCSM). The comparison of the simulations shows that in a climate state colder than today the occurrence of cyclones, the extreme events of precipitation and wind speed shift southward in all seasons in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. The extremes of cyclone intensity increases significantly in winter in almost all regions, which is related to a stronger meridional temperature gradient and an increase in lower tropospheric baroclinicity. Extremes of cyclone intensity in subregions of the North Atlantic are related to extremes in precipitation and in wind speed during winter. Moreover, extremes of cyclone intensity are also connected to distinct large-scale atmospheric patterns for the different subregions, but these relationships vanish during summer. Analyzing the mean 1,000 hPa geopotential height change of the Maunder Minimum simulations compared with the control simulation, we find a similar pattern as the correlation pattern with the cyclone intensity index of the southern Europe cyclones. This illustrates that changes in the atmospheric high-frequency, i.e., the simulated southward shift of cyclones in the North Atlantic and the related increase of extreme precipitation and wind speed in particular in the Mediterranean in winter, are associated with large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. (orig.)

  16. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  17. Extremely High Q-factor metamaterials due to Anapole Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Basharin, Alexey A; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that ideal anapole metamaterials have infinite Q-factor. We have designed and fabricated a metamaterial consisting of planar metamolecules which exhibit anapole behavior in the sense that the electric dipole radiation is almost cancelled by the toroidal dipole one, producing thus an extremely high Q-factor at the resonance frequency. The size of the system, at the mm range, and the parasitic magnetic quadrupole radiation are the factors limiting the size of the Q-factor. In spite of the very low radiation losses the local fields at the metamolecules are extremely high, of the order of higher than the external incoming field.

  18. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 10(6) viable cells/cm(3). The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na(+) - a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as

  19. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years.

  20. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M., E-mail: pkklein@ou.edu [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Coffman, Reid, E-mail: rcoffma4@kent.edu [College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  1. Is Extremely High Life Satisfaction during Adolescence Advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether extremely high life satisfaction was associated with adaptive functioning or maladaptive functioning. Six hundred ninety-eight secondary level students completed the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale [Huebner, 1991a, School Psychology International, 12, pp. 231-240], Youth Self-Report of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  2. common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies on soccer concentrate on male soccer players.5-7 Although participation ... the prevalence and injury profile of lower extremity injuries in female high school ... An extended duration of skills (p=0.0001) and fitness (p=0.02) training in this .... The results (Table V) show that shin guards were associated with a reduced ...

  3. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  4. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  5. Influenza transmission during extreme indoor conditions in a low-resource tropical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamerius, James; Ojeda, Sergio; Uejio, Christopher K.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Lopez, Brenda; Sanchez, Nery; Gordon, Aubree

    2017-04-01

    Influenza transmission occurs throughout the planet across wide-ranging environmental conditions. However, our understanding of the environmental factors mediating transmission is evaluated using outdoor environmental measurements, which may not be representative of the indoor conditions where influenza is transmitted. In this study, we examined the relationship between indoor environment and influenza transmission in a low-resource tropical population. We used a case-based ascertainment design to enroll 34 households with a suspected influenza case and then monitored households for influenza, while recording indoor temperature and humidity data in each household. We show that the indoor environment is not commensurate with outdoor conditions and that the relationship between indoor and outdoor conditions varies significantly across homes. We also show evidence of influenza transmission in extreme indoor environments. Specifically, our data suggests that indoor environments averaged 29 °C, 18 g/kg specific humidity, and 68 % relative humidity across 15 transmission events observed. These indoor settings also exhibited significant temporal variability with temperatures as high as 39 °C and specific and relative humidity increasing to 22 g/kg and 85 %, respectively, during some transmission events. However, we were unable to detect differences in the transmission efficiency by indoor temperature or humidity conditions. Overall, these results indicate that laboratory studies investigating influenza transmission and virus survival should increase the range of environmental conditions that they assess and that observational studies investigating the relationship between environment and influenza activity should use caution using outdoor environmental measurements since they can be imprecise estimates of the conditions that mediate transmission indoors.

  6. Influenza transmission during extreme indoor conditions in a low-resource tropical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamerius, James; Ojeda, Sergio; Uejio, Christopher K.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Lopez, Brenda; Sanchez, Nery; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-08-01

    Influenza transmission occurs throughout the planet across wide-ranging environmental conditions. However, our understanding of the environmental factors mediating transmission is evaluated using outdoor environmental measurements, which may not be representative of the indoor conditions where influenza is transmitted. In this study, we examined the relationship between indoor environment and influenza transmission in a low-resource tropical population. We used a case-based ascertainment design to enroll 34 households with a suspected influenza case and then monitored households for influenza, while recording indoor temperature and humidity data in each household. We show that the indoor environment is not commensurate with outdoor conditions and that the relationship between indoor and outdoor conditions varies significantly across homes. We also show evidence of influenza transmission in extreme indoor environments. Specifically, our data suggests that indoor environments averaged 29 °C, 18 g/kg specific humidity, and 68 % relative humidity across 15 transmission events observed. These indoor settings also exhibited significant temporal variability with temperatures as high as 39 °C and specific and relative humidity increasing to 22 g/kg and 85 %, respectively, during some transmission events. However, we were unable to detect differences in the transmission efficiency by indoor temperature or humidity conditions. Overall, these results indicate that laboratory studies investigating influenza transmission and virus survival should increase the range of environmental conditions that they assess and that observational studies investigating the relationship between environment and influenza activity should use caution using outdoor environmental measurements since they can be imprecise estimates of the conditions that mediate transmission indoors.

  7. Extremely high Q -factor metamaterials due to anapole excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharin, Alexey A.; Chuguevsky, Vitaly; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2017-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a metamaterial consisting of planar metamolecules which exhibit unusual, almost perfect anapole behavior in the sense that the electric dipole radiation is almost canceled by the toroidal dipole one, producing thus an extremely high Q -factor at the resonance frequency. Thus we have demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that metamaterials approaching ideal anapole behavior have very high Q -factor. The size of the system, at the millimeter range, and the parasitic magnetic quadrupole radiation are the factors limiting the size of the Q -factor. In spite of the very low radiation losses the estimated local fields at the metamolecules are extremely high, of the order of 104 higher than the external incoming field.

  8. Solar Wind Interaction with the Martian Upper Atmosphere at Early Mars/Extreme Solar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Lee, Y.; Nagy, A. F.; Tenishev, V.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Combi, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of ion escape fluxes from Mars, resulting from the solar wind interaction with its upper atmosphere/ionosphere, is important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3-D Mars cold neutral atmosphere profiles (0 ~ 300 km) from the newly developed and validated Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) and the 3-D hot oxygen profiles (100 km ~ 5 RM) from the exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS). We apply these 3-D model output fields into the 3-D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model (100 km ~ 20 RM) that can simulate the interplay between Mars upper atmosphere and solar wind by considering the dynamics of individual ion species. The multi-fluid MHD model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species (H+, O+, O2+, CO2+). The M-GITM model together with the AMPS exosphere model take into account the effects of solar cycle and seasonal variations on both cold and hot neutral atmospheres. This feature allows us to investigate the corresponding effects on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., both the M-GITM and AMPS model output fields are used as the input for the multi-fluid MHD model and the M-GITM is used as input into the AMPS exosphere model. In this study, we present M-GITM, AMPS, and MF-MHD calculations (1-way coupled) for 2.5 GYA conditions and/or extreme solar conditions for present day Mars (high solar wind velocities, high solar wind dynamic pressure, and high solar irradiance conditions, etc.). Present day extreme conditions may result in MF-MHD outputs that are similar to 2.5 GYA cases. The crustal field orientations are also considered in this study. By comparing estimates of past ion escape rates with the current ion loss rates to be returned by the MAVEN spacecraft (2013-2016), we can better constrain the

  9. A new fluorescent pH probe for extremely acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Zheng [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xiao, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, Fu-Zhen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Miao, Jun-Ying, E-mail: miaojy@sdu.edu.cn [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhao, Bao-Xiang, E-mail: bxzhao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin-based fluorescent probe can detect highly acidic conditions in both solution and bacteria with high selectivity and sensitivity. Highlights: • A new fluorescence probe for very low pH was synthesized and characterized. • The probe can monitor pH in solution and bacteria. • The two-step protonation of N atoms of the probe leads to fluorescence quenching. Abstract: A novel turn-off fluorescent probe based on coumarin and imidazole moiety for extremely acidic conditions was designed and developed. The probe with pKa = 2.1 is able to respond to very low pH value (below 3.5) with high sensitivity relying on fluorescence quenching at 460 nm in fluorescence spectra or the ratios of absorbance maximum at 380 nm to that at 450 nm in UV–vis spectra. It can quantitatively detect pH value based on equilibrium equation, pH = pKa -log[(Ix - Ib)/(Ia - Ix)]. It had very short response time that was less than 1 min, good reversibility and nearly no interference from common metal ions. Moreover, using ¹H NMR analysis and theoretical calculation of molecular orbital, we verified that a two-step protonation process of two N atoms of the probe leaded to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), which was actually the mechanism of the fluorescence quenching phenomenon under strongly acidic conditions. Furthermore, the probe was also applied to imaging strong acidity in bacteria, E.coli and had good effect. This work illustrates that the new probe could be a practical and ideal pH indicator for strongly acidic conditions with good biological significance.

  10. 燃气轮机高效空气过滤器在极端天气下的应用对策%Countermeasures of Gas Turbine High Efficiency Air Filters in Extreme Weather Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 龙涛

    2015-01-01

    对燃气轮机的进气过滤系统进行了升级改造,将进气过滤系统的过滤等级由F8级提升到了H11级。改造后过滤效率明显提升,压气机长期不需要进行水洗,保持在高效率状态下运行,发电机组的平均发电效率也得以提升,经济效益非常可观。升级后的进气过滤系统在现场运行过程中遇到了多种恶劣天气工况,如沙尘、暴雨大雾天气和空气中含油性物质等。通过对过滤器的滤材及结构进行改进,最终开发和筛选出对各种恶劣大气条件适应性强的高效过滤器。同时在日常运行中,我们也积累了一些处理突发状况的经验和总结了一些合理使用高效过滤器的策略。%The level of filtration of the inlet air filtration system for gas turbine was upgraded from F8 to H11.The filtration efficiency of air intake system improved significantly after the improvement was completed.The compressor need not washing for long term, and can keep working in a high state of efficiency.The average power generation efficiency of the unit can be improved which can bring consid-erable economic benefit.The upgraded air inlet filter system run in variety of weather conditions , such as sand dust weather, rainstorm weather, foggy weather and the condition that the air always contains oil substance.We found the type of High Efficiency Particulate Air ( HEPA) filter which can be well adapted to a variety of bad weather by improving the material and structure of filers.At the same time,some deal with emergency situation experiences accumulated during daily operation and some reasonable use strategy of HEPA fil-ter is summarized.

  11. Conditional Second Order Short-crested Water Waves Applied to Extreme Wave Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    A derivation of the mean second order short-crested wave pattern and associated wave kinematics, conditional on a given magnitude of the wave crest, is presented. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean finite water wave theory. A comparison with a measured extreme wave profile......, the Draupner New Year Wave, shows a good agreement in the mean, indicating that this second order wave can be a good identifier of the shape and occurrence of extreme wave events. A discussion on its use as an initial condition for a fully non-linear three-dimensional surface wave analysis is given....

  12. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value.

    The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly

  13. High resolution simulations of extreme weather event in south Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, C.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade, like most region of Mediterranean Europe, Sardinia has experienced severe precipitation events generating flash floods resulting in loss of lives and large economic damage. A numerical meteorological operational set-up is applied in the local weather service with the aim to improve the operational short range weather forecast of the Service with particular attention to intense, mostly rare and potentially severe, events. On the early hours of 22 October 2008 an intense and almost stationary mesoscale convective system interested particularly the south of Sardinia, heavy precipitation caused a flash flood with fatalities and numerous property damages. The event was particularly intense: about 400 mm of rain in 12 hours (a peak of 150 mm in an hour) were misured by the regional network of weather stations and these values appear extremely meaningfulls since those are about seven times the climatological monthly rainfall for that area and nearly the climatological annual rainfall. With the aim to improve significantly quantitative precipitation forecasting, it was evaluated a different set-up of a high resolution convection resolving model (MM5) initialised with different initial and boundary conditions (ECMWF and NCAR). In this paper it is discussed the meteorological system related to the mentioned event by using different numerical weather models (GCM and LAM) combined with conventional data, radar Doppler and Meteosat images. Preliminary results say that a different set-up of a non hydrostatic model can forecast severe convection events in advance of about one day and produce more realistic rainfall than that current operational and also improve the weather forecasts to respect the ECMWF-GCM. So it could drive an operational alert system in order to limit the risks associated with heavy precipitation events.

  14. Sudden pore pressure rise and rapid landslide initiation induced under extreme rainfall conditions - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui

    2010-05-01

    Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic

  15. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  16. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  17. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  18. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  19. Special Features of the Carbonitriding of Parts of Instrument Bearings Designed for Extreme Service Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. E.; Shevchenko, S. Yu.; Shchipunov, V. S.; Kunyaev, V. E.; Seval'nev, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    A study is made of complexly alloyed steel 8Kh4V9F2-Sh, which is used for fabricating parts of engineering bearings operating under extreme conditions. Vacuum processes are shown to be preferable to gas carburizing for hardening the races of precision bearings. Vacuum carburizing is shown to be an effective technique for forming quality diffusion layers.

  20. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of 30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on precedingly accretionary and

  1. Predicting the solubility of gases in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in extreme conditions using molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Musab; Molinari, Nicola; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash

    In the oil and gas industry, elastomer seals play an important role in protecting sensitive monitoring equipment from contamination by gases - a problem that is exacerbated by the high pressures and temperatures found down-hole. The ability to predict and prevent such permeative failure has proved elusive to-date. Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a common choice of elastomer for seals due to its resistance to heat and fuels. In the conditions found in the well it readily absorbs small molecular weight gases. How this behaviour changes quantitatively for different gases as a function of temperature and pressure is not well-understood. In this work a series of fully atomistic simulations are performed to understand the effect of extreme conditions on gas solubility in NBR. Widom particle insertion is used to compute solubilities. The importance of sampling and allowing structural relaxation upon compression are highlighted, and qualitatively reasonable trends reproduced. Finally, while at STP it has previously been shown that the solubility of CO2 is higher than that of He in NBR, we observe that under the right circumstances it is possible to reverse this trend.

  2. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  3. Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy Investigating Extreme Physical Conditions with Advanced Optical Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Baldassare

    2005-01-01

    Advanced spectroscopic techniques allow the probing of very small systems and very fast phenomena, conditions that can be considered "extreme" at the present status of our experimentation and knowledge. Quantum dots, nanocrystals and single molecules are examples of the former and events on the femtosecond scale examples of the latter. The purpose of this book is to examine the realm of phenomena of such extreme type and the techniques that permit their investigations. Each author has developed a coherent section of the program starting at a somewhat fundamental level and ultimately reaching the frontier of knowledge in the field in a systematic and didactic fashion. The formal lectures are complemented by additional seminars.

  4. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakhov V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  5. Functional Muscular Condition Dynamics at Osteoarthrosis Conservative Treatment of Major Joints of Lower Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.S. Sayfutdinov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of global electromyography has been used for the evaluation of 231 patients aged from 16 to 74 (43,7±0,8 with bilateral osteoarthrosis of major joints of lower extremities I-III degrees before the course of conservative treatment, immediately after the end of conservative treatment and in three months. Conservative treatment of patients with osteoarthrosis of major joints of lower extremities has been shown to cause restructuring of EMG patterns of maximal voluntary muscle contraction in lower extremities accompanied by decreased asymmetry of activity levels in muscle pairs and less observations of pathologically changed EMG that results in improved functional condition of the locomotor system.

  6. Forecasting extreme wave events in moderate and high sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Anne Karin; Reistad, Magnar; Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta Maria

    2013-04-01

    Empirical studies on measurements have not yet come to conclusive relations between occurrence of rogue waves and - parameters which could be forecasted . Theoretical and tank experiments have demonstrated that high spectral peakedness and low spectral width combined (high Benjamin-Feir instability index, Onorato et al., 2006) give higher probability of rogue wave occurrence. Directional spread seems to reduce the probability of occurrence of rogue waves in these studies. Many years of experience with forecasting and discussions with people working in ocean environment indicate that rogue waves may as well occur in crossing seas. This was also indicated in a study in the Maxwave project (Toffoli et al., 2003) and the EXTREME SEAS project (Toffoli et al., 2011). We have here experimented with some indexes describing both high BFI and crossing seas and run the WAM model for some North Sea storm cases. Wave distributions measured at Ekofisk are analysed in the different cases. References • Onorato, M., Osborne, A., Serio, M., Cavaleri, L., Brandini, C., and Stansberg, C.: Extreme waves, modulational instability and second order theory: wave flume experiments on irregular waves,Europ. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 25, 586-601, 2006. • Toffoli, A., Lefevre, J.M., Monbaliu, J., Savina, H., and Bitner-Gregersen, E., "Freak Waves:Clues for Prediction in Ship Accidents?", Proc. ISOPE'2003 Conf. Hawai, USA, 2003. • Toffoli A., Bitner-Gregersen E. M., Osborne A. R., Serio M. Monbaliu J., Onorato M. (2011) Extreme Waves in Random Crossing Seas: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06605, 5 pp. doi: 10.1029/2011.

  7. Morphological variations of wild populations of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) living in extreme environmental conditions in the Kenyan Rift-Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiwa, T.C.; Nyingi, D. W.; Claude, J.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use geometric morphometric method to establish morphological differences between natural populations of Nile tilapia from two extreme environmental conditions (high temperature and salinity) in Kenya, and compare them to two populations from regions experiencing less extreme conditions. To determine genetic influence on morphology, we correlated genetic data with morphological data. The study observed significant morphological differences between all studied populations, inc...

  8. Correlations in condensed matter under extreme conditions a tribute to Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses a wide range of topics relating to the properties and behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions such as intense magnetic and electric fields, high pressures, heat and cold, and mechanical stresses. It is divided into four sections devoted to condensed matter theory, molecular chemistry, theoretical physics, and the philosophy and history of science. The main themes include electronic correlations in material systems under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, surface physics, the transport properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, applications of the density functional theory in molecular systems, and graphene. The book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Catania, Italy, in honor of Professor Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It includes selected invited contributions from collaborators and co-authors of Professor Pucci during his long and successful career, as well as from other distinguished guest authors.

  9. Photolysis of tembotrione and its main by-products under extreme artificial conditions:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvayrac, Christophe; Bontemps, Nataly [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Nouga-Bissoue, Achille [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l' Enseignement Technique (ENSET), Université de Douala, BP 2701 Douala (Cameroon); Romdhane, Sana; Coste, Camille-Michel [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Cooper, Jean-Francois, E-mail: cooper@univ-perp.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

    2013-05-01

    The photolytic behaviour of tembotrione, a new chemical herbicide intended for foliar application in corn, was investigated under unnatural and extreme photochemical exposure in aqueous solutions in the laboratory. It appeared that degradation was dependent on pH and occurred more rapidly under acidic and neutral conditions, leading predominantly to the formation of a xanthenedione type compound by intramolecular cyclisation with loss of HCl. Trace amounts of benzoic acid by-products appeared also during UV-C irradiation (λ = 254 nm) of the parent compound. Results were comparable to those obtained with sulcotrione, another β-triketone herbicide. These extreme irradiation conditions clearly accelerated the phototransformation of sulcotrione vs. simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the photolysis of the degradation by-products, resulting from either photolysis, hydrolysis or biotic pathways of the two active ingredients, was also carried out. The benzoic acid by-products appeared more stable to photolysis than their parent molecules. Xanthenedione derivatives were degraded more rapidly with several differences depending on the pH value. - Highlights: • Tembotrione and sulcotrione water photolysis appeared enhanced under unnatural and extreme conditions. • Triketones were easily photodegraded under acidic and neutral conditions. • Xanthenedione derivatives were the predominant by-products. • Phototransformation of xanthenedione derivatives was pH-dependent. • Benzoic acid derivatives can be relatively stable.

  10. Surf zone, infragravity wave energy flux, and runup in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, J. W.; Brodie, K. L.; McNinch, J.; Guza, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Waves, currents, and sand levels were observed on a 1.4 km-long cross-shore transect extending from the back beach to ~11 m water depth at Agate Beach, Oregon in Fall 2013. Wave runup and water table fluctuations on this low slope (1:80) beach were measured with a cliff-mounted scanning Lidar and buried pressure sensors. Significant wave heights at an offshore buoy in 128m depth ranged from small (0.5m) to extreme (7.5m), with peak periods between 4-22 seconds. Infragravity frequency (nominally 0.01 Hz) horizontal runup excursions exceeded 100m, and infragravity cross-shore velocity exceeded 3 m/s. Cross-shore patterns of infragravity wave energy flux, observed with seven co-located pressure and current meters, indicate 'proto-saturation' of the inner surfzone in extreme conditions. That is, the intensification of incident wave forcing (e.g. higher energy, longer swell) leads to a wider surfzone and an increase in the shoreward infragravity wave energy seaward of the surfzone, but produces more modest increases in flux in the inner surfzone, and in the runup. Nonlinear energy balances, based on the observations, show transfer of energy from sea-swell to infragravity waves, and vice-versa. The infragravity energy balance closes in cases with low energy incident sea-swell. With more energetic incident waves, there is an unexplained inner surfzone energy sink at the lowest IG frequencies (0.004-0.02 Hz). Ongoing work aims to quantify the effect on infragravity energy balances by infragravity wave breaking and bottom friction. Additionally, the estimates may be degraded by contamination with rotational velocities of surfzone eddies. Whatever the dynamical explanation, infragravity wave runup on a low slope beach in high-energy conditions is limited significantly by dissipation. The slow rate of runup increase suggests nascent, or 'proto' saturation. This work was supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  11. Modified and double-clad large mode-area leakage channel fibers for extreme temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi Raja, G.; Varshney, Shailendra K.

    2015-03-01

    Recently large-mode-area hybrid leakage channel fibers (HLCFs) were reported to overcome the limitation on mode area with single-mode (SM) operation for the practical bending radius of 7.5 cm at the preferred wavelength of 1064 nm. In this paper, we present the effects of a thermally induced refractive index change on the mode area of bend-compensated extremely LMA modified HLCFs (M-HLCFs) and double-clad M-HLCFs. A full-vectorial finite-element method-based modal solver is used to obtain the modal characteristics of M-HLCFs in various heat load conditions. Numerical simulations reveal that the effective mode area of M-HLCFs is ˜1433 μm2 at room temperature, which marginally decreases to ˜1387 μm2 while SM operation is maintained when the temperature distribution rises to ˜125 °C over the fiber geometry during high-power operations. We have also investigated a double-clad M-HLCF design exhibiting a mode area > ˜ 1000 μm2 for all heat load density variations up to a maximum of 12 × 109 W m-3, corresponding to a 250 °C temperature in the center of the fiber core region.

  12. Improvised purification methods for obtaining individual drinking water supply under war and extreme shortage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlicic, A; Hadzic, A; Bevanda, H

    1994-01-01

    Supplying an adequate amount of drinking water to a population is a complex problem that becomes an extremely difficult task in war conditions. In this paper, several simple methods for obtaining individual supplies of drinking water by filtration of atmospheric water with common household items are reported. Samples of atmospheric water (rain and snow) were collected, filtered, and analyzed for bacteriological and chemical content. The ability of commonly available household materials (newspaper, filter paper, gauze, cotton, and white cotton cloth) to filter water from the environmental sources was compared. According to chemical and biological analysis, the best results were obtained by filtering melted snow from the ground through white cotton cloth. Atmospheric water collected during war or in extreme shortage conditions can be purified with simple improvised filtering techniques and, if chlorinated, used as an emergency potable water source.

  13. The limits of the adaptation of life to extreme conditions (in connection with problems of exobiology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Accommodation is discussed as a universal evolutionary principle which essentially will apply to all life forms, regardless of chemical base (carbon, silicon, etc.). Life forms must either adapt to extreme conditions or perish, and for any life form an extremum factor is any significant deviation in environmental parameters. The possibility of life forms existing in specific extraterrestrial environments is discussed, and a conclusion is drawn which unequivocally states that through many forms of accommodation life is possible in many different environments.

  14. Extreme conditions over Europe and North America: role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is the result and possibly the source of marked modulations of the climate over many areas of the globe. For instance, the relatively warm and dry climate of North America throughout the 30-yr interval of 1931-60, during which the Dust Bowl and the 1950's drought occurred, has been linked to the concomitant warm phase of the AMV. During this period relative warm and wet conditions prevailed over Europe. After 1960, the Atlantic began to cool, and for almost three decades the North American climate turned wetter and cooler whereas Europe experienced cooler and dryer conditions. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period suggested by longer proxy (~60-80yr) does not allow to firmly conclude on the causal effect of the AMV. We use a model approach to isolate the causal role of the AMV on the occurrence of extreme events over Europe and North America. We present experiments based on two GFDL global climate models, a low resolution version, CM2.1 and a higher resolution model for the atmospheric component, FLOR. In both model experiments sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic sector are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (100 members for CM2.1 and 50 for FLOR) that we run for 20 years. We find that a positive phase of the AMV increases the frequency of occurrence of drought over North America and of extremely cold/warm conditions over Northern/Central Europe during winter/summer. Interestingly, we find that the AMV impacts on these extreme conditions are modulated by the Pacific response to the AMV itself. Members that develop a weak Pacific response show more extreme events over Europe whereas those that develop a strong Pacific response show more extreme events over North America.

  15. [Hygienic problems of population health maintenance under the extremal conditions of North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A I; Istomin, A V; Shushkova, T S; Ustiushin, B V; Iudina, T V; Maĭmulov, V G; Raengulov, B M; Shagdarova, A N

    2005-01-01

    A range of multi-sided studies, carried out in various regions of Far North (Jamalo-Nenets autonomous region, Komi republic, Sakha republic (Yakutia)) have established the leading hygienic risk factors of population health deterioration, including those characteristic of small nationalities of North. The consideration of the obtained data, including regional alimentary status peculiarities, the condition of metabolic processes and antioxidant balance of the organism, allowed establishment of effective approaches to the maintenance of notherners' health. These approaches are based upon the optimization of nutrition as an element of population health control under extremal conditions.

  16. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    day, which is the largest temperature variability as measured so far in a cold-water coral habitat. Warm events, related to Gulf Stream meanders, had the duration of roughly 1 week and the current during these events was directed to the NNE. The consequences of such events must be significant given the strong effects of temperature on the metabolism of cold-water corals. Furthermore, elevated acoustic backscatter values and high mass fluxes were also recorded during these events, indicating a second stressor that may affect the corals. The abrasive nature of sand in combination with strong currents might sand blast the corals. We conclude that cold-water corals near Cape Lookout live under extreme conditions that limit mound growth at present.

  17. Large Differences in Bacterial Community Composition among Three Nearby Extreme Waterbodies of the High Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Pablo; Acosta, Eduardo; Dorador, Cristina; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The high Andean plateau or Altiplano contains different waterbodies that are subjected to extreme fluctuations in abiotic conditions on a daily and an annual scale. The bacterial diversity and community composition of those shallow waterbodies is largely unexplored, particularly, of the ponds embedded within the peatland landscape (i.e., Bofedales). Here we compare the small-scale spatial variability (Altiplano peatland ponds represent a hitherto unknown source of microbial diversity.

  18. Reduced CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands under more extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, W. A.; Lehnert, L. W.; Kammann, C. I.; Müller, C.; Grünhage, L.; Luterbacher, J.; Erbs, M.; Moser, G.; Seibert, R.; Yuan, N.; Bendix, J.

    2016-12-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of recent global climate change. The stimulation of plant photosynthesis due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) is widely assumed to increase the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants--the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CFE under future climates, including more frequent weather extremes, are controversial. Here we use data from 16 years of temperate grassland grown under `free-air carbon dioxide enrichment’ conditions to show that the CFE on above-ground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. The observed CFE was reduced or disappeared under wetter, drier and/or hotter conditions when the forcing variable exceeded its intermediate regime. This is in contrast to predictions of an increased CO2 fertilization effect under drier and warmer conditions. Such extreme weather conditions are projected to occur more intensely and frequently under future climate scenarios. Consequently, current biogeochemical models might overestimate the future NPP sink capacity of temperate C3 grasslands and hence underestimate future atmospheric [CO2] increase.

  19. Reduced CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands under more extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, W. A.; Lehnert, L. W.; Kammann, C. I.; Müller, C.; Grünhage, L.; Luterbacher, J.; Erbs, M.; Moser, G.; Seibert, R.; Yuan, N.; Bendix, J.

    2017-02-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of recent global climate change. The stimulation of plant photosynthesis due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) is widely assumed to increase the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants--the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CFE under future climates, including more frequent weather extremes, are controversial. Here we use data from 16 years of temperate grassland grown under `free-air carbon dioxide enrichment’ conditions to show that the CFE on above-ground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. The observed CFE was reduced or disappeared under wetter, drier and/or hotter conditions when the forcing variable exceeded its intermediate regime. This is in contrast to predictions of an increased CO2 fertilization effect under drier and warmer conditions. Such extreme weather conditions are projected to occur more intensely and frequently under future climate scenarios. Consequently, current biogeochemical models might overestimate the future NPP sink capacity of temperate C3 grasslands and hence underestimate future atmospheric [CO2] increase.

  20. An Invariant-Preserving ALE Method for Solids under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    We are proposing a fundamentally new approach to ALE methods for solids undergoing large deformation due to extreme loading conditions. Our approach is based on a physically-motivated and mathematically rigorous construction of the underlying Lagrangian method, vector/tensor reconstruction, remapping, and interface reconstruction. It is transformational because it deviates dramatically from traditionally accepted ALE methods and provides the following set of unique attributes: (1) a three-dimensional, finite volume, cell-centered ALE framework with advanced hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories for solids; (2) a new physically and mathematically consistent reconstruction method for vector/tensor fields; (3) advanced invariant-preserving remapping algorithm for vector/tensor quantities; (4) moment-of-fluid (MoF) interface reconstruction technique for multi-material problems with solids undergoing large deformations. This work brings together many new concepts, that in combination with emergent cell-centered Lagrangian hydrodynamics methods will produce a cutting-edge ALE capability and define a new state-of-the-art. Many ideas in this work are new, completely unexplored, and hence high risk. The proposed research and the resulting algorithms will be of immediate use in Eulerian, Lagrangian and ALE codes under the ASC program at the lab. In addition, the research on invariant preserving reconstruction/remap of tensor quantities is of direct interest to ongoing CASL and climate modeling efforts at LANL. The application space impacted by this work includes Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), Z-pinch, munition-target interactions, geological impact dynamics, shock processing of powders and shaped charges. The ALE framework will also provide a suitable test-bed for rapid development and assessment of hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories. Today, there are no invariant-preserving ALE algorithms for treating solids with large deformations. Therefore

  1. Physiological Responses to Firefighting in Extreme Temperatures Do Not Compare to Firefighting in Temperate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Windisch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine physiological responses to two different simulated firefighting exercises: a firefighting exercise with flashovers, smoke, poor visibility and extreme temperatures (300° in a burning container and a standard firefighting exercise in temperate conditions. Furthermore, a second purpose of the study was to find out if the contribution of strength and endurance capacities to firefighting performance changes when the demands of the firefighting exercise change.Methods: Sixteen professional firefighters performed a maximum treadmill test, strength testing, a standard simulated firefighting exercise (SFE without heat and flashovers and a firefighting exercise with a simulation of the flashover phenomenon in a burning container (FOT. The treadmill testing was used to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, ventilatory threshold (VT1 and respiratory compensation point (RCP. Three intensity zones were identified according to heart rate (HR values corresponding to VT1 and RCP: zone 1–HR below VT1, zone 2-HR between VT1 and RCP, zone 3–HR above RCP. Firefighting performance was determined by a simple time-strain-air depletion model (TSA taking the sum of z-transformed parameters of time to finish the exercise, strain in terms of mean heart rate, and air depletion from the breathing apparatus. Correlations were then established between TSA based firefighting performance parameters and fitness variables representing strength and endurance.Results: HR was significantly lower during SFE (79.9 ± 6.9%HRmax compared to FOT (85.4 ± 5.2%HRmax. During SFE subjects spent 24.6 ± 30.2% of time in zone 1, 65.8 ± 28.1% in zone 2 and 9.7 ± 16.6% in zone 3. During FOT subjects spent 16.3 ± 12.8% in zone 1, 50.4 ± 13.2% in zone 2 and 33.3 ± 16.6% in zone 3. Out of all correlations, relative VO2peak showed the highest relation to mean HR during SFE (−0.593 as well as FOT (−0.693.Conclusions: Endurance in terms of

  2. Observations and Predictions of Wave Runup, Extreme Water Levels, and Medium-Term Dune Erosion during Storm Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Suanez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of dune erosion and accretion on the high-energy macrotidal Vougot beach in North Brittany (France over the past decade (2004–2014 has revealed significant morphological changes. Dune toe erosion/accretion records have been compared with extreme water level measurements, defined as the sum of (i astronomic tide; (ii storm surge; and (iii vertical wave runup. Runup parameterization was conducted using swash limits, beach profiles, and hydrodynamic (Hm0, Tm0,–1, and high tide water level—HTWL data sets obtained from high frequency field surveys. The aim was to quantify in-situ environmental conditions and dimensional swash parameters for the best calibration of Battjes [1] runup formula. In addition, an empirical equation based on observed tidal water level and offshore wave height was produced to estimate extreme water levels over the whole period of dune morphological change monitoring. A good correlation between this empirical equation (1.01Hmoξo and field runup measurements (Rmax was obtained (R2 85%. The goodness of fit given by the RMSE was about 0.29 m. A good relationship was noticed between dune erosion and high water levels when the water levels exceeded the dune foot elevation. In contrast, when extreme water levels were below the height of the toe of the dune sediment budget increased, inducing foredune recovery. These erosion and accretion phases may be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index.

  3. Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bosheng; Seaberg, Matthew H; Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Porter, Christina L; Karl,, Robert; Mancuso, Christopher A; Kapteyn, Henry C; Murnane, Margaret M; Adams, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new scheme of spectromicroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, where the spectral response of the sample at different wavelengths is imaged simultaneously. It is enabled by applying ptychographical information multiplexing (PIM) to a tabletop EUV source based on high harmonic generation, where four spectrally narrow harmonics near 30 nm form a spectral comb structure. Extending PIM from previously demonstrated visible wavelengths to the EUV/X-ray wavelengths promises much higher spatial resolution and more powerful spectral contrast mechanism, making PIM an attractive spectromicroscopy method in both the microscopy and the spectroscopy aspects. Besides the sample, the multicolor EUV beam is also imaged in situ, making our method a powerful beam characterization technique. No hardware is used to separate or narrow down the wavelengths, leading to efficient use of the EUV radiation.

  4. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  5. Solid Nitrogen at Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E

    2004-04-05

    We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and temperature range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.

  6. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  7. "Rotten Ice": Characterizing the Physical Properties of Arctic Sea Ice Under Conditions of Extreme Summer Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, B.; Frantz, C. M.; Junge, K.; Orellana, M. V.; Carpenter, S.; Farley, S. M.; Lieb-Lappen, R.; Courville, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The microstructural properties of sea ice are central to understanding the mechanical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties of a sea ice cover. Over the course of an annual cycle, this small scale structure routinely evolves from a network of mostly isolated brine and gas inclusions prevalent in cold ice, to a more connected, more permeable structure as the ice endures summer melt processes. In the case of extreme summer melt, sea ice can become "rotten", and it is expected that such rotten ice may become more prevalent as melt seasons lengthen. Rotten ice is approximately isothermal, largely drained of brine, and is typified by the presence of large multi-cm-scale void spaces that contribute to its high permeability and low structural integrity. These properties are expected to alter the ice cover response to dynamic forcing, ability to backscatter incident light, and its melt rate. An interdisciplinary effort to characterize the physical properties of rotten first-year ice, in concert with some of its chemical and biological properties, is being carried out both in the field and in the laboratory. Time-series samples focusing on the evolution of ice microstructure were acquired and analyzed for shore-fast first-year sea ice near Barrow, Alaska in May - July of 2015. Laboratory studies have focused on assessing the seasonal evolution of optical properties of this ice, as well as the measurement of melt rates of ice grown under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Preliminary results from these studies illuminate some of the physical and biophysical controls on late summer ice melt.

  8. The myoglobin of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): amino acid sequence and functional adaptation to extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Romano, M; Giardina, B; di Prisco, G

    1999-02-01

    In the framework of a study on molecular adaptations of the oxygen-transport and storage systems to extreme conditions in Antarctic marine organisms, we have investigated the structure/function relationship in Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) myoglobin, in search of correlation with the bird life style. In contrast with previous reports, the revised amino acid sequence contains one additional residue and 15 differences. The oxygen-binding parameters seem well adapted to the diving behaviour of the penguin and to the environmental conditions of the Antarctic habitat. Addition of lactate has no major effect on myoglobin oxygenation over a large temperature range. Therefore, metabolic acidosis does not impair myoglobin function under conditions of prolonged physical effort, such as diving.

  9. Seasonal Forecasts of Extreme Conditions for Wildland Fire Management in Alaska using NMME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Bieniek, P.; Thoman, R.; York, A.; Ziel, R.

    2016-12-01

    The summer of 2015 was the second largest Alaska fire season since 1950 where approximately the land area of Massachusetts burned. The record fire year of 2004 resulted in 6.5 million acres burned and was costly from property loss (> 35M) and emergency personnel (> 17M). In addition to requiring significant resources, wildfire smoke impacts air quality in Alaska and downstream into North America. Fires in Alaska result from lightning strikes coupled with persistent (extreme) dry warm conditions in remote areas with limited fire management and the seasonal climate/weather determine the extent of the fire season in Alaska. Fire managers rely on weather/climate outlooks for allocating staff and resources from days to a season in advance. Though currently few tested products are available at the seasonal scale. Probabilistic forecasts of the expected seasonal climate/weather would aid tremendously in the planning process. Advanced knowledge of both lightning and fuel conditions would assist managers in planning resource allocation for the upcoming season. For fuel conditions, the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS) has been used since 1992 because it better suits the Alaska fire regime than the standard US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). This CFFWIS is based on early afternoon values of 2-m air temperature, relative humidity, and 10-m winds and daily total precipitation. Extremes of these indices and the variables are used to calculate these indices will be defined in reference to fire weather for the boreal forest. The CFFWIS will be applied and evaluated for the NMME hindcasts. This study will evaluate the quality of the forecasts comparing the hindcast NMME CFFWIS to acres burned in Alaska. Spatial synoptic patterns in the NMME related to fire weather extremes will be constructed using self-organized maps and probabilities of occurrence will be evaluated against acres burned.

  10. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  11. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gao

    Full Text Available In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE. Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  12. Bridge Management Strategy Based on Extreme User Costs for Bridge Network Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislaus Lwambuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical approach for prioritization of bridge maintenance within a given bridge network. The maintenance prioritization is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem where the simultaneous satisfaction of several conflicting objectives includes minimization of maintenance costs, maximization of bridge deck condition, and minimization of traffic disruption and associated user costs. The prevalence of user cost during maintenance period is twofold; the first case refers to the period of dry season where normally the traffic flow is diverted to alternative routes usually resurfaced to regain traffic access. The second prevalence refers to the absence of alternative routes which is often the case in the least developed countries; in this case the user cost referred to results from the waiting time while the traffic flow is put on hold awaiting accomplishment of the maintenance activity. This paper deals with the second scenario of traffic closure in the absence of alternative diversion routes which in essence results in extreme user cost. The paper shows that the multiobjective optimization approach remains valid for extreme cases of user costs in the absence of detour roads as often is the scenario in countries with extreme poor road infrastructure.

  13. High photon flux table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet source

    CERN Document Server

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Krebs, Manuel; Hoffmann, Armin; Pronin, Oleg; Pervak, Vladimir; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) enables extreme ultraviolet radiation with table-top setups. Its exceptional properties, such as coherence and (sub)-femtosecond pulse durations, have led to a diversity of applications. Some of these require a high photon flux and megahertz repetition rates, e.g. to avoid space charge effects in photoelectron spectroscopy. To date this has only been achieved with enhancement cavities. Here, we establish a novel route towards powerful HHG sources. By achieving phase-matched HHG of a megahertz fibre laser we generate a broad plateau (25 eV - 40 eV) of strong harmonics, each containing more than $10^{12}$ photons/s, which constitutes an increase by more than one order of magnitude in that wavelength range. The strongest harmonic (H25, 30 eV) has an average power of 143 $\\mu$W ($3\\cdot10^{13}$ photons/s). This concept will greatly advance and facilitate applications in photoelectron or coincidence spectroscopy, coherent diffractive imaging or (multidimensional) surface science.

  14. Extremely high-frequency micro-Doppler measurements of humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Silvious, Jerry L.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Green, Jeremy A.; Wikner, David A.

    2014-05-01

    The development of sensors that are capable of penetrating smoke, dust, fog, clouds, and rain is critical for maintaining situational awareness in degraded visual environments and for providing support to the Warfighter. Atmospheric penetration properties, the ability to form high-resolution imagery with modest apertures, and available source power make the extremely high-frequency (EHF) portion of the spectrum promising for the development of radio frequency (RF) sensors capable of penetrating visual obscurants. Comprehensive phenomenology studies including polarization and backscatter properties of relevant targets are lacking at these frequencies. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing a fully-polarimetric frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) instrumentation radar to explore polarization and backscatter properties of in-situ rain, scattering from natural and man-made surfaces, and the radar cross section and micro-Doppler signatures of humans at EHF frequencies, specifically, around the 220 GHz atmospheric window. This work presents an overview of the design and construction of the radar system, hardware performance, data acquisition software, and initial results including an analysis of human micro-Doppler signatures.

  15. A statistical methodology for the estimation of extreme wave conditions for offshore renewable applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kalogeri, Christina; Galanis, George

    2015-01-01

    Rev, which is located in the North Sea, west of Denmark. The post-processing targets at correcting the modeled time series of the significant wave height, in order to match the statistics of the corresponding measurements, including not only the conventional parameters such as the mean and standard...... as a characteristic index of extreme wave conditions. The results from the proposed methodology seem to be in a good agreement with the measurements at both the relatively deep, open water and the shallow, coastal water sites, providing a potentially useful tool for offshore renewable energy applications. © 2015...

  16. Inversion of Extremely Ill-Conditioned Matrices in Floating-Point

    OpenAIRE

    Rump, Siegfried M.

    2009-01-01

    Let an $n\\times n$ matrix $A$ of floating-point numbers in some format be given. Denote the relative rounding error unit of the given format by $\\mathtt{eps}$. Assume $A$ to be extremely ill-conditioned, that is $\\cond(A)\\gg\\mathtt{eps}^{-1}$. In about 1984 I developed an algorithm to calculate an approximate inverse of $A$ solely using the given floating-point format. The key is a multiplicative correction rather than a Newton-type additive correction. I did not publish it ...

  17. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  18. Response of shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, to extreme winter conditions in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D.W.; Onuf, C.P.; Tunnell, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a severe freeze on the shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, were documented through analysis of temporal and spatial trends in below-ground biomass. The coincidence of the second lowest temperature (-10.6??C) in 107 years of record, 56 consecutive hours below freezing, high winds and extremely low water levels exposed the Laguna Madre, TX, to the most severe cold stress in over a century. H. wrightii tolerated this extreme freeze event. Annual pre- and post-freeze surveys indicated that below-ground biomass estimated from volume was Unaffected by the freeze event. Nor was there any post-freeze change in biomass among intertidal sites directly exposed to freezing air temperatures relative to subtidal sites which remained submerged during the freezing period.

  19. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Germination of Nosema bombycis Spores under Extremely Alkaline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Bosheng; Hu, Sirui; Liang, Xili; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP) 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Germination of Nosema bombycis Spores under Extremely Alkaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Bosheng; Hu, Sirui; Liang, Xili; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP) 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism

  1. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Extremely high-intensity laser interactions with fundamental quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A; Hatsagortsyan, K Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-01

    The field of laser-matter interaction traditionally deals with the response of atoms, molecules and plasmas to an external light wave. However, the recent sustained technological progress is opening the possibility of employing intense laser radiation to prompt or substantially influence physical processes beyond atomic-physics energy scales. Available optical laser intensities exceeding $10^{22}\\;\\text{W/cm$^2$}$ can push the fundamental light-electron interaction to the extreme limit where radiation-reaction effects dominate the electron dynamics, can shed light on the structure of the quantum vacuum and can prime the creation of particles like electrons, muons and pions and the corresponding antiparticles. Also, novel sources of intense coherent high-energy photons and laser-based particle colliders can pave the way to nuclear quantum optics and can even allow for potential discovery of new particles beyond the Standard Model. These are the main topics of the present article, which is devoted to a review o...

  3. Extreme Wave-Induced Oscillation in Paradip Port Under the Resonance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulshan

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to analyze the long wave-induced oscillation in Paradip Port, Odisha, India under the resonance conditions to avert any extreme wave hazards. Boundary element method (BEM) with corner contribution is utilized to solve the Helmholtz equation under the partial reflection boundary conditions. Furthermore, convergence analysis is also performed for the boundary element scheme with uniform and non-uniform discretization of the boundary. The numerical scheme is also validated with analytic approximation and existing studies based on harbor resonance. Then, the amplification factor is estimated at six key record stations in the Paradip Port with multidirectional incident waves and resonance modes are also estimated at the boundary of the port. Ocean surface wave field is predicted in the interior of Paradip Port for the different directional incident wave at various resonance modes. Moreover, the safe locations in the port have been identified for loading and unloading of moored ship with different resonance modes and directional incident waves.

  4. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  5. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alfredo; Pacheco, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual). The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C) and times (two and three weeks). The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols), and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO. PMID:28042493

  6. Extreme conditioning programs and injury risk in a US Army Brigade Combat Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; McNulty, Vancil; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    Brigades and battalions throughout the US Army are currently implementing a variety of exercise and conditioning programs with greater focus on preparation for mission-specific tasks. An Army physical therapy clinic working with a light infantry brigade developed the Advanced Tactical Athlete Conditioning (ATAC) program. The ATAC program is a unique physical training program consisting of high-intensity aquatic exercises, tactical agility circuits, combat core conditioning, and interval speed training. Along with ATAC, battalions have also incorporated components of fitness programs such as the Ranger Athlete Warrior program and CrossFit (Crossfit, Inc, Santa Monica, CA) an extreme conditioning program (ECP). To determine if these new programs (ATAC, ECP) had an effect on injury rates and physical fitness. Surveys were administered to collect personal characteristics, tobacco use, personal physical fitness training, Army physical fitness test results, and self-reported injuries. Medical record injury data were obtained 6 months before and 6 months after the implementation of the new program. Predictors of injury risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Injury incidence among Soldiers increased 12% for overall injuries and 16% for overuse injuries after the implementation of the ATAC/ECPs. However, injury incidence among Soldiers not participating in ATAC/ECPs also increased 14% for overall injuries and 10% for overuse injuries. Risk factors associated with higher injury risk for Soldiers participating in ATAC/ECPs included: greater mileage run per week during unit physical training (OR (>16 miles per week÷≤7 miles per week)=2.24, 95% CI, 1.33-3.80); higher body mass index (BMI) (OR (BMI 25-29.9÷BMI<25)=1.77, 95% CI, 1.29-2.44), (OR (BMI =30÷BMI<25)=2.72, 95% CI, 1.67-4.43); cigarette use (OR (smoker÷nonsmoker)=1.80, 95% CI, 1.34-2.42); poor performance on the 2-mile run during

  7. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kui Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact-echo (IE method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location, because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures.

  8. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-03-26

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures.

  9. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  10. The fate of carbon dioxide in water-rich fluids under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ding; Galli, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the fate of dissolved carbon dioxide under extreme conditions is critical to understanding the deep carbon cycle in Earth, a process that ultimately influences global climate change. We used first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study carbonates and carbon dioxide dissolved in water at pressures (P) and temperatures (T) approximating the conditions of Earth’s upper mantle. Contrary to popular geochemical models assuming that molecular CO2(aq) is the major carbon species present in water under deep Earth conditions, we found that at 11 GPa and 1000 K, carbon exists almost entirely in the forms of solvated carbonate (CO32−) and bicarbonate (HCO3−) ions and that even carbonic acid [H2CO3(aq)] is more abundant than CO2(aq). Furthermore, our simulations revealed that ion pairing between Na+ and CO32−/HCO3− is greatly affected by P-T conditions, decreasing with increasing pressure at 800 to 1000 K. Our results suggest that in Earth’s upper mantle, water-rich geofluids transport a majority of carbon in the form of rapidly interconverting CO32− and HCO3− ions, not solvated CO2(aq) molecules. PMID:27757424

  11. The fate of carbon dioxide in water-rich fluids at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the fate of dissolved carbon dioxide under extreme conditions is critical to understanding the deep carbon cycle in the Earth, a process that ultimately influences global climate change. We used first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study carbonates and carbon dioxide dissolved in water at pressures (P) and temperatures (T) approximating the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Contrary to popular geochemical models assuming that molecular CO$_2$(aq) is the major carbon species present in water under deep earth conditions, we found that at 11 GPa and 1000 K carbon exists almost entirely in the forms of solvated carbonate (CO$_3^{2-}$) and bicarbonate (HCO$_3^-$) ions, and that even carbonic acid (H$_2$CO$_3$(aq)) is more abundant than CO$_2$(aq). Furthermore, our simulations revealed that ion pairing between Na$^+$ and CO$_3^{2-}$/HCO$_3^-$ is greatly affected by P-T conditions, decreasing with increasing pressure at 800$\\sim$1000 K. Our results suggest that in the Earth's upper ...

  12. Impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem functioning and productivity patterns across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    As Earth's climate continues to change, the frequency and intensity of warm droughts, extreme precipitation patterns, and heat waves will alter in potentially different ways, ecosystem structure and functioning with major impacts on carbon and water balance, and food security. The extreme hydro-meteorological conditions that are presently impacting Australia approach those anticipated with future climate change and thus provide unique opportunities to study ecological sensitivity and functional responses and cross-biome productivity changes using contemporary, in-situ and satellite observational datasets. Here, we combined satellite vegetation index products from MODIS and AVHRR, total water storage (TWS) from the GRACE twin satellites, precipitation data and in-situ tower flux measurements to characterise ecosystem sensitivity, and analyse climate change impacts on ecosystem productivity and resilience. Recent advances in eddy covariance tower flux measurements and spatially contiguous remote sensing data provide innovative and promising capabilities to extend ecosystem functioning and productivity studies from local to regional and continental scales. In general, Australia exhibited ecosystem-level shifts in water demands with water availability across wet and dry years, and over all biomes analysed (arid grasslands to humid forests). In the drier years, higher ecosystem water use efficiencies (WUEe) enabled plants to maintain higher levels of productivity than would otherwise be expected for the lower amounts of rainfall and available water. Further, there were unique, functional class-specific coping strategies to drought and water availability. With prolonged warm drought conditions, biomes became increasingly water-limited and WUEe continued to increase until reaching a 'dry edge' threshold, a cross biome maximum WUEe, that cannot be sustained with further reductions in water availability and could potentially break down ecosystem resilience and induce

  13. Impact of the extreme 2009 wildfire Victoria the wettability of naturally highly water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Stefan H.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Sheridan, Gary J.; Lane, Patrick Nj; Smith, Hugh G.; Bell, Tina; Blake, William H.

    2010-05-01

    The recent catastrophic wildfires near Melbourne, which peaked on Feb. 7 2009, burned ca 400,000 ha and caused the tragic loss of 173 people. They occurred during unprecedented extreme fire weather where dry northerly winds gusting up to 100 km/h coincided with the highest temperatures ever recorded in this region. These conditions, combined with the very high biomass of mature eucalypt forests, very low fuel moisture conditions and steep slopes, generated extreme burning conditions. A rapid response project was launched under the NERC Urgency Scheme aimed at determining the effects of this extreme event on soil properties. Three replicate sites each were sampled for extremely high burn severity, high burn severity and unburnt control terrain, within mature mixed-species eucalypt forests near Marysville in April 2009. Ash and surface soil (0-2.5 cm and 2.5-5 cm) were collected at 20 sample grid points at each site. Here we report on outcomes from Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) tests carried out on soil samples to determine the impact of this extreme event on the wettability of a naturally highly water repellent soil. Field assessment suggested that the impact of this extreme wildfire on the soil was less than might be supposed given the extreme burn severity (indicated by the complete elimination of the ground vegetation). This was confirmed by the laboratory results. No major difference in WDPT was detected between (i) burned and control samples, and (ii) between surface and subsurface WDPT patterns, indicating that soil temperatures in the top 0-2.5 cm did not exceed ~200° C. Seedling germination in burned soil was reduced by at least 2/3 compared to the control samples, however, this reduction is indicative an only modest heat input into the soil. The limited heat input into the soil stands in stark contrast to the extreme burn severity (based on vegetation destruction parameters). We speculate that limited soil heating resulted perhaps from the unusually

  14. High speed digital phonoscopy of selected extreme vocalization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Blanco, Matthew; Di Lorenzo, Enrico; Yan, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    We used HSDP (KayPENTAX Model 9710, NJ, USA) to capture the kinematics of vocal folds in the production of extreme vocalization used by heavy metal performers. The vibrations of the VF were captured at 4000 f/s using transoral rigid scope. Growl, scream and inhalatory phonations were recoded. Results showed that these extreme sounds are produced predominantly by supraglottic tissues rather than by the true vocal folds, which explains while these sounds do not injure the mucosa of the true vocal folds. In addition, the HSDI were processed using custom software (Vocalizer®) that clearly demonstrated the contribution of each vocal fold to the generation of the sound.

  15. Crystallization and Thermoelectric Transport in Semiconductor Micro- and Nanostructures Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokirmak, Ali [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Silva, Helena [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-08-30

    This project focused on thermoelectric transport in semiconductor micro and nanostructures where moderate and typical operating voltages and currents lead to extreme thermal gradients and current densities. Models that describe behavior of semiconducting materials typically assume an equilibrium condition or slight deviations from it. In these cases the generation-recombination processes are assumed to have reached a local equilibrium for a given temperature. Hence, free carrier concentrations and their mobilities, band-gap, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric properties, mobility of atoms and mechanical properties of the material, can be described as a function of temperature. In the case of PN junctions under electrical bias, carrier concentrations can change up to ~ 1020 cm-3 and a drift-diffusion approximation is typically used to obtain the carrier concentrations while assuming that the material properties do not change. In non-equilibrium conditions, the assumption that the material properties remain the same may not be valid. While the increased conduction-band electron concentration may not have a drastic effect on the material, large hole concentration is expected to soften the material as ‘a hole’ comes into existence as a broken bond in the lattice. As the hole density approaches 1022 cm-3, the number of bonds holding the lattice together is significantly reduced, making it easier to break additional bonds, reduce band-gap and inhibit phonon transport. As these holes move away from where they were generated, local properties are expected to deviate significantly from the equilibrium case. Hence, temperature alone is not sufficient to describe the behavior of the material. The behavior of the solid material close to a molten region (liquid-solid interfaces) is also expected to deviate from the equilibrium case as a function of hole injection rate, which can be drastically increased or decreased in the presence of an electric field. In the past years

  16. Nanocomposite polymeric electrolytes to record electrophysiological brain signals in prolonged, unconventional or extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Luisa Di Vona, M; Romagnoli, Paola; Narici, Livio; Acquaviva, Massimo; Carozzo, Simone; Marco, Stefano Di; Saturno, Moreno; Sannita, Walter G; Traversa, Enrico

    2006-09-01

    Chemically stable nanocomposite iono-conducting polymeric membranes (based on lithium salts and nanocrystalline oxide powders dispersed in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix) performed successfully in the recording of human brain responses to visual stimulation. Impedance was higher than that of conventional electrodes. However, the electrophysiological signals recorded by acid Al(2)O(3) and neutral Al(2)O(3) 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% nanocomposite gel electrolytes were comparable to those obtained with standard electrodes, even without preliminary skin cleaning and in the absence of gel electrolytes allowing better contact with and skin-electrode ionic conductance. The electrochemical and mechanical characteristics of these membranes make them fit for human and animal research, for clinical application (specifically in emergencies, prolonged electrophysiological recordings), or in unconventional or extreme conditions when fluid electrolytes are unsuitable (e.g., biomedical space research).

  17. Equation of state density models for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at extreme temperature and pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; McHugh, Mark A.

    2013-10-01

    The necessity of exploring ultradeep reservoirs requires the accurate prediction of hydrocarbon density data at extreme temperatures and pressures. In this study, three equations of state (EoS) models, Peng-Robinson (PR), high-temperature high-pressure volume-translated PR (HTHP VT-PR), and perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS are used to predict the density data for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at temperatures to 523 K and pressures to 275 MPa. The calculated values are compared with experimental data. The results show that the HTHP VT-PR EoS and PC-SAFT EoS always perform better than the regular PR EoS for all the investigated hydrocarbons.

  18. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-09-01

    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  19. Characterization of Multi-Scale Atmospheric Conditions Associated with Extreme Precipitation in the Transverse Ranges of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, N.; Kaplan, M.; Ralph, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    The east-west oriented Transverse Ranges of Southern California have historically experienced shallow landslides and debris flows that threaten life and property. Steep topography, soil composition, and frequent wildfires make this area susceptible to mass wasting. Extreme rainfall often acts as a trigger for these events. This work characterizes atmospheric conditions at multiple scales during extreme (>99th percentile) 1-day precipitation events in the major sub-ranges of the Transverse Ranges. Totals from these 1-day events generally exceed the established sub-daily intensity-duration thresholds for shallow landslides and debris flows in this region. Daily extreme precipitation values are derived from both gridded and station-based datasets over the period 1958-2014. For each major sub-range, extreme events are clustered by atmospheric feature and direction of moisture transport. A composite analysis of synoptic conditions is produced for each cluster to create a conceptual model of atmospheric conditions favoring extreme precipitation. The vertical structure of the atmosphere during these extreme events is also examined using observed and modeled soundings. Preliminary results show two atmospheric features to be of importance: 1) closed and cutoff low-pressure systems, areas of counter-clockwise circulation that can produce southerly flow orthogonal to the Transverse Range ridge axes; and 2) atmospheric rivers that transport large quantities of water vapor into the region. In some cases, the closed lows and atmospheric rivers work in concert with each other to produce extreme precipitation. Additionally, there is a notable east-west dipole of precipitation totals during some extreme events between the San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains where extreme values are observed in one range and not the other. The cause of this relationship is explored. The results of this work can help forecasters and emergency responders determine the likelihood that an event will

  20. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life.

  1. High yield simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production under extreme-thermophilic (70 C) mixed culture environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chenxi [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand); Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of pH and medium composition on extreme-thermophilic (70 C) dark fermentative simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (process performance and microbial ecology) was investigated. Hydrogen and ethanol yields were optimized with respect to glucose, peptone, FeSO{sub 4}, NaHCO{sub 3}, yeast extract, trace mineral salts, vitamins, and phosphate buffer concentrations as well as initial pH as independent variables. A combination of low levels of both glucose ({<=}2 g/L) and vitamin solutions ({<=}1 mL/L) and high levels of initial pH ({>=}7), mineral salts solution ({>=}5 mL/L) and FeSO{sub 4} ({>=}100 mg/L) stimulated the hydrogen production, while high level of glucose ({>=}5 g/L) and low levels of both initial pH ({<=}5.5) and mineral salts solution ({<=}1 mL/L) enhanced the ethanol production. High yield of simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (1.58 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose combined with an ethanol yield of 0.90 mol ethanol/mol glucose) was achieved under extreme-thermophilic mixed culture environment. Results obtained showed that the shift of the metabolic pathways favouring either hydrogen or ethanol production was affected by the change in cultivation conditions (pH and medium composition). The mixed culture in this study demonstrated flexible ability for simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production, depending on pH and nutrients formulation. The microorganisms involved could be regarded as simultaneous hydrogen/ethanol producers, as hydrogen and ethanol fermentation under all conditions was carried out by a group of extreme-thermophilic bacterial species related to Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium and Caldanaerobacter. (author)

  2. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  3. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  4. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. P. Mφller

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1) A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2) a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3): 351-362,2011].

  5. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1 A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2 a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3: 351–362, 2011].

  6. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    , but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.......European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European...... beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation...

  7. Analyses of crystal field and exchange interaction of Dy3Ga5O12 under extreme conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Qi Xin; Yue Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the effects of crystal field and exchange interaction field on magnetic properties in dysprosium gallium garnet under extreme conditions (low temperatures and high magnetic fields) based on quantum theory. Here, five sets of crystal field parameters are discussed and compared. It demonstrates that, only considering the crystal field effect, the experiments can not be successfully explained. Thus, referring to the molecular field theory,an effective exchange field associated with the Dy-Dy exchange interaction is further taken into account. Under special consideration of crystal field and the exchange interaction field, it obtains an excellent agreement between the theoretical results and experiments, and further confirms that the exchange interaction field between rare-earth ions has great importance to magnetic properties in paramagnetic rare-earth gallium garnets.

  8. Cushions of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) do not facilitate other plants under extreme altitude and dry conditions in the north-west Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Dvorský, Miroslav; Chlumská, Zuzana; Řeháková, Klára; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2011-09-01

    Cushion plants are commonly considered as keystone nurse species that ameliorate the harsh conditions they inhabit in alpine ecosystems, thus facilitating other species and increasing alpine plant biodiversity. A literature search resulted in 25 key studies showing overwhelming facilitative effects of different cushion plants and hypothesizing greater facilitation with increased environmental severity (i.e. higher altitude and/or lower rainfall). At the same time, emerging ecological theory alongside the cushion-specific literature suggests that facilitation might not always occur under extreme environmental conditions, and especially under high altitude and dryness. To assess these hypotheses, possible nursing effects of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) were examined at extremely high altitude (5900 m a.s.l.) and in dry conditions (precipitation plants were detected. The number and abundance of species were greater outside cushions than within and on the edge of cushions. None of the 13 species detected was positively associated with cushions, while nine of them were negatively associated. Plant diversity increased with the size of the area sampled outside cushions, but no species-area relationship was found within cushions. The results support the emerging theoretical prediction of restricted facilitative effects under extreme combinations of cold and dryness, integrating these ideas in the context of the ecology of cushion plants. This evidence suggests that cases of missing strong facilitation are likely to be found in other extreme alpine conditions.

  9. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior ...

  10. Environmental extremes versus ecological extremes: impact of a massive iceberg on the population dynamics of a high-level Antarctic marine predator†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme events have been suggested to play a disproportionate role in shaping ecological processes, but our understanding of the types of environmental conditions that elicit extreme consequences in natural ecosystems is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of a massive iceberg on the dynamics of a population of Weddell seals. Reproductive rates of females were reduced, but survival appeared unaffected. We also found suggestive evidence for a prolonged shift towards higher variability in reproductive rates. The annual number of females attending colonies showed unusual swings during the iceberg period, a pattern that was apparently the consequence of changes in sea-ice conditions. In contrast to the dramatic effects that were recorded in nearby populations of emperor penguins, our results suggest that this unusual environmental event did not have an extreme impact on the population of seals in the short-term, as they managed to avoid survival costs and were able to rapidly re-achieve high levels of reproduction by the end of the perturbation. Nevertheless, population projections suggest that even this modest impact on reproductive rates could negatively affect the population in the long run if such events were to occur more frequently, as is predicted by models of climate change. PMID:23015628

  11. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  12. Smell-taste dysfunctions in extreme weight/eating conditions: analysis of hormonal and psychological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-García, Jose C; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Alcaide-Torres, Juan; Tinahones, Francisco J; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Cebolla, Ausias; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Ortega, Francisco J; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Granero, Roser; Islam, Mohamed A; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Fagundo, Ana B; Sancho, Carolina; Estivill, Xavier; Treasure, Janet; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2016-02-01

    (1) The objective of this study is to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females in extreme weight/eating conditions (EWC) and (2) to explore the interaction between smell/taste capacity, gastric hormones, eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprised 239 females in EWC [64 Anorexia nervosa (AN) and 80 age-matched healthy-weight controls, and 59 obese and 36 age-matched healthy-weight controls]. Smell and taste assessments were performed through "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips," respectively. The assessment measures included the eating disorders inventory-2, the symptom check list 90-revised, and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, as well as peptides from the gastrointestinal tract [Ghrelin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin]. Smell capacity was differentially associated across EWC groups. Smell was clearly impaired in obese participants and increased in AN (hyposmia in Obesity was 54.3 and 6.4 % in AN), but taste capacity did not vary across EWC. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects and were related to smell impairment. EWC individuals showed a distinct smell profile and circulating ghrelin levels compared to controls. Smell capacity and ghrelin may act as moderators of emotional eating and BMI.

  13. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21 2014 at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  14. Characterization of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields from Diesel, Gasoline and Hybrid Cars under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Hareuveny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field (MF levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT, higher for gasoline (0.04–0.05 μT and highest in hybrids (0.06–0.09 μT, but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%–69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT. As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars’ metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires.

  15. Creep strength of iridium at extremely high temperatures; Zeitstandfestigkeit von Iridium bei extrem hohen Temperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachbereich Werkstofftechnik; Lupton, D. [Heraeus (W.C.) GmbH, Hanau (Germany). Produktbereich Materialtechnik; Braun, F. [Heraeus (W.C.) GmbH, Hanau (Germany). Produktbereich Materialtechnik; Merker, J. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Technisches Inst.; Helmich, R. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Technisches Inst.

    1994-12-31

    On iridium in the initial state and after carrying out creep tests, apart from metallographic and fractographic work, investigations on the distribution of trace impurities were done by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and investigations of the crystal structure were carried out with the aid of Kossel technique, a special field of X-ray bending. Although iridium of high purity was used for the investigations, enrichment of hydrogen, carbon, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, nickel and chromium was proved by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy at the grain boundaries, where the average contents in iridium were only about 1 {mu}g/g. In the creep test, creep fracture lines were found in the range of 1800 to 2300 C and about 0.5 to 12 hours on iridium samples with a square cross section of 1 mm. It follows from the results that this noble metal has a considerable resistance to heat at these temperatures, which makes its use up to 2300 C possible. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Es erfolgten am Iridium im Ausgangszustand und nach Durchfuehrung der Zeitstandversuche neben metallographischen und fraktographischen Arbeiten Untersuchungen zur Verteilung der Spurenverunreinigungen mittels Sekundaerionen-Massenspektroskopie sowie Untersuchungen der Kristallstruktur mit Hilfe der Kossel-Technik, einem Spezialgebiet der Roentgenbeugung. Obwohl fuer die Untersuchungen hochreines Iridium verwendet wurde, konnten mittels Sekundaerionen-Massenspektroskopie in den Korngrenzen Anreicherungen von Wasserstoff, Kohlenstoff, Natrium, Kalium, Calcium, Magnesium, Silizium, Eisen, Nickel und Chrom nachgewiesen werden, wobei die durchschnittlichen Gehalte in Iridium nur um 1 {mu}g/g lagen. Im Zeitstandversuch wurden an Iridiumproben mit 1 mm Vierkantquerschnitt Zeitbruchlinien im Bereich von 1800 bis 2300 C und etwa 0,5 bis 12 Stunden aufgenommen. Aus den Ergebnissen folgt, dass das Edelmetall bei diesen Temperaturen noch eine beachtliche Warmfestigkeit besitzt, die

  16. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filaments under Extreme Conditions and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao

    Intermediate filaments are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. It was discovered during the recent decades that intermediate filament proteins play key roles to reinforce cells subjected to large-deformation as well as participate in signal transduction. However, it is still poorly understood how the nanoscopic structure, as well as the biochemical properties of these protein molecules contribute to their biomechanical functions. In this research we investigate the material function of intermediate filaments under various extreme mechanical conditions as well as disease states. We use a full atomistic model and study its response to mechanical stresses. Learning from the mechanical response obtained from atomistic simulations, we build mesoscopic models following the finer-trains-coarser principles. By using this multiple-scale model, we present a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties and associated deformation mechanisms of intermediate filament network. We reveal the mechanism of a transition from alpha-helices to beta-sheets with subsequent intermolecular sliding under mechanical force, which has been inferred previously from experimental results. This nanoscale mechanism results in a characteristic nonlinear force-extension curve, which leads to a delocalization of mechanical energy and prevents catastrophic fracture. This explains how intermediate filament can withstand extreme mechanical deformation of > 1 00% strain despite the presence of structural defects. We combine computational and experimental techniques to investigate the molecular mechanism of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a premature aging disease. We find that the mutated lamin tail .domain is more compact and stable than the normal one. This altered structure and stability may enhance the association of intermediate filaments with the nuclear membrane, providing a molecular mechanism of the disease. We study the nuclear membrane association

  17. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but i...

  18. A Combination of Extreme Environmental Conditions Favor the Prevalence of Endospore-Forming Firmicutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Wunderlin, Tina; Junier, Thomas; Jeanneret, Nicole; Dorador, Cristina; Molina, Veronica; Johnson, David R.; Junier, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF) deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy.We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null), single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation, and specific mineral composition). To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene) in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene), as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes for which active

  19. A combination of extreme environmental conditions favor the prevalence of Endospore-forming Firmicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Filippidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy. We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null, single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation and specific mineral composition. To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene, as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes

  20. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  1. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The majority of experimental studies of the effects of population bottlenecks on fitness are performed under laboratory conditions, which do not account for the environmental complexity that populations face in nature. In this study, we test inbreeding depression in multiple replicates of inbred...... when compared with non-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster under different temperature conditions. Egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and sex ratio of emerging adults are studied under low, intermediate and high temperatures under laboratory as well as semi-natural conditions. The results...... the sex ratio with more females relative to males emerging at low temperatures, suggesting that selection against males in pre-adult life stages is stronger at low temperatures. The coefficient of variation (CV) of egg-to-adult viability within and among lines is higher for inbred flies and generally...

  2. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Y Sorokin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. Oxidative part of the cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. They are present at high number of up to 106 viable cells/cm3 and represented by four genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira and Thioalkalibacter. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. The dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na+ - a unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotrophs. Some of the species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and 3 species out of 9 can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides. The reductive part of the cycle is also active in anoxic sediments of various soda lakes. In situ and laboratory experiments showed high sulfate reduction rates only hampered at salt-saturated conditions. The highest rates of sulfidogenesis were observed with elemental sulfur followed by thiosulfate. Formate was the most efficient electron donor with all three sulfur electron acceptors, while acetate was only utilized as an electron donor at sulfur-reducing conditions. The soda lake sulfidogenesis showed obligately alkaliphilic pH response matching the in situ conditions. Microbiological analysis showed a domination of three groups of haloalkaliphilic autotrophic SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales with a clear tendency to grow by thiosulfate disproportionation even at salt-saturating conditions. Few novel representatives of the order Desulfobacterales capable of heterotrophic growth with VFA and alcohols at high pH and moderate salinity have also been found, while acetate oxidation was a function of a specialized group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-reducing bacteria belonging to the phylum Chrysiogenetes.

  3. Extreme thermodynamic conditions: novel stoichiometries, violations of textbook chemistry, and intriguing possibilities for the synthesis of new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Elissaios

    As evidenced by numerous experimental and theoretical studies, application of high pressure can dramatically modify the atomic arrangement and electronic structures of both elements and compounds. However, the great majority of research has been focused on the effect of pressure on compounds with constant stoichiometries (typically those stable under ambient conditions). Recent theoretical predictions, using advanced search algorithms, suggest that composition is another important variable in the search for stable compounds, i.e. that the more stable stoichiometry at elevated pressures is not a priory the same as that at ambient pressure. Indeed, thermodynamically stable compounds with novel compositions were theoretically predicted and experimentally verified even in relatively simple chemical systems including: Na-Cl, C-N, Li-H, Na-H, Cs-N, H-N, Na-He, Xe-Fe. These materials are stable due to the formation of novel chemical bonds that are absent, or even forbidden, at ambient conditions. Tuning the composition of the system thus represents another important, but poorly explored approach to the synthesis of novel materials. By varying the stoichiometry one can design novel materials with enhanced properties (e.g. high energy density, hardness, superconductivity etc.), that are metastable at ambient conditions and synthesized at thermodynamic conditions less extreme than that those required for known stoichiometries. Moreover, current outstanding questions, ``anomalies'' and ``paradoxes'' in geo- and planetary science (e.g. the Xenon paradox) could be addressed based on the stability of surprising, stoichiometries that challenge our traditional ``textbook'' picture. In this talk, I will briefly present recent results and highlight the need of close synergy between experimental and theoretical efforts to understand the challenging and complex field of variable stoichiometry under pressure. Finally, possible new routes for the synthesis of novel materials will be

  4. Novel portable press for synchrotron time-resolved 3-D micro-imagining under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, J.; Le Godec, Y., E-mail: yann.legodec@impmc.upmc.fr; Bergame, F.; Morand, M. [IMPMC, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Mezouar, M.; Bauchau, S.; Alvarez-Murga, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Perrillat, J. P. [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France); Bromiley, G.; Berg, M. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); King, A.; Guignot, N.; Itié, J. P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, St Aubin France (France); Atwood, Robert [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Here we present the instrumental development to extend the synchrotron X-ray microtomography techniques to in situ studies under static compression (HP) or shear stress or the both conditions at high temperatures (HT). To achieve this, a new rotating tomography Paris-Edinburgh cell (rotoPEc) has been developed. This ultra-compact portable device, easily and successfully adapted to various multi-modal synchrotron experimental set-up at ESRF, SOLEIL and DIAMOND is explained in detail.

  5. Complex layered dental restorations: Are they recognizable and do they survive extreme conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Alistair S; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has shown that restorative dental materials can be recognized by microscopy and elemental analysis (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence; SEM/EDS and XRF) and that this is possible even in extreme conditions, such as cremation. These analytical methods and databases of dental materials properties have proven useful in DVI (disaster victim identification) of a commercial plane crash in 2009, and in a number of other victim identification cases. Dental materials appear on the market with ever expanding frequency. With their advent, newer methods of restoration have been proposed and adopted in the dental office. Methods might include placing multiple layers of dental materials, where they have different properties including adhesion, viscosity, or working time. These different dental materials include filled adhesives, flowable resins, glass ionomer cements, composite resins, liners and sealants. With possible combinations of different materials in these restorations, the forensic odontologist is now confronted with a new difficulty; how to recognize each individual material. The question might be posed if it is even possible to perform this task. Furthermore, an odontologist might be called upon to identify a victim under difficult circumstances, such as when presented with fragmented or incinerated remains. In these circumstances the ability to identify specific dental materials could assist in the identification of the deceased. Key to use of this information is whether these new materials and methods are detailed in the dental chart. Visual or radiographic inspection may not reveal the presence of a restoration, let alone the possible complex nature of that restoration. This study demonstrates another scientific method in forensic dental identification.

  6. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  7. Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Fagundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extreme weight conditions (EWC groups along a continuum may share some biological risk factors and intermediate neurocognitive phenotypes. A core cognitive trait in EWC appears to be executive dysfunction, with a focus on decision making, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Differences between individuals in these areas are likely to contribute to the differences in vulnerability to EWC. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is a common pattern of executive dysfunction in EWC while comparing anorexia nervosa patients (AN, obese subjects (OB and healthy eating/weight controls (HC. METHODS: Thirty five AN patients, fifty two OB and one hundred thirty seven HC were compared using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT; and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60 years. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in IGT score (F(1.79; p<.001, with AN and OB groups showing the poorest performance compared to HC. On the WCST, AN and OB made significantly more errors than controls (F(25.73; p<.001, and had significantly fewer correct responses (F(2.71; p<.001. Post hoc analysis revealed that the two clinical groups were not significantly different from each other. Finally, OB showed a significant reduced performance in the inhibition response measured with the Stroop test (F(5.11; p<.001 compared with both AN and HC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EWC subjects (namely AN and OB have similar dysfunctional executive profile that may play a role in the development and maintenance of such disorders.

  8. Reactivity of Xe with ice at extreme P-T conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanloup, C.; Hochlaf, M.; Maynard-Casely, H.; Gregoryanz, E.; Mezouar, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water is an important component of terrestrial and giant planets so that any reactivity with Xe at depth would have strong consequences on our knowledge of planetary dynamics as it heavily relies on Xe isotopes geochemistry. The chemistry of ‘noble gas’ have seen fascinating experimental and theoretical advances during the last twenty years as highlighted by review papers (1,2). Noble gas chemistry proceeds essentially by photosynthesis of precursors in a low-temperature noble-gas matrix. The pressure variable has seldom been investigated as a mean to enforce Xe to bond other elements (3). Xe is among the gases that stabilize clathrate hydrates through van der Waals interactions. Xe hydrates are stable up to 2.5 GPa, before dissociating into Xe plus ice VII (4). However, the chemistry of water with solid Xe has been successfully explored by UV photolysis (5,6). Those findings plus our own results on the stability of Xe oxides in the terrestrial crust (7) let us envisage that the chemistry of Xe with oxygen at extreme conditions could be flourishing. We have thus explored the reactivity of Xe with water up to 80 GPa by using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell combined with in situ x-ray diffraction measurements. Formation of a compound is indeed observed at conditions that could occur in the interiors of ice-rich giant planets Uranus and Neptune. To complement the x-ray diffraction data, ab initio calculations have been carried out to determine the molecular structure of the new found compound. These resuts hence add another example of noble gas sequestration in giant planets, as recently proposed for Ne (8). References: 1. W. Grochala, Chem. Soc. Rev. 1632, 36 (2007). 2. R. B. Gerber, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 55, 55 (2004). 3. A. I. Katz and V. A. Apkarian, J. Phys. Chem., 94, 6671-6678 (1990). 4. C. Sanloup et al., PNAS 99, 25 (2002). 5. M. Pettersson et al., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 505, 729 (1999). 6. L. Khriachtchev et al., JACS 130, 6114 (2008). 7. C. Sanloup et

  9. Analytical solutions for determining extreme water levels in surge tank of hydropower station under combined operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbao; Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2017-06-01

    Combined operating condition usually refers to the control operating condition under which the highest and lowest water levels occur in a surge tank of hydropower station. In this paper, with the basic equations of surge analysis and nonlinear vibrational asymptotic method, analytical expressions of the worst superimposition time of surge waves in an upstream surge tank under four typical combined operating conditions (i.e. load-acceptance-then-rejection, successive load rejection, successive load acceptance and load-rejection-then-acceptance) are derived firstly. Then using these expressions, the analytical extreme water levels are determined. The analytical solutions are verified with numerical simulation results. Finally, the effect of the hydraulic resistance coefficient of surge tank on the control operating condition is investigated. The results indicate that: The analytical solutions for determining extreme water levels in surge tank under various combined operating conditions are accurate due to the good agreements between the analytical results and the numerical results. With the increase of the hydraulic resistance coefficient of surge tank, the control operating condition for the highest water level shifts from load-acceptance-then-rejection condition to successive load rejection condition, and the control operating condition for the lowest water level shifts from load-rejection-then-acceptance condition to successive load acceptance condition.

  10. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five ...... ramp rates and reserves requirements....

  11. Taps/valves in extreme conditions. Choice for tap-actuator sets for refining and petrochemical operations in severe conditions. Main steam isolation valves in extremely severe conditions. Presentation of the SRV (Safety Relief Valve) development; Robinets vannes en conditions extremes. Choix d`ensembles robinets-operateurs pour des operations en conditions severes dans le raffinage et la petrochimie. Vannes d`isolement vapeur principales en conditions tres severes. Presentation du developpement de la vanne SRV (safety relief valve)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, X.F.; Aubry, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Guesnon, D. [Technicatome Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Martin, R. [Vanatome, 07 - Annonay (France); Mainguette, Ph. [Adareg (France)

    1998-05-01

    This series of 3 papers was presented during a workshop organized by the French Society of mechanical engineers in 1997. The aim of the workshop was to take stock of the most recent developments in the domain of taps and valves devoted to extreme condition uses (very high or very low temperatures or pressures and corrosive ambiences). The first paper deals with selection criteria for the choice of valve-actuator sets devoted to high temperature liquid aromatic fluids in the refining and petrochemical industries (technical specifications, selection, qualification tests, quality control and tests feedback). The second paper presents the global conceiving process which led to adapt a general concept of valve to a specific application to propulsion reactors of nuclear ships: the steam isolation valves (technical specifications, particular constraints, prototype and serial product, maintenance and experience feedback). The third paper concerns the development of a safety relief valve for the superfluid helium cooling system of the superconducting magnets of the future LHC (Large Hadron Collider) of the CERN (technical specifications, general characteristics, functioning principle, technology and conceiving, test of prototypes and results). (J.S.)

  12. MECHANICAL STRENGTH RESPONSES OF POLED LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE UNDER EXTREME ELECTRIC FIELD AND VARIOUS TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Zhang, Kewei [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    PZT (lead zirconate titanate), particularly PZT-5A, is used in a variety of critical actuation and sensing systems because of its high Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficients. However, PZT is susceptible to mechanical failure. The evaluation of the mechanical strength of the material under the target working conditions is very important. This study presents part of the recent experimental developments in mechanical testing and evaluation of PZT materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Ball-on-ring and four-point bending testing setups were used, with modifications made to account for testing requirements from high-level electric field and elevated temperature. The poled PZT-5A or equivalent material was tested under various specimen and testing conditions. The parameters of the distribution of strengths (characteristic strength and Weibull modulus) are discussed in relation to the testing conditions. Fractographic results based on scanning electron microscopy are also presented and discussed. The related data can serve as input for the design of piezoceramic devices, not only those used in energy systems like fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines, but also those used in structural health monitoring, energy harvesting, and other critical systems in aerospace and civil engineering.

  13. Explosive Chemistry: Simulating the Chemistry of Energetic Materials at Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, E J; Manaa, M R; Fried, L E

    2003-11-18

    In the brief instant of a high-explosive detonation, the shock wave produces a pressure 500,000 times that of the Earth's atmosphere, the detonation wave travels as fast as 10 kilometers per second, and internal temperatures soar up to 5,500 Kelvin. As the shock propagates through the energetic material, the rapid heating coupled with compression that results in almost 30% volume reduction, initiate complex chemical reactions. A dense, highly reactive supercritical fluid is established behind the propagating detonation front. Energy release from the exothermic chemical reactions serve in turn to drive and sustain the detonation process until complete reactivity is reached. Several experimental results suggest the existence of strong correlations between the applied mechanical stress and shocks, the local heterogeneity and defects (dislocations, vacancies, cracks, impurities, etc.), and the onset of chemical reactions. The reaction chemistry of energetic materials at high pressure and temperature is, therefore, of considerable importance in understanding processes that these materials experience under impact and detonation conditions. Chemical decomposition models are critical ingredients in order to predict, among other things, the measured times to explosion and the conditions for ignition of hot spots, localized regions of highly concentrated energy associated with defects. To date, chemical kinetic rates of condense-phase energetic materials at detonation conditions are virtually non-existent, and basic questions such as: (a) which bond in a given energetic molecule breaks first, and (b) what type of chemical reactions (unimolecular versus bimolecular, etc.) that dominate early in the decomposition process, are still largely unknown.

  14. Conditions for high-potential female entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Terjesen, Siri A.

    2016-01-01

    Female-led ventures that are market-expanding, export-oriented, and innovative contribute substantially to local and national economic development, as well as to the female entrepreneur’s economic welfare. Female-led ventures also serve as models that can encourage other high-potential female entrepreneurs. The supply of high-potential entrepreneurial ventures is driven by individuals’ entrepreneurial attitudes and institutional factors associated with a country’s conditions for entrepreneuri...

  15. Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced pump inducer design technology that uses high inlet diffusion blades, operates at a very low flow coefficient, and employs a cavitation control and...

  16. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  17. Anomalously high Arabian Sea productivity conditions during MIS 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ziegler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine isotope stage (MIS 13 (~500 000 years ago has been recognized as atypical in many paleoclimate records and, in particular, it has been connected to an exceptionally strong summer monsoon in East Asia. Here we present a multi-proxy study of a sediment core taken from the Murray Ridge at intermediate water depth in the northern Arabian Sea that covers the last 750 000 years. Our results indicate that upwelling driven primary productivity conditions were anomalously high during MIS 13 and led to extreme carbonate dissolution and glauconitization. We argue that an extreme summer monsoon circulation was probably not responsible for these aberrant conditions, because such an event does not show up in the Antarctic methane record and transient modeling results. As an alternative, we propose that high productivity was related to the onset of an intensive meridional overturning circulation in the Atlantic Ocean at the end of the Mid-Pleistocene transition. This led to an increased supply of nutrient-rich deep waters into the Indian Ocean euphotic zone, thereby triggering the observed productivity maximum.

  18. The [CII]/[NII] far-infrared line ratio at z>5: extreme conditions for “normal” galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA), observations of atomic far-infrared fine structure lines are a very productive way of measuring physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies at high redshift, because they provide an unobscured view into the physical conditions of star formation. While the bright [CII] line has become a routine probe of the dynamical properties of the gas, its intensity needs to be compared to other lines in order to establish the physical origin of the emission. [NII] selectively traces the emission coming from the ionized fraction of the [CII]-emitting gas, offering insight into the phase structure of the ISM. Here we present ALMA measurements of [NII] 205 μm fine structure line emission from a representative sample of galaxies at z=5-6 spanning two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized gas properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L[CII]/L[NII] ratio. First, we find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] from a “typical” Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG-1), likely due to low dust content and reminiscent of local dwarfs. Second, the dusty Lyman Break Galaxy HZ10 and the extreme starburst AzTEC-3 show ionized gas fractions typical of local star-forming galaxies and show hints of spatial variations in their [CII]/[NII] line ratio. These observations of far-infrared lines in “normal” galaxies at z>5 yield some of the first constraints on ISM models for young galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time and shed light on the observed evolution of the dust and gas properties.

  19. Quantification of Cation Sorption to Engineered Barrier Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Schlautman, Mark [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nitsche, Heino [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The objective of this research is to examine mechanisms and thermodynamics of actinide sorption to engineered barrier materials (iron (oxyhydr)oxides and bentonite clay) for nuclear waste repositories under high temperature and high ionic strength conditions using a suite of macroscopic and microscopic techniques which will be coupled with interfacial reaction models. Gaining a mechanistic understanding of interfacial processes governing the sorption/sequestration of actinides at mineral-water interfaces is fundamental for the accurate prediction of actinide behavior in waste repositories. Although macroscale sorption data and various spectroscopic techniques have provided valuable information regarding speciation of actinides at solid-water interfaces, significant knowledge gaps still exist with respect to sorption mechanisms and the ability to quantify sorption, particularly at high temperatures and ionic strengths. This objective is addressed through three major tasks: (1) influence of oxidation state on actinide sorption to iron oxides and clay minerals at elevated temperatures and ionic strengths; (2) calorimetric titrations of actinide-mineral suspensions; (3) evaluation of bentonite performance under repository conditions. The results of the work will include a qualitative conceptual model and a quantitative thermodynamic speciation model describing actinide partitioning to minerals and sediments, which is based upon a mechanistic understanding of specific sorption processes as determined from both micro-scale and macroscale experimental techniques. The speciation model will be a thermodynamic aqueous and surface complexation model of actinide interactions with mineral surfaces that is self-consistent with macroscopic batch sorption data, calorimetric and potentiometric titrations, X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, mainly Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)), and electron microscopy analyses. The novelty of the proposed work lies largely in

  20. Effect of low-intensity extremely high frequency radiation on reproductive function in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, T I; Tereshkina, O V; Khadartsev, A A; Yashin, A A

    2006-08-01

    The exposure to low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation during spermatogenesis was accompanied by pathological changes, which resulted in degeneration and polymorphism of spermatozoa. The number of newborn rats increased in the progeny of irradiated animals.

  1. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  2. Estimation of Extreme Values by the Average Conditional Exceedance Rate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naess

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a method for extreme value prediction on the basis of a sampled time series. The method is specifically designed to account for statistical dependence between the sampled data points in a precise manner. In fact, if properly used, the new method will provide statistical estimates of the exact extreme value distribution provided by the data in most cases of practical interest. It avoids the problem of having to decluster the data to ensure independence, which is a requisite component in the application of, for example, the standard peaks-over-threshold method. The proposed method also targets the use of subasymptotic data to improve prediction accuracy. The method will be demonstrated by application to both synthetic and real data. From a practical point of view, it seems to perform better than the POT and block extremes methods, and, with an appropriate modification, it is directly applicable to nonstationary time series.

  3. Opportunities for in-situ diffraction studies of advanced materials under extreme conditions at the US spallation neutron source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Hodges

    2008-11-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Currently ramping up to 1.4 MW operating power, SNS will provide the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. Built by a partnership of six DOE laboratories SNS is operated as a user facility, open to scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and government laboratories in the United States and abroad. Eighteen dedicated beamline instruments are currently funded; four are completed and in operation, five are to be commissioned within a year and the others are at various stages of design and construction. All instruments at SNS have been designed to best in class and will provide unprecedented opportunities to explore the structure and dynamics of all materials. Amongst the funded instruments are a high-resolution very fast powder diffractometer (POWGEN3) optimized for parametric studies of materials under a wide range of conditions (, , and flowing gases), an ultrahigh-pressure diffractometer (SNAP) for materials under extreme conditions of pressure (up to 100 GPa) and temperature, an engineering materials diffractometer (VULCAN) for mapping strain, texture and fundamental aspects of materials behaviour of high performance materials under strain forces, a high flux disordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) for liquids, glasses and disorder in crystalline materials, and a small angle scattering diffractometer (EQSANS) for investigating precipitates, crystallization, domains and nanoparticles in composite materials. ORNL/SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  4. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tong

  5. Flexible Dielectric Nanocomposites with Ultrawide Zero-Temperature Coefficient Windows for Electrical Energy Storage and Conversion under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Khurram; Xu, Yang; Gao, Chao; Li, Hanying; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hasan, Tawfique; Luo, Jack; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-03-01

    Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low cost, and high breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. Achieving dielectric constants with low/zero-temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultrawide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as a significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity, and stability. By creating a series of percolative polymer composites, we demonstrated hybrid carbon filler based composites can exhibit a zero-temperature coefficient window of 200 °C (from -50 to 150 °C), the widest 0TC window for all polymer composite dielectrics reported to date. We further show the electric and dielectric temperature coefficient of the composites is highly stable against stretching and bending, even under AC electric field with frequency up to 1 MHz. We envision that our method will push the functional limits of polymer dielectrics for flexible electronics in extreme conditions such as in hybrid vehicles, aerospace, power electronics, and oil/gas exploration.

  6. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    was used instead. This code makes the assumption that the background ion and electron behaviour can be approximated with a fluid model whilst...electron behaviour occurring from this aperture was also published in High Power Laser Science and Engineering [4]. A significant breakthrough was also...acceleration to transparency. This was published in Physics of Plasmas [12]. Through one- dimensional modelling of the interaction, it was also

  7. The extremely high stability of carbofuran pesticide in acidic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Anđelka V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment friendly iron catalysts were applied in the decomposition reactions of some toxic compounds like phenol, methomyl and corbofuran pesticide. The applied catalytic processes belong to photo-Fenton reactions. Heterogeneous iron catalysts showed significant activity in phenol and methomyl conversion, however, these catalysts were completely inactive in destruction of carbofuran molecule, even in the catalytic reaction promoted with UV light at high temperature.

  8. The effect of visual field condition on kinetic in upper extremities and e.m.g in lower extremities while performing reaching in normal adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyekang; Kang, Youngeun; Yoo, Minah; Lee, Bomjin; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Joongsook; Han, Dongwook; Oh, Taeyoung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study was to investigate mean velocity and angle of shoulder joint, activation of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius according to both eyes, dominant eye and non-dominant eye condition during reaching task in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Our research recruited 24 participants (male 11, female 13) in Silla University. Participants were performed reaching out movement by conditions of both eye, dominants eye, non-dominants eye. The target was placed at 45 degree diagonal direction and distance far away 130% of their arm length. Kinetic analysis of the upper extremities was investigated by QUALISYS 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Muscle activation were measured by EMG during reaching tasks. The collected data were statistically processed using the SPSS for win version 20.0. [Results] There was a significant difference of shoulder joint velocity of flexion, abduction and internal rotation according to visual field condition during reaching tasks. There was no significant difference of shoulder joint angle and muscle activation according to visual field conditions during reaching tasks. [Conclusion] In conclusion, visual field has an influence on shoulder joint velocity. Therefore, the visual field may be to play an important role in reach performance. PMID:28210047

  9. Investigating the Effects of Simulated Space conditions on Novel Extremely Halophilic Archaea: Halovarius Luteus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshangsaz, Niloofar; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Nazmi, Kamran; Semsarha, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Studying halophiles from different environments of Earth provide new insights into our search for life in the universe. Haloarchaea show some unique characteristics and physiological adaptations like acidic proteins against harsh environments such as natural brine with salt concentration approaching saturation (5 M) and regions with low active water. These properties make haloarchaea interesting candidate for astrobiological studies. Halovarius luteus gen. nov., sp. nov. a novel extremely halophilic archaeon from Urmia salt lake, in Iran has been chosen to explore its resistance against a series of extreme conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the resistance of strain DA50T under the effects of simulated space conditions like simulated microgravity, hypergravity, and desiccation. In this paper we will discuss the results of these studies where we specifically focus on changes in carotenoid pigments production and whole cell proteome. This is the first report of very novel Iranian archaea in response to extreme space conditions. The pigments were extracted by acetone and methanol. Pigments were analyzed by scanning the absorbance spectrum in the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. And they were separated by TLC. Whole protein from cell lysate supernatant was extracted after lysis with Bacterial Protein Extraction Reagent and fractionated by RP-HPLC using C18 column. Proteome analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF. Carotenoid pigments are formed under different extreme conditions such as dry environment and gravitational changes. Also the protein composition exhibits alterations after exposure to the same conditions. Our conclusion is that pigments and proteins formation depend on the growth circumstances. Halophiles use this as an adaptation to survive under different environmental conditions.

  10. Materials research in the solar furnace. Materials testing in extreme conditions; Materialforschung im Sonnenofen. Werkstoffpruefung unter extremen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmuecker, M. [DLR-Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung, Koeln-Porz (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Extreme temperatures can be achieved with concentrated solar radiation. High heating and cooling rates are possible, and furnace walls are not required. This makes the solar furnace a unique tool for testing of high-temperature materials as cooperations with the DLR Institute of Materials Research have shown. (orig.) [German] Mit konzentrierter Sonnenstrahlung koennen extreme Temperaturen erreicht werden. Hohe Aufheiz- und Abkuehlraten sind moeglich; im Allgemeinen kann auf begrenzende Ofenwandungen verzichtet werden. Damit stellt der Sonnenofen, in Verbindung mit einer geeigneten Mess- und Regeltechnik, ein einzigartiges Pruefwerkzeug fuer Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe dar, wie Kooperationen mit dem DLR-Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung gezeigt haben. (orig.)

  11. Identification of Extreme Events Under Climate Change Conditions Over Europe and The Northwest-atlantic Region: Spatial Patterns and Time Series Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G.; Ulbrich, U.; Speth, P.

    In the context of climate change and the resulting possible impacts on socio-economic conditions for human activities it seems that due to a changed occurrence of extreme events more severe consequences have to be expected than from changes in the mean climate. These extreme events like floods, excessive heats and droughts or windstorms possess impacts on human social and economic life in different categories such as forestry, agriculture, energy use, tourism and the reinsurance business. Reinsurances are affected by nearly 70% of all insured damages over Europe in the case of wind- storms. Especially the December 1999 French windstorms caused damages about 10 billion. A new EU-founded project (MICE = Modelling the Impact of Climate Ex- tremes) will focus on these impacts caused by changed occurrences of extreme events over Europe. Based upon the output of general circulation models as well as regional climate models, investigations are carried out with regard to time series characteristics as well as the spatial patterns of extremes under climate changed conditions. After the definition of specific thresholds for climate extremes, in this talk we will focus on the results of the analysis for the different data sets (HadCM3 and CGCMII GCM's and RCM's, re-analyses, observations) with regard to windstorm events. At first the results of model outputs are validated against re-analyses and observations. Especially a comparison of the stormtrack (2.5 to 8 day bandpass filtered 500 hPa geopotential height), cyclone track, cyclone frequency and intensity is presented. Highly relevant to damages is the extreme wind near the ground level, so the 10 m wind speed will be investigated additionally. of special interest to possible impacts is the changed spatial occurrence of windspeed maxima under 2xCO2-induced climate change.

  12. Seasonal variations in microbial populations and environmental conditions in an extreme acid mine drainage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K J; Gihring, T M; Banfield, J F

    1999-08-01

    Microbial populations, their distributions, and their aquatic environments were studied over a year (1997) at an acid mine drainage (AMD) site at Iron Mountain, Calif. Populations were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridizations with group-specific probes. Probes were used for the domains Eucarya, Bacteria, and Archaea and the two species most widely studied and implicated for their role in AMD production, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Results show that microbial populations, in relative proportions and absolute numbers, vary spatially and seasonally and correlate with geochemical and physical conditions (pH, temperature, conductivity, and rainfall). Bacterial populations were in the highest proportion (>95%) in January. Conversely, archaeal populations were in the highest proportion in July and September ( approximately 50%) and were virtually absent in the winter. Bacterial and archaeal populations correlated with conductivity and rainfall. High concentrations of dissolved solids, as reflected by high conductivity values (up to 125 mS/cm), occurred in the summer and correlated with high archaeal populations and proportionally lower bacterial populations. Eukaryotes were not detected in January, when total microbial cell numbers were lowest (numbers of prokaryotes (10(8) to 10(9) cells/ml). T. ferrooxidans was in highest abundance (>30%) at moderate pHs and temperatures ( approximately 2.5 and 20 degrees C) in sites that were peripheral to primary acid-generating sites and lowest (0 to 5%) at low-pH sites (pH approximately 0.5) that were in contact with the ore body. L. ferrooxidans was more widely distributed with respect to geochemical conditions (pH = 0 to 3; 20 to 50 degrees C) but was more abundant at higher temperatures and lower pHs ( approximately 40 degrees C; pH approximately 0.5) than T. ferrooxidans.

  13. A new extension of the polarizable continuum model: Toward a quantum chemical description of chemical reactions at extreme high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammi, Roberto

    2015-11-15

    A quantum chemical method for studying potential energy surfaces of reactive molecular systems at extreme high pressures is presented. The method is an extension of the standard Polarizable Continuum Model that is usually used for Quantum Chemical study of chemical reactions at a standard condition of pressure. The physical basis of the method and the corresponding computational protocol are described in necessary detail, and an application of the method to the dimerization of cyclopentadiene (up to 20 GPa) is reported.

  14. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat,

    2008-08-22

    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system.

  15. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and detrimental meteorological conditions for vegetation of crops in Poland (1971–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziernicka-Wojtaszek Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of extreme and detrimental meteorological conditions for vegetation of crops in Poland (1971-2010. The subject, and aim of this study is the comparison of the frequency of occurrence of thermal, precipitation and pluvio-thermal conditions detrimental to agriculture in Poland during two periods: 1971-2000 and 1981-2010, constituting the former, and the current climate normal, respectively. Each month of the vegetation period (April-October was, in accordance with the current accounts carried out by agriculture correspondents, assigned to one of the following categories: favorable for vegetation, dry, dry and cool, cool, cool and humid, humid, dry and hot. An identical classification of meteorological vegetation conditions was also carried out for months characterized by extreme air temperature and precipitation values. Extreme values were defined as those monthly temperature mean values, and monthly precipitation totals, the probability of exceeding of which is lower than 10%, i.e. their probability of occurrence, or the socalled recurrence interval, is once every 10 years. The differences existing between the analyzed 30-year periods, can be attributed to the present day climate change - a significant increase in air temperature in April, June, July, and August, with a lack of significant precipitation trends. In the two compared periods, an increase in the number of extreme months from 74 to 82 was stated. The biggest changes during the extreme months were observed for precipitation deficits combined with hot air temperatures, namely, an increase from 15 to 29 months. In general, all the analyzed months of the vegetation period showed an increase in dry months (90 to 105 cases and a decrease in cool months (44 to 24 cases.

  16. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.

  17. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5-17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.

  18. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  19. A First-Principles Multi-phase Equation of State of Carbon under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, A A; Benedict, X L; Young, D A; Schwegler, E; Bonev, S A

    2008-02-01

    We describe the construction of a multi-phase equation of state for carbon at extreme pressures based on ab initio electronic structure calculations of two solid phases (diamond and BC8) and the liquid. Solid-phase free energies are built from knowledge of the cold curves and phonon calculations, together with direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of the equation of state, which are used to extract anharmonic corrections to the phonon free energy. The liquid free energy is constructed based on results from molecular dynamics calculations and constraints determined from previously calculated melting curves, assuming a simple solid-like free energy model. The resulting equation of state is extended to extreme densities and temperatures with a Thomas Fermi-based free energy model. Comparisons to available experimental results are discussed.

  20. Investigation of carbon dioxide phase shift possibility under extreme Antarctic winter conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, V M

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic winter atmosphere minimal temperature and pressure series reveal that $CO_2$ phase shift (deposition) is possible in some extreme cases, even leading to possible $CO_2$ snow phenomenon at Vostok Antarctic station and in other near South Pole regions. A hypothesis has been formulated that stable $CO_2$ snow cover might have formed in Earth past which may influence interpretation of glacial chronology records. This effect may also manifest in other minor gases. Its global climate role is discussed.

  1. Intestinal anisakiasis can cause intussusception in adults:An extremely rare condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomofumi; Miura; Akira; Iwaya; Takao; Shimizu; Junpei; Tsuchiya; Junichiro; Nakamura; Satoshi; Yamada; Tsutomu; Miura; Masahiko; Yanagi; Hiroyuki; Usuda; Iwao; Emura; Toru; Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of adult intussusception caused by anisakiasis. A 41-year-old man was admitted into our hospital for right lower abdominal colicky pain. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed the presence of intussusception. As pneumodynamic resolution by colonoscopy failed, surgery was performed. The anisakis body was found in the submucosal layer of the resection specimen. The patient was discharged 9 d after the operation. Anisakiasis may cause intussusception in any country wh...

  2. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  3. Core safety of Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J B Joshi; A K Nayak; M Singhal; D Mukhopadhaya

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear power is currently the fourth largest source of electricity production in India after thermal, hydro and renewable sources of electricity. Currently, India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation and seven other reactors are under construction. Most of these reactors are indigenously designed and built Heavy Water Reactors. In addition, a 300 MWe Advanced Heavy Water Reactor has already been designed and in the process of deployment in near future for demonstration of power production from Thorium apart from enhanced safety features by passive means. India has ambitious plans to enhance the share of electricity production from nuclear. The recent Fukushima accident has raised concerns of safety of Nuclear Power Plants worldwide. The Fukushima accident was caused by extreme events, i.e., large earthquake followed by gigantic Tsunami which are not expected to hit India’s coast considering the geography of India and historical records. Nevertheless, systematic investigations have been conducted by nuclear scientists in India to evaluate the safety of the current Nuclear Power Plants in case of occurrence of such extreme events in any nuclear site. This paper gives a brief outline of the safety features of Indian Heavy Water Reactors for prevention and mitigation of such extreme events. The probabilistic safety analysis revealed that the risk from Indian Heavy Water Reactors are negligibly small.

  4. Operational flood management under large-scale extreme conditions, using the example of the Middle Elbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precautionary or technical flood protection measures, short-term strategies of the operational management, i.e. the initiation and co-ordination of preventive measures during and/or before a flood event are crucially for the reduction of the flood damages. This applies especially for extreme flood events. These events are rare, but may cause a protection measure to be overtopped or even to fail and be destroyed. In such extreme cases, reliable decisions must be made and emergency measures need to be carried out to prevent even larger damages from occurring.

    Based on improved methods for meteorological and hydrological modelling a range of (physically based extreme flood scenarios can be derived from historical events by modification of air temperature and humidity, shifting of weather fields and recombination of flood relevant event characteristics. By coupling the large scale models with hydraulic and geotechnical models, the whole flood-process-chain can be analysed right down to the local scale. With the developed GIS-based tools for hydraulic modelling FlowGIS and the Dike-Information-System, (IS-dikes it is possible to quantify the endangering shortly before or even during a flood event, so the decision makers can evaluate possible options for action in operational mode.

  5. Study on Strength of Hybrid Mortar Synthesis with Epoxy Resin, Fly Ash and Quarry Dust Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, P.; Muni Reddy, M. G., Dr.; Adiseshu, S., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Blend and characterization of Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether based thermosetting polymer mortar comprising an epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust are presented here for the strength study. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative process in Extreme conditions of commercial epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust based paste. In this way, thermosetting based hybrid mortars characterized by a different contents of normalized Fly ash and Quarry dust by a homogeneous distribution of the resin have been attained. Once hardened, these new composite materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the Fly ash and Rock sand pastes since the Resin provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced number of micro cracks. The micro structural characterization allows pointing out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars. A correlation between micro-structural features and mechanical properties of the mortar has also been studied in Extreme conditions.

  6. Embedded optical probes for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement of materials in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, R. L.; Rodriguez, G.; Gibson, L. L.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Grover, M.; Lalone, B. M.; Udd, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present recent efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop sensors for simultaneous, in situ pressure and temperature measurements under dynamic conditions by using an all-optical fiber-based approach. While similar tests have been done previously in deflagration-to-detonation tests (DDT), where pressure and temperature were measured to 82 kbar and 400°C simultaneously, here we demonstrate the use of embedded fiber grating sensors to obtain high temporal resolution, in situ pressure measurements in inert materials. We present two experimental demonstrations of pressure measurements: (1) under precise shock loading from a gas-gun driven plate impact and (2) under high explosive driven shock in a water filled vessel. The system capitalizes on existing telecom components and fast transient digitizing recording technology. It operates as a relatively inexpensive embedded probe (single-mode 1550 nm fiber-based Bragg grating) that provides a continuous fast pressure record during shock and/or detonation. By applying well-controlled shock wave pressure profiles to these inert materials, we study the dynamic pressure response of embedded fiber Bragg gratings to extract pressure amplitude of the shock wave and compare our results with particle velocity wave profiles measured simultaneously.

  7. Exploratory results from a new rotary shear designed to reproduce the extreme deformation conditions of crustal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.; Spagnuolo, E.; Smith, S.; Violay, M. E.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Di Felice, F.; Di Stefano, G.; Romeo, G.; Scarlato, P.

    2011-12-01

    A challenging goal in experimental rock deformation is to reproduce the extreme deformation conditions typical of coseismic slip in crustal earthquakes: large slip (up to 50 m), slip rates (0.1-10 m/s), accelerations (> 10 m/s2) and normal stress (> 50 MPa). Moreover, fault zones usually contain non-cohesive rocks (gouges) and fluids. The integration of all these deformation conditions is such a technical challenge that there is currently no apparatus in the world that can reproduce seismic slip. Yet, the determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates remains one of the main unknowns in earthquake physics, as it cannot be determined (or very approximately) by seismic wave inversion analysis. In the last thirty years, rotary shear apparatus were designed that combine large normal stresses and slip but low slip rates (high-pressure rotary shears first designed by Tullis) or low normal stresses but large slip rates and slip (rotary shears first designed by Shimamoto). Here we present the results of experiments using a newly-constructed Slow to HIgh Velocity Apparatus (SHIVA), installed at INGV in Rome, which extends the combination of normal stress, slip and slip rate achieved by previous apparatus and reproduces the conditions likely to occur during an earthquake in the shallow crust. SHIVA uses two brushless engines (max power 300 kW, max torque 930 Nm) and an air actuator (thrust 5 tons) in a rotary shear configuration (nominally infinite displacement) to slide hollow rock cylinders (30/50 mm int./ext. diameter) at slip rates ranging from 10 micron/s up to 6.5 m/s, accelerations up to 80 m/s2 and normal stresses up to 50 MPa. SHIVA can also perform experiments in which the torque on the sample (rather than the slip rate) is progressively increased until spontaneous failure occurs: this experimental capability should better reproduce natural conditions. The apparatus is equipped with a sample chamber to carry out experiments in the presence of fluids (up to 15

  8. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, compression.

  9. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source and ultra-high vacuum chamber for studying EUV-induced processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, A.; Yakushev, O.; Abrikosov, A.; Snegirev, E.; Krivtsun, V.M.; Lee, C.J.; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental setup that directly reproduces extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography relevant conditions for detailed component exposure tests is described. The EUV setup includes a pulsed plasma radiation source, operating at 13.5 nm; a debris mitigation system; collection and filtering optics; and

  10. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Frappell, P.B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W.K.; Newman, S.H.; Prosser, D.J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M.J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  11. Atmospheric and Fog Effects on Ultra-Wide Band Radar Operating at Extremely High Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, Nezah; Pinhasi, Gad A; Pinhasi, Yosef

    2016-05-23

    The wide band at extremely high frequencies (EHF) above 30 GHz is applicable for high resolution directive radars, resolving the lack of free frequency bands within the lower part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Utilization of ultra-wideband signals in this EHF band is of interest, since it covers a relatively large spectrum, which is free of users, resulting in better resolution in both the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Noting that frequencies in the millimeter band are subjected to high atmospheric attenuation and dispersion effects, a study of the degradation in the accuracy and resolution is presented. The fact that solid-state millimeter and sub-millimeter radiation sources are producing low power, the method of continuous-wave wideband frequency modulation becomes the natural technique for remote sensing and detection. Millimeter wave radars are used as complementary sensors for the detection of small radar cross-section objects under bad weather conditions, when small objects cannot be seen by optical cameras and infrared detectors. Theoretical analysis for the propagation of a wide "chirped" Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) radar signal in a dielectric medium is presented. It is shown that the frequency-dependent (complex) refractivity of the atmospheric medium causes distortions in the phase of the reflected signal, introducing noticeable errors in the longitudinal distance estimations, and at some frequencies may also degrade the resolution.

  12. Cloud Variations under Subtropical High Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sha; LIU Qi; FU Yun-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The cloud variations under subtropical high (STH) conditions during summers over a ten-year period are studied using combined data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The results reveal that clouds mainly experience an isolated evolution in the STHs, which is designated in this study by the 1540 gpm geopotential lines at 850 hPa. In the STH domain throughout the Northern Hemisphere, the average amount of total clouds exceeds 30%. Low clouds dominate in the STH domain, contributing over 60% of total cloud amount within the Pacific subtropical high and over 40% within the Atlantic subtropical high. The prevalence of low clouds in above regions is determined by the circulation pattern around 150°-180°E and 850 hPa, which suppresses both the upward development of the cloud tops and the water vapor divergences near the surface. Furthermore, clouds present great geographical incoherence within the STH domain. In the eastern STHs, the amount of middle and low clouds increases to peak in the early morning and decreases to a trough in the afternoon, while the amount of high clouds remains stable throughout the day. Conversely, in the western STHs, the diurnal amplitude of low and middle clouds is less than three, while high clouds dramatically reach the maximum in the afternoon and drop to the minimum in the evening. Among the nine cloud categories, stratocumulus clouds with greater optical thickness account for the most under STH conditions, no matter their occurrence or amount, causing more shortwave cloud radiative forcing to cool the local atmosphere and surface as a consequence.

  13. Prospects of hydroacoustic detection of ultra-high and extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Karlik, Ya. S.; Learned, J. G.; Svet, V. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    2001-07-01

    The prospects of construction of deep underwater neutrino telescopes in the world's oceans for the goals of ultra-high and super-high energy neutrino astrophysics (astronomy) using acoustic technologies are reviewed. The effective detection volume of the acoustic neutrino telescopes can be far greater than a cubic kilometer for extreme energies. In recent years, it was proposed that an existing hydroacoustic array of 2400 hydrophones in the Pacific Ocean near Kamchatka Peninsula could be used as a test base for an acoustic neutrino telescope SADCO (Sea-based Acoustic Detector of Cosmic Objects) which should be capable of detecting acoustic signals produced in water by the cosmic neutrinos with energies 1019-21 eV (e.g., topological defect neutrinos). We report on simulations of super-high energy electron-hadron and electron-photon cascades with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect taken into account. Acoustic signals emitted by neutrino-induced cascades with energies 1020-21 eV were calculated. The possibilities of using a converted hydroacoustic station MG-10 (MG-10M) of 132 hydrophones as a basic module for a deep water acoustic neutrino detector with the threshold detection energy 1015 eV in the Mediterranean Sea are analyzed (with the aim of searching for neutrinos with energies 1015-16 eV from Active Galactic Nuclei). .

  14. The Imprint of Extreme Climate Events in Century-Long Time Series of Wood Anatomical Traits in High-Elevation Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Marco; Brunetti, Michele; Castagneri, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climate events are of key importance for forest ecosystems. However, both the inherent infrequency, stochasticity and multiplicity of extreme climate events, and the array of biological responses, challenges investigations. To cope with the long life cycle of trees and the paucity of the extreme events themselves, our inferences should be based on long-term observations. In this context, tree rings and the related xylem anatomical traits represent promising sources of information, due to the wide time perspective and quality of the information they can provide. Here we test, on two high-elevation conifers (Larix decidua and Picea abies sampled at 2100 m a.s.l. in the Eastern Alps), the associations among temperature extremes during the growing season and xylem anatomical traits, specifically the number of cells per ring (CN), cell wall thickness (CWT), and cell diameter (CD). To better track the effect of extreme events over the growing season, tree rings were partitioned in 10 sectors. Climate variability has been reconstructed, for 1800-2011 at monthly resolution and for 1926-2011 at daily resolution, by exploiting the excellent availability of very long and high quality instrumental records available for the surrounding area, and taking into account the relationship between meteorological variables and site topographical settings. Summer temperature influenced anatomical traits of both species, and tree-ring anatomical profiles resulted as being associated to temperature extremes. Most of the extreme values in anatomical traits occurred with warm (positive extremes) or cold (negative) conditions. However, 0-34% of occurrences did not match a temperature extreme event. Specifically, CWT and CN extremes were more clearly associated to climate than CD, which presented a bias to track cold extremes. Dendroanatomical analysis, coupled to high-quality daily-resolved climate records, seems a promising approach to study the effects of extreme events on trees

  15. Noninvasive health condition monitoring device for workers at high altitudes conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pablo; Gutierrez, Cristopher; Saavedra, Francisco; Pino, Esteban J

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the design and implementation of a continuous monitoring device to control the health state of workers, for instance miners, at high altitudes. The extreme ambient conditions are harmful for peoples' health; therefore a continuous control of the workers' vital signs is necessary. The developed system includes physiological variables: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiratory activity and body temperature (BT), and ambient variables: ambient temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The noninvasive sensors are incorporated in a t-shirt to deliver a functional device, and maximum comfort to the users. The device is able to continuously calculate heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR), and establish a wireless data transmission to a central monitoring station.

  16. Anthropogenic changes to seawater buffer capacity combined with natural reef metabolism induce extreme future coral reef CO2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily C; McNeil, Ben I; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard; Bates, Michael L

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification, via an anthropogenic increase in seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 ), is potentially a major threat to coral reefs and other marine ecosystems. However, our understanding of how natural short-term diurnal CO2 variability in coral reefs influences longer term anthropogenic ocean acidification remains unclear. Here, we combine observed natural carbonate chemistry variability with future carbonate chemistry predictions for a coral reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef based on the RCP8.5 CO2 emissions scenario. Rather than observing a linear increase in reef flat partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in concert with rising atmospheric concentrations, the inclusion of in situ diurnal variability results in a highly nonlinear threefold amplification of the pCO2 signal by the end of the century. This significant nonlinear amplification of diurnal pCO2 variability occurs as a result of combining natural diurnal biological CO2 metabolism with long-term decreases in seawater buffer capacity, which occurs via increasing anthropogenic CO2 absorption by the ocean. Under the same benthic community composition, the amplification in the variability in pCO2 is likely to lead to exposure to mean maximum daily pCO2 levels of ca. 2100 μatm, with corrosive conditions with respect to aragonite by end-century at our study site. Minimum pCO2 levels will become lower relative to the mean offshore value (ca. threefold increase in the difference between offshore and minimum reef flat pCO2 ) by end-century, leading to a further increase in the pCO2 range that organisms are exposed to. The biological consequences of short-term exposure to these extreme CO2 conditions, coupled with elevated long-term mean CO2 conditions are currently unknown and future laboratory experiments will need to incorporate natural variability to test this. The amplification of pCO2 that we describe here is not unique to our study location, but will occur in all shallow coastal environments where high

  17. Cloud Variations under Subtropical High Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The cloud variations under subtropical high(STH) conditions during summers over a ten-year period are studied using combined data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction.The results reveal that clouds mainly experience an isolated evolution in the STHs,which is designated in this study by the 1540 gpm geopotential lines at 850 hPa.In the STH domain throughout the Northern Hemisphere,the average amount of total clouds exceeds 30%.Low clouds dominate in the STH domain,contributing over 60%of total cloud amount within the Pacific subtropical high and over 40%within the Atlantic subtropical high.The prevalence of low clouds in above regions is determined by the circulation pattern around 150°-180°E and 850 hPa,which suppresses both the upward development of the cloud tops and the water vapor divergences near the surface.Furthermore,clouds present great geographical incoherence within the STH domain.In the eastern STHs,the amount of middle and low clouds increases to peak in the early morning and decreases to a trough in the afternoon,while the amount of high clouds remains stable throughout the day.Conversely,in the western STHs,the diurnal amplitude of low and middle clouds is less than three,while high clouds dramatically reach the maximum in the afternoon and drop to the minimum in the evening.Among the nine cloud categories,stratocumulus clouds with greater optical thickness account for the most under STH conditions,no matter their occurrence or amount,causing more shortwave cloud radiative forcing to cool the local atmosphere and surface as a consequence.

  18. The critical role of N- and C-terminal contact in protein stability and folding of a family 10 xylanase under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stabilization strategies adopted by proteins under extreme conditions are very complex and involve various kinds of interactions. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of proteins have their N- and C-terminal elements in close contact and suggested they play a role in protein folding and stability. However, the biological significance of this contact remains elusive. METHODOLOGY: In the present study, we investigate the role of N- and C-terminal residue interaction using a family 10 xylanase (BSX with a TIM-barrel structure that shows stability under high temperature, alkali pH, and protease and SDS treatment. Based on crystal structure, an aromatic cluster was identified that involves Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 holding the N- and C-terminus together; this is a unique and important feature of this protein that might be crucial for folding and stability under poly-extreme conditions. CONCLUSION: A series of mutants was created to disrupt this aromatic cluster formation and study the loss of stability and function under given conditions. While the deletions of Phe4 resulted in loss of stability, removal of Trp6 and Tyr343 affected in vivo folding and activity. Alanine substitution with Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 drastically decreased stability under all parameters studied. Importantly, substitution of Phe4 with Trp increased stability in SDS treatment. Mass spectrometry results of limited proteolysis further demonstrated that the Arg344 residue is highly susceptible to trypsin digestion in sensitive mutants such as DeltaF4, W6A and Y343A, suggesting again that disruption of the Phe4-Trp6-Tyr343 (F-W-Y cluster destabilizes the N- and C-terminal interaction. Our results underscore the importance of N- and C-terminal contact through aromatic interactions in protein folding and stability under extreme conditions, and these results may be useful to improve the stability of other proteins under suboptimal conditions.

  19. The age of extremely red and massive galaxies at very high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Castro-Rodriguez, N

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present a determination of the intrinsic colors and ages of galaxies at very high redshift, in particular old galaxies (OGs) within extremely red objects (EROs). To date, the definition of EROs has been restricted to objects with z2.5). We therefore, refer to these objects as very high-redshift EROs (Z-EROS, herein). Methods. We analyze 63,550 galaxies selected in the XMM-LSS field. To obtain a reasonably sized sample of EROs, it is essential to consider a very wide area surveys. We identify targets within an area of 0.77 square degrees for which optical to mid-infrared data are available from SUBARU, UKIDSS, and Spitzer. We select Z-EROs based on their colors, and then perform a selection of only OGs. One of our novel innovations is to adapt the traditional method of EROs selection based on the filters I and K, to higher redshifts. Using our method, we identify 20 objects that satisfy the conditions required to be Z-EROs/OGs at redshifts 2.5~4.7. After including additional galaxies with z<2.5 ana...

  20. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  1. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  2. Quantifying imaging performance bounds of extreme dipole illumination in high NA optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Biafore, John; Graves, Trey; Levy, Ady

    2016-10-01

    We present a framework to analyze the performance of optical imaging in a hyper numerical aperture (NA) immersion lithography scanner. We investigate the method to quantify imaging performance by computing upperand lower-bounds on the threshold normalized image log-slope (NILS) and the depth of focus (DOF) in conjunction with the traditional image quality metrics such as the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) and the linearity for various different pitches and line to space (LS) duty cycles. The effects of the interaction between the light illumination and the feature size are extensively characterized based on the aerial image (AI) behavior in particular for the extreme dipole illumination that is one of the commonly used off-axis illuminations for sub-100nm logic and memory devices, providing resolution near the physical limit of an optical single patterning step. The proposed aerial imaging-based DOF bounds are compared to the results obtained from an experimentally calibrated resist model, and we observed good agreement. In general, the extreme dipole illumination is only optimal for a single particular pitch, therefore understanding the through-pitch imaging performance bound, which depends on the illumination shape, pattern size, and process conditions, is critically important. We find that overall imaging performance varies depending upon the number of diffracted beams passing through the scanner optics. An even number of beams provides very different trends compared to the results from an odd-number of beams. This significant non-linear behavior occurs in certain pitch regions corresponding to 3 beam interference imaging. In this region the imaging performance and the pattern printability become extremely sensitive to the LS duty cycle. In addition, there is a notable tradeoff between the DOF and the NILS that is observed in the problematic 3-beam region and this tradeoff eventually affects the achievable process window (PW). Given the practical real

  3. How light modifies the electron–electron interaction under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinschberger, Y. [Instituto de Física dos Materiais da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Rua do campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Hervieux, P.-A., E-mail: hervieux@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, CNRS and Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-10-02

    In the domain of extreme light–matter interactions, we show that the electron–electron interaction can be modified coherently by the electric field of the light. The latter play the role of a third partner not only acting on the electrons individually but also on their mutual interaction. By using an original formalism based on the Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation and applied to the Dirac–Breit Hamiltonian in the presence of a time-dependent electromagnetic field, we obtain analytical expressions of new three-body light–matter interactions. - Highlights: • A time-dependent electromagnetic field can modify the electronic interaction. • Analytical expressions of this three-body light matter interactions are presented. • Effects can be evaluated with the amplitude of the laser and electronic distance.

  4. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  5. Generation of bright circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics for magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kfir, Ofer; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M; Fleicher, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Circularly-polarized extreme UV and X-ray radiation provides valuable access to the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such experiments have been possible only using large-scale free-electron lasers or synchrotrons. Here we demonstrate the first bright extreme UV circularly-polarized high harmonics and use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of cobalt. This work paves the way towards element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatio-temporal resolution, all on a tabletop.

  6. Continuous and discrete extreme climatic events affecting the dynamics of a high-arctic reindeer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kung-Sik; Mysterud, Atle; Øritsland, Nils Are; Severinsen, Torbjørn; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2005-10-01

    Climate at northern latitudes are currently changing both with regard to the mean and the temporal variability at any given site, increasing the frequency of extreme events such as cold and warm spells. Here we use a conceptually new modelling approach with two different dynamic terms of the climatic effects on a Svalbard reindeer population (the Brøggerhalvøya population) which underwent an extreme icing event ("locked pastures") with 80% reduction in population size during one winter (1993/94). One term captures the continuous and linear effect depending upon the Arctic Oscillation and another the discrete (rare) "event" process. The introduction of an "event" parameter describing the discrete extreme winter resulted in a more parsimonious model. Such an approach may be useful in strongly age-structured ungulate populations, with young and very old individuals being particularly prone to mortality factors during adverse conditions (resulting in a population structure that differs before and after extreme climatic events). A simulation study demonstrates that our approach is able to properly detect the ecological effects of such extreme climate events.

  7. High aspect ratio tungsten grating on ultrathin Si membranes for extreme UV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Ying, Yulong

    2016-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the modern lithography tools for high-volume manufacturing with 22 nm resolution and beyond. But critical challenges exist to the design and fabrication of large-scale and highly efficient diffraction transmission gratings, significantly reducing the feature sizes down to 22 nm and beyond. To achieve such a grating, the surface flatness, the line edge roughness, the transmission efficiency and aspect ratio should be improved significantly. Delachat et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 108262) develop a full process to fabricate a tungsten diffraction grating on an ultrathin silicon membrane with higher aspect ratio up to 8.75 that met all the aforementioned requirements for extreme ultraviolet lithography. This process is fully compatible with standard industrial extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  8. High aspect ratio tungsten grating on ultrathin Si membranes for extreme UV lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Ying, Yulong

    2016-09-02

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the modern lithography tools for high-volume manufacturing with 22 nm resolution and beyond. But critical challenges exist to the design and fabrication of large-scale and highly efficient diffraction transmission gratings, significantly reducing the feature sizes down to 22 nm and beyond. To achieve such a grating, the surface flatness, the line edge roughness, the transmission efficiency and aspect ratio should be improved significantly. Delachat et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 108262) develop a full process to fabricate a tungsten diffraction grating on an ultrathin silicon membrane with higher aspect ratio up to 8.75 that met all the aforementioned requirements for extreme ultraviolet lithography. This process is fully compatible with standard industrial extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  9. Scaling and Intensification of Extreme Precipitation in High-Resolution Climate Change Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Lüthi, Daniel; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Climate change projections of extreme precipitation are of great interest due to hydrological impacts such as droughts, floods, erosion, landslides and debris flows. Despite the trend towards dryer conditions over Europe, many climate simulations project increases of heavy precipitation events, while some theoretical studies have raised the possibility of dramatic increases in hourly events (by up to 14% per degree warming). However, conventional climate models are not suited to assess short-term heavy events due to the need to parameterize deep convection. High-resolution climate models with kilometer-scale grid spacing at which parameterization of convection can be switched off, significantly improve the simulation of heavy precipitation and can alter the climate change signal (e.g., Ban et al., 2015). Here we present decade-long high-resolution climate change simulations at horizontal resolution of 2.2 km over Europe on a computational domain with 1536x1536x60 grid points. These simulations have become feasible with a new version of the COSMO model that runs entirely on Graphics Processing Units. We compare a present-day climate simulation, driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis (Leutwyler at al., 2016), with a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) simulation The PGW simulation is driven by the slowly evolving mean seasonal cycle of the climate changes (derived from the CMIP5 model), superimposed on the ERA-Interim reanalysis. With this approach, the resulting changes are due to large scale warming of the atmosphere and due to slow-varying circulation changes. We will present the differences in climate change signal between conventional and high-resolution climate models, and discuss the thermodynamic effects on intensification of extreme precipitation. Ban N., J. Schmidli and C. Schär, 2015: Heavy precipitation in a changing climate: Does short-term summer precipitation increase faster? Geophys. Res. Lett., 42 (4), 1165-1172 Leutwyler, D., D. Lüthi, N. Ban, O. Fuhrer and C

  10. Probability modeling of high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed, the upper reaches of Heihe River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanling; Li, Zhanjie; Li, Chengcheng

    2014-05-01

    Probability modeling of hydrological extremes is one of the major research areas in hydrological science. Most basins in humid and semi-humid south and east of China are concerned for probability modeling analysis of high flow extremes. While, for the inland river basin which occupies about 35% of the country area, there is a limited presence of such studies partly due to the limited data availability and a relatively low mean annual flow. The objective of this study is to carry out probability modeling of high flow extremes in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in China, by using the peak over threshold (POT) method and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), in which the selection of threshold and inherent assumptions for POT series are elaborated in details. For comparison, other widely used probability distributions including generalized extreme value (GEV), Lognormal, Log-logistic and Gamma are employed as well. Maximum likelihood estimate is used for parameter estimations. Daily flow data at Yingluoxia station from 1978 to 2008 are used. Results show that, synthesizing the approaches of mean excess plot, stability features of model parameters, return level plot and the inherent independence assumption of POT series, an optimum threshold of 340m3/s is finally determined for high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed. The resulting POT series is proved to be stationary and independent based on Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test and autocorrelation test. In terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test and several graphical diagnostics such as quantile and cumulative density function plots, GPD provides the best fit to high flow extremes in the study area. The estimated high flows for long return periods demonstrate that, as the return period increasing, the return level estimates are probably more uncertain. The frequency of high flow extremes exhibits a very slight but not significant decreasing trend from 1978 to

  11. A conditional extreme value theory approach in value-at-risk forecasting: Evidence from Southeastern Europe and USA market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Selena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the recent financial crisis, the adequacy of different Value-at-Risk (VaR methodologies was heavily questioned. Current practice in VaR assessment relies on modeling the whole distribution of returns. As an alternative, in this paper we model tail behavior of returns, and thus VaR, using conditional Extreme Value Theory (EVT, which combines EVT and GARCH methodology. Moreover, we examine the performance of conditional EVT with the daily returns of seven stock market indices, of which six are from Southeastern Europe (BelexLine, BET, BUX, CROBEX, SBITOP, SOFIX from the period of September 2004 - April 2013, and one from USA market (Standard&Poors 500 Index from the period January 1998 - April 2013. Backtesting of historical daily returns proves that conditional EVT model gives good predictions for all indices and for all confidence levels.

  12. A genome-wide analysis of putative functional and exonic variation associated with extremely high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Smith, G D; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A

    2016-08-01

    Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case-control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence.

  13. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena.

  14. Extremal properties of conditional entropy and quantum discord for XXZ, symmetric quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurischev, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    For the XXZ subclass of symmetric two-qubit X states, we study the behavior of quantum conditional entropy S_{cond} as a function of measurement angle θ \\in [0,π /2]. Numerical calculations show that the function S_{cond}(θ ) for X states can have at most one local extremum in the open interval from zero to π /2 (unimodality property). If the extremum is a minimum, the quantum discord displays region with variable (state-dependent) optimal measurement angle θ ^*. Such θ -regions (phases, fractions) are very tiny in the space of X-state parameters. We also discover the cases when the conditional entropy has a local maximum inside the interval (0,π /2). It is remarkable that the maxima exist in surprisingly wide regions, and the boundaries for such regions are defined by the same bifurcation conditions as for those with a minimum.

  15. Extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation enforces bacterial effects of inhibitors and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosyan, Hasmik; Kalantaryan, Vitaly; Trchounian, Armen

    2008-01-01

    The coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of the frequency of 51.8 and 53 GHz with low intensity (the power flux density of 0.06 mW/cm(2)) affected the growth of Escherichia coli K12(lambda) under fermentation conditions: the lowering of the growth specific rate was considerably (approximately 2-fold) increased with exposure duration of 30-60 min; a significant decrease in the number of viable cells was also shown. Moreover, the enforced effects of the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), inhibitor of H(+)-transporting F(0)F(1)-ATPase, on energy-dependent H(+) efflux by whole cells and of antibiotics like tetracycline and chloramphenicol on the following bacterial growth and survival were also determined after radiation. In addition, the lowering in DCCD-inhibited ATPase activity of membrane vesicles from exposed cells was defined. The results confirmed the input of membranous changes in bacterial action of low intensity extremely high frequency EMR, when the F(0)F(1)-ATPase is probably playing a key role. The radiation of bacteria might lead to changed metabolic pathways and to antibiotic resistance. It may also give bacteria with a specific role in biosphere.

  16. Assessment of hydrological extremes in the basins of Shilka and Argun rivers (Far East of Russia) in changing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Daria; Semenova, Olga; Vinogradova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Transbaikal region of Russia is formed by the basins of the Argun and Shilka Rivers (the upreaches of the Amur River). This region is simultaneously under the flood and drought hazard threat due to the combination of dry continental climate and monsoon impacts. Observed intensification of extreme hazard events in the region requires the scientific base of development of adaptation and mitigation measures. The aim of the study is the analysis of long-term variability of hydrological characteristics of the region by the means of mathematical statistics and projection of hydrological extremes in changing conditions of climate and landscapes based on hydrological modelling. Our research consisted of two stages. Firstly, we developed the database of observed daily hydrographs for about 50 runoff gauges of the region with average continuous period of observations 50 years (up to 2013) and areas from 12.3 to 200000 km2. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted and the trends of changes were assessed and analyzed. At the second stage we selected four river watersheds as the objects of modelling, namely, the gauging stations at the rivers Zun-Cooka, Gazipur, Borzya and Mogoytuy, ranging in size from 100 to 4000 km2. The basins are characterized by the variety of runoff conditions. Average elevation is about 650 m, hilly plateaus dominate the relief. The landscapes are taiga and forest-steppe with discontinuous permafrost. The climate is continental, annual precipitation varies within the range 200-450 mm, runoff - from 30 to 100 mm. The objectives of modelling stage were 1) the estimation of the hydrological model's parameters and its validation at historical data, 2) development of conceptual scenarios of changes of climate and landscapes, 3) running the model in projection mode to assess the implications of possible changes in hydrological regime. High variability of climate and hydrological regime do not allow for conventional modelling procedures to be

  17. Unusual salinity conditions in the Yangtze estuary in 2006: impacts of an extreme drought or of the Three Gorges Dam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhijun; Chu, Ao; Stive, Marcel; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yan, Hong

    2011-07-01

    During the extreme dry year of 2006, abnormal salinity conditions in the Changjiang Estuary of the Yangtze River occurred in partial coincidence with the second impoundment phase of the TGD (Three Gorges Dam). Analysis of discharge observations in the upper reaches of the estuary and of salinity observations in the estuary as a whole reveals that in 2006 salinity was over 100 mg/l during 275 days, over 250 mg/l during 75 days and over 400 mg/l during 48 days. It is well known that this is due to extreme low discharges from the upper catchment area into the estuary. Moreover, large amounts of water consumed along the lower reaches of the Yangtze River can also aggravate the low discharges that lead to stronger saltwater intrusion in the estuary. Of the 75 days that salinity was over 250 mg/l, the low discharge was decreased further by 10 to 20% due to water consumption. The additional impact of the impoundment phase of the TGD (lasting 37 days in autumn) was noticeable only during 7 days in 2006. During that period, the relative contributions of the TGD and the water consumption in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River amounted to 70 and 30%, respectively. It may be concluded that the impact of the second impoundment phase of the TGD on salinity intrusion in the estuary was modest, while the extreme drought of 2006 was the dominant cause.

  18. Studies of nuclei under the extreme conditions of density, temperature, isospin asymmetry and the phase diagram of hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekjian, Aram [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-10-18

    The main emphasis of the entire project is on issues having to do with medium energy and ultra-relativistic energy and heavy ion collisions. A major goal of both theory and experiment is to study properties of hot dense nuclear matter under various extreme conditions and to map out the phase diagram in density or chemical potential and temperature. My studies in medium energy nuclear collisions focused on the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster yields from such transitions. Here I developed both the statistical model of nuclear multi-fragmentation and also a mean field theory.

  19. Role of the tissue free amino acids in adaptation of medicinal leeches Hirudo medicinalis L., 1758 to extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaya, L V; Kovalchuk, L A; Nokhrina, E S

    2016-01-01

    The first comparison of the spectra of free amino acids in tissues of the medicinal leeches H. medicinalis from different climatic and geographical Eurasian areas has been performed. Adaptation of H. medicinalis to extreme climatic conditions occurs via intensification of the amino acid metabolism resulting from a significant increase in the content of essential amino acids. Accumulation of arginine, histidine, and lysine (3.6-, 3.9-, and 2.0-fold increases, respectively) has proved to play a special protective role in adaptation of H. medicinalis to the low positive temperatures.

  20. Surrounding rock deformation regularity of roadway under extremely complicated geological conditions in deep mine and its control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长友; 何卓军; 万志军

    2003-01-01

    By combining the practices of deep mine mining in Changguang Mine field and using the Universal Distinct Element Code 3.0(UDEC3.0) numerical computing method, the distribution characteristics of deformation field and stress field as well as the surrounding rock deformation regularity of soft rock roadway are analyzed under extremely complicated geological conditions, a technical principle of bolting to control the surrounding rock of roadway is put forward. And also using a dynamic control for surrounding rocks designing method, the supporting parameters and implement plan are rationally determined. The experimental tests have obtained a good controlling result of surrounding rock.

  1. Extreme storm surges in the south of Brazil: atmospheric conditions and shore erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Klose Parise

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The region under study is regularly subject to the occurrence of storms associated with frontal systems and extratropical cyclones, since it is located near one of the cyclogenetic regions in South America. These storms can generate storm surges that cause anomalous high sea level rises on Cassino Beach. The use of reanalysis data along with an efficient technique for the location of the cyclone, using a vorticity threshold, has provided a new classification based upon the trajectories of events that produce positive sea level variation. Three patterns have been identified: 1 Cyclogenesis to the south of Argentina with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 47.5ºS and 57.5ºS; 2 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 35ºS and 42.5ºS; and 3 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the southeast and a trajectory between 35ºS and 57.5ºS. Maximum water level elevation above the mean sea level and beach erosion were associated, respectively, with winter and summer storms. Cassino beach displayed a seasonal morphological behavior, with short periods of episodic erosion associated with winter storm events followed by long periods of accretion characterized by the dominance of fair weather conditions.Marés meteorológicas que geram sobre-elevações do nível do mar são freqüentes na costa do Rio Grande do Sul e respondem às variações ocorridas na atmosfera. Torna-se importante, dessa maneira, definir padrões meteorológicos sinóticos responsáveis por gerar eventos de marés meteorológicas intensas na Praia do Cassino como objetivo desse trabalho. O uso de dados de reanálise associados a uma técnica eficiente de localização do ciclone, aplicando o conceito de vorticidade, permitiu definir uma nova classificação com base na trajetória de ciclones extratropicais responsáveis pela subida do nível do mar. Três padrões de trajetórias foram

  2. Granulites by name but eclogite facies by formation conditions: extreme metamorphism recorded by Saxony-type granulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Brien, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    The type locality `granulite' from the Saxonian Granulitgebirge is a felsic, granitic to granodioritic rock, composed predominantly of feldspars and quartz along with minor garnet, kyanite and rutile, and exhibiting a strong mylonitic fabric. In such rocks abundant mesoperthitic K-feldspar testifies to the former presence of high temperature (>900^oC) ternary feldspar. In intermediate to mafic layers the common antiperthite, when reconstituted to its single phase precursor, yields unequivocal ultrahigh-temperature (>1000^oC) conditions by feldspar solvus thermometry. The presence of kyanite together with such feldspar requires pressures (>15 kbar) equivalent to mantle depths. In addition, orthopyroxene, where present, is demonstrably of secondary origin. Importantly, experimental results show that the position of the orthopyroxene-out reaction curve for granitic/granodioritic compositions coincides with that of the plagioclase-out reaction in rocks of quartz-tholeiite composition. This means that the orthopyroxene-free felsic `granulites' formed at conditions above those generally taken as defining the start of the eclogite facies. It has long been known that rare mafic lenses contain clinopyroxene with jadeite content approaching or even exceeding that of omphacite. The presence or absence of plagioclase in these omphacite-bearing rocks is purely a function of bulk composition: more quartz tholeiitic rocks are plagioclase-free and are thus eclogites. Likewise, tectonic lenses of garnet peridotites in the granulite massifs are a clear indicator of metamorphism at mantle depths. Recent discoveries have extended the formation depths of some of these rocks even further as coesite (in eclogite) and microdiamond (in granulites) have been discovered in the nearby Erzgebirge. Even more remarkable are consistent ca. 340 Ma zircon ages which, along with other evidence, point to exhumation rates of several mm/a. The presence of garnet peridotites, combined with the

  3. High-resolution analysis of 1 day extreme precipitation in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, M.; Brunetti, M.; Garzoglio, M.; Simolo, C.

    2015-04-01

    Sicily, the major Mediterranean island, experienced several exceptional precipitation episodes and floods during the last century, with dramatic consequences on human life and environment. A long term, rational planning of urban development is mandatory for protecting population and avoiding huge economic losses in the future. This requires a deep knowledge of the distributional features of extreme precipitation over the complex territory of Sicily. In the present study, we address this issue, and attempt a detailed investigation of observed 1-day precipitation extremes and their frequency distribution, based on a dense data-set of high-quality, homogenized station records in 1921-2005. We extrapolate very high quantiles (return levels) corresponding to 10-, 50- and 100-year return periods, as predicted by a generalized extreme value distribution. Return level estimates are produced on a regular high-resolution grid (30 arcsec) using a variant of regional frequency analysis combined with regression techniques. Results clearly reflect the complexity of this region, and make evident the high vulnerability of its eastern and northeastern parts as those prone to the most intense and potentially damaging events. This analysis thus provides an operational tool for extreme precipitation risk assessment and, at the same time, is an useful basis for validation and downscaling of regional climate models.

  4. Penetration Depth Measurements Using a Tunnel Diode Oscillator in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Charles C.

    2004-03-01

    The tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) has been used as a tool in condensed matter physics for over 30 years. We will discuss the application of the TDO to measure rf penetration depth in small metallic and superconducting samples in the range of 10 -1500 MHz. Our technique involves placing a sample in or on the inductor of a self-resonant tank circuit powered by a tunnel diode, and measuring the impedance of the sample by recording the frequency and amplitude shift as a function of magnetic field or temperature. This technique is very sensitive to the properties of the electrons in a sample, does not require contacts on a sample, can be used for arbitrarily small samples, is very compatible with pulsed magnetic fields, and works well in pressure cells. We will begin by giving a brief history of the TDO in condensed matter physics. We will describe the electronic theory of the TDO showing the important parameters necessary to keep the circuit stable and oscillating in different venues such as very low temperatures and pulsed magnetic fields. We will also describe some of the trade offs between stability and sensitivity in these extreme environments. We will then discuss how to interpret the data produced by the TDO, concentrating on the description of rf penetration in metallic and type II superconducting samples. Finally, as examples of the power of this TDO method, we will show Fermi surface measurements, type II superconducting phase diagrams, including details of the vortex system, and very recent results showing evidence of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Support for this project has come from the NHMFL and the NSF

  5. Pressure-stability of phospholipid bicelles: Measurement of residual dipolar couplings under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, E.; Arnold, M.R.; Kremer, W.; Kalbitzer, H.R. [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)

    2001-10-15

    High-pressure NMR of proteins in solutions currently gains increasing interest. 3D structure determination of proteins under high pressure is, however, so far impossible due to the lack of NOE information. Residual dipolar couplings induced by the addition of magnetically orienting media are known to be capable of replacing NOE information to a very high extent. In the present contribution we study the pressure-wstability of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/ dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) bicelles and demonstrate the feasibility of measuring residual dipolar couplings in proteins under high pressure.

  6. Transformation and accumulation of PAH and bound residues in soil under extreme conditions - a risk assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The degradation of PAH in contaminated soil does not proceed completely in the majority of cases. However microorganisms which are able to degrade PAH are present in PAH-contaminated soils normally. A total degradation of PAH in contaminated soils is often limited by a lack of bioavailability, which results from a lack of mass transfer. The analytical depletion of contaminants in soil is not only based on degradation processes but also on a fixation or immobilization of the xenobiotic substances as stronger adsorbed to or bound residues in the soil matrix. These bound residues were verified by using 14C-labelled PAH in different soil samples. To evaluate the long term fate of theses PAH-residues the stability and transformation of 14C-labelled non-extractable PAH-residues was investigated in detail under different extreme ecological and climate conditions such as biological stress, freezing and thawing cycles, and chemical worst case conditions. The transformation and remobilization of non-extractable PAH-residues was observed in long-time experiments and was very limited in general (Eschenbach et al. 2001). Only small amounts of non extractable residues were transformed and converted to CO2 and thereby detoxified. However the treatment with a complexing agent led to an increase of extractable 14C-activity. In a further set of experiments the long term risk of a groundwater contamination was assessed. Therefore the elution rate of 14C-PAH was investigated by a routinely usable column test system. It was found that the PAH elution was not solely controlled by desorption processes. The extractable PAH concentrations and elution rates were affected by the mineralization and formation of bound residues as well. For the assessment of the maximum PAH release rate the soil material was treated by extreme and worst case conditions as well. The impact of the elution of bidestillated water, of repeated freeze-thaw cycles and a simulation of acidic rain was investigated. The

  7. Extreme climatic events: impacts of drought and high temperature on physiological processes in agronomically important plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs eFeller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate models predict more frequent and more severe extreme events (e.g. heat waves, extended drought periods, flooding in many regions for the next decades. The impact of adverse environmental conditions on crop plants is ecologically and economically relevant. This review is focused on drought and heat effects on physiological status and productivity of agronomically important plants. Stomatal opening represents an important regulatory mechanism during drought and heat stress since it influences simultaneously water loss via transpiration and CO2 diffusion into the leaf apoplast which further is utilized in photosynthesis. Along with the reversible short-term control of stomatal opening, stomata and leaf epidermis may produce waxy deposits and irreversibly down-regulate the stomatal conductance and non-stomatal transpiration. As a consequence photosynthesis will be negatively affected. Rubisco activase - a key enzyme in keeping the Calvin cycle functional – is heat-sensitive and may become a limiting factor at elevated temperature. The accumulated reactive oxygen species during stress represent an additional challenge under unfavorable conditions. Drought and heat cause accumulation of free amino acids which are partially converted into compatible solutes such as proline. This is accompanied by lower rates of both nitrate reduction and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Protective proteins (e.g. dehydrins, chaperones, antioxidant enzymes or the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis play an important role in leaves and may be present at higher levels under water deprivation or high temperatures. On the whole plant level, effects on long-distance translocation of solutes via xylem and phloem and on leaf senescence (e.g. anticipated, accelerated or delayed senescence are important. The factors mentioned above are relevant for the overall performance of crops under drought and heat and must be considered for genotype selection and breeding programs.

  8. The critical role of partially exposed N-terminal valine residue in stabilizing GH10 xylanase from Bacillus sp.NG-27 under poly-extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms that govern protein stability under poly-extreme conditions continues to be a major challenge. Xylanase (BSX from Bacillus sp. NG-27, which has a TIM-barrel structure, shows optimum activity at high temperature and alkaline pH, and is resistant to denaturation by SDS and degradation by proteinase K. A comparative circular dichroism analysis was performed on native BSX and a recombinant BSX (R-BSX with just one additional methionine resulting from the start codon. The results of this analysis revealed the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in the unfolding of BSX in response to an increase in temperature. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the poly-extremophilicity of BSX to deduce the structural features responsible for its stability under one set of conditions, in order to gain information about its stability in other extreme conditions. To systematically address the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in BSX stability, a series of mutants was generated in which the first hydrophobic residue, valine (Val1, was either deleted or substituted with various amino acids. Each mutant was subsequently analyzed for its thermal, SDS and proteinase K stability in comparison to native BSX. CONCLUSIONS: A single conversion of Val1 to glycine (Gly changed R-BSX from being thermo- and alkali- stable and proteinase K and SDS resistant, to being thermolabile and proteinase K-, alkali- and SDS- sensitive. This result provided insight into the structure-function relationships of BSX under poly-extreme conditions. Molecular, biochemical and structural data revealed that the poly-extremophilicity of BSX is governed by a partially exposed N-terminus through hydrophobic interactions. Such hitherto unidentified N-terminal hydrophobic interactions may play a similar role in other proteins, especially those with TIM-barrel structures. The results of the present study are therefore of major significance for protein folding

  9. Extreme deformations and clusterization at high spin in the A ~ 40 mass region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debisree; Afanasjev, Anatoli

    2015-10-01

    Recent revival of the interest to the study of superdeformation and clusterization in light nuclei has motivated us to undertake the study of extreme deformations in the A ~ 32 - 50 N ~ Z nuclei. Unfortunately, at spin zero the predicted structures with extreme deformation are located at high excitation energies which prevents their experimental observation. On the other hand, the rotation brings such structures closer to the yrast line and, in principle, makes their observation possible with future generation of facilities such as GRETA. Thus, the systematic study of the extremely deformed structures and clusterization has been performed in the framework of cranked relativistic mean field theory. The major features of such structures, the spins at which they become yrast and the possiblities of their experimental observation will be discussed in this presentation. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Grant DE-FG02-07ER41459.

  10. EFFECTS OF EXTREME AND UNUSUAL CONDITIONS ON LANA ALLOYS: INTERIM REPORT, FY14 (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Kirk L.

    2014-04-25

    The TTP proposed research aimed at determining: a) the rate at which these changes occurred and the effect of initial conditions, especially in the early phases of Hydrogen Heat Treatment (HHT), b) whether or not different LANA alloys would show similar effects, and c) whether common contaminants/poisons impacted LANA alloy hydride chemistry similarly to what had been found for Pd and Pd-alloy hydride chemistry.

  11. Hyper-dry conditions provide new insights into the cause of extreme floods after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    A catastrophic wildfire in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado provided a unique opportunity to investigate soil conditions immediately after a wildfire and before alteration by rainfall. Measurements of near-surface (θ; and matric suction, ψ), rainfall, and wind velocity were started 8 days after the wildfire began. These measurements established that hyper-dryconditions (θ 3 cm-3; ψ > ~ 3 x 105 cm) existed and provided an in-situ retention curve for these conditions. These conditions exacerbate the effects of water repellency (natural and fire-induced) and limit the effectiveness of capillarity and gravity driven infiltration into fire-affected soils. The important consequence is that given hyper-dryconditions, the critical rewetting process before the first rain is restricted to the diffusion–adsorption of water-vapor. This process typically has a time scale of days to weeks (especially when the hydrologic effects of the ash layer are included) that is longer than the typical time scale (minutes to hours) of some rainstorms, such that under hyper-dryconditions essentially no rain infiltrates. The existence of hyper-dryconditions provides insight into why, frequently during the first rain storm after a wildfire, nearly all rainfall becomes runoff causing extremefloods and debris flows.

  12. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  13. Extreme hypoxic conditions induce selective molecular responses and metabolic reset in detached apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka eCukrov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1,000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These

  14. Extreme climatic conditions and health service utilisation across rural and metropolitan New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegasothy, Edward; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert; Scalley, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality. We defined heat waves and cold waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and excess cold factor (ECF) metrics, respectively. Heat waves generally resulted in increased rates of ambulance call-outs, ED presentations and mortality across the three regions and the entire state. For all of NSW, very intense heat waves resulted in an increase of 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 17.4%) in mortality, 3.4% (95% CI 0.8, 7.8%) in ED presentations and 10.9% (95% CI 7.7, 14.2%) in ambulance call-outs. Cold waves were shown to have significant effects on ED presentations (9.3% increase for intense events, 95% CI 8.0-10.6%) and mortality (8.8% increase for intense events, 95% CI 2.1-15.9%) in outer regional and remote areas. There was little evidence for an effect from cold waves on health service utilisation in major cities and inner regional areas. Heat waves have a large impact on health service utilisation in NSW in both urban and rural settings. Cold waves also have significant effects in outer regional and remote areas. EHF is a good predictor of health service utilisation for heat waves, although service needs may differ between urban and rural areas.

  15. Role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability on extreme climate conditions over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Delworth, Thomas; Msadek, Rym; Castruccio, Frederic; Yeager, Stephen; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is associated with marked modulations of climate anomalies observed over many areas of the globe like droughts, decline in sea ice or changes in the atmospheric circulation. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period ( 60-80yr) makes it difficult to show that the AMV is a direct driver of these variations. To isolate the AMV climate response, we use a suite of global coupled models from GFDL and NCAR, in which the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other ocean basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (between 30 and 100 members depending on the model) that are integrated for 10 years. We investigate the importance of model resolution by analyzing GFDL models that vary in their atmospheric resolution and we assess the robustness of the results by comparing them to similar experiments performed with the NCAR coupled model. Further, we investigate the influence of model surface temperature biases on the simulated AMV teleconnections using a flux-adjusted experiment based on a model configuration that corrects for momentum, enthalpy and freshwater fluxes. We focus in this presentation on the impact of the AMV on the occurrence of the North American heat waves. We find that the AMV modulates by about 30% the occurrence of heat waves over North Mexico and the South-West of USA, with more heat waves during a warm phase of the AMV. The main reason for such an increase is that, during a warm AMV phase, the anomalously warm sea surface temperature leads to an increase of the atmospheric convection over the tropical Atlantic, as well as to a an anomalous downward motion over North America. This atmospheric response to AMV inhibits the precipitation over there and drives a deficit of soil moisture. In the summer, the latent heat of

  16. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  17. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhaoji; Guo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Hongwei; Chang, Tienchong

    2017-06-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  18. FUNCTIONAL STATE OF ORGANISM OF INTERN DOCTORS WITH DIFFERENT SUCCESS LEVEL ACTIVITY IN EXTREME CONDITIONS IN THE COURSE OF DAILY DUTY IN CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Madzigon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of daily duty in clinic, the indeces of functional status, functional reserve of organism and mnestic (operator’s performance ability of intern doctors with different success level activity in extreme conditions were determined twice (in the beginning and at the end of the duty. It is shown that the higher success level activity in extreme conditions of interns, the more tolerance and strength of their body functional system formed in work process and it means the higher professional activity performance. Intern graduates activity preparation in extreme conditions is one of activities of Medical Institutions of Higher Education quality improvement

  19. SIPEX 2012: Extreme sea-ice and atmospheric conditions off East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, P.; Stammerjohn, S.; Reid, P.; Massom, R. A.; Hutchings, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, Antarctic sea-ice coverage was marked by weak annual-mean climate anomalies that consisted of opposing anomalies early and late in the year (some setting new records) which were interspersed by near-average conditions for most of the austral autumn and winter. Here, we investigate the ocean-ice-atmosphere system off East Antarctica, prior to and during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment [SIPEX] 2012, by exploring relationships between atmospheric and oceanic forcing together with the sea-ice and snow characteristics. During August and September 2012, just prior to SIPEX 2012, atmospheric circulation over the Southern Ocean was near-average, setting up the ocean-ice-atmosphere system for near-average conditions. However, below-average surface pressure and temperature as well as strengthened circumpolar winds prevailed during June and July 2012. This led to a new record (19.48×106 km2) in maximum Antarctic sea-ice extent recorded in late September. In contrast to the weak circum-Antarctic conditions, the East Antarctic sector (including the SIPEX 2012 region) experienced positive sea-ice extent and concentration anomalies during most of 2012, coincident with negative atmospheric pressure and sea-surface temperature anomalies. Heavily deformed sea ice appeared to be associated with intensified wind stress due to increased cyclonicity as well as an increased influx of sea ice from the east. This increased westward ice flux is likely linked to the break-up of nearly 80% of the Mertz Glacier Tongue in 2010, which strongly modified the coastal configuration and hence the width of the westward coastal current. Combined with favourable atmospheric conditions the associated changed coastal configuration allowed more sea ice to remain within the coastal current at the expense of a reduced northward flow in the region around 141°-145°E. In addition a westward propagating positive anomaly of sea-ice extent from the western Ross Sea during austral winter

  20. An archaeal tRNA-synthetase complex that enhances aminoacylation under extreme conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Hausmann, Corinne D;

    2011-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play an integral role in protein synthesis, functioning to attach the correct amino acid with its cognate tRNA molecule. AaRSs are known to associate into higher-order multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes (MSC) involved in archaeal and eukaryotic translation...... in the catalytic efficiency of serine attachment to tRNA, but had no effect on the activity of MtArgRS. Further, the most pronounced improvements in the aminoacylation activity of MtSerRS induced by MtArgRS were observed under conditions of elevated temperature and osmolarity. These data indicate that formation...

  1. Extreme Cosmic-Ray-Dominated-Regions: a new paradigm for high star formation density events in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Thi, Wing-Fai; Viti, Serena

    2010-01-01

    We examine in detail the recent proposal that extreme Cosmic-Ray-Dominated-Regions (CRDRs) characterize the ISM of galaxies during events of high-density star formation, fundamentally altering its initial conditions (Papadopoulos 2010). Solving the coupled chemical and thermal state equations for dense UV-shielded gas reveals that the large cosmic ray energy densities in such systems (U_{CR}~(few)x(10^3-10^4) U_{CR,Gal}) will indeed raise the minimum temperature of this phase (where the initial conditions of star formation are set) from ~10K (as in the Milky Way) to ~(50-100)K. Moreover in such extreme CRDRs the gas temperature remains fully decoupled from that of the dust, with T_{kin} >> T_{dust}, even at high densities (n(H_2)~10^5--10^6 cm^{-3}), quite unlike CRDRs in the Milky Way where T_k~T_{dust} when n(H_2) >= 10^5 cm^{-3}. These dramatically different star formation initial conditions will: a) boost the Jeans mass of UV-shielded gas regions by factors of ~10--100 with respect to those in quiescent o...

  2. A New Force-Matched Reactive Force Field for Bulk Water Under Extreme Thermodynamic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Laurence; Koziol, Lucas

    2015-06-01

    A many-body classical force field is presented for water under dissociative thermodynamic conditions. The force field is optimized by force-matching to ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The force field contains short-ranged central and many-body over-coordination terms, and long-range Ewald electrostatics. It is optimized and tested on water at density 1.5 g/mL and 2000 K, which is approximately 10% dissociated according to DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce DFT radial distribution functions, as well as the distribution of wat and dissociation products. The calculated atomic self-diffusion constants appear about 50% lower than in DFT, although precise comparison is impossible due to the short timescale accessible to AIMD (about 20 ps). The force field is also compared to ReaxFF using the CHO parameter set of Chenowith et al. ReaxFF structural and dynamical properties are in overall fair agreement with DFT, although ReaxFF water is not dissociative at these conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Sputtering at Mars: MAVEN observations of precipitating and escaping oxygen during nominal and extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Leblanc, Francois; Modolo, Ronan; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Hara, Takuya; Halekas, Jasper; Dong, Yaxue; Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; McFadden, James; Espley, Jared R.; Mitchell, David; Connerney, Jack; Eparvier, Frank; Lillis, Robert J.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Sputtering is believed to be one of the dominant escape mechanisms during the early epochs of our solar system when the solar activity and EUV intensities were much higher than the present day. Mars lacks a global dynamo magnetic field, which creates a scenario where the solar wind directly interacts with the upper atmosphere and newly created ions can be picked up and swept away by the background convection electric field. These pick-up ions can directly escape or precipitate back into the atmosphere and induce atmospheric sputtering of neutrals.The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetic topology and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during numerous Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) impacts spanning from March 2015 to June 2016. ICMEs are associated with enhanced solar wind velocities, densities and magnetic field strength, and often drive heavy ion precipitation at much higher rates than during nominal conditions. Thus, ICMEs provide a unique environment for observing sputtering. We will compare MAVEN observations of heavy ion precipitation during nominal conditions as well as during ICMEs. Additionally, we will present global MHD and test particle simulations of the ICMEs in order to calculate sputtering escape rates for oxygen. Finally, we will use the observed and modeled sputtering escape rates to provide an initial estimate of the total sputtered atmospheric escape from Mars over billions of years.

  4. Modulation of Pleurodeles waltl DNA polymerase mu expression by extreme conditions encountered during spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Schenten

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase µ is involved in DNA repair, V(DJ recombination and likely somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our previous studies demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect immunoglobulin gene expression and somatic hypermutation frequency. Consequently, we questioned whether Polμ expression could also be affected. To address this question, we characterized Polμ of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl and exposed embryos of that species to spaceflight conditions or to environmental modifications corresponding to those encountered in the International Space Station. We noted a robust expression of Polμ mRNA during early ontogenesis and in the testis, suggesting that Polμ is involved in genomic stability. Full-length Polμ transcripts are 8-9 times more abundant in P. waltl than in humans and mice, thereby providing an explanation for the somatic hypermutation predilection of G and C bases in amphibians. Polμ transcription decreases after 10 days of development in space and radiation seem primarily involved in this down-regulation. However, space radiation, alone or in combination with a perturbation of the circadian rhythm, did not affect Polμ protein levels and did not induce protein oxidation, showing the limited impact of radiation encountered during a 10-day stay in the International Space Station.

  5. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heays, A. N. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T., E-mail: heays@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}Π {sub g} , b {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  6. BEHAVIOUR OF BACKFILL MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. LIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Backfill materials like Bentonite and cement are effective in lowering grounding resistance of electrodes for a considerable period. During lightning, switching impulses and earth fault occurrences in medium and high voltage networks, the grounding system needs to handle extremely high currents either for a short duration or prolonged period respectively. This paper investigates the behaviour of bentonite, cement and sand under impulse and alternating high voltage (50Hz conditions. Fulguritic-formation was observed in all materials under alternating high voltage. The findings reveal that performance of grounding systems under high voltage conditions may significantly change from the outcomes anticipated at design stage.

  7. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  8. The impact of extreme weather conditions on the life of settlers in the Central Russia in X - XVI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Irina; Nizovtsev, Viacheslav; Erman, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    A special place in the reconstruction of climate dynamics takes an analysis of extraordinary meteorological phenomena. These extreme weather events in the first place impact the functioning of, the rhythm and dynamics of the landscapes and determine not only the features of economy, but also certain aspects of historical development. In the analysis of primary chronicles and published data, along with the direct climatic characteristics (hot, warm, cold, wet, dry, etc.) a lot of attention was paid to abnormal (extreme) natural phenomena and indirect indications of climate variability (floods, crop failures, hunger years, epidemics, etc.). As a result, tables were compiled reflecting climatic basic characteristics and extremes for each year since 900 BC. X-XI centuries was a period of minor climatic optimum - the climate was warmer and drier than the modern one. In addition to higher temperatures (up to 1-3C above than mordern), during this period there were no severe winters. A small amount of summer rainfall has led to a reduction in the number of small water reservoirs and flooding rivers. This is evidenced by Slavic settlements on floodplains of a number of rivers in the Moscow region. It is in this favorable climatic time the way "from the Vikings to the Greeks" was open. Catastrophic natural events had a minimum repeatability. For example, during the X century the Russian chronicles mentioned 41 extreme event, but for the XIII century - 102. Most of the villages and towns were located on the low floodplain terraces of rivers. The main farmland was concentrated there as well. In the "period of contrasts" (XIII - XIV centuries) there was an increase of intra-seasonal climate variability, humidity and widespread reduction in summer temperatures by 1-2C. The number of extreme weather events increased: cold prolonged winters, long rains in summers, cold weather returns in the early summer, early frosts in late summer - early autumn. Such conditions often

  9. State-of-the-Art of Extreme Pressure Lubrication Realized with the High Thermal Diffusivity of Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijiang; Tian, Pengyi; Lu, Hongyu; Jia, Wenpeng; Du, Haodong; Zhang, Xiangjun; Li, Qunyang; Tian, Yu

    2017-02-15

    Sliding between two objects under very high load generally involves direct solid-solid contact at molecular/atomic level, the mechanism of which is far from clearly disclosed yet. Those microscopic solid-solid contacts could easily lead to local melting of rough surfaces. At extreme conditions, this local melting could propagate to the seizure and welding of the entire interface. Traditionally, the microscopic solid-solid contact is alleviated by various lubricants and additives based on their improved mechanical properties. In this work, we realized the state-of-the-art of extreme pressure lubrication by utilizing the high thermal diffusivity of liquid metal, 2 orders of magnitude higher than general organic lubricants. The extreme pressure lubrication property of gallium based liquid metal (GBLM) was compared with gear oil and poly-α-olefin in a four-ball test. The liquid metal lubricates very well at an extremely high load (10 kN, the maximum capability of a four-ball tester) at a rotation speed of 1800 rpm for a duration of several minutes, much better than traditional organic lubricants which typically break down within seconds at a load of a few kN. Our comparative experiments and analysis showed that this superextreme pressure lubrication capability of GBLM was attributed to the synergetic effect of the ultrafast heat dissipation of GBLM and the low friction coefficient of FeGa3 tribo-film. The present work demonstrated a novel way of improving lubrication capability by enhancing the lubricant thermal properties, which might lead to mechanical systems with much higher reliability.

  10. The near-term prediction of drought and flooding conditions in the northeastern United States based on extreme phases of AMO and NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Rouzbeh; Driscoll, Charles T.; Adamowski, Jan F.

    2017-10-01

    frequency of wet, average, and dry discharge conditions with regards to the extreme phases of AMO and NAO. While the function was decaying, the tail asymptotically merged into and stabilized at the theoretical probability of the event. As the basin scale increased, the probability of wet, average, and dry discharge conditions decreased. The Merrimack River watershed will most likely experience greater than average discharge as its extreme condition, therefore development should be avoided on flood plains. Furthermore, the current reservoir storage capacity in the Merrimack should be improved in order to accommodate excess water input and minimize flood damage. Future research should target changes in the magnitude and timing of high discharge events in order to develop adaptation strategies for aging hydraulic infrastructure in the region.

  11. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Pineda De Castro

    Full Text Available In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow.

  12. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda De Castro, Luis Felipe; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures) such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF) to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow. PMID:27167213

  13. How hyperthermophiles adapt to change their lives : DNA exchange in extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolferen, Marleen; Ajon, Malgorzata; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Ajon, Małgorzata; Huang, L.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of DNA has been shown to be involved in genome evolution. In particular with respect to the adaptation of bacterial species to high temperatures, DNA transfer between the domains of bacteria and archaea seems to have played a major role. In addition, DNA exchange between similar species lik

  14. How hyperthermophiles adapt to change their lives : DNA exchange in extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolferen, Marleen; Ajon, Malgorzata; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Ajon, Małgorzata; Huang, L.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of DNA has been shown to be involved in genome evolution. In particular with respect to the adaptation of bacterial species to high temperatures, DNA transfer between the domains of bacteria and archaea seems to have played a major role. In addition, DNA exchange between similar species lik

  15. Detection and Attribution of Simulated Climatic Extreme Events and Impacts: High Sensitivity to Bias Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, S.; Otto, F. E. L.; Forkel, M.; Allen, M. R.; Guillod, B. P.; Heimann, M.; Reichstein, M.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Kirsten, T.; Mahecha, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding, quantifying and attributing the impacts of climatic extreme events and variability is crucial for societal adaptation in a changing climate. However, climate model simulations generated for this purpose typically exhibit pronounced biases in their output that hinders any straightforward assessment of impacts. To overcome this issue, various bias correction strategies are routinely used to alleviate climate model deficiencies most of which have been criticized for physical inconsistency and the non-preservation of the multivariate correlation structure. We assess how biases and their correction affect the quantification and attribution of simulated extremes and variability in i) climatological variables and ii) impacts on ecosystem functioning as simulated by a terrestrial biosphere model. Our study demonstrates that assessments of simulated climatic extreme events and impacts in the terrestrial biosphere are highly sensitive to bias correction schemes with major implications for the detection and attribution of these events. We introduce a novel ensemble-based resampling scheme based on a large regional climate model ensemble generated by the distributed weather@home setup[1], which fully preserves the physical consistency and multivariate correlation structure of the model output. We use extreme value statistics to show that this procedure considerably improves the representation of climatic extremes and variability. Subsequently, biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes are simulated using a terrestrial ecosystem model (LPJ-GSI) to further demonstrate the sensitivity of ecosystem impacts to the methodology of bias correcting climate model output. We find that uncertainties arising from bias correction schemes are comparable in magnitude to model structural and parameter uncertainties. The present study consists of a first attempt to alleviate climate model biases in a physically consistent way and demonstrates that this yields improved simulations of

  16. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Everhart, Joshua S; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James R; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-11-01

    A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5-6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2-18.4; P < 0.05), hip external:internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = -0.339, P = 0.008). Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury.

  17. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A.; Everhart, Joshua S.; Clifton, Daniel R.; Best, Thomas M.; Borchers, James R.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. Data Sources A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Main Results Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5–6.1; P anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2–18.4; P < 0.05), hip external: internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = −0.339, P = 0.008). Conclusions Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:26978166

  18. Surface-active potential of biosurfactants produced in curd whey by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain-PP2 and Kocuria turfanesis strain-J at extreme environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kirti V; Charde, Pravin N; Meshram, Sudhir U; Shendre, Latika P; Dubey, Vijay S; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2012-12-01

    Surface-active potential of biosurfactants produced cost-effectively in curd whey by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain-PP2 and Kocuria turfanesis strain-J were tested using parameters viz. surface tension (ST) reduction, F(CMC) (highest dilution factor to reach critical micelle concentration) and emulsification index (EI-24) of pesticides; monocrotophos and imidacloprid at extreme environmental conditions. Results have shown that ST reduction of biosurfactants was stable at pH 2-11. High F(CMC) of the biosurfactant in the fermented whey at low pH improved emulsification of pesticides. ST marginally increased at 5% and 15% NaCl, resulting in high EI-24 and F(CMC). Over a range of temperatures 30-121 °C, ST remained low with a higher F(CMC) and EI-24 at 60 °C than at 121 and 30 °C. The biosurfactants have shown differences in their surface-active property and have marked specificity to emulsify pesticides in extreme environmental conditions.

  19. Far-infrared synchrotron radiation spectroscopy of solids in normal and extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, M.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Marcelli, A.; Calvani, P.; Burattini, E.; Nucara, A.; Postorino, P.; Sacchetti, A.; Arcangeletti, E.; Sheregii, E.; Polit, J.; Kisiel, A.

    2005-01-01

    New opportunities in solid-state physics are offered by SINBAD (Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At DAFNE), the infrared beamline operational at DANE, the storage ring of the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the INFN. During 2003 several experiments, including those supported by the European TARI program, have been successfully performed at SINBAD. In this work we present the preliminary results of high resolution far infrared reflectivity data collected in different ZnxCdyHg(1-x-y)Te quaternary alloys as a function of temperature. The first far-IR investigation of Colossal Magnetoresistance manganites at high pressures, using a diamond anvil cell is also presented. Indeed, FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of insulating-to-metal transitions and charge ordering phenomena that may occur in transition metal oxides.

  20. Equation of state and transport properties of silicates under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, T.; Hamel, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the physical properties of silicates under high temperature and pressure is fundamental to an accurate description of planetary interiors and evolution models. For example, earth's mantle is a rocky silicate shell constituting about 84% of Earth's volume. Possible chemical compositions include SiO2 and some other silicates such as MgSiO3 and CaSiO3. Moreover, Moon forming scenarios often invoke giant impacts between silicate-rich objects.Similarly, the existence of a rocky core or mantle with silicate as the major component is frequently assumed in models of giant planets, such as Jupiter or Saturn and Uranus and Neptune.Consequently, constructing planetary interior and evolution models requires knowledge of silicate's equation of state and its optical and transport properties at high pressures and temperatures.

  1. Sarcophagidae (Diptera de importancia forense en la puna de Catamarca, Argentina: a ovoviviparidad como ventaja en condiciones de extrema aridez Sarcophagidae (Diptera of forensic importance at a high altitude desert in Catamarca, Argentina: ovoviviparity as an advantage under extreme arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H. Aballay

    2011-12-01

    pig carcasses, one located in the shade and the other in the sun, and a third carcass of a lama located in the sun, were used. We collected 597 individuals belonging to five Sarcophagidae species: Microcerella antofagastensis Mulieri, Mariluis & Aballay (n=347, M. quimaliensis (Lopes (n=117, M. rusca (Hall (n=32, M. penai (Lopes (n=5 and M. aulacophyto Pape (n=96. Both M. antofagastensis and M. quimaliensis were the effective colonizers and represented 78% of the total adults collected. Microcerella antofagastensis was the primary colonizer. Both species had a similar response against microenvironmental conditions and both preferred the pig carcass. We discuss the importance of these two species as forensic indicators and the advantages of ovoviviparity against other oviparous species under extreme arid conditions.

  2. High order sufficient conditions for tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Liñán, María

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study under which conditions the trajectories of a mechanical control system can track any curve on the configuration manifold. We focus on systems that can be represented as forced affine connection control systems and we generalize the sufficient conditions for tracking known in the literature. The sufficient conditions are expressed in terms of convex cones of vector fields defined through particular brackets of the control vector fields of the system. The tracking control laws obtained by our constructions depend on several parameters. By imposing suitable asymptotic conditions on such parameters, we construct algorithmically one-parameter tracking control laws. The theory is supported by examples of control systems associated with elliptic hovercrafts and ellipsoidal submarines.

  3. Left-right coordination from simple to extreme conditions during split-belt locomotion in the chronic spinal adult cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Alain; Desrochers, Étienne; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Dambreville, Charline

    2017-01-01

    Coordination between the left and right sides is essential for dynamic stability during locomotion. The immature or neonatal mammalian spinal cord can adjust to differences in speed between the left and right sides during split-belt locomotion by taking more steps on the fast side. We show that the adult mammalian spinal cord can also adjust its output so that the fast side can take more steps. During split-belt locomotion, only certain parts of the cycle are modified to adjust left-right coordination, primarily those associated with swing onset. When the fast limb takes more steps than the slow limb, strong left-right interactions persist. Therefore, the adult mammalian spinal cord has a remarkable adaptive capacity for left-right coordination, from simple to extreme conditions. Although left-right coordination is essential for locomotion, its control is poorly understood, particularly in adult mammals. To investigate the spinal control of left-right coordination, a spinal transection was performed in six adult cats that were then trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Spinal cats performed tied-belt locomotion from 0.1 to 1.0 m s(-1) and split-belt locomotion with low to high (1:1.25-10) slow/fast speed ratios. With the left hindlimb stepping at 0.1 m s(-1) and the right hindlimb stepping from 0.2 to 1.0 m s(-1) , 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 left-right step relationships could appear. The appearance of 1:2+ relationships was not linearly dependent on the difference in speed between the slow and fast belts. The last step taken by the fast hindlimb displayed longer cycle, stance and swing durations and increased extensor activity, as the slow limb transitioned to swing. During split-belt locomotion with 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 relationships, the timing of stance onset of the fast limb relative to the slow limb and placement of both limbs at contact were invariant with increasing slow/fast speed ratios. In contrast, the timing of stance onset of the slow limb

  4. Energy efficiency and renewable energy under extreme conditions: Case studies from Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin, Tina [Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition, BP 80358, 45163 Olivet, CEDEX 3 (France); Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Blake, David [British Antarctic Survey (United Kingdom); Magill, Peter [Australian Antarctic Division (Australia); El Naggar, Saad [Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany); Lidstrom, Sven [Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (Sweden); Ishizawa, Kenji [National Institute of Polar Research (Japan); Berte, Johan [International Polar Foundation (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    This article showcases a range of small and large scale energy efficiency and renewable energy deployments at Antarctic research stations and field camps. Due to the cold and harsh environment, significant amounts of fuel are needed to support humans working and living in Antarctica. The purchase, transportation and storage of large amounts of fossil fuel entail significant economic costs and environmental risks and have motivated developments in energy efficiency and renewable energy deployment. Over the past three decades, improved building design, behavioral change, cogeneration, solar collectors, solar panels and wind turbines have been found to be effective in Antarctica, demonstrating that harsh environmental conditions and technological barriers do not have to limit the deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The ambition to run entire stations or field camps on 100% renewable energy is increasingly common and feasible. While the power requirements of Antarctic research stations are small compared to urban installations on other continents, these case studies clearly demonstrate that if energy efficiency and renewable energy can be deployed widely on the coldest, darkest and most remote continent of the world, their deployment should be more widespread and encouraged on other continents. (author)

  5. Domain wall network as QCD vacuum and the chromomagnetic trap formation under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelko, Sergei N.; Voronin, Vladimir E. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    The ensemble of Euclidean gluon field configurations represented by the domain wall network is considered. A single domain wall is given by the sine-Gordon kink for the angle between chromomagnetic and chromoelectric components of the gauge field. The domain wall separates the regions with Abelian self-dual and anti-self-dual fields. The network of the domain wall defects is introduced as a combination of multiplicative and additive superpositions of kinks. The character of the spectrum and eigenmodes of color-charged fluctuations in the presence of the domain wall network is discussed. Conditions for the formation of a stable thick domain wall junction (the chromomagnetic trap) during heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and the spectrum of color-charged quasi-particles inside the trap is evaluated. An important observation is the existence of the critical size L{sub c} of a single trap stable against gluon tachyonic modes. The size L{sub c} is related to the value of gluon condensate left angle g{sup 2} F{sup 2} right angle. The growth of large lumps of merged chromomagnetic traps and the concept of the confinement-deconfinement transition in terms of the ensemble of domain wall networks are outlined. (orig.)

  6. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  7. First-Principles Investigations on Thermal Conductivity and Average Ionization of CH Ablators Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    A plastic CH ablator (polystyrene) is often used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs. Upon intense laser or x-ray ablations, a CH ablator can be shocked to warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions. Many-body coupling and quantum electron degeneracy are expected to play an essential role in determining the properties of such warm dense plasmas. Using ab initio methods of quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), we have performed investigations on the principal Hugoniot of a CH ablator, the first-principles equation-of-state table of CH, and its effect on ICF simulations. In this presentation, we focus on the thermal conductivity and average ionization of CH-ablators under a wide range of plasma temperatures and densities. The resulting thermal conductivity (κ) and average ionization () show large differences from the usual model predictions in the WDM regime. These results, being fitted with analytical functions of plasma density and temperature, have been incorporated into radiation -hydrodynamics codes. Their effects on the ICF implosion simulations will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and the Scientific Campaign 10 at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  8. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-236, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Blain, A. W. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, S. L. [The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Wu, J. W., E-mail: roberto.assef@mail.udp.cl [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  9. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assef, R. J.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13-050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M⊙ yr-1. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  10. Expert consensus on facilitators and barriers to return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S E; Johnston, V; Ross, M; Coppieters, M W

    2017-02-01

    This Delphi study aimed to reach consensus on important facilitators and barriers for return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions. In Round 1, experts ( n = 42) listed 134 factors, which were appraised in Rounds 2 and 3. Consensus (⩾85% agreement) was achieved for 13 facilitators (high motivation to return-to-work; high self-efficacy for return-to-work and recovery; availability of modified/alternative duties; flexible return-to-work arrangements; positive coping skills; limited heavy work exertion; supportive return-to-work policies; supportive supervisor/management; no catastrophic thinking; no fear avoidance to return-to-work; no fear avoidance to pain/activity; return to meaningful work duties; high job satisfaction) and six barriers (mood disorder diagnosis; pain/symptoms at more than one musculoskeletal site; heavy upper extremity exertions at work; lack of flexible return-to-work arrangements; lack of support from supervisor/management; high level of pain catastrophizing). Future prognostic studies are required to validate these biopsychosocial factors to further improve return-to-work outcomes.

  11. Automatically Tuned Probe Head System for Pulsed NQR Spectroscopy in Extreme Thermodynamic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafin, Michał; Maćkowiak, Mariusz; Bojarski, Marek

    1994-02-01

    A complete N Q R probe-head system operating in the frequency ranges 0.5 -150 and 150- 300 MHz is described. The head is particularly suited for NQR experiments carried out at a remote location, for example in a low-temperature cryostat or high-pressure chamber. Moreover, the head system includes a microprocessor-controller for automated tuning of the probe to the operating frequency of the associated NQR spectrometer. The controller can be easily interfaced to a PC via standard serial port.

  12. Spirituality and Aging in Place: The Impact of Extreme Climatic Conditions on Domestic Gardening Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joanne; Pascal, Jan; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    There is limited research exploring how domestic water restrictions imposed as a result of drought conditions impact upon the lives of independently living older people. Within this age group (60 years plus), the domestic garden frequently forms an intrinsic component of ongoing health and well-being. Gardening practice offers components of both mental and physical activity and, for many older people, leads to emotional and spiritual connection on a number of levels. The capacity of older people to maintain a garden during a period of water restrictions is greatly reduced, and the resulting impact on health and well-being is considerable. A recent study, conducted in south-eastern Australia, aimed to determine the benefits to health and well-being of maintaining a domestic garden for older people and the impact of water restrictions on garden practice. This occurred at a time following a prolonged period of drought and, in central Victoria, a complete ban on outside watering. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 gardeners aged between 60 and 83 who had tended their garden over an extended period. The lived experience of gardening was explored through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Clear benefits to health and well-being were established, and yet, the essence of this experience lay in the capacity of gardeners to remain connected to their garden despite change. The crisis imposed by ongoing drought and restricted use of water generated a strong impetus for adaptation, resilience and acceptance of change. The spiritual nature of gardening practice clearly emerged and appeared to intensify the experience of gardening and consolidate adaption to change on a number of levels.

  13. Men in extreme conditions: some medical and psychological aspects of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil-Weiss, T

    1983-08-01

    The second world war ended many years ago. Most of those who survived the stay at the German concentration camp at Auschwitz have already died of the consequences of their imprisonment; those still alive are already in the last third of their life. Is there any point in returning to the experiences of those days? Consideration of the mental hygiene of former prisoners cautions us that perhaps we should not do it. But consideration of the general interest holds that we are not entitled to ignore any knowledge that can contribute to social development--including medicine and psychology--even if acquired under unspeakably awful conditions. In addition, since the war new generations have grown up that play an increasingly significant role in various spheres of life but have little concrete information about those events; they can neither rationally nor emotionally understand how the horrors connected with fascism and the war could have happened. In a sense it is encouraging that they cannot grasp such inhuman behavior; nevertheless, we must adhere to the following motto: "Nothing must be forgotten, nobody will be forgotten." We owe it to those millions who did not survive--both the victims of the Holocaust and those who fought against it. These are arguments in favor of returning to the facts that are ineffaceably recorded somewhere in our memories. In doing so, however, we must remember that at times we are revisiting experiences of a boy of 14 as recalled by a 50-year-old man. The material below, examining the medical as well as psychological aspects of imprisonment at Auschwitz, is based on my own memories, as an adolescent imprisoned at Auschwitz. I have tried to move from this individual account to more general statements, although the methodological apparatus on which scientific analysis is usually based is absent.

  14. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, R J; Brightman, M; Stern, D; Alexander, D; Bauer, F; Blain, A W; Diaz-Santos, T; Eisenhardt, P R M; Finkelstein, S L; Hickox, R C; Tsai, C -W; Wu, J W

    2015-01-01

    Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the WISE mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures ($T>60~\\rm K$). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured AGN that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of 8 Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot D...

  15. Polymerization of Acetonitrile via a Hydrogen Transfer Reaction from CH3 to CN under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Li, Kuo; Cody, George D; Tulk, Christopher A; Dong, Xiao; Gao, Guoying; Molaison, Jamie J; Liu, Zhenxian; Feygenson, Mikhail; Yang, Wenge; Ivanov, Ilia N; Basile, Leonardo; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Guthrie, Malcolm; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2016-09-19

    Acetonitrile (CH3 CN) is the simplest and one of the most stable nitriles. Reactions usually occur on the C≡N triple bond, while the C-H bond is very inert and can only be activated by a very strong base or a metal catalyst. It is demonstrated that C-H bonds can be activated by the cyano group under high pressure, but at room temperature. The hydrogen atom transfers from the CH3 to CN along the CH⋅⋅⋅N hydrogen bond, which produces an amino group and initiates polymerization to form a dimer, 1D chain, and 2D nanoribbon with mixed sp(2) and sp(3) bonded carbon. Finally, it transforms into a graphitic polymer by eliminating ammonia. This study shows that applying pressure can induce a distinctive reaction which is guided by the structure of the molecular crystal. It highlights the fact that very inert C-H can be activated by high pressure, even at room temperature and without a catalyst.

  16. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  17. West Africa Extreme Rainfall Events and Large-Scale Ocean Surface and Atmospheric Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on daily precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP data during April–October of the 1997–2014 period, the daily extreme rainfall trends and variability over West Africa are characterized using 90th-percentile threshold at each grid point. The contribution of the extreme rainfall amount reaches ~50–90% in the northern region while it is ~30–50% in the south. The yearly cumulated extreme rainfall amount indicates significant and negative trends in the 6°N–12°N; 6°N–12°N; 17°W–10°W and 4°N–7°N; 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E domains, while the number of days exhibits nonsignificant trends over West Africa. The empirical orthogonal functions performed on the standardized anomalies show four variability modes that include all West Africa with a focus on the Sahelian region, the eastern region including the south of Nigeria, the western part including Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea-Bissau, and finally a small region at the coast of Ghana and Togo. These four modes are influenced differently by the large-scale ocean surface and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Atlantic. The results are applicable in planning the risks associated with these climate hazards, particularly on water resource management and civil defense.

  18. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  19. Laser Based In Situ Techniques: Novel Methods for Generating Extreme Conditions in TEM Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, M; Lagrange, T; Reed, B; Armstrong, M; Campbell, G; DeHope, W; Kim, J; King, W; Masiel, D; Browning, N

    2008-02-25

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) is introduced as a novel tool for in situ processing of materials. Examples of various types of dynamic studies outline the advantages and differences of laser-based heating in the DTEM in comparison to conventional (resistive) heating in situ TEM methods. We demonstrate various unique capabilities of the drive laser, namely, in situ processing of nanoscale materials, rapid and high temperature phase transformations, and controlled thermal activation of materials. These experiments would otherwise be impossible without the use of the DTEM drive laser. Thus, the potential of the DTEM to as a new technique to process and characterize the growth of a myriad of micro and nanostructures is demonstrated.

  20. A novel method for generating molecular mixtures at extreme conditions: The case of fluorine and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    We have successfully created a segregated mixture of molecular fluorine and oxygen at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) via useful hard x-ray photochemistry. A keyhole-like sample chamber was created in a stainless steel gasket to hold two segregated powders of potassium tetrafluoroborate (KBF4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4) respectively in each hole at a pressure of ˜3.0 GPa. Both holes were individually irradiated with synchrotron hard x-rays to release molecular fluorine and molecular oxygen, respectively. Upon irradiation of the hole containing KBF4 molecular fluorine appeared (as evidenced via Raman spectroscopy) near the region of irradiation. The second hole containing KClO4 was then irradiated and reddish-orange O2 was observed to form. Oxygen was observed to diffuse throughout both holes. There is some evidence that oxygen difluoride (OF2) was formed in the hole originally containing the KBF4.

  1. Kinetics of Materials at Extreme Conditions: Understanding the Time Dependent Approach to Equilibrium at MaRIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mcnabb, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eggert, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Borg, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerreta, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dattelbaum, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greeff, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stolken, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The National Nuclear Security Agency has recently recognized that a long-term need exists to establish a stronger scientific basis for the assessment and qualification of materials and manufacturing processes for the nuclear stockpile and other national security applications. These materials may have undergone substantial changes with age, or may represent new materials that are being introduced because of difficulties associated with reusing or recreating materials used in original stockpile components. Also, with advancements in manufacturing methods, the NNSA anticipates opportunities for an enhanced range of control over fabricated components, an enhanced pace of materials development, and enhanced functionality. The development of qualification standards for these new materials will require the ability to understand and control material characteristics that affect both mechanical and dynamic performance. A unique aspect for NNSA is that the performance requirements for materials are often set by system hydrodynamics, and these materials must perform in extreme environments and loading conditions. Thus, the scientific motivation is to understand “Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE).”

  2. Consistent first-principles pressure scales for diffraction experiments under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-La-Roza, Alberto; Cabal, Victor Lua Na

    2012-02-01

    Diamond anvil cell (DAC) diffraction experiments are fundamental in geophysics and materials science to explore the behavior of solids under very high pressures and temperatures. A factor limiting the accuracy of DAC experiments is the lack of an accurate pressure scale for the calibration materials that extends to the ever-increasing pressure and temperature limits of the technique. In this communication, we address this problem by applying a newly developed technique that allows the calculation of accurate thermodynamic properties from first-principles calculations [Phys. Rev. B 84 (2011) 024109, 84 (2011) 184103]. Three elements are key in this method: i) the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) and the static energies and phonon frequencies obtained from an electronic structure calculation ii) the appropriate representation of the equation of state by using averages of strain polynomials and iii) the correction of the systematic errors caused by the exchange-correlation functional approximation. As a result, we propose accurate equations of scale for typical pressure calibrants that can be used in the whole experimental range of pressures and temperatures. The internal consistency and the agreement with the ruby scale based on experimental data is examined.

  3. Charging studies of heat packs using parabolic dish solar energy concentrator for extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitash; Vyas, Sumita; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Ambesh

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic dish solar energy concentrator with aperture diameter 1.4 m and focal length 0.32 m is designed and fabricated to charge and store solar thermal energy in phase change material (PCM) based heat packs. Overall heat loss factor, heat duty, over all thermal efficiency, and optical efficiency factor are calculated using water sensible heating and cooling tests and values are 16.11 W m-2 K-1, 546.9 W, 49.2% and 0.62 respectively. The performance characteristic curve is generated using these parameters to understand its performance at different ambient temperatures and solar insolation. The fabricated concentrator has been used to charge 16 PCM heat packs with 150 g PCM in each heat pack, which took about 35 minutes for complete charging of PCM heat packs at average ambient temperature 39 °C and solar radiation flux density 715 W m-2 K-1. The charged heat packs are subjected to discharge studies at average ambient temperature about - 7 °C and observed heat release in the temperature range of 48 to 40 °C for 50 minutes, suggesting its applications for comfort and therapeutic applications in high altitude areas.

  4. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-224 B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1) As of FY...10 Track to Budget 11 Cost and Funding 13 Low Rate Initial Production 19 Foreign Military Sales 20 Nuclear Costs 20 Unit Cost...Document CLIN - Contract Line Item Number CPD - Capability Production Document CY - Calendar Year DAB - Defense Acquisition Board DAE - Defense

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite Beddown and Deployment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Fish and Wildlife Service Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite Final Environmental Assessment v VIF Vehicle Integration Facility WMO World...Vehicle Mate Operations Upon arrival on CCAFS, the transporter would take the encapsulated payload to the Vehicle Integration Facility ( VIF ), which...is located just south of LC-41 (Figure 2-2). At the VIF , the encapsulated payload would be mated to the Atlas V Launch Vehicle (LV) using a mobile

  6. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    . For this purpose, the power system model has been developed that represents the relevant dynamic features of power plants and compensates for power imbalances caused by the forecasting error during critical weather conditions. The regulating power plan, as an input time series for the developed power system model......Secure power system operation of a highly wind power integrated power system is always at risk during critical weather conditions, e.g. in extreme high winds. The risk is even higher when 50% of the total electricity consumption has to be supplied by wind power, as the case for the future Danish...... power system in 2020. This paper analyses and compares the performance of the future Danish power system during extreme wind speeds, where wind power plants are either controlled through a traditional High Wind Shut Down storm controller or a new High Wind Extended Production storm controller...

  7. Extreme Unconditional Dependence Vs. Multivariate GARCH Effect in the Analysis of Dependence Between High Losses on Polish and German Stock Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Pawel

    Classical portfolio diversification methods do not take account of any dependence between extreme returns (losses). Many researchers provide, however, some empirical evidence for various assets that extreme-losses co-occur. If the co-occurrence is frequent enough to be statistically significant, it may seriously influence portfolio risk. Such effects may result from a few different properties of financial time series, like for instance: (1) extreme dependence in a (long-term) unconditional distribution, (2) extreme dependence in subsequent conditional distributions, (3) time-varying conditional covariance, (4) time-varying (long-term) unconditional covariance, (5) market contagion. Moreover, a mix of these properties may be present in return time series. Modeling each of them requires different approaches. It seams reasonable to investigate whether distinguishing between the properties is highly significant for portfolio risk measurement. If it is, identifying the effect responsible for high loss co-occurrence would be of a great importance. If it is not, the best solution would be selecting the easiest-to-apply model. This article concentrates on two of the aforementioned properties: extreme dependence (in a long-term unconditional distribution) and time-varying conditional covariance.

  8. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Physics Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Lee, H. J.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Physics Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); White, T.; Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Wei, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 87544 (United States); Zastrau, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Institute for Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  9. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzinger, J; Thaler, S; Schmid, E;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of seven different, widely applied crop models in predicting heat and drought stress effects. The study was part of a recent suite of model inter-comparisons initiated at European level and constitutes a component that has been...... lacking in the analysis of sources of uncertainties in crop models used to study the impacts of climate change. There was a specific focus on the sensitivity of models for winter wheat and maize to extreme weather conditions (heat and drought) during the short but critical period of 2 weeks after...... or minimum tillage. Since no comprehensive field experimental data sets were available, a relative comparison of simulated grain yields and soil moisture contents under defined weather scenarios with modified temperatures and precipitation was performed for a 2-week period after flowering. The results may...

  10. Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally extreme temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally extreme temperature environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally extreme Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and temperatures as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore temperatures which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average temperatures exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating temperatures enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to extreme heat stress events.

  11. [Membranotropic effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trchunian, A; Ogandzhanian, E; Sarkisian, E; Gonian, S; Oganesian, A; Oganesian, S

    2001-01-01

    It was found that "sound" electromagnetic radiations of extremely high frequencies (53.5-68 GHz) or millimeter waves (wavelength range of 4.2-5.6 mm) of low intensity (power density 0.01 mW) have a bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli bacteria. It was shown that exposure to irradiation of extremely high frequencies increases the electrokinetic potential and surface change density of bacteria and decreases of membrane potential. The total secretion of hydrogen ions was suppressed, the H+ flux from the cytoplasm to medium decreased, and the flux of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive potassium ions increased, which was accompanied by changes in the stoichiometry of these fluxes and an increase in the sensitivity of H+ ions to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The effects depended on duration of exposure: as the time of exposure increased, the bactericidal effect increased, whereas the membranotropic effects decreased. The effects also depended on growth phase of bacteria: the irradiation affected the cells in the stationary but not in the logarithmic phase. It is assumed that the H(+)-ATPase complex F0F1 is involved in membranotropic effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies. Presumably, there are some compensatory mechanisms that eliminate the membranotropic effects.

  12. Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally extreme temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T

    2015-12-02

    Naturally extreme temperature environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally extreme Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and temperatures as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore temperatures which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average temperatures exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating temperatures enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to extreme heat stress events.

  13. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication.

  14. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: S.Choudhary@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  15. High-resolution projections of mean and extreme precipitations over China through PRECIS under RCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinxin; Huang, Gordon; Wang, Xiuquan; Cheng, Guanhui; Wu, Yinghui

    2017-08-01

    The impact of global warming on the characteristics of mean and extreme precipitations over China is investigated by using the Providing REgional Climate Impacts for Studies (PRECIS) model. The PRECIS model was driven by the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 with Earth System components and coupling (HadGEM2-ES). The results of both models are analyzed in terms of mean precipitation and indices of precipitation extremes (R95p, R99p, SDII, WDF, and CWD) over China at the resolution of 25 km under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios for the baseline period (1976-2005) and two future periods (2036-2065 and 2070-2099). With improved resolution, the PRECIS model is able to better represent the fine-scale physical process than HadGEM2-ES. It can provide reliable spatial patterns of precipitation and its related extremes with high correlations to observations. Moreover, there is a notable improvement in temporal patterns simulation through the PRECIS model. The PRECIS model better reproduces the regional annual cycle and frequencies of daily precipitation intensity than its driving GCM. Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, both the HadGEM2-ES and the precis project increasing annual precipitation over the entire country for two future periods. Precipitation increase in winter is greater than the increase in summer. The results suggest that increased radiative forcing from RCP4.5 to RCP8.5 would further intensify the magnitude of projected precipitation changes by both PRECIS and HadGEM2-ES. For example, some parts of south China with decreased precipitation under RCP4.5 would expect even less precipitation under RCP8.5; regions (northwest, northcentral and northeast China) with increased precipitation under RCP4.5 would expect more precipitation under RCP8.5. Apart from the projected increase in annual total precipitation, the results also suggest that there will be an increase in the days with precipitation higher than

  16. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  17. Highly stable superhydrophobic surfaces under flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized hydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide nanostructures with pore diameters of 35, 50, 65, and 80 nm directly on quartz crystal microresonators, and the stability of the resulting superhydrophobicity was investigated under flow conditions by measuring changes in the resonance frequency and dissipation factor. When the quartz substrates were immersed in water, their hydrophobic surfaces did not wet due to the presence of an air interlayer. The air interlayer was gradually replaced by water over time, which caused decreases in the resonance frequency (i.e., increases in mass) and increases in the dissipation factor (i.e., increases in viscous damping). Although the water contact angles of the nanostructures increased with increasing pore size, the stability of their superhydrophobicity increased with decreasing pore size under both static conditions (without flow) and dynamic conditions (with flow); this increase can be attributed to an increase in the solid surface area that interacts with the air layer above the nanopores as the pore size decreases. Further, the effects of increasing the flow rate on the stability of the superhydrophobicity were quantitatively determined.

  18. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10−13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  19. High Resolution Modeling in Mountainous Terrain for Water Resource Management: AN Extreme Precipitation Event Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarik, M. T.; Watson, K. A.; Flores, A. N.; Anderson, K.; Tangen, S.

    2016-12-01

    The water resources infrastructure of the Western US is designed to deliver reliable water supply to users and provide recreational opportunities for the public, as well as afford flood control for communities by buffering variability in precipitation and snow storage. Thus water resource management is a balancing act of meeting multiple objectives while trying to anticipate and mitigate natural variability of water supply. Currently, the forecast guidance available to personnel managing resources in mountainous terrain is lacking in two ways: the spatial resolution is too coarse, and there is a gap in the intermediate time range (10-30 days). To address this need we examine the effectiveness of using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a state of the art, regional, numerical weather prediction model, as a means to generate high-resolution weather guidance in the intermediate time range. This presentation will focus on a reanalysis and hindcasting case study of the extreme precipitation and flooding event in the Payette River Basin of Idaho during the period of June 2nd-4th, 2010. For the reanalysis exercise we use NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data sets as input boundary conditions to WRF. The model configuration includes a horizontal spatial resolution of 3km in the outer nest, and 1 km in the inner nest, with output temporal resolution of 3 hrs and 1 hr, respectively. The hindcast simulations, which are currently underway, will make use of the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reforecast (CFSRR) data. The current state of these runs will be discussed. Preparations for the second of two components in this project, weekly WRF forecasts during the intense portion of the water year, will be briefly described. These forecasts will use the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) operational forecast data as boundary conditions to provide forecast guidance geared towards water resource

  20. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  1. Weather extremes in very large, high-resolution ensembles: the weatherathome experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Rosier, S.; Massey, N.; Rye, C.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Otto, F.; Jones, R.; Wilson, S.; Mote, P.; Stone, D. A.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Carrington, D.

    2011-12-01

    Resolution and ensemble size are often seen as alternatives in climate modelling. Models with sufficient resolution to simulate many classes of extreme weather cannot normally be run often enough to assess the statistics of rare events, still less how these statistics may be changing. As a result, assessments of the impact of external forcing on regional climate extremes must be based either on statistical downscaling from relatively coarse-resolution models, or statistical extrapolation from 10-year to 100-year events. Under the weatherathome experiment, part of the climateprediction.net initiative, we have compiled the Met Office Regional Climate Model HadRM3P to run on personal computer volunteered by the general public at 25 and 50km resolution, embedded within the HadAM3P global atmosphere model. With a global network of about 50,000 volunteers, this allows us to run time-slice ensembles of essentially unlimited size, exploring the statistics of extreme weather under a range of scenarios for surface forcing and atmospheric composition, allowing for uncertainty in both boundary conditions and model parameters. Current experiments, developed with the support of Microsoft Research, focus on three regions, the Western USA, Europe and Southern Africa. We initially simulate the period 1959-2010 to establish which variables are realistically simulated by the model and on what scales. Our next experiments are focussing on the Event Attribution problem, exploring how the probability of various types of extreme weather would have been different over the recent past in a world unaffected by human influence, following the design of Pall et al (2011), but extended to a longer period and higher spatial resolution. We will present the first results of the unique, global, participatory experiment and discuss the implications for the attribution of recent weather events to anthropogenic influence on climate.

  2. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Johannsson, Ora E.; Laurent, Pierre; Chevalier, Claudine; Kisipan, Mosiany L.; Kavembe, Geraldine D.; Papah, Michael B.; Brix, Kevin V.; De Boeck, Gudrun; Maina, John N.; Ojoo, Rodi O.; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C) and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1) were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03). Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1) and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1) and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1) and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1). Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin) and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG) were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO), TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage). Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  3. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas F. Bianchini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa, which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1 were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1 and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1 and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1 and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1. Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO, TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage. Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  4. Extreme risk taker who wants to continue taking part in high risk sports after serious injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, M; Kerr, J H

    2004-06-01

    The case is reported of a 40 year old male high risk sport athlete who had seriously injured himself several times and as a result was partially physically disabled and had trouble with mental tasks requiring concentration such as spelling, reading numbers, and writing. The athlete was referred to a sports psychologist. In consultations, it became clear that he was having difficulty reconciling the difference between his life as it used to be and as it would be in the future. Part of his difficulty was dealing with the frustration and anger "outbursts" which resulted from not being able to perform straightforward everyday motor skills. In spite of his injuries and disability, the patient badly wanted to continue participating in extreme sports. Reversal theory is used in the discussion to provide theoretical explanations of the motivation for his extreme risk taking behaviour.

  5. Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coraggia, S.; Frassetto, F. [CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Aznarez, J.A.; Larruquert, J.I.; Mendez, J.A. [GOLD-Instituto de Optica-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Negro, M.; Stagira, S.; Vozzi, C. [Department of Physics-Politecnico of Milano and CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.i [CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    The experimental study of the optical properties of thin carbon films to be used as grazing-incidence coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics is presented. The carbon samples were deposited on plane glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique. The optical constants (real and imaginary parts of the refraction index) have been calculated through reflectivity measurements. The results are in good agreement with what reported in the literature, and confirm that carbon-coated optics operated at grazing incidence have a remarkable gain over conventional metallic coatings in the extreme ultraviolet. Since the harmonics co-propagate with the intense infrared laser generating beam, the carbon damage threshold when exposed to ultrashort infrared laser pulses has been measured.

  6. Phase Quantization Study of Spatial Light Modulator for Extreme High contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, Jiangpei

    2016-01-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extreme high contrast. We present the phase quantization study of spatial light modulator for wave front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask, respectively. The simulation result has constrained the specification for phase accuracy of SLM in above two optical configurations. Finally, we have demonstrated that the S...

  7. Imaging Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Science, Nature, JACS, JPC , ChemPhysChem, PNAS, Nano Lett., and Angewandte Chemie. The applications of 4D UEM (and diffraction) are numerous, and we...Caltech were reported in Science, Nature, JACS, JPC , ChemPhysChem, PNAS, Nano Lett., and Angewandte Chemie. The applications of 4D UEM (and diffraction

  8. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success of the mission. References: [1] A. Maslow (1943) Theory of Human Motivation [2] J. Stuster (1996) Bold Endeavors, Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration [3] Mars Society, Mars Desert Research Station in Utah

  9. Warmer and wetter winters: characteristics and implications of an extreme weather event in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brage B.; Isaksen, Ketil; Benestad, Rasmus E.; Kohler, Jack; Pedersen, Åshild Ø.; Loe, Leif E.; Coulson, Stephen J.; Larsen, Jan Otto; Varpe, Øystein

    2014-11-01

    One predicted consequence of global warming is an increased frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts, or heavy rainfalls. In parts of the Arctic, extreme warm spells and heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) events in winter are already more frequent. How these weather events impact snow-pack and permafrost characteristics is rarely documented empirically, and the implications for wildlife and society are hence far from understood. Here we characterize and document the effects of an extreme warm spell and ROS event that occurred in High Arctic Svalbard in January-February 2012, during the polar night. In this normally cold semi-desert environment, we recorded above-zero temperatures (up to 7 °C) across the entire archipelago and record-breaking precipitation, with up to 98 mm rainfall in one day (return period of >500 years prior to this event) and 272 mm over the two-week long warm spell. These precipitation amounts are equivalent to 25 and 70% respectively of the mean annual total precipitation. The extreme event caused significant increase in permafrost temperatures down to at least 5 m depth, induced slush avalanches with resultant damage to infrastructure, and left a significant ground-ice cover (˜5-20 cm thick basal ice). The ground-ice not only affected inhabitants by closing roads and airports as well as reducing mobility and thereby tourism income, but it also led to high starvation-induced mortality in all monitored populations of the wild reindeer by blocking access to the winter food source. Based on empirical-statistical downscaling of global climate models run under the moderate RCP4.5 emission scenario, we predict strong future warming with average mid-winter temperatures even approaching 0 °C, suggesting increased frequency of ROS. This will have far-reaching implications for Arctic ecosystems and societies through the changes in snow-pack and permafrost properties.

  10. Removal mechanisms for extremely high-level fluoroquinolone antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyan; Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Yi; Kong, Xiangji; Kong, Deyang; Shan, Zhengjun; Wang, Na

    2017-03-01

    Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) receive industrial effluents from the plant that contain extremely high levels of antibiotics and are regarded as one of the major sources of antibiotics in the environment. Two PWWTPs have been selected in Zhejiang Province, China, to assess the removal mechanisms of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs). PWWTP A uses activated sludge with biocarriers in a moving bed biofilm reactor in anoxic and aerobic units, and PWWTP B uses biological units under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The wastewater samples and solid samples (sludge and suspended solid matter) were analyzed using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ofloxacin (OFX) was detected in each stage of PWWTP A, and enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were detected in PWWTP B. The concentrations of FQs ranged from 0.32 μg/L to 5.7 mg/L. Although the FQs were largely removed in the biological units (94.5 to 99.9%), large amounts were still discharged in the final effluent (up to 88.0 ± 7.0 μg/L) and dewatered sludge (up to 0.85 ± 0.24 mg/kg). Mass balance analyses of samples from PWWTP A indicated that biodegradation (93.8%) was the major mechanism responsible for the removal of OFX, whereas the contribution of sorption by sludge (0.79%) was less significant, deviating from the findings of most similar studies. Using linear analysis and correlation analysis, we found that the log10 values of the FQ concentration in the sludge were positively related with the log10 values of the equilibrium concentration in water (C w ). These relationships can be described by a Freundlich-like equation. However, these relationships were negative when the C w values were high. Our preliminary explanation is that the equilibrium C w plays an important role in controlling the sorption behavior of FQs in activated sludge.

  11. Lower Extremity Function following Partial Calcanectomy in High-Risk Limb Salvage Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah G. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial calcanectomy (PC is an established limb salvage procedure for treatment of deep heel ulceration with concomitant calcaneal osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of calcaneus removed during PC and the resulting lower extremity function and limb salvage outcomes. Consecutive PC patients were retrospectively divided into two cohorts defined by the amount of calcaneus resected before wound closure: patients in cohort 1 retained = 50% of calcaneus, while patients in cohort 2 underwent resection of >50% of the calcaneus. The Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS was used to assess postoperative lower extremity function. The average amount of calcaneus resected was 13% ± 9.2 (1–39% and 74% ± 19.5 (51–100 in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (P<0.0001. Below knee amputation was performed in 7 (28% and 5 (29% of subjects in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (P=1.0. The average LEFS score was 33.9 ± 15.0 for subjects in cohort 1 and 36.2 ± 19.9 for the subjects cohort 2 (P=0.8257 which correlates to “moderate to quite a bit of difficulty.” Our study suggests that regardless of the amount of calcaneus resected, PC provides a viable treatment option for high-risk patients with calcaneal osteomyelitis.

  12. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  13. A Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures and high radiation are not met with the current solutions. Chronos Technology...

  14. Fabrication of surfaces with extremely high contact angle hysteresis from polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Wei, Jingjing; Su, Zhaohui

    2011-12-20

    High contact angle hysteresis on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) ion-paired with hydrophobic perfluorooctanoate anions is reported. Both the bilayer number of PEMs and the ionic strength of deposition solutions have significant influence on contact angle hysteresis: higher ionic strength and greater bilayer number cause increased contact angle hysteresis values. The hysteresis values of ~100° were observed on smooth PEMs and pinning of the receding contact line on hydrophilic defects is implicated as the cause of hysteresis. Surface roughness can be used to further tune the contact angle hysteresis on the PEMs. A surface with extremely high contact angle hysteresis of 156° was fabricated when a PEM was deposited on a rough substrate coated with submicrometer scale silica spheres. It was demonstrated that this extremely high value of contact angle hysteresis resulted from the penetration of water into the rough asperities on the substrate. The same substrate hydrophobized by chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane exhibits high advancing contact angle and low hysteresis.

  15. The role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies on the life cycle of rainfall extremes over South America: non-summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Fernando E.; Grimm, Alice M.

    2016-09-01

    Previous study showed that the interaction of synoptic disturbances with intraseasonal anomalies is important for heavy rainfall in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and the La Plata basin during the austral summer. Here, we conduct similar analysis to study the evolution of rainfall extremes during austral spring (SON), fall (MAM) and winter (JJA). A relatively homogeneous region over southeastern South America, whose limits change little from season to season, is heavily affected by extreme precipitation events, as indicated by the value of the 95th percentile of daily rainfall, higher during the spring season (16.94 mm day-1) and lower in winter (13.79 mm day-1). From 1979 to 2013, extreme rainfall events are more frequent in spring (131 events) and less frequent in fall (112 events). Similar to summertime extreme events, synoptic-scale waves continue to be the main drivers of extreme precipitation over the region. The interaction between these waves and intraseasonal anomalies during the development of rainfall extremes over southeastern South America is observed especially during neutral ENSO and La Niña conditions. Warm ENSO phases tend to favor more frequent extremes in all three seasons and extreme events during El Niños are associated with synoptic waves, with no significant interaction with intraseasonal anomalies.

  16. In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to extremely high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high temperature ceramic in extremely high temperature environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, temperature measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the temperature on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high temperature.

  17. Poly(acrylamide-MWNTs hybrid hydrogel with extremely high mechanical strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(acrylamide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels were prepared through the radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking of the aqueous solution of acrylamide and well-dispersed MWNTs for the first time. The PAAm gels obtained by the radiation-induced polymerization and cosslinking showed very high mechanical strengths, and the PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels had improved mechanical properties compared with the PAAm gels, and hence the PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels showed extremely high compressive and tensile strengths. The hybrid hydrogels with water contents more than 80 wt.% usually did not fracture even at compressive strengths close to or even more than 60 MPa and strains more than 97%. And the hybrid hydrogels had very high elongations (more than 2000% in some cases, especially when the water content was high. The tensile strengths were in sub-MPa. The hybrid PAAm-MWNTs hydrogel is one of the strongest hydrogel even made.

  18. Table-Top Milliwatt-Class Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonic Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Klas, Robert; Tschernajew, Maxim; Hädrich, Steffen; Shamir, Yariv; Tünnermann, Andreas; Rothhardt, Jan; Limpert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) lasers are essential for the investigation of fundamental physics. Especially high repetition rate, high photon flux sources are of major interest for reducing acquisition times and improving signal to noise ratios in a plethora of applications. Here, an XUV source based on cascaded frequency conversion is presented, which delivers due to the drastic better single atom response for short wavelength drivers, an average output power of (832 +- 204) {\\mu}W at 21.7 eV. This is the highest average power produced by any HHG source in this spectral range surpassing precious demonstrations by more than a factor of four. Furthermore, a narrow-band harmonic at 26.6 eV with a relative energy bandwidth of only {\\Delta}E/E= 1.8 x 10E-3 has been generated, which is of high interest for high precision spectroscopy experiments.

  19. EEE - Extreme Energy Events: an astroparticle physics experiment in Italian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferrarov, A.; Forster, R.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Maggiora, A.; Maron, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project (EEE) is aimed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from primary cosmic rays of more than 1018 eV energy detecting the ground secondary muon component using an array of telescopes with high spatial and time resolution. The second goal of the EEE project is to involve High School teachers and students in this advanced research work and to initiate them in scientific culture: to reach both purposes the telescopes are located inside High School buildings and the detector construction, assembling and monitoring - together with data taking and analysis - are done by researchers from scientific institutions in close collaboration with them. At present there are 42 telescopes in just as many High Schools scattered all over Italy, islands included, plus two at CERN and three in INFN units. We report here some preliminary physics results from the first two common data taking periods together with the outreach impact of the project.

  20. Image-based motion compensation for high-resolution extremities cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Cao, Q.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Zbijewski, W.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities provides high spatial resolution, but its quantitative accuracy may be challenged by involuntary sub-mm patient motion that cannot be eliminated with simple means of external immobilization. We investigate a two-step iterative motion compensation based on a multi-component metric of image sharpness. Methods: Motion is considered with respect to locally rigid motion within a particular region of interest, and the method supports application to multiple locally rigid regions. Motion is estimated by maximizing a cost function with three components: a gradient metric encouraging image sharpness, an entropy term that favors high contrast and penalizes streaks, and a penalty term encouraging smooth motion. Motion compensation involved initial coarse estimation of gross motion followed by estimation of fine-scale displacements using high resolution reconstructions. The method was evaluated in simulations with synthetic motion (1-4 mm) applied to a wrist volume obtained on a CMOS-based CBCT testbench. Structural similarity index (SSIM) quantified the agreement between motion-compensated and static data. The algorithm was also tested on a motion contaminated patient scan from dedicated extremities CBCT. Results: Excellent correction was achieved for the investigated range of displacements, indicated by good visual agreement with the static data. 10-15% improvement in SSIM was attained for 2-4 mm motions. The compensation was robust against increasing motion (4% decrease in SSIM across the investigated range, compared to 14% with no compensation). Consistent performance was achieved across a range of noise levels. Significant mitigation of artifacts was shown in patient data. Conclusion: The results indicate feasibility of image-based motion correction in extremities CBCT without the need for a priori motion models, external trackers, or fiducials.

  1. Effects of extreme thermal conditions on plasticity in breeding phenology and double-broodedness of Great Tits and Blue Tits in central Poland in 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    Many avian species in Europe breed earlier as a result of higher temperatures caused by global climate changes. Climate change means not only higher temperatures but also more frequent extreme weather events, sometimes contrasting with the long-term trends. It was suggested that we should look closely at every extreme phenomenon and its consequences for the phenology of organisms. Examining the limits of phenotypic plasticity may be an important goal for future research. Extremely low spring temperatures in 2013 (coldest spring in 40 years) resulted in birds laying unusually late, and it was followed in 2014 by the earliest breeding season on record (warmest spring in 40 years). Here, we present results concerning breeding phenology and double-broodedness in the Great Tit (Parus major) and the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) in 2013 and 2014 in an urban parkland and a deciduous forest in central Poland. Great Tits started laying eggs 18.2 days later in 2013 than in 2014 in the parkland, whereas the analogous difference was 21.1 days in the forest. Blue Tits started laying eggs in the parkland 18.5 days later in 2013 than in 2014, while the analogous difference was 21.6 days in the forest. The difference in the proportion of second clutches in Great Tits between 2013 (fewer second clutches) and 2014 (more second clutches) was highly significant in the parkland and in the forest. This rather large extent of breeding plasticity has developed in reaction to challenges of irregular inter-annual variability of climatic conditions. Such a buffer of plasticity may be sufficient for Blue Tits and Great Tits to adjust the timing of breeding to the upcoming climate changes.

  2. Effects of extreme thermal conditions on plasticity in breeding phenology and double-broodedness of Great Tits and Blue Tits in central Poland in 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Many avian species in Europe breed earlier as a result of higher temperatures caused by global climate changes. Climate change means not only higher temperatures but also more frequent extreme weather events, sometimes contrasting with the long-term trends. It was suggested that we should look closely at every extreme phenomenon and its consequences for the phenology of organisms. Examining the limits of phenotypic plasticity may be an important goal for future research. Extremely low spring temperatures in 2013 (coldest spring in 40 years) resulted in birds laying unusually late, and it was followed in 2014 by the earliest breeding season on record (warmest spring in 40 years). Here, we present results concerning breeding phenology and double-broodedness in the Great Tit ( Parus major) and the Blue Tit ( Cyanistes caeruleus) in 2013 and 2014 in an urban parkland and a deciduous forest in central Poland. Great Tits started laying eggs 18.2 days later in 2013 than in 2014 in the parkland, whereas the analogous difference was 21.1 days in the forest. Blue Tits started laying eggs in the parkland 18.5 days later in 2013 than in 2014, while the analogous difference was 21.6 days in the forest. The difference in the proportion of second clutches in Great Tits between 2013 (fewer second clutches) and 2014 (more second clutches) was highly significant in the parkland and in the forest. This rather large extent of breeding plasticity has developed in reaction to challenges of irregular inter-annual variability of climatic conditions. Such a buffer of plasticity may be sufficient for Blue Tits and Great Tits to adjust the timing of breeding to the upcoming climate changes.

  3. Temperature and moisture conditions for life in the extreme arid region of the Atacama desert: four years of observations including the El Nino of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Caceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-01-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5 degrees C and 16.6 degrees C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9 degrees C, and the minimum was -5.7 degrees C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m(-2) in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong fohn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s(-1). During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Nino of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  4. Prospects of extreme ultraviolet radiation sources based on microwave discharge for high-resolution lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, I. S.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Shalashov, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, inspired by the success of recent experiments, we discuss a new possible type of sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation for the semiconductor industry, based on the radiating plasma with multiply charged ions supported in a mirror magnetic trap by high-power microwaves. We propose a simple theory that describes the main features of such source, perform modeling for a wide range of plasma parameters and magnetic configurations, compare the results to the existing experimental data, and study the prospects of the new scheme in present technological circumstances.

  5. Extremely high reflection of solar wind protons as neutral hydrogen atoms from regolith in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wieser, Martin; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmström, Mats; Bhardwaj, Anil; Sridharan, R; Dhanya, MB; Wurz, Peter; Schaufelberger, Audrey; Asamura, Kazushi; 10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.012

    2010-01-01

    We report on measurements of extremely high reflection rates of solar wind particles from regolith-covered lunar surfaces. Measurements by the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in orbit around the Moon show that up to 20% of the impinging solar wind protons are reflected from the lunar surface back to space as neutral hydrogen atoms. This finding, generally applicable to regolith-covered atmosphereless bodies, invalidates the widely accepted assumption that regolith almost completely absorbs the impinging solar wind.

  6. CLASH: Extreme Emission Line Galaxies and Their Implication on Selection of High-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Shu, Xinwen; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L; Postman, Marc; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Coe, Dan; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo; Kelson, Daniel; Koekemoer, Anton; Lahav, Ofer; Medezinski, Elinor; Moustakas, Leonidas; Rosati, Piero; Seitz, Stella; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    We utilize the CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble) observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y105) and F125W (J125), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] 4959, 5007 at redshift of about 0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multi-band observations help to constrain the equivalent widths of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] 4959,5007 equivalent width of about 3737 angstrom. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high equivalent width can be only found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic the dropout feature similar to that of high redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high redshift galaxies when the S/N ratio is limited ...

  7. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Bartelmann, Matthias [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P. O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Benítez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: hxx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Departamento de Astronoía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860 Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  8. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  9. The Influence of Tropical Forcing on Westerly Disturbances: Implications for Extreme Precipitation in High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, F.; Carvalho, L. V.; Jones, C.; Norris, J.; Kiladis, G. N.; Hoell, A.

    2015-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones, including winter westerly disturbances (WD) over central Asia, are fundamental features of the atmosphere that redistribute energy, momentum, and moisture from global to regional scales. Within the Karakoram and western Himalaya (KH), snowfall from only a few WD each winter maintains the region's snowpack and its vast network of glaciers, which seasonally melt to sustain water resources for downstream populations across Asia. WD activity and subsequent precipitation in the mountains are influenced by global atmospheric variability and tropical-extratropical interactions. This research explores the independent influences of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation on WD and extreme precipitation events in the KH. On interannual time-scales, El Niño suppresses convection in the Indian Ocean and induces a Rossby wave response over Southwest Asia that is linked with enhanced dynamical forcing of WD and available moisture content. Consequently, extreme orographic precipitation events are more frequent during El Niño than La Niña or neutral conditions. A similar spatial pattern of tropical diabatic heating anomalies is produced by the MJO at intraseasonal scales. In comparison to El Niño, the Rossby wave response to MJO activity is less spatially uniform over southwest Asia and exists on a much shorter time-scale. Consequently, this mode's relationship with WD behavior and KH precipitation is more complex. Phases of the MJO propagation cycle that favor the dynamical enhancement of WD simultaneously suppress available moisture over southwest Asia, and vice versa. As a result, extreme precipitation events in the KH occur with similar frequency in most phases of the MJO, however, the relative importance of the dynamic and thermodynamic components of WD to orographic precipitation in the KH transitions as the MJO propagates. These findings give insight into the dynamics and predictability of extreme precipitation

  10. Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions and pyrite mineral surfaces on formation and hydrolysis of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Wittekindt, Carsten; Marx, Dominik

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive study of free energy landscapes and mechanisms of COS-mediated polymerization of glycine via N-carboxy anhydrides (NCAs, "Leuchs anhydrides") and peptide hydrolysis at the water-pyrite interface at extreme thermodynamic conditions is presented. Particular emphasis is set on the catalytic effects of the mineral surface including the putative role of the ubiquitous sulfur vacancy defects. It is found that the mere presence of a surface is able to change the free energetics of the elementary reaction steps. This effect can be understood in terms of a reduction of entropic contributions to the reactant state by immobilizing the reactants and/or screening them from bulk water in a purely geometric ("steric") sense. Additionally, the pyrite directly participates chemically in some of the reaction steps, thus changing the reaction mechanism qualitatively compared to the situation in bulk water. First, the adsorption of reactants on the surface can preform a product-like structure due to immobilizing and scaffolding them appropriately. Second, pyrite can act as a proton acceptor, thus replacing water in this role. Third, sulfur vacancies are found to increase the reactivity of the surface. The finding that the presence of pyrite speeds up the rate-determining step in the formation of peptides with respect to the situation in bulk solvent while stabilizing the produced peptide against hydrolysis is of particular interest to the hypothesis of prebiotic peptide formation at hydrothermal aqueous conditions. Apart from these implications, the generality of the studied organic reactions are of immediate relevance to many fields such as (bio)geochemistry, biomineralization, and environmental chemistry.

  11. Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Groot, John; Chang, Liang; Varosi, Frank; Wan, Xiaoke; Powell, Scott; Jiang, Peng; Hanna, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Pais, Rohan; Liu, Jian; Dou, Liming; Schofield, Sidney; McDowell, Shaun; Costello, Erin; Delgado-Navarro, Adriana; Fleming, Scott; Lee, Brian; Bollampally, Sandeep R.; Bosman, Troy; Jakeman, Hali; Fletcher, Adam; Marquez, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    We report design, performance and early results from two of the Extremely High Precision Extrasolar Planet Tracker Instruments (EXPERT) as part of a global network for hunting for low mass planets in the next decade. EXPERT is a combination of a thermally compensated monolithic Michelson interferometer and a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph for extremely high precision Doppler measurements for nearby bright stars (e.g., 1m/s for a V=8 solar type star in 15 min exposure). It has R=18,000 with a 72 micron slit and a simultaneous coverage of 390-694 nm. The commissioning results show that the instrument has already produced a Doppler precision of about 1 m/s for a solar type star with S/N~100 per pixel. The instrument has reached ~4 mK (P-V) temperature stability, ~1 mpsi pressure stability over a week and a total instrument throughput of ~30% at 550 nm from the fiber input to the detector. EXPERT also has a direct cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy mode fed with 50 micron fibers. It has spectral resolution of R=27,000 and a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 390-1000 nm.

  12. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  13. Extreme Learning Machines on High Dimensional and Large Data Applications: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuwen Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme learning machine (ELM has been developed for single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs. In ELM algorithm, the connections between the input layer and the hidden neurons are randomly assigned and remain unchanged during the learning process. The output connections are then tuned via minimizing the cost function through a linear system. The computational burden of ELM has been significantly reduced as the only cost is solving a linear system. The low computational complexity attracted a great deal of attention from the research community, especially for high dimensional and large data applications. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the recent developments of ELM and its applications in high dimensional and large data. Comprehensive reviews on image processing, video processing, medical signal processing, and other popular large data applications with ELM are presented in the paper.

  14. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and atomic models of highly charged heavy ions in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, C.; Murakami, I.; Koike, F.; Tamura, N.; Sakaue, H. A.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Sudo, S.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2017-01-01

    We report recent results of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The LHD is an ideal source of experimental databases of EUV spectra because of high brightness and low opacity, combined with the availability of pellet injection systems and reliable diagnostic tools. The measured heavy elements include tungsten, tin, lanthanides and bismuth, which are motivated by ITER as well as a variety of plasma applications such as EUV lithography and biological microscopy. The observed spectral features drastically change between quasicontinuum and discrete depending on the plasma temperature, which leads to some new experimental identifications of spectral lines. We have developed collisional-radiative models for some of these ions based on the measurements. The atomic number dependence of the spectral feature is also discussed.

  15. Extreme Energy Events Project: Construction of the detectors and installation in Italian High Schools

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; An, S; Antolini, R; Badalà, A; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Blanco, F; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Chiri, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Coccia, E; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D’Incecco, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Imponente, G; Kim, J; La Rocca, P; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Panareo, M; Pappalardo, G S; Piragino, G; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Sartorelli, G; Sbarra, C; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Williams, C; Zuyeuski, R

    2008-01-01

    The EEE Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, aims to detect Extreme Energy Events of cosmic rays with an array of muon telescopes distributed over the Italian territory. The Project involves Italian High Schools in order to introduce young people to Physics, also countervailing the recent crisis of university scientific classes inscriptions. The detectors for the EEE telescopes are Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) and have been constructed by teams of High School students who went in shift at the CERN laboratories. The mechanics and the electronics were developed by groups of researchers from CERN, the Italian Centro Fermi and INFN. The first group of schools of the EEE Project has inaugurated their telescopes recently. A status report of the Project and the preliminary results are presented.

  16. The physiology of extremes: Ancel Keys and the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935 and its significance in the life and science of Ancel Keys. Both the expedition and Keys's story afford excellent opportunities to explore the growing reach of interwar physiology into extreme climates-whether built or natural. As IHAE scientists assessed human performance and adaptation to hypoxia, low barometric pressure, and cold, they not only illuminated the physiological and psychological processes of high altitude acclimatization, but they also drew borderlines between the normal and the pathological, paved the way for the neocolonial exploitation of natural and human resources in Latin America, and pioneered field methods in physiology that were adapted and adopted by the Allied Forces during the Second World War. This case study in the physiology of place reveals the power and persistence of environmental determinism within biomedicine well into the twentieth century.

  17. Feasibility of High-Repetition, Task-Specific Training for Individuals With Upper-Extremity Paresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kimberly J.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Hornby, T. George

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated the feasibility of delivering an individualized, progressive, high-repetition upper-extremity (UE) task-specific training protocol for people with stroke in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. METHOD. Fifteen patients with UE paresis participated in this study. Task-specific UE training was scheduled for 60 min/day, 4 days/wk, during occupational therapy for the duration of a participant’s inpatient stay. During each session, participants were challenged to complete ≥300 repetitions of various tasks. RESULTS. Participants averaged 289 repetitions/session, spending 47 of 60 min in active training. Participants improved on impairment and activity level outcome measures. CONCLUSION. People with stroke in an inpatient setting can achieve hundreds of repetitions of task-specific training in 1-hr sessions. As expected, all participants improved on functional outcome measures. Future studies are needed to determine whether this high-repetition training program results in better outcomes than current UE interventions. PMID:25005508

  18. Beyond Extreme Ultra Violet (BEUV) Radiation from Spherically symmetrical High-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryouichi; Eshima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Scally, Enda; Nshimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; O'Sullivan, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    Photo-lithography is a key technology for volume manufacture of high performance and compact semiconductor devices. Smaller and more complex structures can be fabricated by using shorter wavelength light in the photolithography. One of the most critical issues in development of the next generation photo-lithography is to increase energy conversion efficiency (CE) from laser to shorter wavelength light. Experimental database of beyond extreme ultraviolet (BEUV) radiation was obtained by using spherically symmetrical high-Z plasmas generated with spherically allocated laser beams. Absolute energy and spectra of BEUV light emitted from Tb, Gd, and Mo plasmas were measured with a absolutely calibrated BEUV calorimeter and a transmission grating spectrometer. 1.0 x 1012 W/cm2 is the optimal laser intensity to produced efficient BEUV light source plasmas with Tb and Gd targets. Maximum CE is achieved at 0.8% that is two times higher than the published CEs obtained with planar targets.

  19. The genomic sequence of Exiguobacterium chiriqhucha str. N139 reveals a species that thrives in cold waters and extreme environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the genome sequence of Exiguobacterium chiriqhucha str. N139, isolated from a high-altitude Andean lake. Comparative genomic analyses of the Exiguobacterium genomes available suggest that our strain belongs to the same species as the previously reported E. pavilionensis str. RW-2 and Exiguobacterium str. GIC 31. We describe this species and propose the chiriqhucha name to group them. ‘Chiri qhucha’ in Quechua means ‘cold lake’, which is a common origin of these three cosmopolitan Exiguobacteria. The 2,952,588-bp E. chiriqhucha str. N139 genome contains one chromosome and three megaplasmids. The genome analysis of the Andean strain suggests the presence of enzymes that confer E. chiriqhucha str. N139 the ability to grow under multiple environmental extreme conditions, including high concentrations of different metals, high ultraviolet B radiation, scavenging for phosphorous and coping with high salinity. Moreover, the regulation of its tryptophan biosynthesis suggests that novel pathways remain to be discovered, and that these pathways might be fundamental in the amino acid metabolism of the microbial community from Laguna Negra, Argentina.

  20. Phthalocyanine dye as an extremely photostable and highly fluorescent near-infrared labeling reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinzhan; Draney, Daniel R.; Volcheck, William M.; Bashford, Gregory R.; Lamb, Donald T.; Grone, Daniel L.; Zhang, Yonghong; Johnson, Craig M.

    2006-02-01

    Current organic fluorophores used as labeling reagents for biomolecule conjugation have significant limitations in photostability. This compromises their performance in applications that require a photostable fluorescent reporting group. For example, in molecular imaging and single molecule microscopy, photostable fluorescent labels are important for observing and tracking individual molecular events over extended period of time. We report in this paper an extremely photostable and highly fluorescent phthalocyanine dye, IRDye TM 700DX, as a near-infrared fluorescence labeling reagent to conjugate with biomolecules. This novel water-soluble silicon phthalocyanine dye has an isomericly pure chemical structure. The dye is about 45 to 128 times more photostable than current near-IR fluorophores, e.g. Alexa Fluor"R"680, Cy TM 5.5, Cy TM 7 and IRDye TM 800CW dyes; and about 27 times more photostable than tetramethylrhodamine (TMR), one of the most photostable organic dyes. This dye also meets all the other stringent requirements as an ideal fluorophore for biomolecules labeling such as excellent water solubility, no aggregation in high ionic strength buffer, large extinction coefficient and high fluorescent quantum yield. Antibodies conjugated with IRDye TM 700DX at high D/P ratio exist as monomeric species in high ionic buffer and have bright fluorescence. The IRDye TM 700DX conjugated antibodies generate sensitive, highly specific detection with very low background in Western blot and cytoblot assays.

  1. Biohydrogen production from glucose in upflow biofilm reactors with plastic carriers under extreme thermophilic conditions (70 degrees C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-08-01

    Biohydrogen could efficiently be produced in glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers and operated at 70 degrees C. Batch experiments were, in addition, conducted to enrich and cultivate glucose-fed extreme-thermophilic hydrogen producing microorganisms from a biohydrogen CSTR reactor fed with household solid waste. Kinetic analysis of the biohydrogen enrichment cultures show that substrate (glucose) likely inhibited hydrogen production when its concentration was higher than 1 g/L. Different start up strategies were applied for biohydrogen production in biofilm reactors operated at 70 degrees C, and fed with synthetic medium with glucose as the only carbon and energy source. A biofilm reactor, started up with plastic carriers, that were previously inoculated with the enrichment cultures, resulted in higher hydrogen yield (2.21 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed) but required longer start up time (1 month), while a biofilm reactor directly inoculated with the enrichment cultures reached stable state much faster (8 days) but with very low hydrogen yield (0.69 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed). These results indicate that hydraulic pressure is necessary for successful immobilization of bacteria on carriers, while there is the risk of washing out specific high yielding bacteria.

  2. Influence of an extreme high water event on survival, reproduction, and distribution of snail kites in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, R.E.; Kitchens, W.M.; Dreitz, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrology frequently has been reported as the environmental variable having the greatest influence on Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) populations. Although drought has received the most attention, high-water conditions also have been reported to affect kites. Years of high water generally have been reported to be favorable for nesting, although prolonged high water may be detrimental to sustaining suitable habitat. During 1994 and 1995, southern Florida experienced an extreme high water event. This event enabled us to compare survival, nesting success, number of young per successful nest, and spatial distribution of nesting before, during, and after the event. We found no evidence of an effect (either negative or positive) on survival of adult kites. In contrast, juvenile kites experienced the highest survival during the event, although our data suggest greater annual variability than can be explained by the event alone. We found no evidence of an effect of the high water event on nest success or number of young per successful nest. Nest success was highest during the event in the southern portion of the range but was quite similar to other years, both before and after the event. Our data do indicate a substantial shift in the spatial distribution of nesting birds. During the event, nesting activity shifted to higher elevations (i.e., shallower water) in the major nesting areas of the Everglades region. Nesting also occurred in Big Cypress National Preserve during the event, which is typically too dry to support nesting kites. Thus, our data indicate a potential short-term benefit of increased juvenile survival and an expansion of nesting habitat. However, the deterioration of habitat quality from prolonged high water precludes any recommendation for such conditions to be maintained for extended periods. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  3. Measurements and identifications of extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged Sm and Er

    CERN Document Server

    Podpaly, Y A; Reader, J; Ralchenko, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We report spectroscopic measurements of highly charged samarium and erbium performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). These measurements are in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, and span electron beam energies from 0.98 keV to 3.00 keV. We observed 71 lines from Kr-like Sm$^{26+}$ to Ni-like Sm$^{34+}$, connecting 83 energy levels, and 64 lines from Rb-like Er$^{32+}$ to Ni-like Er$^{40+}$, connecting 78 energy levels. Of these lines, 64 in Sm and 60 in Er are new. Line identifications are performed using collisional-radiative modeling of the EBIT plasma. All spectral lines are assigned individual uncertainties, most in the $\\sim$0.001 nm range. Energy levels are derived from the wavelength measurements.

  4. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Cruddace, R G; Yentis, D J; Brown, C M; Gursky, H; Barstow, M A; Bannister, N P; Fraser, G W; Spragg, J E; Lapington, J S; Tandy, J A; Sanderson, B; Culhane, J L; Barbee, T W; Kordas, J F; Goldstein, W H; Fritz, G G

    2001-01-01

    We report a high-resolution (R=3000-4000) spectroscopic observation of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet band 220-245 A. A low- density ionised He component is clearly present along the line-of-sight, which if completely interstellar implies a He ionisation fraction considerably higher than is typical of the local interstellar medium. However, some of this material may be associated with circumstellar gas, which has been detected by analysis of the C IV absorption line doublet in an HST STIS spectrum. A stellar atmosphere model assuming a uniform element distribution yields a best fit to the data which includes a significant abundance of photospheric He. The 99-percent confidence contour for the fit parameters excludes solutions in which photospheric He is absent, but this result needs to be tested using models allowing abundance gradients.

  5. Nano-materials for adhesive-free adsorbers for bakable extreme high vacuum cryopump surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzman, Marcy; Jordan, Kevin; Whitney, Roy R.

    2016-10-11

    A cryosorber panel having nanomaterials used for the cryosorption material, with nanomaterial either grown directly on the cryopanel or freestanding nanomaterials attached to the cryopanel mechanically without the use of adhesives. Such nanomaterial cryosorber materials can be used in place of conventional charcoals that are attached to cryosorber panels with special low outgassing, low temperature capable adhesives. Carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials could serve the same purpose as conventional charcoal cryosorbers, providing a large surface area for cryosorption without the need for adhesive since the nanomaterials can be grown directly on a metallic substrate or mechanically attached. The nanomaterials would be capable of being fully baked by heating above 100.degree. C., thereby eliminating water vapor from the system, eliminating adhesives from the system, and allowing a full bake of the system to reduce hydrogen outgassing, with the goal of obtaining extreme high vacuum where the pump can produce pressures below 1.times.10.sup.-12 Torr.

  6. First search for extremely high energy cosmogenic neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    We report on the results of the search for extremely-high energy neutrinos with energies above 107GeV obtained with the partially (˜30%) constructed IceCube in 2007. From the absence of signal events in the sample of 242.1 days of effective live time, we derive a 90% C.L. model independent differential upper limit based on the number of signal events per energy decade at E2ϕνe+νμ+ντ≃1.4×10-6GeVcm-2sec⁡-1sr-1 for neutrinos in the energy range from 3×107 to 3×109GeV.

  7. Acclimation to extremely high ammonia levels in continuous biomethanation process and the associated microbial community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Acclimatized anaerobic communities to high ammonia levels can offer a solution to the ammonia toxicity problem in biogas reactors. In the current study, a stepwise acclimation strategy up to 10 g NH4+-N L−1, was performed in mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) continuously stirred tank reactors. The reactors...... were co-digesting (20/80 based on volatile solid) cattle slurry and microalgae, a protein-rich, 3rd generation biomass. Throughout the acclimation period, methane production was stable with more than 95% of the uninhibited yield. Next generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a dramatic microbiome...... change throughout the ammonia acclimation process. Clostridium ultunense, a syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria, increased significantly alongside with hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanoculleus spp., indicating strong hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity at extreme ammonia levels (>7 g NH4+-N L−1...

  8. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Kiyama, S; Fujiwara, Y; Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H

    2015-11-01

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm(2)) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E(ib) ≈ 150-200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E(ib) is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  9. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  10. Multiresolution iterative reconstruction in high-resolution extremity cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Sisniega, Alejandro; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2016-10-01

    Application of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to high resolution cone-beam CT (CBCT) is computationally challenging because of the very fine discretization (voxel size  <100 µm) of the reconstructed volume. Moreover, standard MBIR techniques require that the complete transaxial support for the acquired projections is reconstructed, thus precluding acceleration by restricting the reconstruction to a region-of-interest. To reduce the computational burden of high resolution MBIR, we propose a multiresolution penalized-weighted least squares (PWLS) algorithm, where the volume is parameterized as a union of fine and coarse voxel grids as well as selective binning of detector pixels. We introduce a penalty function designed to regularize across the boundaries between the two grids. The algorithm was evaluated in simulation studies emulating an extremity CBCT system and in a physical study on a test-bench. Artifacts arising from the mismatched discretization of the fine and coarse sub-volumes were investigated. The fine grid region was parameterized using 0.15 mm voxels and the voxel size in the coarse grid region was varied by changing a downsampling factor. No significant artifacts were found in either of the regions for downsampling factors of up to 4×. For a typical extremities CBCT volume size, this downsampling corresponds to an acceleration of the reconstruction that is more than five times faster than a brute force solution that applies fine voxel parameterization to the entire volume. For certain configurations of the coarse and fine grid regions, in particular when the boundary between the regions does not cross high attenuation gradients, downsampling factors as high as 10×  can be used without introducing artifacts, yielding a ~50×  speedup in PWLS. The proposed multiresolution algorithm significantly reduces the computational burden of high resolution iterative CBCT reconstruction and can be extended to other applications of

  11. Droplet-based, high-brightness extreme ultraviolet laser plasma source for metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Sidelnikov, Yu. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Medvedev, V. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of a high brightness source of extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV) with a working wavelength of 13.5 nm. The source is based on a laser-produced plasma driven by pulsed radiation of a Nd:YAG laser system. Liquid droplets of Sn-In eutectic alloy were used as the source fuel. The droplets were created by a droplet generator operating in the jet break-up regime. The EUV emission properties of the plasma, including the emission spectrum, time profile, and conversion efficiency of laser radiation into useful 13.5 nm photons, have been characterized. Using the shadowgraphy technique, we demonstrated the production of corpuscular debris by the plasma source and the influence of the plasma on the neighboring droplet targets. The high-frequency laser operation was simulated by usage of the dual pulse regime. Based on the experimental results, we discuss the physical phenomena that could affect the source operation at high repetition rates. Finally, we estimate that an average source brightness of 1.2 kW/mm2 sr is feasible at a high repetition rate.

  12. Benchmark analysis on diabetics at high risk for lower extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzur, M S; Stuck, R; Sage, R; Pocius, L; Trout, B; Wolf, B; Vrbos, L

    1996-11-01

    After the 1990 establishment of a multidisciplinary foot salvage clinic, 1346 diabetic patients, at high risk for the development of foot ulcers and eventual lower limb amputation, were followed for 4 years. Of the 224 high-risk patients admitted to the hospital, 74 amputations (5.5%) of all or part of a lower limb were performed. Patients undergoing amputation were younger, more severely ill, and required more frequent hospitalizations because of greater organ system involvement. They were also more likely to be institutionalized after discharge. Overall, patients with long-standing adult-onset diabetes, identified as at high risk for foot ulcer development, have a substantially increased risk for lower limb amputation, multiple organ system failure, hospitalization, and institutionalization than do diabetic patients as a whole. Clinical benchmarking facilitates the identification and reduction of unnecessary variations in patient care practices. Here, a formal benchmark analysis provides the current outcome expectations for amputation rates and co-morbidities in patients with diabetes who are classified as at high risk for lower extremity amputation. Management of these patients in a structured, multidisciplinary foot salvage clinic, augmentation of baseline services, and preliminary benchmark data may provide a standard for the measurement of therapeutic interventions that improve patient care.

  13. Study of radon measurement instrumentation in extreme environmental conditions; Estudio de la instrumentacion de medida de radon en condiciones ambientales extremas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, V.; Baixeras, C.; Amgarou, K.; Font, L.; Vargas, A.; Grossi, C.

    2011-07-01

    Within the framework of the scientific project of the Nuclear Safety Council ''Study of environmental monitoring instrumentation and measurement of radon in extreme environmental conditions' at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona has established a partnership with the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) to conduct a study to identify the most appropriate filters to minimize the influence of measurement conditions, particularly with respect to moisture on the response of continuous radon detectors and integrators. (Author)

  14. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  15. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person’s chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals’ chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light–dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  16. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza

    2017-05-01

    shows that our isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  17. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha-Garza, Hector Fernando; Canales-Del Castillo, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; De la Torre-Zavala, Susana

    2017-01-01

    isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  18. The Sedentary Survey of Extreme High Energy Peaked BL Lacs. II. The Catalog and Spectral Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perri, M; Padovani, P

    2004-01-01

    The multi-frequency `Sedentary Survey' is a deep, statistically complete, radio flux limited sample comprising 150 BL Lacertae objects distinguished by their extremely high X-ray to radio flux ratio, ranging from five hundred to over five thousand times that of typical BL Lacs discovered in radio surveys. This paper presents the final, 100% identified, catalog together with the optical, X-ray and broad-band SEDs constructed combining literature multi-frequency data with non-simultaneous optical observations and BeppoSAX X-ray data, when available. The SEDs confirm that the peak of the synchrotron power in these objects is located at very high energies. BeppoSAX wide band X-ray observations show that, in most cases, the X-ray spectra are convex and well described by a logarithmic parabola model peaking (in a E f(E) vs E representation) between 0.02 to several keV. Owing to the high synchrotron energies involved most of the sources in the catalog are likely to be TeV emitters, with the closest and brightest one...

  19. A method of batch-purifying microalgae with multiple antibiotics at extremely high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jichang; Wang, Song; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Kehou

    2016-01-01

    Axenic microalgal strains are highly valued in diverse microalgal studies and applications. Antibiotics, alone or in combination, are often used to avoid bacterial contamination during microalgal isolation and culture. In our preliminary trials, we found that many microalgae ceased growing in antibiotics at extremely high concentrations but could resume growth quickly when returned to an antibiotics-free liquid medium and formed colonies when spread on a solid medium. We developed a simple and highly efficient method of obtaining axenic microalgal cultures based on this observation. First, microalgal strains of different species or strains were treated with a mixture of ampicillin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin (each at a concentration of 600 mg/L) for 3 days; they were then transferred to antibiotics-free medium for 5 days; and finally they were spread on solid f/2 media to allow algal colonies to form. With this method, five strains of Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), two strains of Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae), two strains of Tetraselmis sp. (Chlorodendrophyceae) and one strain of Amphikrikos sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) were purified successfully. The method shows promise for batch-purifying microalgal cultures.

  20. A Novel Gravity Compensation Method for High Precision Free-INS Based on "Extreme Learning Machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Cai, Qingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2016-11-29

    In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity disturbance data is verified by numerical tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the ELM estimation method can be improved by 23% and 44% compared with the bilinear interpolation method in plain and mountain areas, respectively. To further validate the proposed gravity compensation method, field experiments with an experimental vehicle were carried out in two regions. Test 1 was carried out in a plain area and Test 2 in a mountain area. The field experiment results also prove that the proposed gravity compensation method can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. During the 2-h field experiments, the positioning accuracy can be improved by 13% and 29% respectively, in Tests 1 and 2, when the navigation scheme is compensated by the proposed gravity compensation method.

  1. Value-at-Risk-Estimation in the Mexican Stock Exchange Using Conditional Heteroscedasticity Models and Theory of Extreme Values

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Iván Aguirre Salado; Humberto Vaquera Huerta; Martha Elva Ramírez Guzmán; José René Valdez Lazalde; Carlos Arturo Aguirre Salado

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an approach for estimating value at risk (VaR) of the Mexican stock exchange index (IPC) by using a combination of the autoregressive moving average models (ARMA); three different models of the arch family, one symmetric (GARCH) and two asymmetric (GJR-GARCH and EGARCH); and the extreme value theory (EVT). The ARMA models were initially used to obtain uncorrelated residuals, which were later used for the analysis of extreme values. The GARCH, EGARCH and GJR-GARCH models, by...

  2. Simultaneous efficient removal of high-strength ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand from landfill leachate by using an extremely high ammonia nitrogen-resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Yang, Jiyu; Fang, Xuexun; Ren, Hejun

    2015-01-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology for pollutant elimination from stressed environments, and it would provide an efficient way to solve challenges in traditional biotreatment of wastewater with high strength of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). A high NH4(+)-N-resistant bacteria strain, identified as Bacillus cereus (Jlu BC), was domesticated and isolated from the bacteria consortium in landfill leachate. Jlu BC could survive in 100 g/L NH4(+)-N environment, which indicated its extremely high NH4(+)-N tolerance than the stains found before. Jlu BC was employed in the bioaugmented system to remove high strength of NH4(+)-N from landfill leachate, and to increase the removal efficiency, response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing bioaugmentation degradation conditions. At the optimum condition (initial pH 7.33, 4.14 days, initial chemical oxygen demand [COD] concentration [18,000 mg/L], 3.5 mL inoculated domesticated bacteria strain, 0.3 mg/mL phosphorus supplement, 30 °C, and 170 rpm), 94.74 ± 3.8% removal rate of NH4(+)-N was obtained, and the experiment data corresponded well with the predicted removal rate of the RSM models (95.50%). Furthermore, COD removal rate of 81.94 ± 1.4% was obtained simultaneously. The results presented are promising, and the screened strain would be of great practical importance in mature landfill leachate and other NH4(+)-N enrichment wastewater pollution control.

  3. Breeding on the extreme edge : Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress in two High Arctic passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Brian G; Meddle, Simone L; Romero, L Michael; Landys, MM; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic weather in spring is unpredictable and can also be extreme, so Arctic-breeding birds must be flexible in their breeding to deal with such variability. Unpredictability in weather conditions will only intensify with climate change and this in turn could affect reproductive capability of migrat

  4. Search for Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (II): high electron temperature objects

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Morales-Luis, A B; Munoz-Tunon, C; Garcia-Benito, R; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F S

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are defined to have gas-phase metallicity smaller than a tenth of the solar value (12 + log[O/H] < 7.69). They are uncommon, chemically and possibly dynamically primitive, with physical conditions characteristic of earlier phases of the Universe. We search for new XMPs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in a work that complements Paper I. This time high electron temperature objects are selected; since metals are a main coolant of the gas, metal- poor objects contain high-temperature gas. Using the algorithm k-means, we classify 788677 spectra to select 1281 galaxies having particularly intense [OIII]4363 with respect to [OIII]5007, which is a proxy for high electron temperature. The metallicity of these candidates was computed using a hybrid technique consistent with the direct method, rendering 196 XMPs. A less restrictive noise constraint provides a larger set with 332 candidates. Both lists are provided in electronic format. The selected XMP sample have mean stell...

  5. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation Systems Development Dept.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71.

  6. The Impact of Indian Ocean Variability on HighTemperature Extremes across the Southern Yangtze River Valley in Late Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kaiming; HUANG Gang; QU Xia; HUANG Ronghui

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the teleconnection between Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) and the frequency of high temperature extremes (HTEs) across the southern Yangtze River v