WorldWideScience

Sample records for extreme accident conditions

  1. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer

    2016-12-01

    Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  3. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  4. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  5. Survival in Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Martin; Halsema, James

    1983-01-01

    Explores the psychosocial and environmental configurations involved in the survival of 500 civilians in a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines during World War II. Although conditions were very harsh, the survival rate of this group was better than expected. Discusses available demographic, social organizational, and cultural information.…

  6. 极端气象条件诱发的静电火灾事故分析与防范建议%Analysis and Preventive Countermeasures for Electrostatic Fire Accidents Caused by Extreme Weather Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家启; 李黎; 黄亚敏; 秦健; 曾理

    2012-01-01

    Taking a fire accident in at a pharmacy company in Chongqing on the September 2006 as an example, the causes of the electrostatic fire accident are analyzed by using the meteorological ground observation data and water vapor content inferred from GPS/MAT data, in combination with the production processes of the company. The results show that the extreme weather condition of high temperature and low moisture (air vapour content being 0.5 g/cm3, and surface temperature above.40℃) is the precondition for the electrostatic fire; another important cause is the incorrect measures for electrostatic prevention, which made a great deal of static electricity accumulated, produced spark discharge, and then led to the burning of a large amount of volatile petroleurn aether vapour. In order to decrease the occurrences of the like electrostatic fire accidents, some precaution suggestions are given.%针对重庆一家制药厂2006年9月3日22:00发生的一起火灾,利用GPS/MAT资料反演空气水汽含量产品和气象地面观测资料,并结合制药厂生产工艺,重点分析静电火灾事故原因.结果表明:高温低湿极端气象条件(空气中水汽含量达到0.5 g/cm3、地表温度在40℃以上)是静电火灾发生的先决条件;生产工艺中防静电措施不合理,使静电产生和大量积聚,并产生火花放电,致使大量挥发的石油醚蒸汽燃烧而引发火灾,为减少类似静电火灾事故的发生,提出了相应防范建议以供参考.

  7. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  8. Epidemiological profile of extremity fractures in victims of motorcycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Flamarion Dos Santos; Silveira, Leandro Oliveira; Castillo, Jesús José André Quintana; de Pontes, Jady Elen; Villalobos, Luz Delícia Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Show the epidemiological profile of limb fractures in victim of motorcycle accident seen at the Emergency Department of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba (HUEC), Curitiba, PR, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013, as well as to compare the results with data from the literature. This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational study. The information was obtained from the analysis of all the medical records from January 2007 to December 2013 belonging to the hospital archives. Only extremity fractures cases from motorcycle accident victims were analyzed, according to the medical records and radiological reports. The ICD-10 was used as classification criterion, and the fractures were grouped depending on the topography of the injury. The following variables were considered: number of victims, gender, age and fracture site, in order to create a database to contrast with the literature. During seven years, 3,528 motorcycle accident victims have been identified, 88.29% being male, whereas 11.71% being female. The average age of the victims was 29.7 years old, observing a strong inverse correlation between the number of victims and their ages. There has been 4,365 fractures, being 59.66% in lower limbs and 40.34% in upper limbs. From that total, 18.14% were leg fractures, 11.57% were hand fractures and 10.65% were wrist fractures. This study has met its objectives and the results were similar to the national literature. Level of Evidence II, Retropective Study.

  9. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  10. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  11. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  12. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  13. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  14. Relationship between work-related accidents and hot weather conditions in Tuscany (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Crisci, Alfonso; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Orlandini, Simone

    2006-07-01

    Nowadays, no studies have been published on the relationship between meteorological conditions and work-related mortality and morbidity in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hot weather conditions and hospital admissions due to work-related accidents in Tuscany (central Italy) over the period 1998-2003. Apparent temperature (AT) values were calculated to evaluate human weather discomfort due to hot conditions and then tested for work accident differences using non-parametric procedures. Present findings showed that hot weather conditions might represent a risk factor for work-related accidents in Italy during summer. In particular early warming days during June, characterized by heat discomfort, are less tolerated by workers than warming days of the following summer months. The peak of work-related accidents occurred on days characterized by high, but not extreme, thermal conditions. Workers maybe change their behaviour when heat stress increases, reducing risks by adopting preventive measures. Results suggested that days with an average daytime AT value ranged between 24.8 degrees C and 27.5 degrees C were at the highest risk of work-related accidents. In conclusion, present findings might represent the first step for the development of a watch/warning system for workers that might be used by employers for planning work activities.

  15. Raman spectroscopy under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, A F; Crowhurst, J C

    2004-11-05

    We report the results of Raman measurements of various materials under simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in the diamond anvil cell (DAC). High temperatures are generated by laser heating or internal resistive (ohmic) heating or a combination of both. We present Raman spectra of cubic boron nitride (cBN) to 40 GPa and up to 2300 K that show a continuous pressure and temperature shift of the frequency of the transverse optical mode. We have also obtained high-pressure Raman spectra from a new noble metal nitride, which we synthesized at approximately 50 GPa and 2000 K. We have obtained high-temperature spectra from pure nitrogen to 39 GPa and up to 2000 K, which show the presence of a hot band that has previously been observed in CARS measurements. These measurements have also allowed us to constrain the melting curve and to examine changes in the intramolecular potential with pressure.

  16. Energetic materials at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, David I.A. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). EaStCHEM Research School of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the high-pressure structural behaviour of a series of energetic compounds that includes the widely used explosive RDX and gas generators such as sodium azide. Using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques, crystal structures of these compounds have been obtained under conditions of elevated pressure and temperature. Such studies present significant technical challenges associated with both data collection and analysis, especially for compounds containing conformationally flexible molecules, but the structural information obtained is crucial for enhancing the understanding of the characteristics of energetic materials. Particularly significant is the observation that a high-pressure, high-temperature form of RDX may be recovered to ambient pressure. This has implications for the discovery of new forms of energetic materials that may exhibit enhanced properties, e.g. reduced sensitivity to accidental initiation. The rich high-pressure behaviour of the simple inorganic azides is also noteworthy. All of the six compounds studied in this work were found to undergo at least one phase transition and a total of ten polymorphs have been identified at variable pressure and/or temperature. For example, at high pressure sodium azide adopts the same structure observed for the larger alkali metal azides at atmospheric conditions. The first two chapters of this thesis provide a very accessible introduction to high-pressure research and energetic materials. The subsequent chapters detail the results of these high-pressure studies of energetic materials, demonstrating excellent clarity of expression and highly developed critical analysis. The final chapter points clearly to future opportunities for extending these studies to other energetic materials and for alternative methodologies for their structural modification. (orig.)

  17. [Sports and extreme conditions. Cardiovascular incidence in long term exertion and extreme temperatures (heat, cold)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, B; Savourey, G

    2001-06-30

    During ultra-endurance exercise, both increase in body temperature and dehydration due to sweat losses, lead to a decrease in central blood volume. The heart rate drift allows maintaining appropriate cardiac output, in order to satisfy both muscle perfusion and heat transfer requirements by increasing skin blood flow. The resulting dehydration can impair thermal regulation and increase the risks of serious accidents as heat stroke. Endurance events, lasting more than 8 hours, result in large sweat sodium chloride losses. Thus, ingestion of large amounts of water with poor salt intake can induce symptomatic hyponatremia (plasma sodium extreme condition.

  18. Radionuclides release possibility analysis of MSR at various accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are some accidents which go beyond our expectation such as Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and amounts of radionuclides release to environment, so more effort and research are conducted to prevent it. MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) is one of GEN-IV reactor types, and its coolant and fuel are mixtures of molten salt. MSR has a schematic like figure 1 and it has different features with the solid fuel reactor, but most important and interesting feature of MSR is its many safety systems. For example, MSR has a large negative void coefficient. Even though power increases, the reactor slows down soon. Radionuclides release possibility of MSR was analyzed at various accident conditions including Chernobyl and Fukushima ones. The MSR was understood to prevent the severe accident by the negative reactivity coefficient and the absence of explosive material such as water at the Chernobyl disaster condition. It was expected to contain fuel salts in the reactor building and not to release radionuclides into environment even if the primary system could be ruptured or broken and fuel salts would be leaked at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster condition of earthquake and tsunami. The MSR, which would not lead to the severe accident and therefore prevents the fuel release to the environment at many expected scenarios, was thought to have priority in the aspect of accidents. A quantitative analysis and a further research are needed to evaluate the possibility of radionuclide release to the environment at the various accident conditions based on the simple comparison of the safety feature between MSR and solid fuel reactor.

  19. Countermeasures for traffic accidents due to road conditions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yu-long; MA Ji

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the postulate of traffic infrastmcture and vehicles, much attention should be given to the effect of road conditions on accidents. With large numbers of traffic accidents on Shenda Freeway, Liaoning Province, Harbin City and others in P. R. China, parameters and the effect of accidents caused by horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, cross section and intersection are studied systematically The disciplinary analysis of these effects are presented in this paper. The viewpoint is acknowledged that high sub grade and steep slopes are against traffic safety, which is common and ignored in high-usage highways in China. Design parameters of the current design criteria and the corresponding countermeasures are suggested for safety on our highways.

  20. Conditional simulations for fields of extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Aurélien; Vrac, Mathieu; Bel, Liliane

    2014-05-01

    Many environmental models, such as hydrological models, require input data, e.g. precipitation values, correctly simulated and distributed, even at locations where no observation is available. This is particularly true for extreme events that may be of high importance for impact studies. The last decade has seen max-stable processes emerge as a powerful tool for the statistical modeling of spatial extremes. Recently, such processes have been used in climate context to perform simulations at ungauged sites based on empirical distributions of a spatial field conditioned by observed values in some locations. In this work conditional simulations of extremal t process are investigated, taking benefits of its spectral construction. The methodology of conditional simulations proposed by Dombry et al. [2013] for Brown-Resnick and Schlather models is adapted for the extremal t process with some improvements which enlarge the possible number of conditional points. A simulation study enables to highlight the role of the different parameters of the model and to emphasize the importance of the steps of the algorithm. In this work, we focus on the French Mediterranean basin, which is a key spot of occurrences of meteorological extremes such as heavy precipitation. Indeed, major extreme precipitation are regularly observed in this region near the 'cévenol" mountains. The modeling and the understanding of these extreme precipitation - the so-called 'cévenol events" - are of major importance for hydrological studies in this complex terrain since they often trigger major floods in this region. The application of our methodology on real data in this region shows that the model and the algorithm perform well provided the stationary assumptions are fulfilled.

  1. Degloving injury of the mandibular mucosa following an extreme sport accident: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Regina; Sándor, George K B

    2005-01-01

    The increasing popularity of high-risk extreme sports such as acrobatic biking, mountain biking, skateboarding, or rollerblading is becoming a notable cause of maxillofacial injuries. Dentists should, therefore, be familiar with the presentation and management of uncommon maxillofacial injuries as a result of these extreme sports. The purpose of this article was to detail a case report of a 7-year-old male with a degloving injury of the mandibular mucosa following an extreme sport accident and to present a description of the patient's multidisciplinary management and follow-up.

  2. Conditional simulation of extremal Gaussian processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dombry, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Recently the regular conditional distributions of max-infinitely divisible processes were derived by \\citet{Dombry2011} and although these conditional distributions have complicated closed forms, \\citet{Dombry2011b} introduce an algorithm to get conditional realizations of Brown-Resnick processes. In this paper we derive the regular conditional distributions of the max-stable process introduced by \\citet{Schlather2002} and adapt the framework of \\citet{Dombry2011b} to this specific process. We test the methods on simulated data and give an application to extreme temperatures in Switzerland. Results show that the proposed sampling scheme provide accurate conditional simulations and can handle real-sized problems.

  3. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, an severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation was confirmed by further tests at high temperatures, as well as by finite-element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation was confirmed by finite-element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate-sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure was developed and validated by tests under various temperature and pressure loadings that can occur during postulated severe accidents.

  4. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E S

    2015-01-01

    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  5. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  6. Preliminary assessment of accident-tolerant fuels on LWR performance during normal operation and under DB and BDB accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, L. J.; Robb, K. R.; Wang, D.

    2014-05-01

    Following the severe accidents at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, the US Department of Energy initiated research and development on the enhancement of the accident tolerance of light water reactors by the development of fuels/cladding that, in comparison with the standard UO2/Zircaloy (Zr) system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations. Analyses are presented that illustrate the impact of these new candidate fuel/cladding materials on the fuel performance at normal operating conditions and on the reactor system under DB and BDB accident conditions.

  7. Role of Winter Weather Conditions and Slipperiness on Tourists' Accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépy, Élise; Rantala, Sinikka; Huusko, Antti; Nieminen, Pentti; Hippi, Marjo; Rautio, Arja

    2016-08-15

    (1) BACKGROUND: In Finland, slippery snowy or icy ground surface conditions can be quite hazardous to human health during wintertime. We focused on the impacts of the variability in weather conditions on tourists' health via documented accidents during the winter season in the Sotkamo area. We attempted to estimate the slipping hazard in a specific context of space and time focusing on the weather and other possible parameters, responsible for fluctuations in the numbers of injuries/accidents; (2) METHODS: We used statistical distributions with graphical illustrations to examine the distribution of visits to Kainuu Hospital by non-local patients and their characteristics/causes; graphs to illustrate the distribution of the different characteristics of weather conditions; questionnaires and interviews conducted among health care and safety personnel in Sotkamo and Kuusamo; (3) RESULTS: There was a clear seasonal distribution in the numbers and types of extremity injuries of non-local patients. While the risk of slipping is emphasized, other factors leading to injuries are evaluated; and (4) CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted the clear role of wintery weather conditions as a cause of extremity injuries even though other aspects must also be considered. Future scenarios, challenges and adaptive strategies are also discussed from the viewpoint of climate change.

  8. Role of Winter Weather Conditions and Slipperiness on Tourists’ Accidents in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Lépy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: In Finland, slippery snowy or icy ground surface conditions can be quite hazardous to human health during wintertime. We focused on the impacts of the variability in weather conditions on tourists’ health via documented accidents during the winter season in the Sotkamo area. We attempted to estimate the slipping hazard in a specific context of space and time focusing on the weather and other possible parameters, responsible for fluctuations in the numbers of injuries/accidents; (2 Methods: We used statistical distributions with graphical illustrations to examine the distribution of visits to Kainuu Hospital by non-local patients and their characteristics/causes; graphs to illustrate the distribution of the different characteristics of weather conditions; questionnaires and interviews conducted among health care and safety personnel in Sotkamo and Kuusamo; (3 Results: There was a clear seasonal distribution in the numbers and types of extremity injuries of non-local patients. While the risk of slipping is emphasized, other factors leading to injuries are evaluated; and (4 Conclusions: The study highlighted the clear role of wintery weather conditions as a cause of extremity injuries even though other aspects must also be considered. Future scenarios, challenges and adaptive strategies are also discussed from the viewpoint of climate change.

  9. Ruthenium behaviour in severe nuclear accident conditions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, U.; Lipponen, M.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.; Zilliacus, R. [VVT Processes (Finland)

    2004-08-01

    During routine nuclear reactor operations, ruthenium will accumulate in the fuel in relatively high concentrations. In a steam atmosphere, ruthenium is not volatile, and it is not likely to be released from the fuel. However, in an air ingress accident during reactor power operation or during maintenance, ruthenium may form volatile species, which may be released into the containment. Oxide forms of ruthenium are more volatile than the metallic form. Radiotoxicity of ruthenium is high both in the short and the long term. The results of this project imply that in oxidising conditions during nuclear reactor core degradation, ruthenium release increases as oxidised gaseous species Ru03 and Ru04 are formed. A significant part of the released ruthenium is then deposited on reactor coolant system piping. However, in the presence of steam and aerosol particles, a substantial amount of ruthenium may be released as gaseous Ru04 into the containment atmosphere. (au)

  10. Risk Assessment of Oil Pipeline Accidents in Special Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushina, A. N.; Anishchenko, Y. V.; Nikonova, E. D.

    2017-05-01

    The present study identifies the main accidents’ factors and causes for oil pipeline located in Siberia and operated in special climatic conditions. Various types of pipeline accident scenarios were modeled. It is showed that the most dangerous scenarios are oil spills fire and oil vapor explosion due to the loss of piping integrity (rupture) of the pipeline’s section, laying on marshlands and oil spill on the water surface due to the loss of piping integrity (puncture). The most probable scenario is oil spills fire due to the loss of piping integrity (puncture) of the pipeline’s section, laying on dry lands and marshlands. To estimate the scenarios «event tree analysis» is used. Also such risk indexes as individual, societal, public and potential risks were determined.

  11. Injuries in an Extreme Conditioning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Kyle T; Powers, Joseph M

    2016-10-19

    Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. This is a retrospective survey of injuries reported by athletes participating in an ECP. An injury survey was sent to 1100 members of Iron Tribe Fitness, a gym franchise with 5 locations across Birmingham, Alabama, that employs exercises consistent with an ECP in this study. An injury was defined as a physical condition resulting from ECP participation that caused the athlete to either seek medical treatment, take time off from exercising, or make modifications to his or her technique to continue. A total of 247 athletes (22%) completed the survey. The majority (57%) of athletes were male (n = 139), and 94% of athletes were white (n = 227). The mean age of athletes was 38.9 years (±8.9 years). Athletes reported participation in the ECP for, on average, 3.6 hours per week (± 1.2 hours). Eighty-five athletes (34%) reported that they had sustained an injury while participating in the ECP. A total of 132 injuries were recorded, yielding an estimated incidence of 2.71 per 1000 hours. The shoulder or upper arm was the most commonly injured body site, accounting for 38 injuries (15% of athletes). Athletes with a previous shoulder injury were 8.1 times as likely to injure their shoulder in the ECP compared with athletes with healthy shoulders. The trunk, back, head, or neck (n = 29, 12%) and the leg or knee (n = 29, 12%) were the second most commonly injured sites. The injury incidence rate among athletes with < 6 months of experience in the ECP

  12. Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years

    CERN Document Server

    Keeler, R Norris

    2010-01-01

    Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent kinetic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10^113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >10^25 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because “dark-energy” antigravity forces vanish when inflation ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoi...

  13. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  14. Extraordinary survival of nanobacteria under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria show high resistance to gamma irradiation. To further examine their survival in extreme conditions several disinfecting and sterilizing chemicals as well as autoclaving, UV light, microwaves, heating and drying treatments were carried out. The effect of antibiotics used in cell culture were also evaluated. Two forms of nanobacteria were used in the tests: nanobacteria cultured in serum containing medium, and nanobacteria cultured in serum-free medium, the latter being more mineralized. Nanobacteria, having various amounts of apatite on their surfaces, were used to analyze the degree of protection given by the mineral. The chemicals tested included ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formalin, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, detergents, and commercial disinfectants at concentrations generally used for disinfection. After chemical and physical treatments for various times, the nanobacteria were subcultered to detect their survival. The results show unique and wide resistance of nanobacteria to common agents used in disinfection. It can also be seen that the mineralization of the nanobacterial surface furthermore increases the resistance. Survival of nanobacteria is unique among living bacteria, but it can be compared with that observed in spores. Interestingly, nanobacteria have metabolic rate as slow as bacterial spores. A slow metabolic rate and protective structures, like mineral, biofilm and impermeable cell wall, can thus explain the observations made.

  15. Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, R. Norris; Gibson, Carl H.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent ki- netic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >1025 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because "dark-energy" antigravity forces vanish when infla- tion ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoids produce weak tur- bulence until the plasma-gas transition give chains of protogalaxies with the morphology of tur- bulence. Chain galaxy clusters observed at large redshifts ~8.6 support this interpretation. Pro- togalaxies fragment into clumps, each with a trillion Earth-mass H-He gas planets. These make stars, supernovae, the first chemicals, the first oceans and the first life soon after the cosmologi- cal event.

  16. Large-Scale Containment Cooler Performance Experiments under Accident Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Kapulla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics codes are increasingly used to simulate containment conditions after various transient accident scenarios. This paper presents validation experiments, conducted in the frame of the OECD/SETH-2 project. These experiments address the combined effects of mass sources and heat sinks related to gas mixing and hydrogen transport within containment compartments. A wall jet interacts with an operating containment cooler located in the middle (M-configuration and the top (T-configuration of the containment vessel. The experiments are characterized by a 3-phase injection scenario. In Phase I, pure steam is injected, while in Phase II, a helium-steam mixture is injected. Finally, in Phase III, pure steam is injected again. Results for the M-configuration show helium stratification build up during Phase II. During Phase III, a positively buoyant plume emerging from the cooler housing becomes negatively buoyant once it reaches the helium-steam layer and continuously erodes the layer. For the M-configuration, a strong degradation of the cooler performance was observed during the injection of the helium/steam mixture (Phase II. For the T-configuration, we observe a mainly downwards acting cooler resulting in a combination of forced and natural convection flow patterns. The cooler performance degradation was much weaker compared with the M-configuration and a good mixing was ensured by the operation of the cooler.

  17. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  18. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low lighting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ivan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides other non-behavioural factors, the low lighting conditions significantly influence the frequency of the traffic accidents in the urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low lighting conditions on the traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca. The dependence degree between lighting and the number of traffic accidents was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the lighting conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injured persons rate for the 0.5 km2 equally-sized areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results have shown a strong linear dependence between the low lighting conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accidents occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions, at the city entrances-exits, which represent also vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low lighting and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence enabled us to identify the high traffic accident risk areas in the city of Cluj-Napoca.

  19. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injury rate for the 0.5 km2 areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results show a strong linear correlation between the low-light conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accident occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions at the city entrances/exits, which represent vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low light and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence, enabled us to identify the areas of high traffic accident risk in Cluj-Napoca.

  20. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric JIGUET, Lluis BROTONS, Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate [Current Zoology 57 (3: 406–413, 2011].

  1. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frédéric JIGUET; Lluis BROTONS; Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-01-01

    Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. Soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes) have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate.

  2. Behavioral accident avoidance science : understanding response in collision incipient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Ridder, S.N. de

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are the single greatest cause of fatality in the workplace and the primary cause of all accidental death in the U.S. to the age of seventy-eight. However, behavioral analysis of response in the final seconds and milliseconds before collision has been a most difficult

  3. Robot dispatching Scenario for Accident Condition Monitoring of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In March of 2011, unanticipated big size of tsunami attacks Fukushima NPP, this accident results in explosion of containment building. Tokyo electric power of Japan couldn't dispatch a robot for monitoring of containment inside. USA Packbot robot used for desert war in Iraq was supplied to Fukushima NPP for monitoring of high radiation area. Packbot also couldn't reach deep inside of Fukushima NPP due to short length of power cable. Japanese robot 'Queens' also failed to complete a mission due to communication problem between robot and operator. I think major reason of these robot failures is absence of robot dispatching scenario. If there was a scenario and a rehearsal for monitoring during or after accident, these unanticipated obstacles could be overcome. Robot dispatching scenario studied for accident of nuclear power plant was described herein. Study on scenario of robot dispatching is performed. Flying robot is regarded as good choice for accident monitoring. Walking robot with arm equipped is good for emergency valve close. Short time work and shift work by several robots can be a solution for high radiation area. Thin and soft cable with rolling reel can be a good solution for long time work and good communication.

  4. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  5. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition.

  6. Crenarchaeal biofilm formation under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koerdt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. CONCLUSION: The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

  7. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1985-03-01

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables.

  8. Prediction of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating and design-basis accident conditions are reviewed. These rate-independent flow stress models are inadequate for predicting failure of steam generator tubes under severe accident conditions because the temperature of the tubes during such accidents can reach as high as 800 C where creep effects become important. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure was developed and validated by tests on unflawed and flawed specimens containing axial and circumferential flaws and loaded by constant as well as ramped temperature and pressure loadings. Finally, tests were conducted using pressure and temperature histories that are calculated to occur during postulated severe accidents. In all cases, the creep rupture model predicted the failure temperature and time more accurately than the flow stress models. (orig.)

  9. Effective interactions for extreme isospin conditions; Interactions effectives pour des conditions extremes d`isospin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanat, E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main goal in nuclear physics research is the study of nuclei in extreme conditions of spin and isospin. The more performing tools for theoretical predictions in this field are microscopic methods such as the Hartree-Fock one based on independent particle approximation. The main ingredient for such an approach is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The actual trend being the study of nuclei more and more far from the stability valley, it is necessary to cast doubt over the validity of usual effective interaction. This work constitute a study on the way one can construct a new interaction allowing some theoretical predictions on nuclei far from the stability. We have thus made a complete study of symmetric infinite nuclear matter and asymmetric one up to pure neutron matter. One shows that the asymmetry coefficient, which was considered until now as fixing isospin properties, is not sufficient to have a correct description of very exotic isospin states. A new type of constraint is shown for fixing this degree of freedom: the neutron matter equation of state. One include this equation of state, taken from a theoretical model giving a good description of radii and masses of neutron stars. One can thus expect to build up new Skyrme interaction with realistic properties of ground state of very neutron-rich nuclei. (author). 63 refs., 68 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. [Guidelines on asthma in extreme environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Franchek; Borderías Clau, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic disease which, if not properly controlled, can limit the patient's activities and lifestyle. In recent decades, owing to the diffusion of educational materials, the application of clinical guidelines and, most importantly, the availability of effective pharmacological treatment, most patients with asthma are now able to lead normal lives. Significant social changes have also taken place during the same period, including more widespread pursuit of sporting activities and tourism. As a result of these changes, individuals with asthma can now participate in certain activities that were inconceivable for these patients only a few years ago, including winter sports, underwater activities, air flight, and travel to remote places with unusual environmental conditions (deserts, high mountain environments, and tropical regions). In spite of the publication of several studies on this subject, our understanding of the effects of these situations on patients with asthma is still limited. The Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) has decided to publish these recommendations based on the available evidence and expert opinion in order to provide information on this topic to both doctors and patients and to avert potentially dangerous situations that could endanger the lives of these patients.

  11. Measurement of buckling load for metallic plate columns in severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Byeongnam, E-mail: jo@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sagawa, Wataru, E-mail: sagawa@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: okamoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Buckling load was experimentally measured in a wide range of temperature up to 1200 °C. • Two different test methods for measuring buckling failure load were suggested and compared. • Creep buckling under compressive load was performed to explain results of buckling tests. • Reduced buckling load was explained by effects of creep buckling, geometrical imperfection, and thermal stress. • Buckling processes were visualized by a high speed camera. - Abstract: In severe accidents, a reactor pressure vessel, its components, and piping have to be under extremely high temperature and high pressure conditions, which results in failure modes like rupture by internal pressure, buckling, creep, and their combinations. In this study, buckling (failure) load was experimentally measured for metallic columns under the compressive force from room temperature up to 1200 °C. A stainless steel was chosen to be a test material to measure the buckling load. Two different test methods were employed to explore the effect of thermal history of the material on the buckling load. Particularly, the effect of creep under a compressive load was considered as a reason for the reduced buckling load at high temperatures. Additionally, finite element simulations were also conducted to predict buckling load for both an ideal column and a column with geometrical imperfection as well. Moreover, buckling process was visualized using a high speed camera to understand buckling processes.

  12. Instrument Fault Detection Sensitivity of an Empirical Model under Accident Condition in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Hur, Seop; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Jung Taek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    After the recent accident in Fukushima, Japan, it has been proven that we cannot obtain fully reliable information from instruments during severe accident conditions. Although the reactor core really melted down, the RV water level indicator showed a more optimistic value than the actual conditions. Accordingly, plant operators were under the misunderstanding that the core was not exposed. This caused confusion for the incident response. Therefore, it is necessary to be equipped with a function that informs operators of the status of the instrument integrity in real time. If plant operators verify that the instruments are working properly during accident conditions, they able to make safer decisions. In an effort to solve this problem, we considered an empirical model using a Process Equipment Monitoring (PEM) tool as a method of instrument diagnosis in a nuclear power plant.

  13. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  14. Insoluble aerosol behavior inside the PCCS condenser tube under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, A.; Nemoto, K.; Akinaga, M. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan); Oikawa, H. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    The passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which has been incorporated into the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design, has the capability of post accident decay heat removal by means of natural force driven condensation heat transfer. Since some uncertainties remain in the PCCS performance during a severe accident especially in the amount of aerosol deposition which causes the heat transfer degradation, the experiment had been performed previously simulating single condenser tube, postulated steam and noncondensable gas flow rate using prototypical soluble aerosol (CsI). The observed aerosol deposition rate onto the condenser tube surface was quite small under steam rich condition. However, during the severe accident, insoluble aerosols such as structural material might also be released and flow into the PCCS as well as soluble aerosol, and the deposition behavior has not been clarified. Thus, the experiment using a polystyrene LATEX was conducted under the same conditions in which the soluble aerosol test was performed. The experimental results showed similar trend as that of the soluble aerosol case, and especially in case of steam rich condition, the amount of deposition was below detection limit. The deposition rate in other cases are consistent with the prediction by existing theoretical correlation. Analytical sensitivity study varying inlet flow condition indicated no significant increase of aerosol deposition. These results suggest promising performance of PCCS under severe accident condition.

  15. The Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2 and the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liermann, H.-P., E-mail: hanns-peter.liermann@desy.de; Konôpková, Z. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Morgenroth, W. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Glazyrin, K.; Bednarčik, J.; McBride, E. E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Petitgirard, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Delitz, J. T.; Wendt, M.; Bican, Y.; Ehnes, A.; Schwark, I.; Rothkirch, A.; Tischer, M.; Heuer, J.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Kracht, T.; Franz, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-06-19

    Performance description of the Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB, P02.2) at PETRA III that is optimized for micro-diffraction at simultaneous high pressure and high and low temperatures created in different diamond anvil cells environments. Additional information of the capabilities of the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure for DAC work is provided. A detailed description is presented of the Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2 for micro X-ray diffraction studies of matter at simultaneous high pressure and high/low temperatures at PETRA III, in Hamburg, Germany. This includes performance of the X-ray optics and instrumental resolution as well as an overview of the different sample environments available for high-pressure studies in the diamond anvil cell. Particularly emphasized are the high-brilliance and high-energy X-ray diffraction capabilities of the beamline in conjunction with the use of fast area detectors to conduct time-resolved compression studies in the millisecond time regime. Finally, the current capability of the Extreme Conditions Science Infrastructure to support high-pressure research at the Extreme Conditions Beamline and other PETRA III beamlines is described.

  16. [The significance of the results of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities for the prevention of the traffic road accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Grigoryan, V G; Gusarov, A A; Kucheryavets, Yu O

    The disabling injuries inflicted during road traffic accidents (RTA) create a serious challenge for the public health services and are at the same time a major socio-economic problem in the majority of the countries throughout the world. The injuries to the lower extremities of the pedestrians make up the largest fraction of the total number of the non-lethal RTA injuries. Most of them are responsible for the considerable deterioration of the quality of life for the participants in the accidents during the subsequent period. The objective of the present study was to summarize the currently available results of experimental testing of the biomechanical models of the pedestrians' lower extremities in the framework of the program for the prevention of the road traffic accidents as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). The European Enhanced Safety Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has developed a series of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities simulating the vehicle bumper-pedestrian impact. The models are intended for the assessment of the risk of the tibia fractures and the injuries to the knee joint ligaments. The experts of EEVC proposed the biomechanical criteria for the acceleration of the knee and talocrural parts of the lower limbs as well as for the shear displacement of the knee and knee-bending angle. The engineering solution of this problem is based on numerous innovation proposals being implemented in the machine-building industry with the purpose of reducing the stiffness of structural elements of the bumper and other front components of a modern vehicle designed to protect the pedestrians from severe injuries that can be inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The activities of the public health authorities (in the first place, bureaus of forensic medical expertise and analogous facilities) have a direct bearing on the solution of the problem of control of road traffic injuries because they are possessed of

  17. High burnup effects on fuel behaviour under accident conditions: the tests CABRI REP-Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Franz; Papin, Joelle

    A large, performance based, knowledge and experience in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour is available for nominal operation conditions. The database is continuously completed and precursor assembly irradiations are performed for testing of new materials and innovative designs. This procedure produces data and arguments to extend licencing limits in the permanent research for economic competitiveness. A similar effort must be devoted to the establishment of a database for fuel behaviour under off-normal and accident conditions. In particular, special attention must be given to the so-called design-basis-accident (DBA) conditions. Safety criteria are formulated for these situations and must be respected without consideration of the occurrence probability and the risk associated to the accident situation. The introduction of MOX fuel into the cores of light water reactors and the steadily increasing goal burnup of the fuel call for research work, both experimental and analytical, in the field of fuel response to DBA conditions. In 1992, a significant programme step, CABRI REP-Na, has been launched by the French Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (IPSN) in the field of the reactivity initiated accident (RIA). After performing the nine experiments of the initial test matrix it can be concluded that important new findings have been evidenced. High burnup clad corrosion and the associated degradation of the mechanical properties of the ZIRCALOY4 clad is one of the key phenomena of the fuel behaviour under accident conditions. Equally important is the evidence that transient, dynamic fission gas effects resulting from the close to adiabatic heating introduces a new explosive loading mechanism which may lead to clad rupture under RIA conditions, especially in the case of heterogeneous MOX fuel.

  18. The Mechanical Response of Advanced Claddings during Proposed Reactivity Initiated Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N [ORNL; Brown, Nicholas R [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Lowden, Rick R [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the failure mechanisms of advanced nuclear fuel cladding of FeCrAl at high-strain rates, similar to design basis reactivity initiated accidents (RIA). During RIA, the nuclear fuel cladding was subjected to the plane-strain to equibiaxial tension strain states. To achieve those accident conditions, the samples were deformed by the expansion of high strength Inconel alloy tube under pre-specified pressure pulses as occurring RIA. The mechanical response of the advanced claddings was compared to that of hydrided zirconium-based nuclear fuel cladding alloy. The hoop strain evolution during pressure pulses were collected in situ; the permanent diametral strains of both accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings and the current nuclear fuel alloys were determined after rupture.

  19. OVERVIEW OF CONTAINMENT FILTERED VENT UNDER SEVERE ACCIDENT CONDITIONS AT WOLSONG NPP UNIT 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. SONG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Containment Filtered Vent Systems (CFVSs have been mainly equipped in nuclear power plants in Europe and Canada for the controlled depressurization of the containment atmosphere under severe accident conditions. This is to keep the containment integrity against overpressure during the course of a severe accident, in which the radioactive gas-steam mixture from the containment is discharged into a system designed to remove the radionuclides. In Korea, a CFVS was first introduced in the Wolsong unit-1 nuclear power plant as a mitigation measure to deal with the threat of over pressurization, following post-Fukushima action items. In this paper, the overall features of a CFVS installation such as risk assessments, an evaluation of the performance requirements, and a determination of the optimal operating strategies are analyzed for the Wolsong unit 1 nuclear power plant using a severe accident analysis computer code, ISAAC.

  20. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  1. Directional analysis of extreme winds under mixed climate conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 European-African Conference on Wind Engineering 2013, Robinson College, Cambridge, July 2013 Directional Analysis of Extreme Winds under Mixed Climate Conditions *Andries Kruger1, Adam Goliger2 and Johan Retief3 1Climate Service, South African...

  2. Host-parasite interactions under extreme climatic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. MARTINEZ; S. MERINO

    2011-01-01

    The effect that climatic changes can exert on parasitic interactions represents a multifactor problem whose results are difficult to predict. The actual impact of changes will depend on their magnitude and the physiological tolerance of affected organisms. When the change is considered extreme (I.e. Unusual weather events that are at the extremes of the historical distribution for a given area), the probability of an alteration in an organisms' homeostasis increases dramatically. However, factors determining the altered dynamics of host-parasite interactions due to an extreme change are the same as those acting in response to changes of lower magnitude. Only a deep knowledge of these factors will help to produce more accurate predictive models for the effects of extreme changes on parasitic interactions. Extreme environmental conditions may affect pathogens directly when they include free-living stages in their life-cycles and indirectly through reduced resource availability for hosts and thus reduced ability to produce efficient anti-parasite defenses, or by effects on host density affecting transmission dynamics of diseases or the frequency of intraspecific contact. What are the consequences for host-parasite interactions? Here we summarize the present knowledge on three principal factors in determining host-parasite associations; biodiversity, population density and immunocompetence. In addition, we analyzed examples of the effects of environmental alteration of anthropogenic origin on parasitic systems because the effects are analogous to that exerted by an extreme climatic change.

  3. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F. [DOE, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  4. Conditional probability of rainfall extremes across multiple durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Dong; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2017-04-01

    The conditional probability that extreme rainfall will occur at one location given that it is occurring at another location is critical in engineering design and management circumstances including planning of evacuation routes and the sitting of emergency infrastructure. A challenge with this conditional simulation is that in many situations the interest is not so much the conditional distributions of rainfall of the same duration at two locations, but rather the conditional distribution of flooding in two neighbouring catchments, which may be influenced by rainfall of different critical durations. To deal with this challenge, a model that can consider both spatial and duration dependence of extremes is required. The aim of this research is to develop a model that can take account both spatial dependence and duration dependence into the dependence structure of extreme rainfalls. To achieve this aim, this study is a first attempt at combining extreme rainfall for multiple durations within a spatial extreme model framework based on max-stable process theory. Max-stable processes provide a general framework for modelling multivariate extremes with spatial dependence for just a single duration extreme rainfall. To achieve dependence across multiple timescales, this study proposes a new approach that includes addition elements representing duration dependence of extremes to the covariance matrix of max-stable model. To improve the efficiency of calculation, a re-parameterization proposed by Koutsoyiannis et al. (1998) is used to reduce the number of parameters necessary to be estimated. This re-parameterization enables the GEV parameters to be represented as a function of timescale. A stepwise framework has been adopted to achieve the overall aims of this research. Firstly, the re-parameterization is used to define a new set of common parameters for marginal distribution across multiple durations. Secondly, spatial interpolation of the new parameter set is used to

  5. Atomistic Simulations of Material Properties under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi

    Extreme conditions involve low or high temperatures (> 1500 K), high pressures (> 30 MPa), high strains or strain rates, high radiation fluxes (> 100 dpa), and high electromagnetic fields (> 15T). Material properties under extreme conditions can be extremely different from those under normal conditions. Understanding material properties and performance under extreme conditions, including their dynamic evolution over time, plays an essential role in improving material properties and developing novel materials with desired properties. To understand material properties under extreme conditions, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with recently developed reactive force fields (ReaxFF) and traditional embedded atom methods (EAM) potentials to examine various materials (e.g., energetic materials and binary liquids) and processes. The key results from the simulations are summarized below. Anisotropic sensitivity of RDX crystals: Based on the compress-and-shear reactive dynamics (CS-RD) simulations of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) crystals, we predict that for mechanical shocks between 3 and 7 GPa, RDX is the most sensitive to shocks perpendicular to the (100) and (210) planes, while it is insensitive to those perpendicular to the (120), (111), and (110) planes. The simulations demonstrate that the molecular origin of anisotropic shock sensitivity is the steric hindrance to shearing of adjacent slip planes. Mechanisms of hotspot formation in polymer bonded explosives (PBXs): The simulations of a realistic model of PBXs reveal that hotspots may form at the nonplanar interfaces where shear relaxation leads to a dramatic temperature increase that persists long after the shock front has passed the interface. For energetic materials this temperature increase is coupled to chemical reactions that eventually lead to detonation. We show that decreasing the density of the binder eliminates the hotspots or reduces the sensitivity. Cavitation in binary metallic liquids

  6. Prebiotic cell membranes that survive extreme environmental pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shobhna; Berghaus, Melanie; Suladze, Saba; Prumbaum, Daniel; Grobelny, Sebastian; Degen, Patrick; Raunser, Stefan; Winter, Roland

    2014-08-04

    Attractive candidates for compartmentalizing prebiotic cells are membranes comprised of single-chain fatty acids. It is generally believed that life may have originated in the depth of the protoocean, that is, under high hydrostatic pressure conditions, but the structure and physical-chemical properties of prebiotic membranes under such conditions have not yet been explored. We report the temperature- and pressure-dependent properties of membranes composed of prebiotically highly-plausible lipids and demonstrate that prebiotic membranes could not only withstand extreme temperatures, but also serve as robust models of protocells operating in extreme pressure environments. We show that pressure not only increases the stability of vesicular systems but also limits their flexibility and permeability to solutes, while still keeping the membrane in an overall fluid-like and thus functional state. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage.

  8. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  9. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymantas Kazys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%.

  10. Fission product releases at severe LWR accident conditions: ORNL/CEA measurements versus calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, B.; Ducros, G.; Leveque, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maro, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations

    1995-12-31

    Experimental programs in the United States and France have followed similar paths in supplying much of the data needed to analyze severe accidents. Both the HI/VI program, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the HEVA/VERCORS program, supported by IPSN-Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) and carried out at the Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, have studied fission product release from light water reactor (LWR) fuel samples during test sequences representative of severe accidents. Recognizing that more accurate data, i.e., a better defined source term, could reduce the safety margins included in the rather conservative source terms originating from WASH-1400, the primary objective of these programs has been to improve the data base concerning fission product release and behavior at high temperatures. To facilitate the comparison, a model based on fission product diffusion mechanisms that was developed at ORNL and adapted with CEA experimental data is proposed. This CEA model is compared with the ORNL experimental data in a blind test. The two experimental programs used similar techniques in out-of-pile studies. Highly irradiated fuel samples were heated in radiofrequency induction furnaces to very high temperatures (up to 2700 K at ORNL and 2750 K at CEA) in oxidizing (H{sub 2}O), reducing (H{sub 2}) or mixed (H{sub 2}O+H{sub 2}) environments. The experimental parameters, which were chosen from calculated accident scenarios, did not duplicate specific accidents, but rather emphasized careful control of test conditions to facilitate extrapolation of the results to a wide variety of accident situations. This paper presents a broad and consistent database from ORNL and CEA release results obtained independently since the early 1980`S. A comparison of CORSOR and CORSOR Booth calculations, currently used in safety analysis, and the experimental results is presented and

  11. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  12. Identification of the security threshold by logistic regression applied to fuel under accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Baptista Filho, Benedito; Oliveira, Fabio Branco de, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: bdbfilho@ipen.br, E-mail: fabio@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (POLI/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco

    2015-07-01

    A reactivity-initiated Accident (RIA) is a disastrous failure, which occurs because of an unexpected rise in the fission rate and reactor power. This sudden increase in the reactor power may activate processes that might lead to the failure of fuel cladding. In severe accidents, a disruption of fuel and core melting can occur. The purpose of the present research is to study the patterns of such accidents using exploratory data analysis techniques. A study based on applied statistics was used for simulations. Then, we chose peak enthalpy, pulse width, burnup, fission gas release, and the oxidation of zirconium as input parameters and set the safety boundary conditions. This new approach includes the logistic regression. With this, the present research aims also to develop the ability to identify the conditions and the probability of failures. Zirconium-based alloys fabricating the cladding of the fuel rod elements with niobium 1% were analyzed for high burnup limits at 65 MWd/kgU. The data based on six decades of investigations from experimental programs. In test, perform in American reactors such as the transient reactor test (TREAT), and power Burst Facility (PBF). In experiments realized in Japanese program at nuclear in the safety research reactor (NSRR), and in Kazakhstan as impulse graphite reactor (IGR). The database obtained from the tests and served as a support for our study. (author)

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Alternate Entry Condition into the Severe Accident Management Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Seok; Lee, Su Won [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Min, Shin Jung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the effectiveness of the CA as an alternate means is evaluated quantitatively by utilizing the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) 5 computer code including the MAAP5-DOSE module, which can analyze the radiation level inside the containment. The effectiveness of the CA has been investigated by utilizing the MAAP5 code including the MAAP5- DOSE. The onset of core damage is considered to be a core (fuel rod cladding) condition at the time when the core exit temperature reaches the value prescribed for transition to Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG), which is 1200 .deg. F. However, during a shutdown state, the core exit thermocouples measurements are unavailable after lifting reactor vessel head. Thus, an alternate means to detect the onset of core damage is necessary to cover all plant operating states. In order for that, a Computational Aid (CA), 'Radiation Level as a Functional of Time after Shutdown,' has been developed. The upper containment radiation instrumentation is a gross gamma monitor, and has a reliable instrumentation range during severe accidents. It can be used for detecting onset of core damage. Thus, the radiation level can be used as alternative means of the entry condition into the SAMG. It has been shown that the SAMG entry timings determined by using the core exit thermocouple measurements and by the radiation monitoring with the CA would not be differentiated. The time difference estimates entering SAMG would be less 15 min which would not influence the operator action significantly.

  14. The dissociation constant of water at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Otto; Giacomazzi, Luigi; Pinilla, C.; Scandolo, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    Only one out of 107 water molecules is dissociated in liquid water at ambient conditions, but the concentration of dissociated molecules increases with pressure ad temperature, and water eventually reaches a fully dissociated state when pressure exceeds 50-100 GPa and temperature reaches a few thousand Kelvin. The behavior of the dissociation constant of water (pKa) at conditions intermediate between ambient and the fully dissociated state is poorly known. Yet, the water pKa is a parameter of primary importance in the aqueous geochemistry as it controls the solubility of ions in geological fluids. We present results of molecular dynamics calculations of the pKa water at extreme conditions. Free-energy differences between the undissociated and the dissociated state are calculated by thermodynamic integration along the dissociation path. The calculations are based on a recently developed all-atom polarizable force-field for water, parametrized on density-functional theory calculations.

  15. The Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Bob

    2015-06-01

    The last five years have seen the commissioning of and first user experiments on both the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Stanford, and more are slated to come online in the next couple of years . The high photon frequency (i.e. larger than the plasma frequency of solid density), short pulse length (i.e. 10s to 100s of femtoseconds) and large photon number per pulse (i.e. 1012 photons per pulse) make it an ideal source to create and study states of matter at high energy density, a long-standing scientific challenge. Indeed, while matter in extreme conditions, which for the purpose of this talk we define as states under pressure up to hundreds of GPa and with temperatures ranging between 1eV and 1000eV, has been studied through dynamic shock compression and there has been significant progress made over many decades. However, large uncertainties still exist in the atomic structure and crystallographic structure, existence of high pressure phases, scattering factors, and equation of state of matter in extreme conditions. The Matter in Extreme Condition (MEC) instrument at LCLS is designed to overcome the unique experimental challenges that the study of matter in extreme conditions bring. It combines a suite of diagnostics and high power and energy optical lasers, which are standard fare in this research field, with the unmatched LCLS X-ray beam, to create an instrument that will be at the forefront of, and have a major impact on MEC science, in particular in the field of high pressure, warm dense matter, high energy density, and ultra-high intensity laser-matter interaction studies. The LCLS beam allows for unique investigation in all these extreme states using diagnostic methods such as X-ray Thomson Scattering, X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray phase-contrast imaging, and pumping specific absorption lines to study (dense) plasma kinetics. Augmented with optical

  16. Large Chip Production Mechanism under the Extreme Load Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianli; HE Genghuang; YAN Fugang; CHENG Yaonan; LIU Li

    2015-01-01

    There has existed a great deal of theory researches in term of chip production and chip breaking characteristics under conventional cutting and high speed cutting conditions, however, there isn’t sufficient research on chip formation mechanism as well as its influence on cutting state regarding large workpieces under extreme load cutting. This paper presents a model of large saw-tooth chip through applying finite element simulation method, which gives a profound analysis about the characteristics of the extreme load cutting as well as morphology and removal of the large chip. In the meantime, a calculation formula that gives a quantitative description of the saw-tooth level regarding the large chip is established on the basis of cutting experiments on high temperature and high strength steel 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V. The cutting experiments are carried out by using the scanning electron microscope and super depth of field electron microscope to measure and calculate the large chip produced under different cutting parameters, which can verify the validity of the established model. The calculating results show that the large saw-toothed chip is produced under the squeezing action between workpiece and cutting tools. In the meanwhile, the chip develops a hardened layer where contacts the cutting tool and the saw-tooth of the chip tend to form in transverse direction. This research creates the theoretical model for large chip and performs the cutting experiments under the extreme load cutting condition, as well as analyzes the production mechanism of the large chip in the macro and micro conditions. Therefore, the proposed research could provide theoretical guidance and technical support in improving productivity and cutting technology research.

  17. Analysis 320 coal mine accidents using structural equation modeling with unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations as exogenous variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingyu; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Mengjia; Li, Hejun; Yin, Shijiu; Xu, Yingjun

    2016-07-01

    Mining has been historically considered as a naturally high-risk industry worldwide. Deaths caused by coal mine accidents are more than the sum of all other accidents in China. Statistics of 320 coal mine accidents in Shandong province show that all accidents contain indicators of "unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations" with a frequency of 1590, accounting for 74.3% of the total frequency of 2140. "Unsafe behaviors of the operator" is another important contributory factor, which mainly includes "operator error" and "venturing into dangerous places." A systems analysis approach was applied by using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the interactions between the contributory factors of coal mine accidents. The analysis of results leads to three conclusions. (i) "Unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations," affect the "unsafe behaviors of the operator," "unsafe conditions of the equipment," and "unsafe conditions of the environment." (ii) The three influencing factors of coal mine accidents (with the frequency of effect relation in descending order) are "lack of safety education and training," "rules and regulations of safety production responsibility," and "rules and regulations of supervision and inspection." (iii) The three influenced factors (with the frequency in descending order) of coal mine accidents are "venturing into dangerous places," "poor workplace environment," and "operator error."

  18. Status report of advanced cladding modeling work to assess cladding performance under accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.J. Merrill; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    Scoping simulations performed using a severe accident code can be applied to investigate the influence of advanced materials on beyond design basis accident progression and to identify any existing code limitations. In 2012 an effort was initiated to develop a numerical capability for understanding the potential safety advantages that might be realized during severe accident conditions by replacing Zircaloy components in light water reactors (LWRs) with silicon carbide (SiC) components. To this end, a version of the MELCOR code, under development at the Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), was modified by replacing Zircaloy for SiC in the MELCOR reactor core oxidation and material properties routines. The modified version of MELCOR was benchmarked against available experimental data to ensure that present SiC oxidation theory in air and steam were correctly implemented in the code. Additional modifications have been implemented in the code in 2013 to improve the specificity in defining components fabricated from non-standard materials. An overview of these modifications and the status of their implementation are summarized below.

  19. Extreme fog events in Poland with respect to circulation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustrnul, Z.; Czekierda, D.; Wypych, A.

    2010-09-01

    Fog is a phenomenon which belongs to a group of so-called hydrometeorites and, according to the different dictionaries, it is a suspension of water droplets or ice crystals in the ground layer of the air that impairs visibility in the horizontal direction below 1 km. The phenomenon of fog, although much less dynamic or violent than other extreme phenomena, such as thunderstorms or hail, is equally dangerous and brings about huge social and economic complications. Land and air transportation suffer and fog may sometimes leads to a complete crippling of the whole economy in an area where fog occurs. The main objective of the study is determination of the circulation types bringing extreme fog events in Poland. The duration of fog at each meteorological station was considered as the main input data originated from 54 synoptic stations located across the country. The mentioned data series cover the period of 56 years (1951-2006). The occurrence of fog depends on meteorological conditions caused to a large extent by a given synoptic situation and local terrain conditions. In this study, according to its objectives, only circulation conditions are taken into consideration. These have been described by 5 different circulation classifications (Grosswetterlagen, Litynski, Osuchowska-Klein, Niedzwiedz and Ustrnul). Situations when this phenomenon occurred across a large part of the country were taken into detailed consideration. Special attention was paid to fog coverage during 24-hour periods. In this work, in light of certain doubts about the homogeneity of the observation material available, the intensity of fog was not included, as it requires additional and very tedious analysis. In the first step all cases of fog during the 1966-2006 study period which lasted 24 hours at more than 10 of the considered weather stations, i.e: at least 5 stations have been considered. As expected, in most cases, either a centre of a classical high pressure system or a high pressure wedge

  20. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    OpenAIRE

    Kil-Mo Koo; Jin-Ho Song; Sang-Baik Kim; Kwang-Il Ahn; Won-Pil Baek; Kil-Nam Oh; Gyu-Tae Kim

    2012-01-01

    Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity) occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard...

  1. X-ray diffraction at Matter in Extreme Conditions endstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhou; Galtier, Eric; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob

    2015-11-01

    Understanding dynamic response at the atomic level under extreme conditions is highly sought after goal to science frontiers studying warm dense matter, high pressure, geoscience, astrophysics, and planetary science. Thus it is of importance to determine the high pressure phases or metastable phases of material under shock compression. In situ X-ray diffraction technique using LCLS free electron laser X-ray is a powerful tool to record structural behavior and microstructure evolution in dense matter. Shock-induced compression and phase transitions of material lead to changes of the lattice spacing or evolution of new X-ray diffraction patterns. In this talk, we describe a platform dedicated for the X-ray diffraction studies at Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC), which can be used to reconstruct a complete diffraction pattern from numerous detectors, optimize detector positioning in a timely manner, extract the lattice spacing profiles and texture features. This platform is available to the user community for real-time analysis. We will also discuss experimental results, using this platform, on the crystalline silicon phase transitions up to 60 GPa.

  2. Triticale in the years with extreme weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nožinić Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other grain crops, the area under triticale in the Republic of Srpska has been expanding every year. Since the introduction of this plant species in the broad production began a few years ago, the finding of the optimal variety agrotechnique in different environmental conditions has great importance. This paper deals with the results of the trials from seven locations in two very extreme vegetation seasons (2002/03, 2006/07. High yield of triticale on the location Banja Luka (150 m alt. with five triticale varieties in four sowing rates in the replication trial in very unfavorable weather conditions in 2003, points to emphasized triticale tolerance to high temperatures and drought. High grain yield of triticale in the trials on the locations Banja Luka, Butmir (460 m alt. and Živince (230 m alt. was obtained in 2007 too, when all vegetation months had higher mean temperature than long term average, what is a unique appearance in the entire 'meteorological history'. In the paper the appearance of the earliest triticale heading is described and explained. It happened at one production trial on Manjača (250 m alt. in the first decade of March in 2007. On the another location on Manjača (450 m alt., in the macrotrial, rye showed much higher tolerance to extreme soil acidity, than triticale. Obtained results and unusual appearances on triticale are helpful for the further research of the stability and adaptability of more important triticale traits. .

  3. Green roof establishment in extreme conditions : two case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothe, R. [Aloha Landscaping, Inc., Mendota Heights, MN (United States); Trichie, J. [Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, MN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Green roof construction in the United States is growing at a rate of 60 to 80 per cent per year. This paper presented two case studies of green roof construction in Minnesota. In both cases, construction and budgeting delays moved the installation of the green roofs from early-May to mid-July. The first case study was a 20,000 square foot extensive green roof on the new Minneapolis Central Library which was completed in 2005. The second case study was a 30,000 square foot extensive green roof on the Mdewakanton Sioux Waste Water Treatment Plant in Shakopee, which was completed in 2006. This paper demonstrated that in order for green roofs to serve the functions for which they were intended, clear guidelines and specifications are needed to ensure that they are healthy. The size and locations of the two roofs were quite different, but they were identical in terms of waterproofing. State-of-the-art inverted hot-applied roof membrane technology was used in both roofs along with sub-surface irrigation systems. A mycorrhizae fungi was used in both cases to amend the growing medium. Both roofs used a diverse pallet of native and traditional sedum plant material. This paper highlighted preventative measures taken to ensure the successful installation and establishment of the two roofs built during extreme heat and drought-like conditions. The positive results confirm that it is possible to install green roofs during extremely harsh summer conditions. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Variance swap payoffs, risk premia and extreme market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    This paper estimates the Variance Risk Premium (VRP) directly from synthetic variance swap payoffs. Since variance swap payoffs are highly volatile, we extract the VRP by using signal extraction techniques based on a state-space representation of our model in combination with a simple economic...... constraint. Our approach, only requiring option implied volatilities and daily returns for the underlying, provides measurement error free estimates of the part of the VRP related to normal market conditions, and allows constructing variables indicating agents' expectations under extreme market conditions....... The latter variables and the VRP generate different return predictability on the major US indices. A factor model is proposed to extract a market VRP which turns out to be priced when considering Fama and French portfolios....

  5. Material dynamics under extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A; Allen, P; Bringa, E; Hawreliak, J; Ho, D; Lorenz, K T; Lorenzana, H; Meyers, M A; Pollaine, S W; Rosolankova, K; Sadik, B; Schneider, M S; Swift, D; Wark, J; Yaakobi, B

    2005-09-06

    Solid state experiments at extreme pressures (10-100 GPa) and strain rates ({approx}10{sup 6}-10{sup 8}s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities, and offer the possibility for exploring new regimes of materials science. These extreme solid-state conditions can be accessed with either shock loading or with a quasi-isentropic ramped pressure drive. Velocity interferometer measurements establish the high pressure conditions. Constitutive models for solid-state strength under these conditions are tested by comparing 2D continuum simulations with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples. Lattice compression, phase, and temperature are deduced from extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, from which the shock-induced {alpha}-{omega} phase transition in Ti and the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition in Fe are inferred to occur on sub-nanosec time scales. Time resolved lattice response and phase can also be measured with dynamic x-ray diffraction measurements, where the elastic-plastic (1D-3D) lattice relaxation in shocked Cu is shown to occur promptly (< 1 ns). Subsequent large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations elucidate the microscopic dynamics that underlie the 3D lattice relaxation. Deformation mechanisms are identified by examining the residual microstructure in recovered samples. The slip-twinning threshold in single-crystal Cu shocked along the [001] direction is shown to occur at shock strengths of {approx}20 GPa, whereas the corresponding transition for Cu shocked along the [134] direction occurs at higher shock strengths. This slip-twinning threshold also depends on the stacking fault energy (SFE), being lower for low SFE materials. Designs have been developed for achieving much higher pressures, P > 1000 GPa, in the solid state on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser.

  6. Observational Simulation of Icing in Extreme Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Komar, John; Elfstrom, Garry; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2017-04-01

    Observations and prediction of icing in extreme weather conditions are important for aviation, transportation, and shipping applications, and icing adversely affects the economy. Icing environments can be studied either in the outdoor atmosphere or in the laboratory. There have been several aircraft based in-situ studies related to weather conditions affecting aviation operations, transportation, and marine shipping that includes icing, wind, and turbulence. However, studying severe weather conditions from aircraft observations are limited due to safety and sampling issues, instrumental uncertainties, and even the possibility of aircraft producing its own physical and dynamical effects. Remote sensing based techniques (e.g. retrieval techniques) for studying severe weather conditions represent usually a volume that cannot characterize the important scales and also represents indirect observations. Therefore, laboratory simulations of atmospheric processes can help us better understand the interactions among microphysical and dynamical processes. The Climatic Wind Tunnel (CWT) in ACE at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) has a large semi-open jet test chamber with flow area 7-13 m2 that can precisely control temperatures down to -40°C, and up to 250 km hr-1 wind speeds, for heavy or dry snow conditions with low visibility, similar to ones observed in the Arctic and cold climate regions, or at high altitude aeronautical conditions. In this study, the ACE CWT employed a spray nozzle array suspended in its settling chamber and fed by pressurized water, creating various particle sizes from a few microns up to mm size range. This array, together with cold temperature and high wind speed, enabled simulation of severe weather conditions, including icing, visibility, strong wind and turbulence, ice fog and frost, freezing fog, heavy snow and blizzard conditions. In this study, the test results will be summarized, and their application to aircraft

  7. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J.C. de la, E-mail: juan-carlos.de-la-rosa-blul@ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre (Netherlands); Fornós, Joan, E-mail: jfornosh@anacnv.com [Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellós (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H{sub 2} and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  8. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  9. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  10. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  11. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  12. Insights on fission products behaviour in nuclear severe accident conditions by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, E.; Bès, R.; Martin, Ph; Pontillon, Y.; Ducros, G.; Solari, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    Many research programs have been carried out aiming to understand the fission products behaviour during a Nuclear Severe Accident. Most of these programs used highly radioactive irradiated nuclear fuel, which requires complex instrumentation. Moreover, the radioactive character of samples hinders an accurate chemical characterisation. In order to overcome these difficulties, SIMFUEL stand out as an alternative to perform complementary tests. A sample made of UO2 doped with 11 fission products was submitted to an annealing test up to 1973 K in reducing atmosphere. The sample was characterized before and after the annealing test using SEM-EDS and XAS at the MARS beam-line, SOLEIL Synchrotron. It was found that the overall behaviour of several fission products (such as Mo, Ba, Pd and Ru) was similar to that observed experimentally in irradiated fuels and consistent with thermodynamic estimations. The experimental approach presented in this work has allowed obtaining information on chemical phases evolution under nuclear severe accident conditions, that are yet difficult to obtain using irradiated nuclear fuel samples.

  13. Preliminary experiment design of graphite dust emission measurement under accident conditions for HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Wei, E-mail: pengwei@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Tao; Sun, Qi; Wang, Jie [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Suyuan, E-mail: suyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, The Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A theoretical analysis is used to predict the total graphite dust release for an AVR LOCA. • Similarity criteria must be satisfied between the experiment and the actual HTGR system. • Model experiments should be conducted to predict the graphite dust resuspension rate. - Abstract: The graphite dust movement behavior is significant for the safety analyses of high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The graphite dust release for accident conditions is an important source term for HTGR safety analyses. Depressurization release tests are not practical in HTGR because of a radioactivity release to the environment. Thus, a theoretical analysis and similarity principles were used to design a group of modeling experiments. Modeling experiments for fan start-up and depressurization process and actual experiments of helium circulator start-up in an HTGR were used to predict the rate of graphite dust resuspension and the graphite dust concentration, which can be used to predict the graphite dust release during accidents. The modeling experiments are easy to realize and the helium circulator start-up test does not harm the reactor system or the environment, so this experiment program is easily achieved. The revised Rock’n’Roll model was then used to calculate the AVR reactor release. The calculation results indicate that the total graphite dust releases during a LOCA will be about 0.65 g in AVR.

  14. Extending the application range of a fuel performance code from normal operating to design basis accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uffelen, P.; Győri, C.; Schubert, A.; van de Laar, J.; Hózer, Z.; Spykman, G.

    2008-12-01

    Two types of fuel performance codes are generally being applied, corresponding to the normal operating conditions and the design basis accident conditions, respectively. In order to simplify the code management and the interface between the codes, and to take advantage of the hardware progress it is favourable to generate a code that can cope with both conditions. In the first part of the present paper, we discuss the needs for creating such a code. The second part of the paper describes an example of model developments carried out by various members of the TRANSURANUS user group for coping with a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In the third part, the validation of the extended fuel performance code is presented for LOCA conditions, whereas the last section summarises the present status and indicates needs for further developments to enable the code to deal with reactivity initiated accident (RIA) events.

  15. Fast temperature spectrometer for samples under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E Ercan; Toellner, Thomas S; Hu, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multi-wavelength Fast Temperature Readout (FasTeR) spectrometer to capture a sample's transient temperature fluctuations, and reduce uncertainties in melting temperature determination. Without sacrificing accuracy, FasTeR features a fast readout rate (about 100 Hz), high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and a well-constrained focus. Complimenting a charge-coupled device spectrometer, FasTeR consists of an array of photomultiplier tubes and optical dichroic filters. The temperatures determined by FasTeR outside of the vicinity of melting are, generally, in good agreement with results from the charge-coupled device spectrometer. Near melting, FasTeR is capable of capturing transient temperature fluctuations, at least on the order of 300 K/s. A software tool, SIMFaster, is described and has been developed to simulate FasTeR and assess design configurations. FasTeR is especially suitable for temperature determinations that utilize ultra-fast techniques under extreme conditions. Working in parallel with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we have applied the FasTeR spectrometer to measure the melting temperature of (57)Fe0.9Ni0.1 at high pressure.

  16. Focusing adaptive-optics for neutron spectroscopy at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeoni, G. G., E-mail: ggsimeoni@outlook.com [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E13, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Valicu, R. G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E13, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borchert, G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Böni, P. [Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rasmussen, N. G. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yang, F.; Kordel, T.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Kargl, F.; Meyer, A. [Institut für Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, D-51170 Köln (Germany)

    2015-12-14

    Neutron Spectroscopy employing extreme-conditions sample environments is nowadays a crucial tool for the understanding of fundamental scientific questions as well as for the investigation of materials and chemical-physical properties. For all these kinds of studies, an increased neutron flux over a small sample area is needed. The prototype of a focusing neutron guide component, developed and produced completely at the neutron source FRM II in Garching (Germany), has been installed at the time-of-flight (TOF) disc-chopper neutron spectrometer TOFTOF and came into routine-operation. The design is based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept for finite-size divergent sources. It represents a unique device combining the supermirror technology with Adaptive Optics, suitable for broad-bandwidth thermal-cold TOF neutron spectroscopy (here optimized for 1.4–10 Å). It is able to squeeze the beam cross section down to a square centimeter, with a more than doubled signal-to-background ratio, increased efficiency at high scattering angles, and improved symmetry of the elastic resolution function. We present a comparison between the simulated and measured beam cross sections, as well as the performance of the instrument within real experiments. This work intends to show the unprecedented opportunities achievable at already existing instruments, along with useful guidelines for the design and construction of next-generation neutron spectrometers.

  17. Orographic Signature on Multiscale Statistics of Extreme Rainfall: Conditional downscaling with emphasis on extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ebtehaj, M.

    2010-09-01

    Rainfall intensity and spatio-temporal patterns often show a strong dependency on the underlying terrain. The main objective of this work is to study the statistical signature imprinted by orography on the spatial structure of rainfall and its temporal evolution at multiple scales, with the aim to develop a consistent theoretical basis for conditional downscaling of precipitation given the topographic information of the underlying terrain. The results of an extensive analysis of the high resolution stage II Doppler radar data of the Rapidan storm, June 1995, over the Appalachian Mountains is reported in this study. The orographic signature on the elementary statistical structure of the precipitation fields is studied via a variable-intensity thresholding scheme. This signature is further explored at multiple scales via analysis of the dependence of precipitation fields on the underlying terrain both in Fourier and Wavelet domains. The Generalized Normal distribution is found to be a suitable probability model to explain the variability of the rainfall wavelet coefficients and its dependence on the underlying elevations. These results provide a new perspective for more accurate statistical downscaling of the orographic precipitation over complex terrain with emphasis on extremes.

  18. Extreme wind conditions for a Danish offshore site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of extreme wind speed gust values measured at a shallow water offshore site and at a coastal onshore site in Denmark. An estimate of 50-year extreme values has been evaluated using a new statistical method. In addition a mean gust shape is determined, based on a la...

  19. Transient fuel behavior of preirradiated PWR fuels under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1992-06-01

    Since 1975, extensive studies on transient fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions have been continued in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. A new experimental program with preirradiated LWR fuel rods as test samples has recently been started. In this program, transient behavior and failure initiation have been studied with 14 × 14 type PWR fuel rods preirradiated to a burnup of 20 to 42 MWd/kgU. The test fuel rods contained in a capsule filled with the coolant water were subjected to a pulse irradiation in the NSRR to simulate a prompt power surge in an RIA. The effects of preirradiation on the transient fission gas release, pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and fuel failure were clearly observed through the transient in-core measurements and postirradiation examination.

  20. Failure behavior of plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuel under reactivity-initiated accident condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T.; Nakae, N.; Kodato, K.; Matsumoto, M.; Inabe, T.

    1992-06-01

    Two series of in-pile tests on MOX fuels were performed in the NSRR to study failure behavior under RIA (reactivity-initiated accident) conditions in water cooled reactors. PWR type MOX test rods were pulsed in a first series. The test rods were designed to have dimensions identical to standard UO 2 fuel, on which a large number of tests had been conducted previously. The test result was that the failure mechanism and the threshold of MOX fuel was consistent with those of UO 2 fuel. ATR-type MOX test rods with PuO 2 particles as well as reference rods without PuO 2 particles were subjected to pulsing in a second series. PuO 2 particles of 400 and 1100 μm in diameter were artificially embedded at the surface of MOX pellets. No effect of particles appeared on the threshold, and no significant indication of their effect was observed on the cladding.

  1. Development of stable walking robot for accident condition monitoring on uneven floors in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seog; Jang, You Hyun [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Even though the potential for an accident in nuclear power plants is very low, multiple emergency plans are necessary because the impact of such an accident to the public is enormous. One of these emergency plans involves a robotic system for investigating accidents under conditions of high radiation and contaminated air. To develop a robot suitable for operation in a nuclear power plant, we focused on eliminating the three major obstacles that challenge robots in such conditions: the disconnection of radio communication, falling on uneven floors, and loss of localization. To solve the radio problem, a Wi-Fi extender was used in radio shadow areas. To reinforce the walking, we developed two- and four-leg convertible walking, a floor adaptive foot, a roly-poly defensive falling design, and automatic standing recovery after falling methods were developed. To allow the robot to determine its location in the containment building, a bar code landmark reading method was chosen. When a severe accident occurs, this robot will be useful for accident condition monitoring. We also anticipate the robot can serve as a workman aid in a high radiation area during normal operations.

  2. Thorium Chemistry in Oxo-Tellurium System under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bin; Kegler, Philip; Bosbach, Dirk; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2017-03-06

    Through the use of a high-temperature/high-pressure synthesis method, four thorium oxo-tellurium compounds with different tellurium valence states were isolated. The novel inorganic phases illustrate the intrinsic complexity of the actinide tellurium chemistry under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. Th2Te3O11 is the first instance of a mixed-valent oxo-tellurium compound, and at the same time, Te exhibits three different coordination environments (Te(IV)O3, Te(IV)O4, and Te(VI)O6) within a single structure. These three types of Te polyhedra are further fused together, resulting in a [Te3O11](8-) fragment. Na4Th2(Te(VI)3O15) and K2Th(Te(VI)O4)3 are the first alkaline thorium tellurates described in the literature. Both compounds are constructed from ThO9 tricapped trigonal prisms and Te(VI)O6 octahedra. Na4Th2(Te(VI)3O15) is a three-dimensional framework based on Th2O15 and Te2O10 dimers, while K2Th(Te(VI)O4)3 contains tungsten oxide bronze like Te layers linked by ThO9 polyhedra. The structure of β-Th(Te(IV)O3)(SO4) is built from infinite thorium chains cross-linked by Te(IV)O3(2-) and SO4(2-) anions. Close structural analysis suggests that β-Th(Te(IV)O3)(SO4) is highly related to the structure of α-Th(SeO4)2. Additionally, the Raman spectra are recorded and the characteristic peaks are assigned based on a comparison of reported tellurites or tellurates.

  3. Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incera, Vivian [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Ferrer, Efrain [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report “Reaching for the Horizon” has been “to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.” The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.

  4. Extreme Conditioning Programs: Potential Benefits and Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit, Insanity, Gym Jones, and P90X are examples of extreme conditioning programs (ECPs). ECPs typically involve high-volume and high-intensity physical activities with short rest periods between movements and use of multiple joint exercises. Data on changes in fitness with ECPs are limited to CrossFit investigations that demonstrated improvements in muscle strength, muscular endurance, aerobic fitness, and body composition. However, no study has directly compared CrossFit or other ECPs to other more traditional forms of aerobic and resistance training within the same investigation. These direct comparisons are needed to more adequately evaluate the effectiveness of ECPs. Until these studies emerge, the comparisons with available literature suggest that improvements in CrossFit, in terms of muscular endurance (push-ups, sit-ups), strength, and aerobic capacity, appear to be similar to those seen in more traditional training programs. Investigations of injuries in ECPs are limited to two observational studies that suggest that the overall injury rate is similar to that seen in other exercise programs. Several cases of rhabdomyolysis and cervical carotid artery dissections have been reported during CrossFit training. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these are reviewed here. Until more data on ECPs emerge, physical training should be aligned with US Army doctrine. If ECPs are included in exercise programs, trainers should (1) have appropriate training certifications, (2) inspect exercise equipment regularly to assure safety, (3) introduce ECPs to new participants, (4) ensure medical clearance of Soldiers with special health problems before participation in ECPs, (4) tailor ECPs to the individual Soldier, (5) adjust rest periods to optimize recovery and reduce fatigue, (6) monitor Soldiers for signs of overtraining, rhabdomyolysis, and other problems, and (7) coordinate exercise programs with other unit training activities to eliminate redundant activities

  5. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating...

  6. Uncertainties in extreme precipitation under climate change conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    of adaptation strategies, but these changes are subject to uncertainties. The focus of this PhD thesis is the quantification of uncertainties in changes in extreme precipitation. It addresses two of the main sources of uncertainty in climate change impact studies: regional climate models (RCMs) and statistical...... by extreme precipitation pose a threat to human life and cause high economic losses for society. Thus, strategies to adapt to changes in extreme precipitation are currently being developed and established worldwide. Information on the expected changes in extreme precipitation is required for the development...... downscaling methods (SDMs). RCMs provide information on climate change at the regional scale. SDMs are used to bias-correct and downscale the outputs of the RCMs to the local scale of interest in adaptation strategies. In the first part of the study, a multi-model ensemble of RCMs from the European ENSEMBLES...

  7. The Reactivity of Energetic Materials At Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, L E

    2006-10-23

    shock conditions, for example, energetic materials undergo rapid heating to a few thousand degrees and are subjected to a compression of hundreds of kilobars, resulting in almost 30% volume reduction. Complex chemical reactions are thus initiated, in turn releasing large amounts of energy to sustain the detonation process. Clearly, understanding of the various chemical events at these extreme conditions is essential in order to build predictive material models. Scientific investigations into the reactive process have been undertaken over the past two decades. However, the sub-{micro}s time scale of explosive reactions, in addition to the highly exothermic conditions of an explosion, make experimental investigation of the decomposition pathways difficult at best. More recently, new computational approaches to investigate condensed-phase reactivity in energetic materials have been developed. Here we focus on two different approaches to condensed-phase reaction modeling: chemical equilibrium methods and atomistic modeling of condensed-phase reactions. These are complementary approaches to understanding the chemical reactions of high explosives. Chemical equilibrium modeling uses a highly simplified thermodynamic picture of the reaction process, leading to a convenient and predictive model of detonation and other decomposition processes. Chemical equilibrium codes are often used in the design of new materials, both at the level of synthesis chemistry and formulation. Atomistic modeling is a rapidly emerging area. The doubling of computational power approximately every 18 months has made atomistic condensed-phase modeling more feasible. Atomistic calculations employ far fewer empirical parameters than chemical equilibrium calculations. Nevertheless, the atomistic modeling of chemical reactions requires an accurate global Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Traditionally, such a surface is constructed by representing the potential energy surface with an analytical fit

  8. Review of experimental data for modelling LWR fuel cladding behaviour under loss of coolant accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massih, Ali R. [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    Extensive range of experiments has been conducted in the past to quantitatively identify and understand the behaviour of fuel rod under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors (LWRs). The obtained experimental data provide the basis for the current emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria under LOCA conditions for LWRs. The results of recent experiments indicate that the cladding alloy composition and high burnup effects influence LOCA acceptance criteria margins. In this report, we review some past important and recent experimental results. We first discuss the background to acceptance criteria for LOCA, namely, clad embrittlement phenomenology, clad embrittlement criteria (limitations on maximum clad oxidation and peak clad temperature) and the experimental bases for the criteria. Two broad kinds of test have been carried out under LOCA conditions: (i) Separate effect tests to study clad oxidation, clad deformation and rupture, and zirconium alloy allotropic phase transition during LOCA. (ii) Integral LOCA tests, in which the entire LOCA sequence is simulated on a single rod or a multi-rod array in a fuel bundle, in laboratory or in a tests and results are discussed and empirical correlations deduced from these tests and quantitative models are conferred. In particular, the impact of niobium in zirconium base clad and hydrogen content of the clad on allotropic phase transformation during LOCA and also the burst stress are discussed. We review some recent LOCA integral test results with emphasis on thermal shock tests. Finally, suggestions for modelling and further evaluation of certain experimental results are made.

  9. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  10. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  11. Characterization of PWR vessel steel tearing under severe accident condition temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheron, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.matheron@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chapuliot, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.chapuliot@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nicolas, Laetitia, E-mail: laetitia.nicolas@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Structures Industrielles Durables, UMR CNRS-EDF 2832, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart (France); Koundy, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.koundy@irsn.fr [IRSN-DSR, Service d' evaluation des Accidents Graves et des Rejets radioactifs B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Caroli, Cataldo, E-mail: cataldo.caroli@irsn.fr [IRSN-DSR, Service d' evaluation des Accidents Graves et des Rejets radioactifs B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterized French PWR vessel steel tearing resistance at high temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tearing tests on Compact Tension (CT) specimens were carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The variability of tearing properties with PWR vessels specifications was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a tearing criterion (energy parameter Gfr) at high temperatures. - Abstract: In the event of a severe core meltdown accident in a pressurised water reactor (PWR), core material can relocate into the lower head of the vessel resulting in significant thermal and pressure loads being imposed on the vessel. In the event of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure there is the possibility of core material being released towards the containment. On the basis of the loading conditions and the temperature distribution, the determination of the mode, timing, and size of lower head failure is of prime importance in the assessment of core melt accidents. This is because they define the initial conditions for ex-vessel events such as core/basemat interactions, fuel/coolant interactions, and direct containment heating. When lower head failure occurs (i) the understanding of the mechanism of lower head creep deformation; (ii) breach stability and its kinetic of propagation leading to the failure; (iii) and developing predictive modelling capabilities to better assess the consequences of ex-vessel processes, are of equal importance. The objective of this paper is to present an original characterization programme of vessel steel tearing properties by carrying out high temperature tearing tests on Compact Tension (CT) specimens. The influence of metallurgical composition on the kinetics of tearing is investigated as previous work on different RPV steels has shown a possible loss of ductility at high temperatures depending on the initial chemical composition of the vessel material. Small changes in the composition can lead

  12. Radioactive particulate release associated with the DOT specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.M.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    A testing program was conducted to determine the leakage of depleted uranium dioxide powder (DUO) from the inner containment components of the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions. Depleted uranium dioxide was selected as a surrogate for plutonium oxide because of the similarities in the powder characteristics, density and particle size, and because of the special handling and special facilities required for plutonium oxide. The DUO was packaged inside food pack cans in three different configurations inside the 2R vessel of the 6M container. The amount of DUO powder leakage ranged from none detectable (<2 x 10/sup -7/ g) to a high of 1 x 10/sup -3/ g. The combination of gravity, vibration and pressure produced the highest leakage of DUO. Containers that had hermetic seals (leak rates <6 x 10/sup -4/ atm cc/min) did not leak any detectable amount (<2 x 10/sup -7/ g) of DUO under the test conditions. Impact forces had no effect on the leakage of particles with the packaging configurations used. 23 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Thin film composite nanofiltration membranes for extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, Mayur Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on development and performance evaluation of thin film composite (TFC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes, with special attention to extreme pH applications. In Chapter 2 a new method that allows molecular weight cut off (MWCO) characterization of NF membran

  14. Reducing uncertainty in prediction of dune erosion during extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, C.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Van de Graaff, J.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal dunes protect low lying coastal areas against the sea. Extreme waves and water levels during severe storms may cause breaching of the dunes. Consequently, serious damage due to flooding and direct wave attack could occur, resulting in loss of life and property. Proper coastal management impl

  15. Generation IV benchmarking of TRISO fuel performance models under accident conditions: Modeling input data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document presents the benchmark plan for the calculation of particle fuel performance on safety testing experiments that are representative of operational accidental transients. The benchmark is dedicated to the modeling of fission product release under accident conditions by fuel performance codes from around the world, and the subsequent comparison to post-irradiation experiment (PIE) data from the modeled heating tests. The accident condition benchmark is divided into three parts: the modeling of a simplified benchmark problem to assess potential numerical calculation issues at low fission product release; the modeling of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis safety testing experiments; and, the comparison of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis modeling results with PIE data. The simplified benchmark case, thereafter named NCC (Numerical Calculation Case), is derived from ''Case 5'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on coated particle fuel technology [IAEA 2012]. It is included so participants can evaluate their codes at low fission product release. ''Case 5'' of the IAEA CRP-6 showed large code-to-code discrepancies in the release of fission products, which were attributed to ''effects of the numerical calculation method rather than the physical model''[IAEA 2012]. The NCC is therefore intended to check if these numerical effects subsist. The first two steps imply the involvement of the benchmark participants with a modeling effort following the guidelines and recommendations provided by this document. The third step involves the collection of the modeling results by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the comparison of these results with the available PIE data. The objective of this document is to provide all necessary input data to model the benchmark cases, and to give some methodology guidelines and recommendations in order to make all results suitable for comparison

  16. GEN-IV BENCHMARKING OF TRISO FUEL PERFORMANCE MODELS UNDER ACCIDENT CONDITIONS MODELING INPUT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise Paul [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    This document presents the benchmark plan for the calculation of particle fuel performance on safety testing experiments that are representative of operational accidental transients. The benchmark is dedicated to the modeling of fission product release under accident conditions by fuel performance codes from around the world, and the subsequent comparison to post-irradiation experiment (PIE) data from the modeled heating tests. The accident condition benchmark is divided into three parts: • The modeling of a simplified benchmark problem to assess potential numerical calculation issues at low fission product release. • The modeling of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis safety testing experiments. • The comparison of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis modeling results with PIE data. The simplified benchmark case, thereafter named NCC (Numerical Calculation Case), is derived from “Case 5” of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on coated particle fuel technology [IAEA 2012]. It is included so participants can evaluate their codes at low fission product release. “Case 5” of the IAEA CRP-6 showed large code-to-code discrepancies in the release of fission products, which were attributed to “effects of the numerical calculation method rather than the physical model” [IAEA 2012]. The NCC is therefore intended to check if these numerical effects subsist. The first two steps imply the involvement of the benchmark participants with a modeling effort following the guidelines and recommendations provided by this document. The third step involves the collection of the modeling results by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the comparison of these results with the available PIE data. The objective of this document is to provide all necessary input data to model the benchmark cases, and to give some methodology guidelines and recommendations in order to make all results suitable for comparison with each other. The participants should read

  17. Generation IV benchmarking of TRISO fuel performance models under accident conditions: Modeling input data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document presents the benchmark plan for the calculation of particle fuel performance on safety testing experiments that are representative of operational accidental transients. The benchmark is dedicated to the modeling of fission product release under accident conditions by fuel performance codes from around the world, and the subsequent comparison to post-irradiation experiment (PIE) data from the modeled heating tests. The accident condition benchmark is divided into three parts: the modeling of a simplified benchmark problem to assess potential numerical calculation issues at low fission product release; the modeling of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis safety testing experiments; and, the comparison of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis modeling results with PIE data. The simplified benchmark case, thereafter named NCC (Numerical Calculation Case), is derived from ''Case 5'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on coated particle fuel technology [IAEA 2012]. It is included so participants can evaluate their codes at low fission product release. ''Case 5'' of the IAEA CRP-6 showed large code-to-code discrepancies in the release of fission products, which were attributed to ''effects of the numerical calculation method rather than the physical model''[IAEA 2012]. The NCC is therefore intended to check if these numerical effects subsist. The first two steps imply the involvement of the benchmark participants with a modeling effort following the guidelines and recommendations provided by this document. The third step involves the collection of the modeling results by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the comparison of these results with the available PIE data. The objective of this document is to provide all necessary input data to model the benchmark cases, and to give some methodology guidelines and recommendations in order to make all results suitable for comparison

  18. Analysis on distribution of freeway accidents under various conditions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a current survey on the situation of freeway accidents in China. The results show that the accident rate, death toll, injury toll, and direct loss of property are 3.2, 8.4, 7.2, and 24.3 times that of the average for an ordinary highway in China. Freeway accidents occur mainly in Southern (20.77% and Central (20.2% China. With detailed data from Guangdong Province, the number of accidents in freeways with 80 km/h design speed (29.58/km/103 pcu was more than three times that in freeways with design speed of 100 km/h (9.54/km/103 pcu and 120 km/h (9.42/km/103 pcu. The total accident rate increased monotonously with the decrease in horizontal radius. The results indicate that 54.54% (/km/103 pcu of accidents occurred on a steep slope (4%–5%, representing about 10 times that of 3%–4% slope and 20 times that of the less than 3% slope. Based on the data, the safety situation of China’s highway transportation is obviously grim, and improving freeway heavy traffic management in economically developed regions, strengthening the safeguarding of mountain freeways, applying small radius and large vertical grade with caution, and developing a monitoring system of tunnels and interchanges could be used as effective measures to prevent freeway accidents.

  19. Coolability of corium debris under severe accident conditions in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saidur

    2013-11-15

    The debris bed which may be formed in different stages of a severe accident will be hot and heated by decay heat from the radioactive fission products. In order to establish a steady state of long-term cooling, this hot debris needs to be quenched at first. If quenching by water ingression into the dry bed is not rapid enough then heat-up by decay heat in still dry regions may again yield melting. Thus, chances of coolability must be investigated considering quenching against heat-up due to decay heat, in the context of reactor safety research. As a basis of the present investigations, models for simulation of two phase flow through porous medium were already available in the MEWA code, being under development at IKE. The objective of this thesis is to apply the code in essential phases of severe accidents and to investigate the chances, options and measures for coolability. Further, within the tasks, improvements to remove weaknesses in modeling and implementation of extensions concerning missing parts are included. It was identified previously that classical models without explicit considering the interfacial friction, can predict dryout heat flux (DHF) well under top fed condition but under-predict DHF values under bottom flooding conditions. Tung and Dhir introduced an interfacial friction term in their model, but this model has deficits for smaller particles considered as relevant for reactor conditions. Therefore, some modification of Tung and Dhir model is proposed in the present work to extent it for smaller particles. A significant improvement with the new friction description (Modified Tung and Dhir, MTD) is obtained considering the aim of a unified description for both top and bottom flooding conditions and for broad bandwidth of bed conditions. Calculations for reactor conditions are carried out in order to explore whether or to which degree coolability can be concluded, how strong the trend to coolability is and where major limits occur. The general

  20. Inclusion of models to describe severe accident conditions in the fuel simulation code DIONISIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Martín; Soba, Alejandro [Sección Códigos y Modelos, Gerencia Ciclo del Combustible Nuclear, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Daverio, Hernando [Gerencia Reactores y Centrales Nucleares, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Denis, Alicia [Sección Códigos y Modelos, Gerencia Ciclo del Combustible Nuclear, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-04-15

    The simulation of fuel rod behavior is a complex task that demands not only accurate models to describe the numerous phenomena occurring in the pellet, cladding and internal rod atmosphere but also an adequate interconnection between them. In the last years several models have been incorporated to the DIONISIO code with the purpose of increasing its precision and reliability. After the regrettable events at Fukushima, the need for codes capable of simulating nuclear fuels under accident conditions has come forth. Heat removal occurs in a quite different way than during normal operation and this fact determines a completely new set of conditions for the fuel materials. A detailed description of the different regimes the coolant may exhibit in such a wide variety of scenarios requires a thermal-hydraulic formulation not suitable to be included in a fuel performance code. Moreover, there exist a number of reliable and famous codes that perform this task. Nevertheless, and keeping in mind the purpose of building a code focused on the fuel behavior, a subroutine was developed for the DIONISIO code that performs a simplified analysis of the coolant in a PWR, restricted to the more representative situations and provides to the fuel simulation the boundary conditions necessary to reproduce accidental situations. In the present work this subroutine is described and the results of different comparisons with experimental data and with thermal-hydraulic codes are offered. It is verified that, in spite of its comparative simplicity, the predictions of this module of DIONISIO do not differ significantly from those of the specific, complex codes.

  1. Study on Transient Void Behavior During Reactivity Initiated Accidents Under Low Pressure Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Akira; Maruyama, Yu; Asaka, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hideo

    Series of out-of-pile experiments to obtain the knowledge on the transient void behavior during reactivity initiated accidents are in progress at JAEA. In the present series of experiments, the transient void behavior in a test section of 2 x 2 bundle geometry under atmospheric pressure condition was measured using an impedance technique. The measuring areas and the arrangement of electrodes for the impedance technique were defined on the basis of numerical analyses and scaled model experiments. The comparison was made between the impedance and differential pressure techniques for steady boiling experiments to estimate the accuracy of the impedance technique. The impedance technique showed a good agreement with the void fraction estimated from the differential pressure. The transient void behavior in the bundle geometry was measured using the impedance technique. The void fraction distribution in the bundle cross-section could be quantitatively obtained by the impedance technique. It could be properly confirmed that the transient void behavior depended on both the subcooling of inlet water and the heat generation rate of simulated fuel rods.

  2. Simulation of the transient processes of load rejection under different accident conditions in a hydroelectric generating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Peng, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-11-01

    Load rejection test is one of the essential tests that carried out before the hydroelectric generating set is put into operation formally. The test aims at inspecting the rationality of the design of the water diversion and power generation system of hydropower station, reliability of the equipment of generating set and the dynamic characteristics of hydroturbine governing system. Proceeding from different accident conditions of hydroelectric generating set, this paper presents the transient processes of load rejection corresponding to different accident conditions, and elaborates the characteristics of different types of load rejection. Then the numerical simulation method of different types of load rejection is established. An engineering project is calculated to verify the validity of the method. Finally, based on the numerical simulation results, the relationship among the different types of load rejection and their functions on the design of hydropower station and the operation of load rejection test are pointed out. The results indicate that: The load rejection caused by the accident within the hydroelectric generating set is realized by emergency distributing valve, and it is the basis of the optimization for the closing law of guide vane and the calculation of regulation and guarantee. The load rejection caused by the accident outside the hydroelectric generating set is realized by the governor. It is the most efficient measure to inspect the dynamic characteristics of hydro-turbine governing system, and its closure rate of guide vane set in the governor depends on the optimization result in the former type load rejection.

  3. Cosmic Matter under Extreme Conditions: CSQCD II Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Wambach, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    After the first meeting in Copenhagen in 2001 QSQCD II is the second workshop in this series dealing with cosmic matter at very high density and its astrophysical implications. The aim is to bring together reseachers in the physics of compact stars, both theoretical and observational. Consequently a broad range of topics was presented, reviewing extremely energetic cosmological events and their relation to the high-density equation of state of strong-interaction matter. This summary elucidates recent progress in the field, as presented by the participants, and comments on pertinent questions for future developments.

  4. Core safety of Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J B Joshi; A K Nayak; M Singhal; D Mukhopadhaya

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear power is currently the fourth largest source of electricity production in India after thermal, hydro and renewable sources of electricity. Currently, India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation and seven other reactors are under construction. Most of these reactors are indigenously designed and built Heavy Water Reactors. In addition, a 300 MWe Advanced Heavy Water Reactor has already been designed and in the process of deployment in near future for demonstration of power production from Thorium apart from enhanced safety features by passive means. India has ambitious plans to enhance the share of electricity production from nuclear. The recent Fukushima accident has raised concerns of safety of Nuclear Power Plants worldwide. The Fukushima accident was caused by extreme events, i.e., large earthquake followed by gigantic Tsunami which are not expected to hit India’s coast considering the geography of India and historical records. Nevertheless, systematic investigations have been conducted by nuclear scientists in India to evaluate the safety of the current Nuclear Power Plants in case of occurrence of such extreme events in any nuclear site. This paper gives a brief outline of the safety features of Indian Heavy Water Reactors for prevention and mitigation of such extreme events. The probabilistic safety analysis revealed that the risk from Indian Heavy Water Reactors are negligibly small.

  5. 基于极值理论的煤矿事故风险分析%Risk Analysis of Coal Mine Accidents Based on Extreme Value Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浪; 费明虎

    2012-01-01

    According to the statistics of monthly dead personnel data from coal mine accident in our recent ten years, we can draw a conclusion that, given different confidence level of mining accident, there is the maximum loss value of different risks, namely the big- gest potential accident death toll in each month based on the extreme value theory, which provides a theoretical guidance for the management of safety production in coal mine field.%运用极值理论,根据我国近十余年煤矿事故中每月死亡人员的统计数据,分别得出了在不同置信水平下,我国煤矿事故中的最大风险损失值,即未来事故中每月最大的潜在死亡人数,从而为我国开展煤矿安全生产管理工作提供理论指导。

  6. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  7. EXISTENCE OF EXTREME SOLUTION TO FIRST-ORDER IMPULSIVE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH NONLINEAR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the existence of extreme solutions to three-point boundary value problems with nonlinear boundary conditions for a class of first order impulsive differential equations. We obtain suficient conditions for the existence of extreme solutions by the upper and lower solutions method coupled with a monotone iterative technique.

  8. Rational Calibration of Four IEC 61400-1 Extreme External Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2008-01-01

    Based on a set of asymptotic statistical models on closed form this paper presents a rational and consistent calibration of four extreme external conditions defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-1 standard: extreme operating gust, extreme wind shear, extreme coherent...... gust with direction change and extreme wind direction change. These four extreme external conditions are used in the definition of six of the IEC 61400-1 ultimate load cases. The statistical models are based on simple and easily accessible mean wind speed and turbulence characteristics...... of the atmospheric boundary layer. Using the wind climate characteristics prescribed in the IEC 61400-1 standard as input to the set of statistical models ensures consistency between the specified wind climate and the proposed extreme gust magnitudes. Differences and equalities between the present IEC specifications...

  9. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Mo Koo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard requires that the normal signal level for pressure, flow, and resistance temperature detector sensors be in the range of 4~20 mA for most instruments. Whereas, in the case that an abnormal signal is expected from an instrument, such a signal should be refined through a signal validation process so that the refined signal could be available in the control room. For some abnormal signals expected under severe accident conditions, to date, diagnostics and response analysis have been evaluated with an equivalent circuit model of real instruments, which is regarded as the best method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a program designed to implement a diagnostic and response analysis for equivalent circuit modeling. The program links signal analysis tool code to abnormal signal simulation engine code not only as a one body order system, but also as a part of functions of a PC-based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analysis module developed to obtain a varying range of the R-C circuit elements in high temperature conditions. As a result, a special function for abnormal pulse signal patterns can be obtained through the program, which in turn makes it possible to analyze the abnormal output pulse signals through a response characteristic of a 4~20 mA circuit model and a range of the elements changing with temperature under an accident condition.

  10. A Study on Effects of Initial Conditions to the Fuel Integrity Analysis of Steam Generator Tube Rupture Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Seok; Kim, Ung Soo; Park, Min Soo; Huh, Jae Young; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    During SGTR accident, RCS pressure continuously decreases while the core power, core flow rate and core average temperature almost do not change until reactor trip occurs. As a result, the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) also continuously decreases, thus eroding the thermal margin to DNB. To identify no damage of the fuel cladding due to the onset of film boiling, it must be analyzed whether the heat flux is maintained below the critical heat flux or not. For this purpose, it is used to define the specified acceptable fuel design limit (SAFDL) of DNBR and evaluate that the DNBR stays above the SAFDL. Evaluating the DNBR in SGTR accident, several initial conditions are varied as that would challenge to the safety limit, or SAFDL. However, the effects of some initial conditions are complicate and difficult to be intuitively identified. The initial conditions mainly affect the minimum DNBR during SGTR accident are the initial core power, the initial RCS flow rate, the initial core inlet temperature and the initial pressurizer pressure. The conservative initial conditions for the core power and the RCS flow rate can be determined easily by qualitative evaluation. The others such as the initial core inlet temperature and the initial pressurizer pressure are complicate and difficult to be determined. From this study, it is identified that the maximum initial pressurizer pressure and the minimum initial core inlet temperature on SGTR accident most postpones the reactor trip resulting in smaller RCS inventory at the reactor trip time point. And the smaller RCS inventory at the time point of the reactor trip tends to make the DNBR undershoot larger which is a dominant factor to determine the minimum DNBR under a LOOP condition.

  11. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  12. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  13. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García

    Full Text Available Extremely hot days (EHD in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955–1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5°C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous

  14. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Prieto, L.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Camplutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-02-01

    Extremely hot days (EHD) in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955-1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5 C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high. (orig.)

  15. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    and peak enhancement factors, based on cyclonic storm conditions (Wehmeyer et al., 2012). 2. Based on Wehmeyer et al. (2012), a physical model test campaign was drafted, where an industry inspired floating offshore wind turbine was tested (Wehmeyer et al., 2013). 3. A comparison of measured pitch responses...

  16. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed

  17. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  18. Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: a multilevel perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-10-01

    Resilience has been conceptualized as a dynamic developmental process encompassing the attainment of positive adaptation within the context of significant threat, severe adversity, or trauma. Until the past decade, the empirical study of resilience predominantly focused on behavioral and psychosocial correlates of, and contributors to, the phenomenon and did not examine neurobiological or genetic correlates of and contributors to resilience. Technological advances in molecular genetics and neuroimaging, and in measuring other biological aspects of behavior, have made it more feasible to begin to conduct research on pathways to resilient functioning from a multilevel perspective. Child maltreatment constitutes a profound immersion in severe stress that challenges and frequently impairs development across diverse domains of biological and psychological functioning. Research on the determinants of resilience in maltreated children is presented as an illustration of empirical work that is moving from single-level to multilevel investigations of competent functioning in the face of adversity and trauma. These include studies of personality, neural, neuroendocrine, and molecular genetic contributors to resilient adaptation. Analogous to neural plasticity that takes place in response to brain injury, it is conjectured that it may be possible to conceptualize resilience as the ability of individuals to recover functioning after exposure to extreme stress. Multilevel randomized control prevention and intervention trials have substantial potential for facilitating the promotion of resilient functioning in diverse high-risk populations that have experienced significant adversity. Determining the multiple levels at which change is engendered through randomized control trials will provide insight into the mechanisms of change, the extent to which neural plasticity may be promoted, and the interrelations between biological and psychological processes in the development of

  19. The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Jaclyn Nicole; Yang, Jingzhen; Thomas, Geb; Wu, Hongqian; Schiltz, Trisha; Foster, Danny T

    2013-08-01

    Considerable improvement has been made in football field surfaces and types of shoe, yet relatively few epidemiological studies have investigated their roles in the risk of football injuries. This study examined the effects of field surface, surface condition and shoe type on the likelihood of lower extremity football injuries. Deidentified data from 188 players from one division I university football team during the 2007-2010 seasons were analysed. Lower extremity injury rate and rate ratio, along with 95% confidence limits, were calculated by football activity, playing surface condition and shoe type. A total of 130 lower extremity injuries were sustained, with an overall lower extremity injury rate of 33.5/10 000 athlete-sessions. The lower extremity injury rate was 2.61 times higher when the surface condition was abnormal compared with when the surface condition was normal. During games, the risk for lower extremity injury was 3.34 times higher (95% CI 1.70 to 6.56) on artificial turf compared with natural grass. However, this trend was not statistically significant in practice sessions. Furthermore, neither the number of shoe cleats nor the height of the shoe top was statistically associated with risk of lower extremity injuries. Football players who played on artificial turf or when the surface condition was abnormal were susceptible to lower extremity injuries. Evidence from this study suggests that further research into playing surfaces and shoe types may provide fruitful opportunities to reduce injuries to collegiate football players.

  20. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  1. Inference for Extremal Conditional Quantile Models, with an Application to Market and Birthweight Risks

    CERN Document Server

    Chernozhukov, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Quantile regression is an increasingly important empirical tool in economics and other sciences for analyzing the impact of a set of regressors on the conditional distribution of an outcome. Extremal quantile regression, or quantile regression applied to the tails, is of interest in many economic and financial applications, such as conditional value-at-risk, production efficiency, and adjustment bands in (S,s) models. In this paper we provide feasible inference tools for extremal conditional quantile models that rely upon extreme value approximations to the distribution of self-normalized quantile regression statistics. The methods are simple to implement and can be of independent interest even in the non-regression case. We illustrate the results with two empirical examples analyzing extreme fluctuations of a stock return and extremely low percentiles of live infants' birthweights in the range between 250 and 1500 grams.

  2. Water-CO2 Mixtures Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, D. L.; Somayazulu, M.

    2010-12-01

    In situ high pressure-temperature Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the formation of clathrates in water-CO2 mixtures and to study the chemical interactions between water and CO2 at supercritical conditions. Diamond anvil cell’s (DAC) were loaded with ruby, water, CO2, and a gold plated gasket. Quartz was later added to the cell as a pressure sensor for supercritical phase analysis. At 25 °C and within the pressure range of 0.8 to 2.6 GPa, no clathrate was observed. Our results confirm recent findings which also dispute claims of clathrate existence at our conditions. A decrease in the temperature required to reach the supercritical phase of water-CO2 mixtures was observed from 0.35 GPa to 4.5 GPa. Furthermore, at 4.4 GPa and 290 °C, a chemical reaction between CO2 and water occurred. The resulting compound has a Raman peak with a frequency shift of 1000 cm-1. This reaction and the compound it produces are of great interest and are currently being investigated.

  3. Nuclear power plant accident simulations of gasket materials under simultaneous radiation plus thermal plus mechanical stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, K.T.; Malone, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    In order to probe the response of silicone door gasket materials to a postulated severe accident in an Italian nuclear power plant, compression stress relaxation (CSR) and compression set (CS) measurements were conducted under combined radiation (approximately 6 kGy/h) and temperature (up to 230{degrees}C) conditions. By making some reasonable initial assumptions, simplified constant temperature and dose rates were derived that should do a reasonable job of simulating the complex environments for worst-case severe events that combine overall aging plus accidents. Further simplification coupled with thermal-only experiments allowed us to derive thermal-only conditions that can be used to achieve CSR and CS responses similar to those expected from the combined environments that are more difficult to simulate. Although the thermal-only simulations should lead to sealing forces similar to those expected during a severe accident, modulus and density results indicate that significant differences in underlying chemistry are expected for the thermal-only and the combined environment simulations. 15 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional

  5. Matter under Extreme Conditions: Advances Based on Static Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2008-04-01

    Current technological advances make it possible to perform experiments on materials at static or sustained conditions to multimegabar pressures (several hundred GPa) and several thousand degree (˜1 eV) temperatures. Densities of condensed matter can now be increased over an order of magnitude, causing novel transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area has been made possible by advances in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with a wide range of probes, including x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. Examples include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials. Particularly exciting are new developments in time resolved methods and coupling of static and dynamic compression techniques made possible by the creation of new large-scale facilities and novel technologies.

  6. A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof

    and peak enhancement factors, based on cyclonic storm conditions (Wehmeyer et al., 2012). 2. Based on Wehmeyer et al. (2012), a physical model test campaign was drafted, where an industry inspired floating offshore wind turbine was tested (Wehmeyer et al., 2013). 3. A comparison of measured pitch responses...... versus responses from an in-house developed numerical tool, as well as a code to code comparison in regular non-linear waves served as initial key performance indicator of numerical model quality and good agreement was found (Wehmeyer et al., 2014). 4. As a final step, the numerical model was extended...... in order to include non-linear irregular incident waves as well as non-linear irregular incident waves with an embedded Stream-function wave. A linear background sea state into which a Stream-function wave was embedded was assumed no longer appropriate. Therefore a 2nd order sea state model was developed...

  7. Hungarian surveillance of germinal mutations. Lack of detectable increase in indicator conditions caused by germinal mutations following the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeizel, A. (National Inst. of Hygiene, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Human Genetics and Teratology)

    1989-07-01

    The Hungarian surveillance of germinal mutations is based on three indicator conditions seen in offspring, i.e., 15 sentinel anomalies, Down syndrome and component anomaly pairs of unidentified multiple congenital anomalies. It is an 'opportunistic program', because the necessary data are available from the Hungarian Congenital Malformation Registry. This system is described and the criteria of a good registry are summarized. The analysis of indicator conditions caused by germinal mutations did not reveal any measurable mutagenic effects in Hungary following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The pros and cons of germinal mutation surveillance are discussed. (orig.).

  8. Rehabilitation of living conditions in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochard, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The ETHOS Project, supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (EC), was implemented in the mid-1990's with the support of the Belarus authorities as a pilot project to initiate a new approach for the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the Republic. This initiative followed a series of studies performed in the context of the EC Community of Independent States cooperation program to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), which clearly brought to the fore that a salient characteristic of the situation in these territories was the progressive and general loss of control of the population on its daily life. Furthermore, due to the economic difficulties during the years following the breakdown of the USSR, the population was developing private production and, in the absence of know-how and adequate means to control the radiological quality of foodstuffs, the level of internal exposure was rising significantly. The aim of the project was primarily to involve directly the population wishing to stay in the territories in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation with the goal of improving their protection and their living conditions. It was based on clear ethical principles and implemented by an interdisciplinary team of European experts with specific skills in radiation protection, agronomy, social risk management, communication, and cooperation in complex situations, with the support of local authorities and professionals. In a first phase (1996-1999), the ETHOS Project was implemented in a village located in the Stolyn District in the southern part of Belarus. During this phase, a few tens of villagers were involved in a step-by-step evaluation of the local radiological situation to progressively regain control of their daily life. In a second phase (1999-2001), the ETHOS Project was extended to four other localities of the District with the objective to

  9. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  10. A study of fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions — review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Michio; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    1980-11-01

    Results obtained in the 400 tests performed to simulate reactivity initiated accidents since 1975 in the Japanese Nuclear Safety Research Reactor, are described. Tests included the effects of cooling environment, defective fuel elements, fuel design parameters, the behaviour of fuel elements for various reactor types, all done for a wide range of energy deposition. Four types of basic fuel failure mechanisms have been established, and are discussed in detail: cladding melt failure, UO 2 melt failure, high temperature burst failure and low temperature burst failure. Future test plans up to 1990 are out-lined and features requiring particular attention are pointed out.

  11. Behavior of irradiated BWR fuel under reactivity-initiated-accident conditions; Results of tests FK-1, -2 and -3

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels with burnups of 41 to 45 GWd/tU were pulse-irradiated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate fuel behavior under cold startup reactivity-initiated-accident (RIA) conditions. BWR fuel segment rods of 8times8BJ (STEP I) type from Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 nuclear power plant were refabricated into short test rods, and they were subjected to prompt enthalpy insertion from 293 to 607 J/g (70 to 145 cal/g) within about 20 ms. The fuel cladding...

  12. Applicability of simplified human reliability analysis methods for severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, R.; St Germain, S. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Banaseanu, G.; Chatri, H.; Akl, Y. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Most contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods were created to analyse design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants. As part of a comprehensive expansion of risk assessments at many plants internationally, HRAs will begin considering severe accident scenarios. Severe accidents, while extremely rare, constitute high consequence events that significantly challenge successful operations and recovery. Challenges during severe accidents include degraded and hazardous operating conditions at the plant, the shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, the unavailability of plant instrumentation, and the need to use different types of operating procedures. Such shifts in operations may also test key assumptions in existing HRA methods. This paper discusses key differences between design basis and severe accidents, reviews efforts to date to create customized HRA methods suitable for severe accidents, and recommends practices for adapting existing HRA methods that are already being used for HRAs at the plants. (author)

  13. A diagnostic system for identifying accident conditions in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, T.V., E-mail: santoshiitb@yahoo.co [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kumar, M.; Thangamani, I.; Srivastava, A.; Dutta, A.; Verma, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Ganju, S.; Chatterjee, B.; Rao, V.V.S.S.; Lele, H.G.; Ghosh, A.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: Neural networks based diagnostic system has been developed to identify transients quickly, estimate the source-term and assist the operator to take corrective actions during abnormal situations in 220 MWe PHWRs. The transient data for the break scenarios ranging from 20% to 200% has been generated using RELAP5 and CONTRAN codes. 32 break scenarios of large break LOCA in inlet and outlet reactor headers with and without ECCS have been analyzed using artificial neural networks. A few break scenarios were directly predicted without being trained earlier. Test results obtained from ANN are within the acceptable range. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop a system, which assists the operator in identifying an accident quickly using ANNs that diagnoses the accidents based on reactor process parameters, and continuously displays the status of the nuclear reactor. A large database of transient data of reactor process parameters has been generated for reactor core, containment, environmental dispersion and radiological dose to train the ANNs. These data have been generated using various codes e.g., RELAP5-thermal-hydraulics code for the core. The present version of this system is capable of identifying large break LOCA scenarios of 220 MWe Indian PHWRs. The system has been designed to provide the necessary information to the operator to handle emergency situations when the reactor is operating. The diagnostic results obtained from ANNs study are satisfactory.

  14. Analysis of Severe Accident for the SFP under the Condition of Drainage using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung-Min; Pack, Jae-Woo [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to analyze the effect of a LOCA of the spent fuel pool. We use the MECORE 1.8.6 code to compute the variation of the fuel cladding temperature after a completer loss of the cooling water in the spent fuel pool. A loss of coolant accident in a typical spent fuel pool has been simulated using the MELCOR 1.8.6 code to see the variation of key parameters such as the oxygen concentration in the fuel assembly region and the cladding temperature. In a commercial nuclear power plant, highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies unloaded from the nuclear reactor core are typically stored for a period of time in the spent fuel pool to reduce the radioactivity. The spent fuel assemblies are usually placed in long square racks. It is known that in the progress of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the cooling water in the spent fuel storage was completely lost and the fuel was heated up and damaged. The simulation result shows that the cladding temperature exceeds the rupture temperature in most of the fuel rods and some part of the fuel rods suffers melting of the cladding.

  15. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  16. Ruthenium release modelling in air under severe accident conditions using the MAAP4 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuzet, E.; Lamy, J.S. [EDF R and D, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92140 Clamart (France); Perron, H. [EDF R and D, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, F-77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Simoni, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite de Paris Sud XI, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2010-07-01

    In a nuclear power plant (NPP), in some situations of low probability of severe accidents, an air ingress into the vessel occurs. Air is a highly oxidizing atmosphere that can lead to an enhanced core degradation affecting the release of Fission Products (FPs) to the environment (source term). Indeed, Zircaloy-4 cladding oxidation by air yields 85% more heat than by steam. Besides, UO{sub 2} can be oxidised to UO{sub 2+x} and mixed with Zr, which may lead to a decrease of the fuel melting temperature. Finally, air atmosphere can enhance the FPs release, noticeably that of ruthenium. Ruthenium is of particular interest for two main reasons: first, its high radiotoxicity due to its short and long half-life isotopes ({sup 103}Ru and {sup 106}Ru respectively) and second, its ability to form highly volatile compounds such as ruthenium gaseous tetra-oxide (RuO{sub 4}). Considering that the oxygen affinity decreases between cladding, fuel and ruthenium inclusions, it is of great need to understand the phenomena governing fuel oxidation by air and ruthenium release as prerequisites for the source term issues. A review of existing data on ruthenium release, controlled by fuel oxidation, leads us to implement a new model in the EDF version of MAAP4 severe accident code (Modular Accident Analysis Program). This model takes into account the fuel stoichiometric deviation and the oxygen partial pressure evolution inside the fuel to simulate its oxidation by air. Ruthenium is then oxidised. Its oxides are released by volatilisation above the fuel. All the different ruthenium oxides formed and released are taken into consideration in the model, in terms of their particular reaction constants. In this way, partial pressures of ruthenium oxides are given in the atmosphere so that it is possible to know the fraction of ruthenium released in the atmosphere. This new model has been assessed against an analytical test of FPs release in air atmosphere performed at CEA (VERCORS RT8). The

  17. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  18. The reaction between iodine and organic coatings under severe PWR accident conditions. An experimental parameter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, S.; Funke, F.; Greger, G.U.; Bleier, A.; Morell, W. [Siemens AG, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    An extensive experimental parameter study was performed on the deposition and on the resuspension kinetics in the reaction system iodine/organically coated surfaces. Both reactions in the gas phase and in the liquid phase were investigated and kinetic rate constants suitable for modelling were derived. Previous experimental studies on the reaction of iodine with organic coated surfaces were mostly limited to temperatures below 100{sup o}C. Thus, this parameter study aims at filling a gap and providing kinetic data on heterogeneous reactions with organic surfaces in the accident-relevant temperature range of 100-160{sup o}C. Two types of laboratory experiments carried out at Siemens/KWU using coatings representative for German power plants (epoxy-tape paint), namely gas phase tests and liquid phase tests. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs.

  19. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heames, T.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Chown, N.M. (UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith (UK)); Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Wheatley, C.J. (UKAEA Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth (UK))

    1990-10-01

    This document provides a description of a model of the radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident. This document serves as the user's manual for the computer code called VICTORIA, based upon the model. The VICTORIA code predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions between fission products and structural materials, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. This document provides a detailed description of each part of the implementation of the model into VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided. The VICTORIA code was developed upon a CRAY-XMP at Sandia National Laboratories in the USA and a CRAY-2 and various SUN workstations at the Winfrith Technology Centre in England. 60 refs.

  20. Angra 1 high burnup fuel behaviour under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.b, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The 16x16 NGF (Next Generation Fuel) fuel assembly, comprising of highly corrosive-resistant ZIRLO clad fuel rods, been replacing the current 16x16 Standard (16STD) fuel assembly in the Angra 1, a pressurized water reactor, with a net output of 626 MWe. The 16x16 NGF fuel assemblies are designed for a peak rod average burnup of up to 75 GWd/MTU, thus improving fuel utilization and reducing spent fuel storage issues. A design basis accident, the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA), became a concern for a further increase in burnup as the simulated RIA tests revealed a lower enthalpy threshold for fuel failure. Two fuel performance codes, FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN, were used to predict high burnup behavior of Angra 1, during an RIA. The maximum average linear fuel rating used was 17.62 KW/m. The FRAPCON 3.4 code was applied to simulate the steady-state performance of the 16 NGF fuel rods up to a burnup of 55 GWd/MTU. With FRAPTRAN-1.4 the fuel behavior was simulated for an RIA power pulse of 4.5 ms (FHWH), and enthalpy peak of 130 Cal/g. With FRAPCON-3.4, the corrosion and hydrogen pickup characteristics of the advanced ZIRLO clad fuel rods were added to the code by modifying the actual corrosion model for Zircaloy-4 through the multiplication of empirical factors, which were appropriate to each alloy, and by means of reducing the current hydrogen pickup fraction. (author)

  1. The influence of the crust layer on RPV structural failure under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jianfeng, E-mail: jianfeng-mao@163.com [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Li, Xiangqing [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Bao, Shiyi [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Luo, Lijia [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior. • The RPV failure is investigated in depth under severe accident. • The creep and plastic damage mainly contribute to RPV failure. • An elastic core in RPV wall is essential for ensuring RPV integrity. • The multiaxial state of stress accelerates the total damage evolution. - Abstract: The so called ‘in-vessel retention (IVR)’ is regarded as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy, which is widely used in most of advanced nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of IVR strategy is to employ the external water flooding to cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The RPV integrity has to be maintained within a required period during the IVR period. The degraded melting core is assumed to be arrested in the lower head (LH) to form the melting pool that is bounded by upper, side and lower crusts. Consequently, the existence of the crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior as well as failure process. In order to disclose this influence caused by the crust layer, a detailed investigation is conducted by using numerical simulation on the two RPVs with and without crust layer respectively. Taking the RPV without crust layer as a basis for the comparison, the present study assesses the likelihood and potential failure location, time and mode of the LH under the loadings of the critical heat flux (CHF) and slight internal pressure. Due to the high temperature melt on the inside and nucleate boiling on the outside, the RPV integrity is found to be compromised by melt-through, creep, elasticity, plasticity as well as thermal expansion. Through in-depth investigation, it is found that the creep and plasticity are of vital importance to the final structural failure, and the introduction of crust layer results in a significant change on field parameters in terms of temperature, deformation, stress(strain), triaxiality factor and total damage.

  2. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John C. WINGFIELD; J. Patrick KELLEY; Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-01-01

    Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a) modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b) reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c) a combination of (a) and (b). Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP) buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11β-hydroxysteroid dehy-drogenase and variants) can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather.

  3. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  4. Proceedings of the second symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The second symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on January 24 to 26, 2000. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as nuclear matter, high-energy nuclear reactions, quantum chromodynamics, supernovae and nucleosynthesis to understand various aspects of hadrons under extreme conditions. The 26 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Conditional Second Order Short-crested Water Waves Applied to Extreme Wave Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    A derivation of the mean second order short-crested wave pattern and associated wave kinematics, conditional on a given magnitude of the wave crest, is presented. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean finite water wave theory. A comparison with a measured extreme wave profile......, the Draupner New Year Wave, shows a good agreement in the mean, indicating that this second order wave can be a good identifier of the shape and occurrence of extreme wave events. A discussion on its use as an initial condition for a fully non-linear three-dimensional surface wave analysis is given....

  6. Analysis of ex-vessel melt jet breakup and coolability. Part 1: Sensitivity on model parameters and accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Byoungcheol; Jung, Woo Hyun

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of JASMINE code to melt jet breakup and coolability in APR1400 condition. • Coolability indexes for quasi steady state breakup and cooling process. • Typical case in complete breakup/solidification, film boiling quench not reached. • Significant impact of water depth and melt jet size; weak impact of model parameters. - Abstract: The breakup of a melt jet falling in a water pool and the coolability of the melt particles produced by such jet breakup are important phenomena in terms of the mitigation of severe accident consequences in light water reactors, because the molten and relocated core material is the primary heat source that governs the accident progression. We applied a modified version of the fuel–coolant interaction simulation code, JASMINE, developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to a plant scale simulation of melt jet breakup and cooling assuming an ex-vessel condition in the APR1400, a Korean advanced pressurized water reactor. Also, we examined the sensitivity on seven model parameters and five initial/boundary condition variables. The results showed that the melt cooling performance of a 6 m deep water pool in the reactor cavity is enough for removing the initial melt enthalpy for solidification, for a melt jet of 0.2 m initial diameter. The impacts of the model parameters were relatively weak and that of some of the initial/boundary condition variables, namely the water depth and melt jet diameter, were very strong. The present model indicated that a significant fraction of the melt jet is not broken up and forms a continuous melt pool on the containment floor in cases with a large melt jet diameter, 0.5 m, or a shallow water pool depth, ≤3 m.

  7. RAIM-A model for iodine behavior in containment under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Chul; Cho, Yeong Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Following a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, iodine is a major contributor to the potential health risks for the public. Because the amount of iodine released largely depends on its volatility, iodine's behavior in containment has been extensively studied in international programs such as International Source Term Programme-Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation (EPICUR), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-Behaviour of Iodine Project, and OECD-Source Term Evaluation and Mitigation. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has joined these programs and is developing a simplified, stand-alone iodine chemistry model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model), based on the IMOD methodology and other previous studies. This model deals with chemical reactions associated with the formation and destruction of iodine species and surface reactions in the containment atmosphere and the sump in a simple manner. RAIM was applied to a simulation of four EPICUR tests and one Radioiodine Test Facility test, which were carried out in aqueous or gaseous phases. After analysis, the results show a trend of underestimation of organic and molecular iodine for the gas-phase experiments, the opposite of that for the aqueous-phase ones, whereas the total amount of volatile iodine species agrees well between the experiment and the analysis result.

  8. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  9. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  10. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  11. Special Features of the Carbonitriding of Parts of Instrument Bearings Designed for Extreme Service Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. E.; Shevchenko, S. Yu.; Shchipunov, V. S.; Kunyaev, V. E.; Seval'nev, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    A study is made of complexly alloyed steel 8Kh4V9F2-Sh, which is used for fabricating parts of engineering bearings operating under extreme conditions. Vacuum processes are shown to be preferable to gas carburizing for hardening the races of precision bearings. Vacuum carburizing is shown to be an effective technique for forming quality diffusion layers.

  12. Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2013-05-06

    The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenomena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a rupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefore, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that minimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlying phenomena. The combination of inter-diffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. This project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses; and, Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena.

  13. Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy Investigating Extreme Physical Conditions with Advanced Optical Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Baldassare

    2005-01-01

    Advanced spectroscopic techniques allow the probing of very small systems and very fast phenomena, conditions that can be considered "extreme" at the present status of our experimentation and knowledge. Quantum dots, nanocrystals and single molecules are examples of the former and events on the femtosecond scale examples of the latter. The purpose of this book is to examine the realm of phenomena of such extreme type and the techniques that permit their investigations. Each author has developed a coherent section of the program starting at a somewhat fundamental level and ultimately reaching the frontier of knowledge in the field in a systematic and didactic fashion. The formal lectures are complemented by additional seminars.

  14. Matter under extreme conditions probed by a seeded free-electron-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencivenga, F.; Principi, E.; Cucini, R.; Danailov, M. B.; Demidovich, A.; D’Amico, F.; Di Fonzo, S.; Gessini, A.; Kurdi, N.; Mahne, N.; Raimondi, L.; Zangrando, M.; Masciovecchio, C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Italy); Giangrisostomi, E.; Battistoni, A.; Svetina, C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, Piazzale Europa, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Gunnella, R.; Hatada, K. [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Filipponi, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita' dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); and others

    2015-08-17

    FERMI is the first user dedicated seeded free-electron-laser (FEL) working in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray range. The EIS-TIMEX experimental end-station was availabe to external users since from the beginning of the user operation of the facility, in Dicember 2012. EIS-TIMEX has been conceived to exploit the unique properties of the FERMI source to study matter under extreme and metastable thermodynamic conditions. We hereby report on its basic parameters and applications, which includes very low jitter (i.e., high time resolution) pump-probe measurements.

  15. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakhov V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  16. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. WINGFIELD, J. Patrick KELLEY, Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c a combination of (a and (b. Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and variants can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather [Current Zoology 57 (3: 363–374, 2011].

  17. Thermodynamic evaluation of the solidification phase of molten core-concrete under estimated Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Toru; Yano, Kimihiko; Ogino, Hideki; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2017-04-01

    The solidification phases of molten core-concrete under the estimated molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) conditions in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 were predicted using the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation tool, FactSage 6.2, and the NUCLEA database in order to contribute toward the 1F decommissioning work and to understand the accident progression via the analytical results for the 1F MCCI products. We showed that most of the U and Zr in the molten core-concrete forms (U,Zr)O2 and (Zr,U)SiO4, and the formation of other phases with these elements is limited. However, the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 requires a relatively long time because it involves a change in the crystal structure from fcc-(U,Zr)O2 to tet-(U,Zr)O2, followed by the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 by reaction with SiO2. Therefore, the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 is limited under quenching conditions. Other common phases are the oxide phases, CaAl2Si2O8, SiO2, and CaSiO3, and the metallic phases of the Fe-Si and Fe-Ni alloys. The solidification phenomenon of the crust under quenching conditions and that of the molten pool under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the 1F MCCI progression are discussed.

  18. Recent condition of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-07-01

    Japanese government pronounced that the second step had been succeeded in the cooling down of the reactors on the middle of Dec 2011 at Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. In future, government aims to take out fuels from 4 reactors and shields their units. The nuclear power plants in Japan are gradually decreasing, because the checking for them has been performed and the permission of the re-start of them are difficult to be gained. On January 1st 2012, only 7 units are operating in Japan, though the about 54 units were set before the accident. At the end of December 2011, most radiations are emitted from cesium. The radioactivity in air and land around the plant was daily reported in newspaper. Government often gave the information about some RI-contamination in foods. They were taken off from the markets. At now stage, the most important project is the decontamination of radioactive materials from houses, schools, public facilities and industries. Government will newly classify three evacuation areas from April 2012. At the end of March, evacuees under 20 mSv/year possibly can go back their homes (evacuation-free area). The environmental doses will be depressed by decontamination under 10 mSv/year. At the range of 20-50 mSv, people will be controlled to live these area, they can go back their houses temporally (evacuation area). Over 50 mSv/year, however, people can go back house until 5 years at least (prohibited area). In new radiation limitation for a risk of human health, government made 100 mSv and 20 mSv for life span for one year, respectively. The aim of decontamination was set up to 10 mSv for 1 year and 5 mSv for next stage. A target at school is under1 mSv for children. Government accepted a new severe limitation per1 Kg at four groups; milk of baby (100 Bq) and milk (100 Bq), drinking water (10 Bq) and food (100 Bq). Tokyo electric Power Company and government should pay the sufficient compensation to evacuees. In future, they should keep health

  19. Functional Muscular Condition Dynamics at Osteoarthrosis Conservative Treatment of Major Joints of Lower Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.S. Sayfutdinov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of global electromyography has been used for the evaluation of 231 patients aged from 16 to 74 (43,7±0,8 with bilateral osteoarthrosis of major joints of lower extremities I-III degrees before the course of conservative treatment, immediately after the end of conservative treatment and in three months. Conservative treatment of patients with osteoarthrosis of major joints of lower extremities has been shown to cause restructuring of EMG patterns of maximal voluntary muscle contraction in lower extremities accompanied by decreased asymmetry of activity levels in muscle pairs and less observations of pathologically changed EMG that results in improved functional condition of the locomotor system.

  20. Photolysis of tembotrione and its main by-products under extreme artificial conditions:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvayrac, Christophe; Bontemps, Nataly [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Nouga-Bissoue, Achille [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l' Enseignement Technique (ENSET), Université de Douala, BP 2701 Douala (Cameroon); Romdhane, Sana; Coste, Camille-Michel [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Cooper, Jean-Francois, E-mail: cooper@univ-perp.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie des Biomolécules et de l' Environnement (LCBE, EA 4215), Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD), 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France)

    2013-05-01

    The photolytic behaviour of tembotrione, a new chemical herbicide intended for foliar application in corn, was investigated under unnatural and extreme photochemical exposure in aqueous solutions in the laboratory. It appeared that degradation was dependent on pH and occurred more rapidly under acidic and neutral conditions, leading predominantly to the formation of a xanthenedione type compound by intramolecular cyclisation with loss of HCl. Trace amounts of benzoic acid by-products appeared also during UV-C irradiation (λ = 254 nm) of the parent compound. Results were comparable to those obtained with sulcotrione, another β-triketone herbicide. These extreme irradiation conditions clearly accelerated the phototransformation of sulcotrione vs. simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the photolysis of the degradation by-products, resulting from either photolysis, hydrolysis or biotic pathways of the two active ingredients, was also carried out. The benzoic acid by-products appeared more stable to photolysis than their parent molecules. Xanthenedione derivatives were degraded more rapidly with several differences depending on the pH value. - Highlights: • Tembotrione and sulcotrione water photolysis appeared enhanced under unnatural and extreme conditions. • Triketones were easily photodegraded under acidic and neutral conditions. • Xanthenedione derivatives were the predominant by-products. • Phototransformation of xanthenedione derivatives was pH-dependent. • Benzoic acid derivatives can be relatively stable.

  1. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  2. Proceedings of the third symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The third symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on January 29 to 31, 2001. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of hadron physics such as nuclear matter, high-energy nuclear reactions, quantum chromodynamics, neutron stars, supernovae, nucleosynthesis as well as finite nuclei to understand various aspects of hadrons under extreme conditions. Twenty two papers on these topics presented at the symposium, including a special talk on the present status of JAERI-KEK joint project on high-intensity proton accelerator, aroused lively discussions among approximately 40 participants. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Improvised purification methods for obtaining individual drinking water supply under war and extreme shortage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlicic, A; Hadzic, A; Bevanda, H

    1994-01-01

    Supplying an adequate amount of drinking water to a population is a complex problem that becomes an extremely difficult task in war conditions. In this paper, several simple methods for obtaining individual supplies of drinking water by filtration of atmospheric water with common household items are reported. Samples of atmospheric water (rain and snow) were collected, filtered, and analyzed for bacteriological and chemical content. The ability of commonly available household materials (newspaper, filter paper, gauze, cotton, and white cotton cloth) to filter water from the environmental sources was compared. According to chemical and biological analysis, the best results were obtained by filtering melted snow from the ground through white cotton cloth. Atmospheric water collected during war or in extreme shortage conditions can be purified with simple improvised filtering techniques and, if chlorinated, used as an emergency potable water source.

  4. The limits of the adaptation of life to extreme conditions (in connection with problems of exobiology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Accommodation is discussed as a universal evolutionary principle which essentially will apply to all life forms, regardless of chemical base (carbon, silicon, etc.). Life forms must either adapt to extreme conditions or perish, and for any life form an extremum factor is any significant deviation in environmental parameters. The possibility of life forms existing in specific extraterrestrial environments is discussed, and a conclusion is drawn which unequivocally states that through many forms of accommodation life is possible in many different environments.

  5. Life at extreme conditions: Neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joseph (Giuseppe) Zaccai

    2008-10-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37°C) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4°C, 37°C, 75°C and 85°C. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells.

  6. Extreme conditions over Europe and North America: role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is the result and possibly the source of marked modulations of the climate over many areas of the globe. For instance, the relatively warm and dry climate of North America throughout the 30-yr interval of 1931-60, during which the Dust Bowl and the 1950's drought occurred, has been linked to the concomitant warm phase of the AMV. During this period relative warm and wet conditions prevailed over Europe. After 1960, the Atlantic began to cool, and for almost three decades the North American climate turned wetter and cooler whereas Europe experienced cooler and dryer conditions. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period suggested by longer proxy (~60-80yr) does not allow to firmly conclude on the causal effect of the AMV. We use a model approach to isolate the causal role of the AMV on the occurrence of extreme events over Europe and North America. We present experiments based on two GFDL global climate models, a low resolution version, CM2.1 and a higher resolution model for the atmospheric component, FLOR. In both model experiments sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic sector are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (100 members for CM2.1 and 50 for FLOR) that we run for 20 years. We find that a positive phase of the AMV increases the frequency of occurrence of drought over North America and of extremely cold/warm conditions over Northern/Central Europe during winter/summer. Interestingly, we find that the AMV impacts on these extreme conditions are modulated by the Pacific response to the AMV itself. Members that develop a weak Pacific response show more extreme events over Europe whereas those that develop a strong Pacific response show more extreme events over North America.

  7. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000{degree}F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion ( bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled.

  8. [Hygienic problems of population health maintenance under the extremal conditions of North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A I; Istomin, A V; Shushkova, T S; Ustiushin, B V; Iudina, T V; Maĭmulov, V G; Raengulov, B M; Shagdarova, A N

    2005-01-01

    A range of multi-sided studies, carried out in various regions of Far North (Jamalo-Nenets autonomous region, Komi republic, Sakha republic (Yakutia)) have established the leading hygienic risk factors of population health deterioration, including those characteristic of small nationalities of North. The consideration of the obtained data, including regional alimentary status peculiarities, the condition of metabolic processes and antioxidant balance of the organism, allowed establishment of effective approaches to the maintenance of notherners' health. These approaches are based upon the optimization of nutrition as an element of population health control under extremal conditions.

  9. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Träger-Chatterjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture–atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958–2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with

  10. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Müller, R. W.; Bendix, J.

    2013-05-01

    Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958-2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with extremely low precipitation

  11. Feasibility study of superconducting power cables for DC electric railway feeding systems in view of thermal condition at short circuit accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Daisuke; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    A superconducting power cable has merits of a high power transmission capacity, transmission losses reduction, a compactness, etc., therefore, we have been studying the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to DC electric railway feeding systems. However, a superconducting power cable is required to be cooled down and kept at a very low temperature, so it is important to reveal its thermal and cooling characteristics. In this study, electric circuit analysis models of the system and thermal analysis models of superconducting cables were constructed and the system behaviors were simulated. We analyzed the heat generation by a short circuit accident and transient temperature distribution of the cable to estimate the value of temperature rise and the time required from the accident. From these results, we discussed a feasibility of superconducting cables for DC electric railway feeding systems. The results showed that the short circuit accident had little impact on the thermal condition of a superconducting cable in the installed system.

  12. Reduced CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands under more extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, W. A.; Lehnert, L. W.; Kammann, C. I.; Müller, C.; Grünhage, L.; Luterbacher, J.; Erbs, M.; Moser, G.; Seibert, R.; Yuan, N.; Bendix, J.

    2016-12-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of recent global climate change. The stimulation of plant photosynthesis due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) is widely assumed to increase the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants--the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CFE under future climates, including more frequent weather extremes, are controversial. Here we use data from 16 years of temperate grassland grown under `free-air carbon dioxide enrichment’ conditions to show that the CFE on above-ground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. The observed CFE was reduced or disappeared under wetter, drier and/or hotter conditions when the forcing variable exceeded its intermediate regime. This is in contrast to predictions of an increased CO2 fertilization effect under drier and warmer conditions. Such extreme weather conditions are projected to occur more intensely and frequently under future climate scenarios. Consequently, current biogeochemical models might overestimate the future NPP sink capacity of temperate C3 grasslands and hence underestimate future atmospheric [CO2] increase.

  13. Reduced CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands under more extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, W. A.; Lehnert, L. W.; Kammann, C. I.; Müller, C.; Grünhage, L.; Luterbacher, J.; Erbs, M.; Moser, G.; Seibert, R.; Yuan, N.; Bendix, J.

    2017-02-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of recent global climate change. The stimulation of plant photosynthesis due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) is widely assumed to increase the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants--the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CFE under future climates, including more frequent weather extremes, are controversial. Here we use data from 16 years of temperate grassland grown under `free-air carbon dioxide enrichment’ conditions to show that the CFE on above-ground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. The observed CFE was reduced or disappeared under wetter, drier and/or hotter conditions when the forcing variable exceeded its intermediate regime. This is in contrast to predictions of an increased CO2 fertilization effect under drier and warmer conditions. Such extreme weather conditions are projected to occur more intensely and frequently under future climate scenarios. Consequently, current biogeochemical models might overestimate the future NPP sink capacity of temperate C3 grasslands and hence underestimate future atmospheric [CO2] increase.

  14. High burnup fuel behavior related to fission gas effects under reactivity initiated accidents (RIA) conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, F.

    1997-09-01

    Specific aspects of irradiated fuel result from the increasing retention of gaseous and volatile fission products with burnup, which, under overpower conditions, can lead to solid fuel pressurization and swelling causing severe PCMI (pellet clad mechanical interaction). In order to assess the reliability of high burnup fuel under RIAs, experimental programs have been initiated which have provided important data concerning the transient fission gas behavior and the clad loading mechanisms. The importance of the rim zone is demonstrated based on three experiments resulting in clad failure at low enthalpy, which are explained by energetic considerations. High gas release in non-failure tests with low energy deposition underlines the importance of grain boundary and porosity gas. Measured final releases are strongly correlated to the microstructure evolution, depending on energy deposition, pulse width, initial and refabricated fuel rod design. Observed helium release can also increase internal pressure and gives hints to the gas behavior understanding.

  15. Life under multiple extreme conditions: diversity and physiology of the halophilic alkalithermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Noha M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-06-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth.

  16. Safety analysis methodology for Chinshan nuclear power plant spent fuel pool under Fukushima-like accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao-Tzu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China). Research Atomic Energy Council; Li, Wan-Yun; Wang, Jong-Rong; Tseng, Yung-Shin; Chen, Hsiung-Chih; Shih, Chunkuan; Chen, Shao-Wen [National Tsing Hua Univ., HsinChu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2017-03-15

    Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP), a BWR/4 plant, is the first NPP in Taiwan. After Fukushima NPP disaster occurred, there is more concern for the safety of NPPs in Taiwan. Therefore, in order to estimate the safety of Chinshan NPP spent fuel pool (SFP), by using TRACE, MELCOR, CFD, and FRAPTRAN codes, INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C.) performed the safety analysis of Chinshan NPP SFP. There were two main steps in this research. The first step was the establishment of Chinshan NPP SFP models. And the transient analysis under the SFP cooling system failure condition (Fukushima-like accident) was performed. In addition, the sensitive study of the time point for water spray was also performed. The next step was the fuel rod performance analysis by using FRAPTRAN and TRACE's results. Finally, the animation model of Chinshan NPP SFP was presented by using the animation function of SNAP with MELCOR analysis results.

  17. Behavior of an improved Zr fuel cladding with oxidation resistant coating under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates protective coatings for improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of Zr fuel claddings for light water nuclear reactors. FeCrAl alloy and Cr layers were deposited onto Zr plates and tubes using cold spraying. For the FeCrAl/Zr system, a Mo layer was introduced between the FeCrAl coating and the Zr matrix to prevent inter-diffusion at high temperatures. Both the FeCrAl and Cr coatings improved the oxidation resistance compared to that of the uncoated Zr alloy when exposed to a steam environment at 1200 °C. The ballooning behavior and mechanical properties of the coated cladding samples were studied under simulated loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The coated samples showed higher burst temperatures, lower circumferential strain, and smaller rupture openings compared to the uncoated Zr. Although 4-point bend tests of the coated samples showed a small increase in the maximum load, ring compression tests of a sectioned sample showed increased ductility.

  18. Cloud conditions for low atmospheric electricity during disturbed period after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Ishihara, Masahito; Watanabe, Akira; Murata, Ken T.

    2016-04-01

    The vertical (downward) component of the atmospheric electric field, or potential gradient (PG) under cloud generally reflects the electric charge distribution in the cloud. The PG data at Kakioka, 150 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) suggested that this relation can be modified when the radioactive dust was floating in the air, and the exact relation between the weather and this modification could lead to new insight in plasma physics in the wet atmosphere. Unfortunately the detailed weather data was not available above Kakioka (only the precipitation data was available). Therefore, estimation of the cloud condition during March 2011 was strongly needed. We have developed various meteorological information links (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/akiyo/firis/) and original radar and precipitation data will be released from the page. Here we present various radar images that we have prepared for March 2011. We prepared three-dimensional radar reflectivity of the C-band radar of JMA in every 10 minutes over all Kanto Plain centered at Tokyo and Fukushima prefecture centered at Sendai. We have released images of each altitude (1km interval) for 15th - 16thand 21th March (http://sc-web.nict.go.jp/fukushima/). The vertical structure of the rainfall is almost the same at 4km with the surface and sporadic high precipitation is observed at 6 km height for 15-16th. While, generally precipitation pattern that is similar to the surface is observed at 5km height on 21th. On the other hand, an X-band radar centered at Fukushima university is also used to know more localized raindrop patterns at zenith angle of 4 degree. We prepared 10-minutes/120m mesh precipitation patterns for March 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 21th, 22th and 23th. Quantitative estimate is difficult from this X-band radar, but localized structure, especially for the rain-band along Nakadori (middle valley in Fukushima prefecture), that is considered to determine the highly

  19. Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rezazadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

  20. Some traits of low temperature germplasm wheat under extremely unfavorable weather conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嵩午; 王长发; 冯佰利; 苗芳; 周春菊; 张荣萍

    2001-01-01

    Through a long-term observation on the canopy temperature and some traits of wheat the temperature germplasm of wheat was found to result in the wheats having either a high or a low plant temperature. Under normal weather conditions, the wheat having a low temperature germplasm (LTG) demonstrated several advantageous physiologi-cal and agronomic traits than those having a high temperature germplasm (HTG). Under the extremely unfavorableweather conditions, such as rainy weather or severe drought, LTG wheat still could maintain its superiority to HTG wheat in physiological and agronomic traits including leaf functional duration, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, root vitality and kernel plumpness. The wide adaptability of LTG wheat to awide range of meteoro-ecological conditions could provide a valuable germplasm in breeding of good strains with broad-spectrum stress resistance.

  1. The myoglobin of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): amino acid sequence and functional adaptation to extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Romano, M; Giardina, B; di Prisco, G

    1999-02-01

    In the framework of a study on molecular adaptations of the oxygen-transport and storage systems to extreme conditions in Antarctic marine organisms, we have investigated the structure/function relationship in Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) myoglobin, in search of correlation with the bird life style. In contrast with previous reports, the revised amino acid sequence contains one additional residue and 15 differences. The oxygen-binding parameters seem well adapted to the diving behaviour of the penguin and to the environmental conditions of the Antarctic habitat. Addition of lactate has no major effect on myoglobin oxygenation over a large temperature range. Therefore, metabolic acidosis does not impair myoglobin function under conditions of prolonged physical effort, such as diving.

  2. 21st century increases in the likelihood of extreme hydrologic conditions for the mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Carrillo, Carlos A.; McIntosh, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Extreme hydrologic conditions, such as floods, droughts, and elevated stream temperatures, significantly impact the societal fabric and ecosystems, and there is rising concern about increases in the frequency of extreme conditions with projected climate changes. Here we ask what changes in the occurrence of extreme hydrologic conditions can be expected by the end of the century for the important water-generating, mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States, namely the Sierra Nevada and Upper Colorado River Basins. The extreme conditions considered are very high flows, low flows, and elevated stream temperature as derived from historic and future simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model and downscaled output from a General Circulation Model ensemble. Results indicate noteworthy differences in the frequency changes of extremes based on geographic region, season, elevation, and stream size. We found wide-spread increases in the occurrence of stream flows exceeding 150% of historic monthly averages for winter by the end of the century, and extensive increases in the occurrence of both extreme low flows (representing 3 °C of monthly averages) during the summer months, with some basins expecting extreme conditions 90-100% of the time by the end of the century. Understanding the differences in the changes of extreme conditions can identify climate-sensitive regions and assist in targeted planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

  3. Seasonal Forecasts of Extreme Conditions for Wildland Fire Management in Alaska using NMME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Bieniek, P.; Thoman, R.; York, A.; Ziel, R.

    2016-12-01

    The summer of 2015 was the second largest Alaska fire season since 1950 where approximately the land area of Massachusetts burned. The record fire year of 2004 resulted in 6.5 million acres burned and was costly from property loss (> 35M) and emergency personnel (> 17M). In addition to requiring significant resources, wildfire smoke impacts air quality in Alaska and downstream into North America. Fires in Alaska result from lightning strikes coupled with persistent (extreme) dry warm conditions in remote areas with limited fire management and the seasonal climate/weather determine the extent of the fire season in Alaska. Fire managers rely on weather/climate outlooks for allocating staff and resources from days to a season in advance. Though currently few tested products are available at the seasonal scale. Probabilistic forecasts of the expected seasonal climate/weather would aid tremendously in the planning process. Advanced knowledge of both lightning and fuel conditions would assist managers in planning resource allocation for the upcoming season. For fuel conditions, the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS) has been used since 1992 because it better suits the Alaska fire regime than the standard US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). This CFFWIS is based on early afternoon values of 2-m air temperature, relative humidity, and 10-m winds and daily total precipitation. Extremes of these indices and the variables are used to calculate these indices will be defined in reference to fire weather for the boreal forest. The CFFWIS will be applied and evaluated for the NMME hindcasts. This study will evaluate the quality of the forecasts comparing the hindcast NMME CFFWIS to acres burned in Alaska. Spatial synoptic patterns in the NMME related to fire weather extremes will be constructed using self-organized maps and probabilities of occurrence will be evaluated against acres burned.

  4. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  5. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gao

    Full Text Available In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE. Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  6. Bridge Management Strategy Based on Extreme User Costs for Bridge Network Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislaus Lwambuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical approach for prioritization of bridge maintenance within a given bridge network. The maintenance prioritization is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem where the simultaneous satisfaction of several conflicting objectives includes minimization of maintenance costs, maximization of bridge deck condition, and minimization of traffic disruption and associated user costs. The prevalence of user cost during maintenance period is twofold; the first case refers to the period of dry season where normally the traffic flow is diverted to alternative routes usually resurfaced to regain traffic access. The second prevalence refers to the absence of alternative routes which is often the case in the least developed countries; in this case the user cost referred to results from the waiting time while the traffic flow is put on hold awaiting accomplishment of the maintenance activity. This paper deals with the second scenario of traffic closure in the absence of alternative diversion routes which in essence results in extreme user cost. The paper shows that the multiobjective optimization approach remains valid for extreme cases of user costs in the absence of detour roads as often is the scenario in countries with extreme poor road infrastructure.

  7. The Phase-Contrast Imaging Instrument at the Matter in Extreme Conditions Endstation at LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C; Arnold, Brice; Brown, Shaughnessy B; Fry, Alan; Gleason, Arianna; Granados, Eduardo; Hashim, Akel; Hastings, Jerome B; Samberg, Dirk; Seiboth, Frank; Tavella, Franz; Xing, Zhou; Lee, Hae Ja; Schroer, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Phase-Contrast Imaging instrument at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The instrument can image phenomena with a spatial resolution of a few hundreds of nanometers and at the same time reveal the atomic structure through X-ray diffraction, with a temporal resolution better than 100 femtosecond. It was specifically designed for studies relevant to High-Energy-Density Science and can monitor, e.g., shock fronts, phase transitions, or void collapses. This versatile instrument was commissioned last year and is now available to the MEC user community.

  8. A statistical methodology for the estimation of extreme wave conditions for offshore renewable applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kalogeri, Christina; Galanis, George

    2015-01-01

    Rev, which is located in the North Sea, west of Denmark. The post-processing targets at correcting the modeled time series of the significant wave height, in order to match the statistics of the corresponding measurements, including not only the conventional parameters such as the mean and standard...... as a characteristic index of extreme wave conditions. The results from the proposed methodology seem to be in a good agreement with the measurements at both the relatively deep, open water and the shallow, coastal water sites, providing a potentially useful tool for offshore renewable energy applications. © 2015...

  9. Proceedings of the first symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki [eds.

    1999-08-01

    The first symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on March 11 and 12, 1999. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as observation of X-ray pulsars, theoretical studies of nuclear matter, nuclear structure, low- and high-energy nuclear reactions and QCD. Thirty seven papers on these topics presented at the symposium are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Inversion of Extremely Ill-Conditioned Matrices in Floating-Point

    OpenAIRE

    Rump, Siegfried M.

    2009-01-01

    Let an $n\\times n$ matrix $A$ of floating-point numbers in some format be given. Denote the relative rounding error unit of the given format by $\\mathtt{eps}$. Assume $A$ to be extremely ill-conditioned, that is $\\cond(A)\\gg\\mathtt{eps}^{-1}$. In about 1984 I developed an algorithm to calculate an approximate inverse of $A$ solely using the given floating-point format. The key is a multiplicative correction rather than a Newton-type additive correction. I did not publish it ...

  11. Probing the local, electronic and magnetic structure of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torchio, R.; Boccato, S.; Cerantola, V.;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present recent achievements in the field of investigation of the local, electronic and magnetic structure of the matter under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These results were obtained thanks to the coupling of a compact laser heating system to the energy......-dispersive XAS technique available on the ID24 beamline at the ESRF synchrotron. The examples chosen concern the melting and the liquid structure of 3d metals and alloys under high pressures (HPs) and the observation of temperature-induced spin crossover in FeCO3 at HP....

  12. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of the mitochondrial proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to extreme oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Songyue; Xue, Jin; Sun, Haidan; Wen, Bo; Wang, Quanhui; Perkins, Guy; Zhao, Huiwen W; Ellisman, Mark H; Hsiao, Yu-hsin; Yin, Liang; Xie, Yingying; Hou, Guixue; Zi, Jin; Lin, Liang; Haddad, Gabriel G; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively), examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional) in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of the mitochondrial proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to extreme oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyue Yin

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively, examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells.

  15. Extreme Wave-Induced Oscillation in Paradip Port Under the Resonance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulshan

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to analyze the long wave-induced oscillation in Paradip Port, Odisha, India under the resonance conditions to avert any extreme wave hazards. Boundary element method (BEM) with corner contribution is utilized to solve the Helmholtz equation under the partial reflection boundary conditions. Furthermore, convergence analysis is also performed for the boundary element scheme with uniform and non-uniform discretization of the boundary. The numerical scheme is also validated with analytic approximation and existing studies based on harbor resonance. Then, the amplification factor is estimated at six key record stations in the Paradip Port with multidirectional incident waves and resonance modes are also estimated at the boundary of the port. Ocean surface wave field is predicted in the interior of Paradip Port for the different directional incident wave at various resonance modes. Moreover, the safe locations in the port have been identified for loading and unloading of moored ship with different resonance modes and directional incident waves.

  16. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  17. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alfredo; Pacheco, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual). The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C) and times (two and three weeks). The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols), and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO. PMID:28042493

  18. Accidents at work and living conditions among solid waste segregators in the open dump of Distrito Federal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Maria da Graça; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Gubert, Muriel Bauerman; Amate, Elisa Maria; dos Santos, Wallace

    2013-09-01

    The work of recycling solid waste segregators allows a precarious livelihood, but triggers a disease process that exacerbates their health and well-being. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of occupational accidents at the open dump in the Federal District and its associated factors. Most segregators have had an accident at work (55.5%), perceived the danger of their working environment (95.0%) and claimed they did not receive personal protective equipment (51.7%). Among other findings, 55.8% ate foods found in the trash, 50.0% experienced food insecurity at home and 44.8% received Bolsa Família. There was a statistically significant relationship between work accidents and perception of dangerous work environment, household food insecurity and the presence of fatigue, stress or sadness (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the fellowship between the segregators was associated with a lower prevalence of accidents (p < 0.006). Women are the majority of the segregators (56.5%) and reported more accidents than men (p < 0.025). We conclude that the solid waste segregators constitute a vulnerable community, not only from the perspective of labor, but also from the social and environmental circumstances. To reverse this situation, effective implementation of the National Policy of Solid Wastes is imperative, in association with affirmative policies to grant economic emancipation for this population.

  19. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kui Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact-echo (IE method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location, because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures.

  20. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-03-26

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures.

  1. 核电站事故后监测电离室设计方法%Designing methods for nuclear power station accident condition ionization chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光智; 王益元; 李亚坚; 代传波; 粱云; 左亮周

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种用于核电站事故后γ辐射剂量率监测的电离室设计所需的模拟计算方法;用MCNP程序模拟计算了射线在不同结构、不同工作气体的电离室中灵敏度的能量响应特性,为事故后监测电离室的设计提供了理论依据.%Simulation and calculation methods for designing of ionization chamber used in nuclear power station during accident conditions were introduced in this paper. Using MCNP program,we calculated energy response of this chamber with various structures and sensitive gas,supplied theoretic dependence for designing of ionization chamber used during accident conditions.

  2. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  3. Influenza transmission during extreme indoor conditions in a low-resource tropical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamerius, James; Ojeda, Sergio; Uejio, Christopher K.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Lopez, Brenda; Sanchez, Nery; Gordon, Aubree

    2017-04-01

    Influenza transmission occurs throughout the planet across wide-ranging environmental conditions. However, our understanding of the environmental factors mediating transmission is evaluated using outdoor environmental measurements, which may not be representative of the indoor conditions where influenza is transmitted. In this study, we examined the relationship between indoor environment and influenza transmission in a low-resource tropical population. We used a case-based ascertainment design to enroll 34 households with a suspected influenza case and then monitored households for influenza, while recording indoor temperature and humidity data in each household. We show that the indoor environment is not commensurate with outdoor conditions and that the relationship between indoor and outdoor conditions varies significantly across homes. We also show evidence of influenza transmission in extreme indoor environments. Specifically, our data suggests that indoor environments averaged 29 °C, 18 g/kg specific humidity, and 68 % relative humidity across 15 transmission events observed. These indoor settings also exhibited significant temporal variability with temperatures as high as 39 °C and specific and relative humidity increasing to 22 g/kg and 85 %, respectively, during some transmission events. However, we were unable to detect differences in the transmission efficiency by indoor temperature or humidity conditions. Overall, these results indicate that laboratory studies investigating influenza transmission and virus survival should increase the range of environmental conditions that they assess and that observational studies investigating the relationship between environment and influenza activity should use caution using outdoor environmental measurements since they can be imprecise estimates of the conditions that mediate transmission indoors.

  4. Influenza transmission during extreme indoor conditions in a low-resource tropical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamerius, James; Ojeda, Sergio; Uejio, Christopher K.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Lopez, Brenda; Sanchez, Nery; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-08-01

    Influenza transmission occurs throughout the planet across wide-ranging environmental conditions. However, our understanding of the environmental factors mediating transmission is evaluated using outdoor environmental measurements, which may not be representative of the indoor conditions where influenza is transmitted. In this study, we examined the relationship between indoor environment and influenza transmission in a low-resource tropical population. We used a case-based ascertainment design to enroll 34 households with a suspected influenza case and then monitored households for influenza, while recording indoor temperature and humidity data in each household. We show that the indoor environment is not commensurate with outdoor conditions and that the relationship between indoor and outdoor conditions varies significantly across homes. We also show evidence of influenza transmission in extreme indoor environments. Specifically, our data suggests that indoor environments averaged 29 °C, 18 g/kg specific humidity, and 68 % relative humidity across 15 transmission events observed. These indoor settings also exhibited significant temporal variability with temperatures as high as 39 °C and specific and relative humidity increasing to 22 g/kg and 85 %, respectively, during some transmission events. However, we were unable to detect differences in the transmission efficiency by indoor temperature or humidity conditions. Overall, these results indicate that laboratory studies investigating influenza transmission and virus survival should increase the range of environmental conditions that they assess and that observational studies investigating the relationship between environment and influenza activity should use caution using outdoor environmental measurements since they can be imprecise estimates of the conditions that mediate transmission indoors.

  5. iROCS: Integrated accident management framework for coping with beyond-design-basis external events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaewhan; Park, Soo-Yong; Ahn, Kwang-Il, E-mail: kiahn@kaeri.re.kr; Yang, Joon-Eon

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • An integrated mitigating strategy to cope with extreme external events, iROCS, is proposed. • The strategy aims to preserve the integrity of the reactor vessel as well as core cooling. • A case study for an extreme damage state is performed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of candidate mitigation strategies under an extreme event. - Abstract: The Fukushima Daiichi accident induced by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, poses a new challenge to the nuclear society, especially from an accident management viewpoint. This paper presents a new accident management framework called an integrated, RObust Coping Strategy (iROCS) to cope with beyond-design-basis external events (BDBEEs). The iROCS approach is characterized by classification of various plant damage conditions (PDCs) that might be impacted by BDBEEs and corresponding integrated coping strategies for each of PDCs, aiming to maintain and restore core cooling (i.e., to prevent core damage) and to maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel if it is judged that core damage may not be preventable in view of plant conditions. From a case study for an extreme damage condition, it showed that candidate accident management strategies should be evaluated from the viewpoint of effectiveness and feasibility against accident scenarios and extreme damage conditions of the site, especially when employing mobile or portable equipment under BDBEEs within the limited time available to achieve desired goals such as prevention of core damage as well as a reactor vessel failure.

  6. The fate of carbon dioxide in water-rich fluids under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ding; Galli, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the fate of dissolved carbon dioxide under extreme conditions is critical to understanding the deep carbon cycle in Earth, a process that ultimately influences global climate change. We used first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study carbonates and carbon dioxide dissolved in water at pressures (P) and temperatures (T) approximating the conditions of Earth’s upper mantle. Contrary to popular geochemical models assuming that molecular CO2(aq) is the major carbon species present in water under deep Earth conditions, we found that at 11 GPa and 1000 K, carbon exists almost entirely in the forms of solvated carbonate (CO32−) and bicarbonate (HCO3−) ions and that even carbonic acid [H2CO3(aq)] is more abundant than CO2(aq). Furthermore, our simulations revealed that ion pairing between Na+ and CO32−/HCO3− is greatly affected by P-T conditions, decreasing with increasing pressure at 800 to 1000 K. Our results suggest that in Earth’s upper mantle, water-rich geofluids transport a majority of carbon in the form of rapidly interconverting CO32− and HCO3− ions, not solvated CO2(aq) molecules. PMID:27757424

  7. The fate of carbon dioxide in water-rich fluids at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the fate of dissolved carbon dioxide under extreme conditions is critical to understanding the deep carbon cycle in the Earth, a process that ultimately influences global climate change. We used first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study carbonates and carbon dioxide dissolved in water at pressures (P) and temperatures (T) approximating the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Contrary to popular geochemical models assuming that molecular CO$_2$(aq) is the major carbon species present in water under deep earth conditions, we found that at 11 GPa and 1000 K carbon exists almost entirely in the forms of solvated carbonate (CO$_3^{2-}$) and bicarbonate (HCO$_3^-$) ions, and that even carbonic acid (H$_2$CO$_3$(aq)) is more abundant than CO$_2$(aq). Furthermore, our simulations revealed that ion pairing between Na$^+$ and CO$_3^{2-}$/HCO$_3^-$ is greatly affected by P-T conditions, decreasing with increasing pressure at 800$\\sim$1000 K. Our results suggest that in the Earth's upper ...

  8. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  9. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M., E-mail: pkklein@ou.edu [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Coffman, Reid, E-mail: rcoffma4@kent.edu [College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  10. Impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem functioning and productivity patterns across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    As Earth's climate continues to change, the frequency and intensity of warm droughts, extreme precipitation patterns, and heat waves will alter in potentially different ways, ecosystem structure and functioning with major impacts on carbon and water balance, and food security. The extreme hydro-meteorological conditions that are presently impacting Australia approach those anticipated with future climate change and thus provide unique opportunities to study ecological sensitivity and functional responses and cross-biome productivity changes using contemporary, in-situ and satellite observational datasets. Here, we combined satellite vegetation index products from MODIS and AVHRR, total water storage (TWS) from the GRACE twin satellites, precipitation data and in-situ tower flux measurements to characterise ecosystem sensitivity, and analyse climate change impacts on ecosystem productivity and resilience. Recent advances in eddy covariance tower flux measurements and spatially contiguous remote sensing data provide innovative and promising capabilities to extend ecosystem functioning and productivity studies from local to regional and continental scales. In general, Australia exhibited ecosystem-level shifts in water demands with water availability across wet and dry years, and over all biomes analysed (arid grasslands to humid forests). In the drier years, higher ecosystem water use efficiencies (WUEe) enabled plants to maintain higher levels of productivity than would otherwise be expected for the lower amounts of rainfall and available water. Further, there were unique, functional class-specific coping strategies to drought and water availability. With prolonged warm drought conditions, biomes became increasingly water-limited and WUEe continued to increase until reaching a 'dry edge' threshold, a cross biome maximum WUEe, that cannot be sustained with further reductions in water availability and could potentially break down ecosystem resilience and induce

  11. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Bremset Hansen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of “extreme” weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus to use marine habitat in late winter 2010. A thick coat of ground ice covered 98% of the lowland ranges, almost completely blocking access to terrestrial forage. Accordingly, a population census revealed that 13% of the total population (n=26 of 206 individuals and 21% of one sub-population were feeding on washed-up kelp and seaweed on the sea-ice foot. Calves were overrepresented among the individuals that applied this foraging strategy, which probably represents a last attempt to avoid starvation under particularly severe foraging conditions. The study adds to the impression that extreme weather events such as heavy ROS and associated icing can trigger large changes in the realized foraging niche of Arctic herbivores.

  12. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years.

  13. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value.

    The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly

  14. Bus drivers' mental conditions and their relation to bus passengers' accidents with a focus on the psychological stress concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Sugiura, Miyuki; Tanaka, Sumio; Mizuno, Yuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological factors of bus drivers' instability that were related to bus passengers' accidents according to the hypothesis model based on the stress concept of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). This research was carried out in 2006. Participants of the study were 39 Japanese male bus drivers. Their average age was 40.2 (SD: 11.1). The average duration of employment was 4.5 (SD:6.1) years. A questionnaire was used that was composed of items concerning the frequency of bus passengers' accidents, performance of safe driving, job stressors, stress reaction and recognition from others. Based on the results, a model assuming that stress reaction caused by job stressors disturbed the bus driver's safe driving and was associated with passengers' accidents in the bus was verified to some degree. Especially, melancholy and tired feeling toward passengers showed a strong relation to the passengers' accidents in the bus. This suggested much room for intervention. Moreover, the recognition from others of their job was confirmed to act as a control factor of the stress reaction.

  15. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 10(6) viable cells/cm(3). The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na(+) - a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as

  16. Extreme midlatitude cyclones and their implications for precipitation and wind speed extremes in simulations of the Maunder Minimum versus present day conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raible, C.C.; Casty, C. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Yoshimori, M. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Rutgers University, Center for Environmental Prediction, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Stocker, T.F. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, SOEST, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Extreme midlatitude cyclone characteristics, precipitation, wind speed events, their inter-relationships, and the connection to large-scale atmospheric patterns are investigated in simulations of a prolonged cold period, known as the Maunder Minimum from 1640 to 1715 and compared with today. An ensemble of six simulations for the Maunder Minimum as well as a control simulation for perpetual 1990 conditions are carried out with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, i.e., the Climate Community System Model (CCSM). The comparison of the simulations shows that in a climate state colder than today the occurrence of cyclones, the extreme events of precipitation and wind speed shift southward in all seasons in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. The extremes of cyclone intensity increases significantly in winter in almost all regions, which is related to a stronger meridional temperature gradient and an increase in lower tropospheric baroclinicity. Extremes of cyclone intensity in subregions of the North Atlantic are related to extremes in precipitation and in wind speed during winter. Moreover, extremes of cyclone intensity are also connected to distinct large-scale atmospheric patterns for the different subregions, but these relationships vanish during summer. Analyzing the mean 1,000 hPa geopotential height change of the Maunder Minimum simulations compared with the control simulation, we find a similar pattern as the correlation pattern with the cyclone intensity index of the southern Europe cyclones. This illustrates that changes in the atmospheric high-frequency, i.e., the simulated southward shift of cyclones in the North Atlantic and the related increase of extreme precipitation and wind speed in particular in the Mediterranean in winter, are associated with large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. (orig.)

  17. Sudden pore pressure rise and rapid landslide initiation induced under extreme rainfall conditions - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui

    2010-05-01

    Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic

  18. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  19. Development of a system for simultaneously generating triple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Shigeju [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    We have developed new system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of : (1) a liquid-helium cryostat which enables the sample temperature range of 1.7 K to 200 K, (2) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to 5 Tesla with antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (3) a non-magnetic clamping high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 Gpa. In the workshop, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests using the system at JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  20. Nanocomposite polymeric electrolytes to record electrophysiological brain signals in prolonged, unconventional or extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Luisa Di Vona, M; Romagnoli, Paola; Narici, Livio; Acquaviva, Massimo; Carozzo, Simone; Marco, Stefano Di; Saturno, Moreno; Sannita, Walter G; Traversa, Enrico

    2006-09-01

    Chemically stable nanocomposite iono-conducting polymeric membranes (based on lithium salts and nanocrystalline oxide powders dispersed in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix) performed successfully in the recording of human brain responses to visual stimulation. Impedance was higher than that of conventional electrodes. However, the electrophysiological signals recorded by acid Al(2)O(3) and neutral Al(2)O(3) 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% nanocomposite gel electrolytes were comparable to those obtained with standard electrodes, even without preliminary skin cleaning and in the absence of gel electrolytes allowing better contact with and skin-electrode ionic conductance. The electrochemical and mechanical characteristics of these membranes make them fit for human and animal research, for clinical application (specifically in emergencies, prolonged electrophysiological recordings), or in unconventional or extreme conditions when fluid electrolytes are unsuitable (e.g., biomedical space research).

  1. High-fidelity numerical modeling of the Upper Mississippi River under extreme flood condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Le, Trung; DeWall, Petra; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-12-01

    We present data-driven numerical simulations of extreme flooding in a large-scale river coupling coherent-structure resolving hydrodynamics with bed morphodynamics under live-bed conditions. The study area is a ∼ 3.2 km long and ∼ 300 m wide reach of the Upper Mississippi River, near Minneapolis MN, which contains several natural islands and man-made hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Rivers) model, a recently developed in-house code, to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 100-year flood event. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. We integrate data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), sub-aqueous sonar apparatus on-board a boat and in-situ laser scanners to construct a digital elevation model of the river bathymetry and surrounding flood plain, including islands and bridge piers. A field campaign under base-flow condition is also carried out to collect mean flow measurements via Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to validate the hydrodynamic module of the VFS-Rivers model. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river under the 100-year flood reveal complex sediment transport dynamics near the bridge piers consisting of both scour and refilling events due to the continuous passage of sand dunes. We find that the scour depth near the bridge piers can reach to a maximum of ∼ 9 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems.

  2. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  3. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  4. Solar Wind Interaction with the Martian Upper Atmosphere at Early Mars/Extreme Solar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Lee, Y.; Nagy, A. F.; Tenishev, V.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Combi, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of ion escape fluxes from Mars, resulting from the solar wind interaction with its upper atmosphere/ionosphere, is important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3-D Mars cold neutral atmosphere profiles (0 ~ 300 km) from the newly developed and validated Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) and the 3-D hot oxygen profiles (100 km ~ 5 RM) from the exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS). We apply these 3-D model output fields into the 3-D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model (100 km ~ 20 RM) that can simulate the interplay between Mars upper atmosphere and solar wind by considering the dynamics of individual ion species. The multi-fluid MHD model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species (H+, O+, O2+, CO2+). The M-GITM model together with the AMPS exosphere model take into account the effects of solar cycle and seasonal variations on both cold and hot neutral atmospheres. This feature allows us to investigate the corresponding effects on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., both the M-GITM and AMPS model output fields are used as the input for the multi-fluid MHD model and the M-GITM is used as input into the AMPS exosphere model. In this study, we present M-GITM, AMPS, and MF-MHD calculations (1-way coupled) for 2.5 GYA conditions and/or extreme solar conditions for present day Mars (high solar wind velocities, high solar wind dynamic pressure, and high solar irradiance conditions, etc.). Present day extreme conditions may result in MF-MHD outputs that are similar to 2.5 GYA cases. The crustal field orientations are also considered in this study. By comparing estimates of past ion escape rates with the current ion loss rates to be returned by the MAVEN spacecraft (2013-2016), we can better constrain the

  5. Characterization of Multi-Scale Atmospheric Conditions Associated with Extreme Precipitation in the Transverse Ranges of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, N.; Kaplan, M.; Ralph, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    The east-west oriented Transverse Ranges of Southern California have historically experienced shallow landslides and debris flows that threaten life and property. Steep topography, soil composition, and frequent wildfires make this area susceptible to mass wasting. Extreme rainfall often acts as a trigger for these events. This work characterizes atmospheric conditions at multiple scales during extreme (>99th percentile) 1-day precipitation events in the major sub-ranges of the Transverse Ranges. Totals from these 1-day events generally exceed the established sub-daily intensity-duration thresholds for shallow landslides and debris flows in this region. Daily extreme precipitation values are derived from both gridded and station-based datasets over the period 1958-2014. For each major sub-range, extreme events are clustered by atmospheric feature and direction of moisture transport. A composite analysis of synoptic conditions is produced for each cluster to create a conceptual model of atmospheric conditions favoring extreme precipitation. The vertical structure of the atmosphere during these extreme events is also examined using observed and modeled soundings. Preliminary results show two atmospheric features to be of importance: 1) closed and cutoff low-pressure systems, areas of counter-clockwise circulation that can produce southerly flow orthogonal to the Transverse Range ridge axes; and 2) atmospheric rivers that transport large quantities of water vapor into the region. In some cases, the closed lows and atmospheric rivers work in concert with each other to produce extreme precipitation. Additionally, there is a notable east-west dipole of precipitation totals during some extreme events between the San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains where extreme values are observed in one range and not the other. The cause of this relationship is explored. The results of this work can help forecasters and emergency responders determine the likelihood that an event will

  6. A new fluorescent pH probe for extremely acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Zheng [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xiao, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, Fu-Zhen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Miao, Jun-Ying, E-mail: miaojy@sdu.edu.cn [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhao, Bao-Xiang, E-mail: bxzhao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin-based fluorescent probe can detect highly acidic conditions in both solution and bacteria with high selectivity and sensitivity. Highlights: • A new fluorescence probe for very low pH was synthesized and characterized. • The probe can monitor pH in solution and bacteria. • The two-step protonation of N atoms of the probe leads to fluorescence quenching. Abstract: A novel turn-off fluorescent probe based on coumarin and imidazole moiety for extremely acidic conditions was designed and developed. The probe with pKa = 2.1 is able to respond to very low pH value (below 3.5) with high sensitivity relying on fluorescence quenching at 460 nm in fluorescence spectra or the ratios of absorbance maximum at 380 nm to that at 450 nm in UV–vis spectra. It can quantitatively detect pH value based on equilibrium equation, pH = pKa -log[(Ix - Ib)/(Ia - Ix)]. It had very short response time that was less than 1 min, good reversibility and nearly no interference from common metal ions. Moreover, using ¹H NMR analysis and theoretical calculation of molecular orbital, we verified that a two-step protonation process of two N atoms of the probe leaded to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), which was actually the mechanism of the fluorescence quenching phenomenon under strongly acidic conditions. Furthermore, the probe was also applied to imaging strong acidity in bacteria, E.coli and had good effect. This work illustrates that the new probe could be a practical and ideal pH indicator for strongly acidic conditions with good biological significance.

  7. Predicting the solubility of gases in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in extreme conditions using molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Musab; Molinari, Nicola; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash

    In the oil and gas industry, elastomer seals play an important role in protecting sensitive monitoring equipment from contamination by gases - a problem that is exacerbated by the high pressures and temperatures found down-hole. The ability to predict and prevent such permeative failure has proved elusive to-date. Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a common choice of elastomer for seals due to its resistance to heat and fuels. In the conditions found in the well it readily absorbs small molecular weight gases. How this behaviour changes quantitatively for different gases as a function of temperature and pressure is not well-understood. In this work a series of fully atomistic simulations are performed to understand the effect of extreme conditions on gas solubility in NBR. Widom particle insertion is used to compute solubilities. The importance of sampling and allowing structural relaxation upon compression are highlighted, and qualitatively reasonable trends reproduced. Finally, while at STP it has previously been shown that the solubility of CO2 is higher than that of He in NBR, we observe that under the right circumstances it is possible to reverse this trend.

  8. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life.

  9. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of 30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on precedingly accretionary and

  10. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  11. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. P. Mφller

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1) A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2) a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3): 351-362,2011].

  12. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1 A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2 a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3: 351–362, 2011].

  13. Behavior of U3Si2 Fuel and FeCrAl Cladding under Normal Operating and Accident Reactor Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Barani, Tommaso [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pizzocri, Davide [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation program, an Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem was initiated at the beginning of fiscal year 2015 to investigate the behavior of \\usi~fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) claddings under normal operating and accident reactor conditions. The High Impact Problem was created in response to the United States Department of Energy's renewed interest in accident tolerant materials after the events that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. The High Impact Problem is a multinational laboratory and university collaborative research effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. This report primarily focuses on the engineering scale research in fiscal year 2016 with brief summaries of the lower length scale developments in the areas of density functional theory, cluster dynamics, rate theory, and phase field being presented.

  14. Surf zone, infragravity wave energy flux, and runup in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, J. W.; Brodie, K. L.; McNinch, J.; Guza, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Waves, currents, and sand levels were observed on a 1.4 km-long cross-shore transect extending from the back beach to ~11 m water depth at Agate Beach, Oregon in Fall 2013. Wave runup and water table fluctuations on this low slope (1:80) beach were measured with a cliff-mounted scanning Lidar and buried pressure sensors. Significant wave heights at an offshore buoy in 128m depth ranged from small (0.5m) to extreme (7.5m), with peak periods between 4-22 seconds. Infragravity frequency (nominally 0.01 Hz) horizontal runup excursions exceeded 100m, and infragravity cross-shore velocity exceeded 3 m/s. Cross-shore patterns of infragravity wave energy flux, observed with seven co-located pressure and current meters, indicate 'proto-saturation' of the inner surfzone in extreme conditions. That is, the intensification of incident wave forcing (e.g. higher energy, longer swell) leads to a wider surfzone and an increase in the shoreward infragravity wave energy seaward of the surfzone, but produces more modest increases in flux in the inner surfzone, and in the runup. Nonlinear energy balances, based on the observations, show transfer of energy from sea-swell to infragravity waves, and vice-versa. The infragravity energy balance closes in cases with low energy incident sea-swell. With more energetic incident waves, there is an unexplained inner surfzone energy sink at the lowest IG frequencies (0.004-0.02 Hz). Ongoing work aims to quantify the effect on infragravity energy balances by infragravity wave breaking and bottom friction. Additionally, the estimates may be degraded by contamination with rotational velocities of surfzone eddies. Whatever the dynamical explanation, infragravity wave runup on a low slope beach in high-energy conditions is limited significantly by dissipation. The slow rate of runup increase suggests nascent, or 'proto' saturation. This work was supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  15. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior ...

  16. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  17. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  18. Smell-taste dysfunctions in extreme weight/eating conditions: analysis of hormonal and psychological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-García, Jose C; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Alcaide-Torres, Juan; Tinahones, Francisco J; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Cebolla, Ausias; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Ortega, Francisco J; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Granero, Roser; Islam, Mohamed A; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Fagundo, Ana B; Sancho, Carolina; Estivill, Xavier; Treasure, Janet; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2016-02-01

    (1) The objective of this study is to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females in extreme weight/eating conditions (EWC) and (2) to explore the interaction between smell/taste capacity, gastric hormones, eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprised 239 females in EWC [64 Anorexia nervosa (AN) and 80 age-matched healthy-weight controls, and 59 obese and 36 age-matched healthy-weight controls]. Smell and taste assessments were performed through "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips," respectively. The assessment measures included the eating disorders inventory-2, the symptom check list 90-revised, and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, as well as peptides from the gastrointestinal tract [Ghrelin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin]. Smell capacity was differentially associated across EWC groups. Smell was clearly impaired in obese participants and increased in AN (hyposmia in Obesity was 54.3 and 6.4 % in AN), but taste capacity did not vary across EWC. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects and were related to smell impairment. EWC individuals showed a distinct smell profile and circulating ghrelin levels compared to controls. Smell capacity and ghrelin may act as moderators of emotional eating and BMI.

  19. Modified and double-clad large mode-area leakage channel fibers for extreme temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi Raja, G.; Varshney, Shailendra K.

    2015-03-01

    Recently large-mode-area hybrid leakage channel fibers (HLCFs) were reported to overcome the limitation on mode area with single-mode (SM) operation for the practical bending radius of 7.5 cm at the preferred wavelength of 1064 nm. In this paper, we present the effects of a thermally induced refractive index change on the mode area of bend-compensated extremely LMA modified HLCFs (M-HLCFs) and double-clad M-HLCFs. A full-vectorial finite-element method-based modal solver is used to obtain the modal characteristics of M-HLCFs in various heat load conditions. Numerical simulations reveal that the effective mode area of M-HLCFs is ˜1433 μm2 at room temperature, which marginally decreases to ˜1387 μm2 while SM operation is maintained when the temperature distribution rises to ˜125 °C over the fiber geometry during high-power operations. We have also investigated a double-clad M-HLCF design exhibiting a mode area > ˜ 1000 μm2 for all heat load density variations up to a maximum of 12 × 109 W m-3, corresponding to a 250 °C temperature in the center of the fiber core region.

  20. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21 2014 at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  1. Characterization of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields from Diesel, Gasoline and Hybrid Cars under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Hareuveny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field (MF levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT, higher for gasoline (0.04–0.05 μT and highest in hybrids (0.06–0.09 μT, but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%–69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT. As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars’ metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires.

  2. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filaments under Extreme Conditions and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao

    Intermediate filaments are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. It was discovered during the recent decades that intermediate filament proteins play key roles to reinforce cells subjected to large-deformation as well as participate in signal transduction. However, it is still poorly understood how the nanoscopic structure, as well as the biochemical properties of these protein molecules contribute to their biomechanical functions. In this research we investigate the material function of intermediate filaments under various extreme mechanical conditions as well as disease states. We use a full atomistic model and study its response to mechanical stresses. Learning from the mechanical response obtained from atomistic simulations, we build mesoscopic models following the finer-trains-coarser principles. By using this multiple-scale model, we present a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties and associated deformation mechanisms of intermediate filament network. We reveal the mechanism of a transition from alpha-helices to beta-sheets with subsequent intermolecular sliding under mechanical force, which has been inferred previously from experimental results. This nanoscale mechanism results in a characteristic nonlinear force-extension curve, which leads to a delocalization of mechanical energy and prevents catastrophic fracture. This explains how intermediate filament can withstand extreme mechanical deformation of > 1 00% strain despite the presence of structural defects. We combine computational and experimental techniques to investigate the molecular mechanism of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a premature aging disease. We find that the mutated lamin tail .domain is more compact and stable than the normal one. This altered structure and stability may enhance the association of intermediate filaments with the nuclear membrane, providing a molecular mechanism of the disease. We study the nuclear membrane association

  3. Physiological Responses to Firefighting in Extreme Temperatures Do Not Compare to Firefighting in Temperate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Windisch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine physiological responses to two different simulated firefighting exercises: a firefighting exercise with flashovers, smoke, poor visibility and extreme temperatures (300° in a burning container and a standard firefighting exercise in temperate conditions. Furthermore, a second purpose of the study was to find out if the contribution of strength and endurance capacities to firefighting performance changes when the demands of the firefighting exercise change.Methods: Sixteen professional firefighters performed a maximum treadmill test, strength testing, a standard simulated firefighting exercise (SFE without heat and flashovers and a firefighting exercise with a simulation of the flashover phenomenon in a burning container (FOT. The treadmill testing was used to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, ventilatory threshold (VT1 and respiratory compensation point (RCP. Three intensity zones were identified according to heart rate (HR values corresponding to VT1 and RCP: zone 1–HR below VT1, zone 2-HR between VT1 and RCP, zone 3–HR above RCP. Firefighting performance was determined by a simple time-strain-air depletion model (TSA taking the sum of z-transformed parameters of time to finish the exercise, strain in terms of mean heart rate, and air depletion from the breathing apparatus. Correlations were then established between TSA based firefighting performance parameters and fitness variables representing strength and endurance.Results: HR was significantly lower during SFE (79.9 ± 6.9%HRmax compared to FOT (85.4 ± 5.2%HRmax. During SFE subjects spent 24.6 ± 30.2% of time in zone 1, 65.8 ± 28.1% in zone 2 and 9.7 ± 16.6% in zone 3. During FOT subjects spent 16.3 ± 12.8% in zone 1, 50.4 ± 13.2% in zone 2 and 33.3 ± 16.6% in zone 3. Out of all correlations, relative VO2peak showed the highest relation to mean HR during SFE (−0.593 as well as FOT (−0.693.Conclusions: Endurance in terms of

  4. A Combination of Extreme Environmental Conditions Favor the Prevalence of Endospore-Forming Firmicutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Wunderlin, Tina; Junier, Thomas; Jeanneret, Nicole; Dorador, Cristina; Molina, Veronica; Johnson, David R.; Junier, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF) deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy.We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null), single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation, and specific mineral composition). To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene) in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene), as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes for which active

  5. A combination of extreme environmental conditions favor the prevalence of Endospore-forming Firmicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Filippidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy. We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null, single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation and specific mineral composition. To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene, as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes

  6. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  7. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    day, which is the largest temperature variability as measured so far in a cold-water coral habitat. Warm events, related to Gulf Stream meanders, had the duration of roughly 1 week and the current during these events was directed to the NNE. The consequences of such events must be significant given the strong effects of temperature on the metabolism of cold-water corals. Furthermore, elevated acoustic backscatter values and high mass fluxes were also recorded during these events, indicating a second stressor that may affect the corals. The abrasive nature of sand in combination with strong currents might sand blast the corals. We conclude that cold-water corals near Cape Lookout live under extreme conditions that limit mound growth at present.

  8. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  9. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  10. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  11. Complex layered dental restorations: Are they recognizable and do they survive extreme conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Alistair S; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has shown that restorative dental materials can be recognized by microscopy and elemental analysis (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence; SEM/EDS and XRF) and that this is possible even in extreme conditions, such as cremation. These analytical methods and databases of dental materials properties have proven useful in DVI (disaster victim identification) of a commercial plane crash in 2009, and in a number of other victim identification cases. Dental materials appear on the market with ever expanding frequency. With their advent, newer methods of restoration have been proposed and adopted in the dental office. Methods might include placing multiple layers of dental materials, where they have different properties including adhesion, viscosity, or working time. These different dental materials include filled adhesives, flowable resins, glass ionomer cements, composite resins, liners and sealants. With possible combinations of different materials in these restorations, the forensic odontologist is now confronted with a new difficulty; how to recognize each individual material. The question might be posed if it is even possible to perform this task. Furthermore, an odontologist might be called upon to identify a victim under difficult circumstances, such as when presented with fragmented or incinerated remains. In these circumstances the ability to identify specific dental materials could assist in the identification of the deceased. Key to use of this information is whether these new materials and methods are detailed in the dental chart. Visual or radiographic inspection may not reveal the presence of a restoration, let alone the possible complex nature of that restoration. This study demonstrates another scientific method in forensic dental identification.

  12. An Invariant-Preserving ALE Method for Solids under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    We are proposing a fundamentally new approach to ALE methods for solids undergoing large deformation due to extreme loading conditions. Our approach is based on a physically-motivated and mathematically rigorous construction of the underlying Lagrangian method, vector/tensor reconstruction, remapping, and interface reconstruction. It is transformational because it deviates dramatically from traditionally accepted ALE methods and provides the following set of unique attributes: (1) a three-dimensional, finite volume, cell-centered ALE framework with advanced hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories for solids; (2) a new physically and mathematically consistent reconstruction method for vector/tensor fields; (3) advanced invariant-preserving remapping algorithm for vector/tensor quantities; (4) moment-of-fluid (MoF) interface reconstruction technique for multi-material problems with solids undergoing large deformations. This work brings together many new concepts, that in combination with emergent cell-centered Lagrangian hydrodynamics methods will produce a cutting-edge ALE capability and define a new state-of-the-art. Many ideas in this work are new, completely unexplored, and hence high risk. The proposed research and the resulting algorithms will be of immediate use in Eulerian, Lagrangian and ALE codes under the ASC program at the lab. In addition, the research on invariant preserving reconstruction/remap of tensor quantities is of direct interest to ongoing CASL and climate modeling efforts at LANL. The application space impacted by this work includes Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), Z-pinch, munition-target interactions, geological impact dynamics, shock processing of powders and shaped charges. The ALE framework will also provide a suitable test-bed for rapid development and assessment of hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories. Today, there are no invariant-preserving ALE algorithms for treating solids with large deformations. Therefore

  13. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  14. "Rotten Ice": Characterizing the Physical Properties of Arctic Sea Ice Under Conditions of Extreme Summer Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, B.; Frantz, C. M.; Junge, K.; Orellana, M. V.; Carpenter, S.; Farley, S. M.; Lieb-Lappen, R.; Courville, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The microstructural properties of sea ice are central to understanding the mechanical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties of a sea ice cover. Over the course of an annual cycle, this small scale structure routinely evolves from a network of mostly isolated brine and gas inclusions prevalent in cold ice, to a more connected, more permeable structure as the ice endures summer melt processes. In the case of extreme summer melt, sea ice can become "rotten", and it is expected that such rotten ice may become more prevalent as melt seasons lengthen. Rotten ice is approximately isothermal, largely drained of brine, and is typified by the presence of large multi-cm-scale void spaces that contribute to its high permeability and low structural integrity. These properties are expected to alter the ice cover response to dynamic forcing, ability to backscatter incident light, and its melt rate. An interdisciplinary effort to characterize the physical properties of rotten first-year ice, in concert with some of its chemical and biological properties, is being carried out both in the field and in the laboratory. Time-series samples focusing on the evolution of ice microstructure were acquired and analyzed for shore-fast first-year sea ice near Barrow, Alaska in May - July of 2015. Laboratory studies have focused on assessing the seasonal evolution of optical properties of this ice, as well as the measurement of melt rates of ice grown under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Preliminary results from these studies illuminate some of the physical and biophysical controls on late summer ice melt.

  15. Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Fagundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extreme weight conditions (EWC groups along a continuum may share some biological risk factors and intermediate neurocognitive phenotypes. A core cognitive trait in EWC appears to be executive dysfunction, with a focus on decision making, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Differences between individuals in these areas are likely to contribute to the differences in vulnerability to EWC. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is a common pattern of executive dysfunction in EWC while comparing anorexia nervosa patients (AN, obese subjects (OB and healthy eating/weight controls (HC. METHODS: Thirty five AN patients, fifty two OB and one hundred thirty seven HC were compared using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT; and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60 years. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in IGT score (F(1.79; p<.001, with AN and OB groups showing the poorest performance compared to HC. On the WCST, AN and OB made significantly more errors than controls (F(25.73; p<.001, and had significantly fewer correct responses (F(2.71; p<.001. Post hoc analysis revealed that the two clinical groups were not significantly different from each other. Finally, OB showed a significant reduced performance in the inhibition response measured with the Stroop test (F(5.11; p<.001 compared with both AN and HC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EWC subjects (namely AN and OB have similar dysfunctional executive profile that may play a role in the development and maintenance of such disorders.

  16. Reactivity of Xe with ice at extreme P-T conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanloup, C.; Hochlaf, M.; Maynard-Casely, H.; Gregoryanz, E.; Mezouar, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water is an important component of terrestrial and giant planets so that any reactivity with Xe at depth would have strong consequences on our knowledge of planetary dynamics as it heavily relies on Xe isotopes geochemistry. The chemistry of ‘noble gas’ have seen fascinating experimental and theoretical advances during the last twenty years as highlighted by review papers (1,2). Noble gas chemistry proceeds essentially by photosynthesis of precursors in a low-temperature noble-gas matrix. The pressure variable has seldom been investigated as a mean to enforce Xe to bond other elements (3). Xe is among the gases that stabilize clathrate hydrates through van der Waals interactions. Xe hydrates are stable up to 2.5 GPa, before dissociating into Xe plus ice VII (4). However, the chemistry of water with solid Xe has been successfully explored by UV photolysis (5,6). Those findings plus our own results on the stability of Xe oxides in the terrestrial crust (7) let us envisage that the chemistry of Xe with oxygen at extreme conditions could be flourishing. We have thus explored the reactivity of Xe with water up to 80 GPa by using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell combined with in situ x-ray diffraction measurements. Formation of a compound is indeed observed at conditions that could occur in the interiors of ice-rich giant planets Uranus and Neptune. To complement the x-ray diffraction data, ab initio calculations have been carried out to determine the molecular structure of the new found compound. These resuts hence add another example of noble gas sequestration in giant planets, as recently proposed for Ne (8). References: 1. W. Grochala, Chem. Soc. Rev. 1632, 36 (2007). 2. R. B. Gerber, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 55, 55 (2004). 3. A. I. Katz and V. A. Apkarian, J. Phys. Chem., 94, 6671-6678 (1990). 4. C. Sanloup et al., PNAS 99, 25 (2002). 5. M. Pettersson et al., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 505, 729 (1999). 6. L. Khriachtchev et al., JACS 130, 6114 (2008). 7. C. Sanloup et

  17. Analytical solutions for determining extreme water levels in surge tank of hydropower station under combined operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbao; Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2017-06-01

    Combined operating condition usually refers to the control operating condition under which the highest and lowest water levels occur in a surge tank of hydropower station. In this paper, with the basic equations of surge analysis and nonlinear vibrational asymptotic method, analytical expressions of the worst superimposition time of surge waves in an upstream surge tank under four typical combined operating conditions (i.e. load-acceptance-then-rejection, successive load rejection, successive load acceptance and load-rejection-then-acceptance) are derived firstly. Then using these expressions, the analytical extreme water levels are determined. The analytical solutions are verified with numerical simulation results. Finally, the effect of the hydraulic resistance coefficient of surge tank on the control operating condition is investigated. The results indicate that: The analytical solutions for determining extreme water levels in surge tank under various combined operating conditions are accurate due to the good agreements between the analytical results and the numerical results. With the increase of the hydraulic resistance coefficient of surge tank, the control operating condition for the highest water level shifts from load-acceptance-then-rejection condition to successive load rejection condition, and the control operating condition for the lowest water level shifts from load-rejection-then-acceptance condition to successive load acceptance condition.

  18. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five ...... ramp rates and reserves requirements....

  19. Extreme conditioning programs and injury risk in a US Army Brigade Combat Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; McNulty, Vancil; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    Brigades and battalions throughout the US Army are currently implementing a variety of exercise and conditioning programs with greater focus on preparation for mission-specific tasks. An Army physical therapy clinic working with a light infantry brigade developed the Advanced Tactical Athlete Conditioning (ATAC) program. The ATAC program is a unique physical training program consisting of high-intensity aquatic exercises, tactical agility circuits, combat core conditioning, and interval speed training. Along with ATAC, battalions have also incorporated components of fitness programs such as the Ranger Athlete Warrior program and CrossFit (Crossfit, Inc, Santa Monica, CA) an extreme conditioning program (ECP). To determine if these new programs (ATAC, ECP) had an effect on injury rates and physical fitness. Surveys were administered to collect personal characteristics, tobacco use, personal physical fitness training, Army physical fitness test results, and self-reported injuries. Medical record injury data were obtained 6 months before and 6 months after the implementation of the new program. Predictors of injury risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Injury incidence among Soldiers increased 12% for overall injuries and 16% for overuse injuries after the implementation of the ATAC/ECPs. However, injury incidence among Soldiers not participating in ATAC/ECPs also increased 14% for overall injuries and 10% for overuse injuries. Risk factors associated with higher injury risk for Soldiers participating in ATAC/ECPs included: greater mileage run per week during unit physical training (OR (>16 miles per week÷≤7 miles per week)=2.24, 95% CI, 1.33-3.80); higher body mass index (BMI) (OR (BMI 25-29.9÷BMI<25)=1.77, 95% CI, 1.29-2.44), (OR (BMI =30÷BMI<25)=2.72, 95% CI, 1.67-4.43); cigarette use (OR (smoker÷nonsmoker)=1.80, 95% CI, 1.34-2.42); poor performance on the 2-mile run during

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Germination of Nosema bombycis Spores under Extremely Alkaline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Bosheng; Hu, Sirui; Liang, Xili; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP) 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism

  1. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Germination of Nosema bombycis Spores under Extremely Alkaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Bosheng; Hu, Sirui; Liang, Xili; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP) 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism

  2. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  3. Estimation of Extreme Values by the Average Conditional Exceedance Rate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naess

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a method for extreme value prediction on the basis of a sampled time series. The method is specifically designed to account for statistical dependence between the sampled data points in a precise manner. In fact, if properly used, the new method will provide statistical estimates of the exact extreme value distribution provided by the data in most cases of practical interest. It avoids the problem of having to decluster the data to ensure independence, which is a requisite component in the application of, for example, the standard peaks-over-threshold method. The proposed method also targets the use of subasymptotic data to improve prediction accuracy. The method will be demonstrated by application to both synthetic and real data. From a practical point of view, it seems to perform better than the POT and block extremes methods, and, with an appropriate modification, it is directly applicable to nonstationary time series.

  4. Modelling of Zry-4 cladding oxidation by air, under severe accident conditions using the MAAP4 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuzet, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.beuzet@edf.f [EDF R and D, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92140 Clamart (France); Lamy, Jean-Sylvestre, E-mail: jean-sylvestre.lamy@edf.f [EDF R and D, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92140 Clamart (France); Bretault, Armelle, E-mail: armelle.bretault@edf.f [EDF R and D, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92140 Clamart (France); Simoni, Eric, E-mail: simoni@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud XI, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2011-04-15

    In a nuclear power plant, a potential risk in some low probability situations in severe accidents is air ingress into the vessel. Air is a highly oxidizing atmosphere that can lead to an enhanced core oxidation and degradation affecting the release of Fission Products (FP), especially increasing that of ruthenium. This FP is of particular importance because of its high radio-toxicity and its ability to form highly volatile oxides. Oxygen affinity is decreasing between Zircaloy cladding, fuel and ruthenium inclusions in the fuel. It is consequently of great need to understand the phenomena governing cladding oxidation by air as a prerequisite for the source term issues. A review of existing data in the field of Zircaloy-4 oxidation in air-containing atmosphere shows that this phenomenon is quantitatively well understood. The cladding oxidation process can be divided into two kinetic regimes separated by a breakaway transition. Before transition, a protective dense zirconia scale grows following a solid state diffusion-limited regime for which experimental data are well fitted by a parabolic time dependence. For a given thickness, which depends mainly on temperature and the extent of pre-oxidation in steam, the dense scale can potentially breakdown. In case of breakaway combined with oxygen starvation, cladding oxidation can then be much faster because of the combined action of oxygen and nitrogen through a complex self sustaining nitriding-oxidation process. A review of the pre-existing correlations used to simulate zirconia scale growth under air atmospheres shows a high degree of variation from parabolic to accelerated time dependence. Variations also exist in the choice of the breakaway parameter based on zirconia phase change or oxide thickness. Several correlations and breakaway parameters found in the literature were implemented in the MAAP4.07 Severe Accident code. They were assessed by simulation of the QUENCH-10 test, which is a semi-integral test designed

  5. Crystallization and Thermoelectric Transport in Semiconductor Micro- and Nanostructures Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokirmak, Ali [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Silva, Helena [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-08-30

    This project focused on thermoelectric transport in semiconductor micro and nanostructures where moderate and typical operating voltages and currents lead to extreme thermal gradients and current densities. Models that describe behavior of semiconducting materials typically assume an equilibrium condition or slight deviations from it. In these cases the generation-recombination processes are assumed to have reached a local equilibrium for a given temperature. Hence, free carrier concentrations and their mobilities, band-gap, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric properties, mobility of atoms and mechanical properties of the material, can be described as a function of temperature. In the case of PN junctions under electrical bias, carrier concentrations can change up to ~ 1020 cm-3 and a drift-diffusion approximation is typically used to obtain the carrier concentrations while assuming that the material properties do not change. In non-equilibrium conditions, the assumption that the material properties remain the same may not be valid. While the increased conduction-band electron concentration may not have a drastic effect on the material, large hole concentration is expected to soften the material as ‘a hole’ comes into existence as a broken bond in the lattice. As the hole density approaches 1022 cm-3, the number of bonds holding the lattice together is significantly reduced, making it easier to break additional bonds, reduce band-gap and inhibit phonon transport. As these holes move away from where they were generated, local properties are expected to deviate significantly from the equilibrium case. Hence, temperature alone is not sufficient to describe the behavior of the material. The behavior of the solid material close to a molten region (liquid-solid interfaces) is also expected to deviate from the equilibrium case as a function of hole injection rate, which can be drastically increased or decreased in the presence of an electric field. In the past years

  6. The effect of visual field condition on kinetic in upper extremities and e.m.g in lower extremities while performing reaching in normal adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyekang; Kang, Youngeun; Yoo, Minah; Lee, Bomjin; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Joongsook; Han, Dongwook; Oh, Taeyoung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study was to investigate mean velocity and angle of shoulder joint, activation of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius according to both eyes, dominant eye and non-dominant eye condition during reaching task in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Our research recruited 24 participants (male 11, female 13) in Silla University. Participants were performed reaching out movement by conditions of both eye, dominants eye, non-dominants eye. The target was placed at 45 degree diagonal direction and distance far away 130% of their arm length. Kinetic analysis of the upper extremities was investigated by QUALISYS 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Muscle activation were measured by EMG during reaching tasks. The collected data were statistically processed using the SPSS for win version 20.0. [Results] There was a significant difference of shoulder joint velocity of flexion, abduction and internal rotation according to visual field condition during reaching tasks. There was no significant difference of shoulder joint angle and muscle activation according to visual field conditions during reaching tasks. [Conclusion] In conclusion, visual field has an influence on shoulder joint velocity. Therefore, the visual field may be to play an important role in reach performance. PMID:28210047

  7. Investigating the Effects of Simulated Space conditions on Novel Extremely Halophilic Archaea: Halovarius Luteus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshangsaz, Niloofar; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Nazmi, Kamran; Semsarha, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Studying halophiles from different environments of Earth provide new insights into our search for life in the universe. Haloarchaea show some unique characteristics and physiological adaptations like acidic proteins against harsh environments such as natural brine with salt concentration approaching saturation (5 M) and regions with low active water. These properties make haloarchaea interesting candidate for astrobiological studies. Halovarius luteus gen. nov., sp. nov. a novel extremely halophilic archaeon from Urmia salt lake, in Iran has been chosen to explore its resistance against a series of extreme conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the resistance of strain DA50T under the effects of simulated space conditions like simulated microgravity, hypergravity, and desiccation. In this paper we will discuss the results of these studies where we specifically focus on changes in carotenoid pigments production and whole cell proteome. This is the first report of very novel Iranian archaea in response to extreme space conditions. The pigments were extracted by acetone and methanol. Pigments were analyzed by scanning the absorbance spectrum in the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. And they were separated by TLC. Whole protein from cell lysate supernatant was extracted after lysis with Bacterial Protein Extraction Reagent and fractionated by RP-HPLC using C18 column. Proteome analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF. Carotenoid pigments are formed under different extreme conditions such as dry environment and gravitational changes. Also the protein composition exhibits alterations after exposure to the same conditions. Our conclusion is that pigments and proteins formation depend on the growth circumstances. Halophiles use this as an adaptation to survive under different environmental conditions.

  8. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and detrimental meteorological conditions for vegetation of crops in Poland (1971–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziernicka-Wojtaszek Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of extreme and detrimental meteorological conditions for vegetation of crops in Poland (1971-2010. The subject, and aim of this study is the comparison of the frequency of occurrence of thermal, precipitation and pluvio-thermal conditions detrimental to agriculture in Poland during two periods: 1971-2000 and 1981-2010, constituting the former, and the current climate normal, respectively. Each month of the vegetation period (April-October was, in accordance with the current accounts carried out by agriculture correspondents, assigned to one of the following categories: favorable for vegetation, dry, dry and cool, cool, cool and humid, humid, dry and hot. An identical classification of meteorological vegetation conditions was also carried out for months characterized by extreme air temperature and precipitation values. Extreme values were defined as those monthly temperature mean values, and monthly precipitation totals, the probability of exceeding of which is lower than 10%, i.e. their probability of occurrence, or the socalled recurrence interval, is once every 10 years. The differences existing between the analyzed 30-year periods, can be attributed to the present day climate change - a significant increase in air temperature in April, June, July, and August, with a lack of significant precipitation trends. In the two compared periods, an increase in the number of extreme months from 74 to 82 was stated. The biggest changes during the extreme months were observed for precipitation deficits combined with hot air temperatures, namely, an increase from 15 to 29 months. In general, all the analyzed months of the vegetation period showed an increase in dry months (90 to 105 cases and a decrease in cool months (44 to 24 cases.

  9. A First-Principles Multi-phase Equation of State of Carbon under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, A A; Benedict, X L; Young, D A; Schwegler, E; Bonev, S A

    2008-02-01

    We describe the construction of a multi-phase equation of state for carbon at extreme pressures based on ab initio electronic structure calculations of two solid phases (diamond and BC8) and the liquid. Solid-phase free energies are built from knowledge of the cold curves and phonon calculations, together with direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of the equation of state, which are used to extract anharmonic corrections to the phonon free energy. The liquid free energy is constructed based on results from molecular dynamics calculations and constraints determined from previously calculated melting curves, assuming a simple solid-like free energy model. The resulting equation of state is extended to extreme densities and temperatures with a Thomas Fermi-based free energy model. Comparisons to available experimental results are discussed.

  10. Response of shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, to extreme winter conditions in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D.W.; Onuf, C.P.; Tunnell, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a severe freeze on the shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, were documented through analysis of temporal and spatial trends in below-ground biomass. The coincidence of the second lowest temperature (-10.6??C) in 107 years of record, 56 consecutive hours below freezing, high winds and extremely low water levels exposed the Laguna Madre, TX, to the most severe cold stress in over a century. H. wrightii tolerated this extreme freeze event. Annual pre- and post-freeze surveys indicated that below-ground biomass estimated from volume was Unaffected by the freeze event. Nor was there any post-freeze change in biomass among intertidal sites directly exposed to freezing air temperatures relative to subtidal sites which remained submerged during the freezing period.

  11. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of ‘‘extreme’’ weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rang...

  12. Investigation of carbon dioxide phase shift possibility under extreme Antarctic winter conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, V M

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic winter atmosphere minimal temperature and pressure series reveal that $CO_2$ phase shift (deposition) is possible in some extreme cases, even leading to possible $CO_2$ snow phenomenon at Vostok Antarctic station and in other near South Pole regions. A hypothesis has been formulated that stable $CO_2$ snow cover might have formed in Earth past which may influence interpretation of glacial chronology records. This effect may also manifest in other minor gases. Its global climate role is discussed.

  13. Intestinal anisakiasis can cause intussusception in adults:An extremely rare condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomofumi; Miura; Akira; Iwaya; Takao; Shimizu; Junpei; Tsuchiya; Junichiro; Nakamura; Satoshi; Yamada; Tsutomu; Miura; Masahiko; Yanagi; Hiroyuki; Usuda; Iwao; Emura; Toru; Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of adult intussusception caused by anisakiasis. A 41-year-old man was admitted into our hospital for right lower abdominal colicky pain. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed the presence of intussusception. As pneumodynamic resolution by colonoscopy failed, surgery was performed. The anisakis body was found in the submucosal layer of the resection specimen. The patient was discharged 9 d after the operation. Anisakiasis may cause intussusception in any country wh...

  14. Validation of GAMMA+ model for Evaluating Heat Transfer of VHTR core in Accident Conditions by CFD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Sujong; Park, Gooncherl; Cho, Hyoungkyu [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    KAERI has established a plan to demonstrate massive production of hydrogen using a VHTR by the early 2020s. In addition the GAMMA+ code is developed to analyze VHTR thermo-fluid transients at KAERI. One of the candidate reactor designs for VHTR is prismatic modular reactor (PMR), of which reference reactor is the 600MWth GT-MHR. This type of reactor has a passive safety system. During the High Pressure Conduction Cooling (HPCC) or Low Pressure Conduction Cooling (LPCC) accident, the core heats up by decay heat and then starts to cool down by conduction and radiation cooling to the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) through the prismatic core. In this mechanism, the solid conduction occurs in graphite and fuel blocks, and the gas conduction and radiation occurs in coolant holes and bypass gaps. It is important to predict conduction and radiation heat transfer in the core for safety analysis. Effective thermal conductivity is derived by Maxwell's far-field methodology Radiation effect is expressed as corresponding conductivity and added to gas conductivity. In this study, ETC model used in GAMMA+ code is validated with the commercial CFD code, CFX-13. In this study, the effective thermal conductivity model of the GAMMA+ was evaluated by comparison of CFD analysis. The CFD analysis was conducted for various numbers and volume fractions of coolant holes and temperatures. Although slight disagreement was shown for the cases run with small number of holes, the result of GAMMA+ model is accurate for the large numbers of holes sufficiently. Since there are 102 coolant holes and 210 fuel holes in a fuel block, it is concluded that GAMMA+ model is proper formula for predicting effective thermal conductivity of the VHTR fuel block. However, in high temperature region above 500 .deg. C, the GAMMA+ model underestimates the effective thermal conductivity since radiation heat transfer is not reflected precisely. Further researches on it seem to be necessary.

  15. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  16. Operational flood management under large-scale extreme conditions, using the example of the Middle Elbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precautionary or technical flood protection measures, short-term strategies of the operational management, i.e. the initiation and co-ordination of preventive measures during and/or before a flood event are crucially for the reduction of the flood damages. This applies especially for extreme flood events. These events are rare, but may cause a protection measure to be overtopped or even to fail and be destroyed. In such extreme cases, reliable decisions must be made and emergency measures need to be carried out to prevent even larger damages from occurring.

    Based on improved methods for meteorological and hydrological modelling a range of (physically based extreme flood scenarios can be derived from historical events by modification of air temperature and humidity, shifting of weather fields and recombination of flood relevant event characteristics. By coupling the large scale models with hydraulic and geotechnical models, the whole flood-process-chain can be analysed right down to the local scale. With the developed GIS-based tools for hydraulic modelling FlowGIS and the Dike-Information-System, (IS-dikes it is possible to quantify the endangering shortly before or even during a flood event, so the decision makers can evaluate possible options for action in operational mode.

  17. Correlations in condensed matter under extreme conditions a tribute to Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses a wide range of topics relating to the properties and behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions such as intense magnetic and electric fields, high pressures, heat and cold, and mechanical stresses. It is divided into four sections devoted to condensed matter theory, molecular chemistry, theoretical physics, and the philosophy and history of science. The main themes include electronic correlations in material systems under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, surface physics, the transport properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, applications of the density functional theory in molecular systems, and graphene. The book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Catania, Italy, in honor of Professor Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It includes selected invited contributions from collaborators and co-authors of Professor Pucci during his long and successful career, as well as from other distinguished guest authors.

  18. Study on Strength of Hybrid Mortar Synthesis with Epoxy Resin, Fly Ash and Quarry Dust Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, P.; Muni Reddy, M. G., Dr.; Adiseshu, S., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Blend and characterization of Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether based thermosetting polymer mortar comprising an epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust are presented here for the strength study. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative process in Extreme conditions of commercial epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust based paste. In this way, thermosetting based hybrid mortars characterized by a different contents of normalized Fly ash and Quarry dust by a homogeneous distribution of the resin have been attained. Once hardened, these new composite materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the Fly ash and Rock sand pastes since the Resin provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced number of micro cracks. The micro structural characterization allows pointing out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars. A correlation between micro-structural features and mechanical properties of the mortar has also been studied in Extreme conditions.

  19. Estimation of thermal loads on the VVER vessel under conditions of inversion of the stratified molten pool in a severe accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, V. D.; Mukhtarov, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of the thermal state of molten pools that can be formed on the vessel bottom of the VVER-600 medium-power reactor during a severe anticipated accident with melting of the core is represented. Two types of the molten pool of core materials, with the two-layer and inverse three-layer stratification, are considered. Thermal loads acting on the reactor vessel from the melt are estimated depending on its formation time. Features of the thermal state of the melt in the case of its inverse stratification are analyzed. It is shown that thermal loads on the reactor vessel exceed the critical heat flux (CHF) when forming the two-layer stratified molten pool 10 and 24 h after its shutdown, and the thermal load is close to the corresponding CHF or somewhat exceeds it in 72 h. In the case of the formation of the inverse structure of the melt, one can observe a decrease by more than 2.5 times (in comparison with the two-layer stratified structure) in the thermal load on the reactor vessel in the region of its contact with the upper layer of the steel melt. Analysis of results showed that maximum densities of heat flux to the reactor vessel from the bottom metallic layer with the melt inversion did not exceed corresponding CHFs 24 and 72 h after the reactor shutdown. Because the thermal load on the reactor vessel can be localized in the region of its bottom, where the CHF is relatively small, during the inverse stratification of the melt, there is a need to carry out further in-depth experimental and analytical investigations of conditions for formation of the stratified molten pool and to obtain corrected experimental CHFs for conditions and outlines of cooling the external surface of the VVER-600 vessel in a severe accident.

  20. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  1. Development of Highly Survivable Power and Communication System for NPP Instruments under Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung J.; Gu, Beom W.; Nguyen, Duy T.; Choi, Bo H.; Rim, Chun T. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So I. [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    According to the detail report from the Fukushima nuclear accident, the failure of conventional instruments is mainly due to the following reasons. 1) Insufficient backup battery capacity after the station black out (SBO) 2) The malfunction or damage of instruments due to the extremely harsh ambient condition after the severe accident 3) The cut-off of power and communication cable due to the physical shocks of hydrogen explosion after the severe accident Since the current equipment qualification (EQ) for the NPP instruments is based on the design basis accident such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA), conventional instruments, which are examined under EQ condition, cannot guarantee their normal operation during the severe accident. A 7m-long-distance wireless power transfer and a radio frequency (RF) communication were introduced with conventional wired system to increase a redundancy. A heat isolation box and a harness are adopted to provide a protection from the expected physical shocks such as missiles and drastic increase of ambient temperature and pressure. A detail design principle of the highly survivable power and communication system, which has 4 sub-systems of a DCRS wireless power transfer, a Zigbee wireless communication, a GFRP harness, and a passive type router with a fly back regulator, has been presented in this paper. Each sub-system has been designed to have a robust operation characteristic regardless of the estimated physical shocks after the severe accident.

  2. [Paragliding accidents--a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    During the period from 1.1 to 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analysed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremities (35%) were diagnosed most frequently. Surprisingly no neurological complications occurred, which is possibly explained by the solitary axial trauma. In 15 cases very severe malleolar fractures required surgical intervention. One accident was fatal due to a lung rupture. 60% of all accidents happened during the landing phase, 26% at launching and 14% at flight. Half of the pilots were affected in their primary training course. Most accidents were due to an in-flight error of judgement, such as incorrect estimation of wind conditions and a choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to early reports of hang-gliding injuries, only one accident was due to an equipment failure, namely a ruptured steering line. In more than a third of all accidents, the used paraglider was not in correct correlation with the pilot's weight and experience. Inspired by the desire for a long flight, gliders of too large surface-areas were often used, leading to a more unstable flight. To reduce the frequency of paragliding injuries, an accurate choice of equipment and increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore education-programs should focus more on intensifying the pilot's mental and practical skills.

  3. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  4. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  5. Equation of state density models for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at extreme temperature and pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; McHugh, Mark A.

    2013-10-01

    The necessity of exploring ultradeep reservoirs requires the accurate prediction of hydrocarbon density data at extreme temperatures and pressures. In this study, three equations of state (EoS) models, Peng-Robinson (PR), high-temperature high-pressure volume-translated PR (HTHP VT-PR), and perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS are used to predict the density data for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at temperatures to 523 K and pressures to 275 MPa. The calculated values are compared with experimental data. The results show that the HTHP VT-PR EoS and PC-SAFT EoS always perform better than the regular PR EoS for all the investigated hydrocarbons.

  6. How light modifies the electron–electron interaction under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinschberger, Y. [Instituto de Física dos Materiais da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Rua do campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Hervieux, P.-A., E-mail: hervieux@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, CNRS and Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-10-02

    In the domain of extreme light–matter interactions, we show that the electron–electron interaction can be modified coherently by the electric field of the light. The latter play the role of a third partner not only acting on the electrons individually but also on their mutual interaction. By using an original formalism based on the Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation and applied to the Dirac–Breit Hamiltonian in the presence of a time-dependent electromagnetic field, we obtain analytical expressions of new three-body light–matter interactions. - Highlights: • A time-dependent electromagnetic field can modify the electronic interaction. • Analytical expressions of this three-body light matter interactions are presented. • Effects can be evaluated with the amplitude of the laser and electronic distance.

  7. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  8. A conditional extreme value theory approach in value-at-risk forecasting: Evidence from Southeastern Europe and USA market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Selena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the recent financial crisis, the adequacy of different Value-at-Risk (VaR methodologies was heavily questioned. Current practice in VaR assessment relies on modeling the whole distribution of returns. As an alternative, in this paper we model tail behavior of returns, and thus VaR, using conditional Extreme Value Theory (EVT, which combines EVT and GARCH methodology. Moreover, we examine the performance of conditional EVT with the daily returns of seven stock market indices, of which six are from Southeastern Europe (BelexLine, BET, BUX, CROBEX, SBITOP, SOFIX from the period of September 2004 - April 2013, and one from USA market (Standard&Poors 500 Index from the period January 1998 - April 2013. Backtesting of historical daily returns proves that conditional EVT model gives good predictions for all indices and for all confidence levels.

  9. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena.

  10. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The majority of experimental studies of the effects of population bottlenecks on fitness are performed under laboratory conditions, which do not account for the environmental complexity that populations face in nature. In this study, we test inbreeding depression in multiple replicates of inbred...... when compared with non-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster under different temperature conditions. Egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and sex ratio of emerging adults are studied under low, intermediate and high temperatures under laboratory as well as semi-natural conditions. The results...... the sex ratio with more females relative to males emerging at low temperatures, suggesting that selection against males in pre-adult life stages is stronger at low temperatures. The coefficient of variation (CV) of egg-to-adult viability within and among lines is higher for inbred flies and generally...

  11. Extremal properties of conditional entropy and quantum discord for XXZ, symmetric quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurischev, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    For the XXZ subclass of symmetric two-qubit X states, we study the behavior of quantum conditional entropy S_{cond} as a function of measurement angle θ \\in [0,π /2]. Numerical calculations show that the function S_{cond}(θ ) for X states can have at most one local extremum in the open interval from zero to π /2 (unimodality property). If the extremum is a minimum, the quantum discord displays region with variable (state-dependent) optimal measurement angle θ ^*. Such θ -regions (phases, fractions) are very tiny in the space of X-state parameters. We also discover the cases when the conditional entropy has a local maximum inside the interval (0,π /2). It is remarkable that the maxima exist in surprisingly wide regions, and the boundaries for such regions are defined by the same bifurcation conditions as for those with a minimum.

  12. Observations and Predictions of Wave Runup, Extreme Water Levels, and Medium-Term Dune Erosion during Storm Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Suanez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of dune erosion and accretion on the high-energy macrotidal Vougot beach in North Brittany (France over the past decade (2004–2014 has revealed significant morphological changes. Dune toe erosion/accretion records have been compared with extreme water level measurements, defined as the sum of (i astronomic tide; (ii storm surge; and (iii vertical wave runup. Runup parameterization was conducted using swash limits, beach profiles, and hydrodynamic (Hm0, Tm0,–1, and high tide water level—HTWL data sets obtained from high frequency field surveys. The aim was to quantify in-situ environmental conditions and dimensional swash parameters for the best calibration of Battjes [1] runup formula. In addition, an empirical equation based on observed tidal water level and offshore wave height was produced to estimate extreme water levels over the whole period of dune morphological change monitoring. A good correlation between this empirical equation (1.01Hmoξo and field runup measurements (Rmax was obtained (R2 85%. The goodness of fit given by the RMSE was about 0.29 m. A good relationship was noticed between dune erosion and high water levels when the water levels exceeded the dune foot elevation. In contrast, when extreme water levels were below the height of the toe of the dune sediment budget increased, inducing foredune recovery. These erosion and accretion phases may be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index.

  13. Unusual salinity conditions in the Yangtze estuary in 2006: impacts of an extreme drought or of the Three Gorges Dam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhijun; Chu, Ao; Stive, Marcel; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yan, Hong

    2011-07-01

    During the extreme dry year of 2006, abnormal salinity conditions in the Changjiang Estuary of the Yangtze River occurred in partial coincidence with the second impoundment phase of the TGD (Three Gorges Dam). Analysis of discharge observations in the upper reaches of the estuary and of salinity observations in the estuary as a whole reveals that in 2006 salinity was over 100 mg/l during 275 days, over 250 mg/l during 75 days and over 400 mg/l during 48 days. It is well known that this is due to extreme low discharges from the upper catchment area into the estuary. Moreover, large amounts of water consumed along the lower reaches of the Yangtze River can also aggravate the low discharges that lead to stronger saltwater intrusion in the estuary. Of the 75 days that salinity was over 250 mg/l, the low discharge was decreased further by 10 to 20% due to water consumption. The additional impact of the impoundment phase of the TGD (lasting 37 days in autumn) was noticeable only during 7 days in 2006. During that period, the relative contributions of the TGD and the water consumption in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River amounted to 70 and 30%, respectively. It may be concluded that the impact of the second impoundment phase of the TGD on salinity intrusion in the estuary was modest, while the extreme drought of 2006 was the dominant cause.

  14. Studies of nuclei under the extreme conditions of density, temperature, isospin asymmetry and the phase diagram of hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekjian, Aram [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-10-18

    The main emphasis of the entire project is on issues having to do with medium energy and ultra-relativistic energy and heavy ion collisions. A major goal of both theory and experiment is to study properties of hot dense nuclear matter under various extreme conditions and to map out the phase diagram in density or chemical potential and temperature. My studies in medium energy nuclear collisions focused on the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster yields from such transitions. Here I developed both the statistical model of nuclear multi-fragmentation and also a mean field theory.

  15. Role of the tissue free amino acids in adaptation of medicinal leeches Hirudo medicinalis L., 1758 to extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaya, L V; Kovalchuk, L A; Nokhrina, E S

    2016-01-01

    The first comparison of the spectra of free amino acids in tissues of the medicinal leeches H. medicinalis from different climatic and geographical Eurasian areas has been performed. Adaptation of H. medicinalis to extreme climatic conditions occurs via intensification of the amino acid metabolism resulting from a significant increase in the content of essential amino acids. Accumulation of arginine, histidine, and lysine (3.6-, 3.9-, and 2.0-fold increases, respectively) has proved to play a special protective role in adaptation of H. medicinalis to the low positive temperatures.

  16. Surrounding rock deformation regularity of roadway under extremely complicated geological conditions in deep mine and its control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长友; 何卓军; 万志军

    2003-01-01

    By combining the practices of deep mine mining in Changguang Mine field and using the Universal Distinct Element Code 3.0(UDEC3.0) numerical computing method, the distribution characteristics of deformation field and stress field as well as the surrounding rock deformation regularity of soft rock roadway are analyzed under extremely complicated geological conditions, a technical principle of bolting to control the surrounding rock of roadway is put forward. And also using a dynamic control for surrounding rocks designing method, the supporting parameters and implement plan are rationally determined. The experimental tests have obtained a good controlling result of surrounding rock.

  17. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Y Sorokin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. Oxidative part of the cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. They are present at high number of up to 106 viable cells/cm3 and represented by four genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira and Thioalkalibacter. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. The dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na+ - a unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotrophs. Some of the species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and 3 species out of 9 can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides. The reductive part of the cycle is also active in anoxic sediments of various soda lakes. In situ and laboratory experiments showed high sulfate reduction rates only hampered at salt-saturated conditions. The highest rates of sulfidogenesis were observed with elemental sulfur followed by thiosulfate. Formate was the most efficient electron donor with all three sulfur electron acceptors, while acetate was only utilized as an electron donor at sulfur-reducing conditions. The soda lake sulfidogenesis showed obligately alkaliphilic pH response matching the in situ conditions. Microbiological analysis showed a domination of three groups of haloalkaliphilic autotrophic SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales with a clear tendency to grow by thiosulfate disproportionation even at salt-saturating conditions. Few novel representatives of the order Desulfobacterales capable of heterotrophic growth with VFA and alcohols at high pH and moderate salinity have also been found, while acetate oxidation was a function of a specialized group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-reducing bacteria belonging to the phylum Chrysiogenetes.

  18. Penetration Depth Measurements Using a Tunnel Diode Oscillator in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Charles C.

    2004-03-01

    The tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) has been used as a tool in condensed matter physics for over 30 years. We will discuss the application of the TDO to measure rf penetration depth in small metallic and superconducting samples in the range of 10 -1500 MHz. Our technique involves placing a sample in or on the inductor of a self-resonant tank circuit powered by a tunnel diode, and measuring the impedance of the sample by recording the frequency and amplitude shift as a function of magnetic field or temperature. This technique is very sensitive to the properties of the electrons in a sample, does not require contacts on a sample, can be used for arbitrarily small samples, is very compatible with pulsed magnetic fields, and works well in pressure cells. We will begin by giving a brief history of the TDO in condensed matter physics. We will describe the electronic theory of the TDO showing the important parameters necessary to keep the circuit stable and oscillating in different venues such as very low temperatures and pulsed magnetic fields. We will also describe some of the trade offs between stability and sensitivity in these extreme environments. We will then discuss how to interpret the data produced by the TDO, concentrating on the description of rf penetration in metallic and type II superconducting samples. Finally, as examples of the power of this TDO method, we will show Fermi surface measurements, type II superconducting phase diagrams, including details of the vortex system, and very recent results showing evidence of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Support for this project has come from the NHMFL and the NSF

  19. Transformation and accumulation of PAH and bound residues in soil under extreme conditions - a risk assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The degradation of PAH in contaminated soil does not proceed completely in the majority of cases. However microorganisms which are able to degrade PAH are present in PAH-contaminated soils normally. A total degradation of PAH in contaminated soils is often limited by a lack of bioavailability, which results from a lack of mass transfer. The analytical depletion of contaminants in soil is not only based on degradation processes but also on a fixation or immobilization of the xenobiotic substances as stronger adsorbed to or bound residues in the soil matrix. These bound residues were verified by using 14C-labelled PAH in different soil samples. To evaluate the long term fate of theses PAH-residues the stability and transformation of 14C-labelled non-extractable PAH-residues was investigated in detail under different extreme ecological and climate conditions such as biological stress, freezing and thawing cycles, and chemical worst case conditions. The transformation and remobilization of non-extractable PAH-residues was observed in long-time experiments and was very limited in general (Eschenbach et al. 2001). Only small amounts of non extractable residues were transformed and converted to CO2 and thereby detoxified. However the treatment with a complexing agent led to an increase of extractable 14C-activity. In a further set of experiments the long term risk of a groundwater contamination was assessed. Therefore the elution rate of 14C-PAH was investigated by a routinely usable column test system. It was found that the PAH elution was not solely controlled by desorption processes. The extractable PAH concentrations and elution rates were affected by the mineralization and formation of bound residues as well. For the assessment of the maximum PAH release rate the soil material was treated by extreme and worst case conditions as well. The impact of the elution of bidestillated water, of repeated freeze-thaw cycles and a simulation of acidic rain was investigated. The

  20. EFFECTS OF EXTREME AND UNUSUAL CONDITIONS ON LANA ALLOYS: INTERIM REPORT, FY14 (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Kirk L.

    2014-04-25

    The TTP proposed research aimed at determining: a) the rate at which these changes occurred and the effect of initial conditions, especially in the early phases of Hydrogen Heat Treatment (HHT), b) whether or not different LANA alloys would show similar effects, and c) whether common contaminants/poisons impacted LANA alloy hydride chemistry similarly to what had been found for Pd and Pd-alloy hydride chemistry.

  1. Novel portable press for synchrotron time-resolved 3-D micro-imagining under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, J.; Le Godec, Y., E-mail: yann.legodec@impmc.upmc.fr; Bergame, F.; Morand, M. [IMPMC, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Mezouar, M.; Bauchau, S.; Alvarez-Murga, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Perrillat, J. P. [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France); Bromiley, G.; Berg, M. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); King, A.; Guignot, N.; Itié, J. P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, St Aubin France (France); Atwood, Robert [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Here we present the instrumental development to extend the synchrotron X-ray microtomography techniques to in situ studies under static compression (HP) or shear stress or the both conditions at high temperatures (HT). To achieve this, a new rotating tomography Paris-Edinburgh cell (rotoPEc) has been developed. This ultra-compact portable device, easily and successfully adapted to various multi-modal synchrotron experimental set-up at ESRF, SOLEIL and DIAMOND is explained in detail.

  2. The basic problems of bed-fence-covers in hospitals for preventing accidents based on the investigation into the actual conditions: for developing the safer bed-fence-cover for elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Megumi; Konishi, Teuko; Toyoda, Mitsuko; Maie, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    The basic problems of bed-fence-covers in hospitals were listed for preventing relevant accidents based on the investigation into actual conditions in a hospital in Kawasaki City. There were many elderly aged patients with dementia, higher brain dysfunction or psychosis in the hospital. They sometimes fell into the gaps of bed-fences, resulting in serious accidents. It was due not only to the structure of the bed-fences, but also to the characteristics of patients. Therefore the authors listed up the problems concerning the accidents to recognize them; (i) as physical conditions, (1) they could not move by themselves because of paralysis or decrease of fitness, (2) they could not feel when they were pinched by the gaps because of decrease of sense, (3) they moved irregularly or violently without their intention, and (ii) as mental conditions, (1) they took dangerous behaviors because of dementias, (2) they could not control their behaviors because of higher brain dysfunctions, (3) they could not control their feelings and moved violently because of mental disorders. The authors intend to develop safer bed-fence-covers to prevent these accidents for the elderly patients.

  3. MECHANICAL STRENGTH RESPONSES OF POLED LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE UNDER EXTREME ELECTRIC FIELD AND VARIOUS TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Zhang, Kewei [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    PZT (lead zirconate titanate), particularly PZT-5A, is used in a variety of critical actuation and sensing systems because of its high Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficients. However, PZT is susceptible to mechanical failure. The evaluation of the mechanical strength of the material under the target working conditions is very important. This study presents part of the recent experimental developments in mechanical testing and evaluation of PZT materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Ball-on-ring and four-point bending testing setups were used, with modifications made to account for testing requirements from high-level electric field and elevated temperature. The poled PZT-5A or equivalent material was tested under various specimen and testing conditions. The parameters of the distribution of strengths (characteristic strength and Weibull modulus) are discussed in relation to the testing conditions. Fractographic results based on scanning electron microscopy are also presented and discussed. The related data can serve as input for the design of piezoceramic devices, not only those used in energy systems like fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines, but also those used in structural health monitoring, energy harvesting, and other critical systems in aerospace and civil engineering.

  4. Hyper-dry conditions provide new insights into the cause of extreme floods after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    A catastrophic wildfire in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado provided a unique opportunity to investigate soil conditions immediately after a wildfire and before alteration by rainfall. Measurements of near-surface (θ; and matric suction, ψ), rainfall, and wind velocity were started 8 days after the wildfire began. These measurements established that hyper-dryconditions (θ 3 cm-3; ψ > ~ 3 x 105 cm) existed and provided an in-situ retention curve for these conditions. These conditions exacerbate the effects of water repellency (natural and fire-induced) and limit the effectiveness of capillarity and gravity driven infiltration into fire-affected soils. The important consequence is that given hyper-dryconditions, the critical rewetting process before the first rain is restricted to the diffusion–adsorption of water-vapor. This process typically has a time scale of days to weeks (especially when the hydrologic effects of the ash layer are included) that is longer than the typical time scale (minutes to hours) of some rainstorms, such that under hyper-dryconditions essentially no rain infiltrates. The existence of hyper-dryconditions provides insight into why, frequently during the first rain storm after a wildfire, nearly all rainfall becomes runoff causing extremefloods and debris flows.

  5. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  6. Extreme hypoxic conditions induce selective molecular responses and metabolic reset in detached apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka eCukrov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1,000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These

  7. Extreme climatic conditions and health service utilisation across rural and metropolitan New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegasothy, Edward; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert; Scalley, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality. We defined heat waves and cold waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and excess cold factor (ECF) metrics, respectively. Heat waves generally resulted in increased rates of ambulance call-outs, ED presentations and mortality across the three regions and the entire state. For all of NSW, very intense heat waves resulted in an increase of 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 17.4%) in mortality, 3.4% (95% CI 0.8, 7.8%) in ED presentations and 10.9% (95% CI 7.7, 14.2%) in ambulance call-outs. Cold waves were shown to have significant effects on ED presentations (9.3% increase for intense events, 95% CI 8.0-10.6%) and mortality (8.8% increase for intense events, 95% CI 2.1-15.9%) in outer regional and remote areas. There was little evidence for an effect from cold waves on health service utilisation in major cities and inner regional areas. Heat waves have a large impact on health service utilisation in NSW in both urban and rural settings. Cold waves also have significant effects in outer regional and remote areas. EHF is a good predictor of health service utilisation for heat waves, although service needs may differ between urban and rural areas.

  8. Role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability on extreme climate conditions over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Delworth, Thomas; Msadek, Rym; Castruccio, Frederic; Yeager, Stephen; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is associated with marked modulations of climate anomalies observed over many areas of the globe like droughts, decline in sea ice or changes in the atmospheric circulation. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period ( 60-80yr) makes it difficult to show that the AMV is a direct driver of these variations. To isolate the AMV climate response, we use a suite of global coupled models from GFDL and NCAR, in which the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other ocean basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (between 30 and 100 members depending on the model) that are integrated for 10 years. We investigate the importance of model resolution by analyzing GFDL models that vary in their atmospheric resolution and we assess the robustness of the results by comparing them to similar experiments performed with the NCAR coupled model. Further, we investigate the influence of model surface temperature biases on the simulated AMV teleconnections using a flux-adjusted experiment based on a model configuration that corrects for momentum, enthalpy and freshwater fluxes. We focus in this presentation on the impact of the AMV on the occurrence of the North American heat waves. We find that the AMV modulates by about 30% the occurrence of heat waves over North Mexico and the South-West of USA, with more heat waves during a warm phase of the AMV. The main reason for such an increase is that, during a warm AMV phase, the anomalously warm sea surface temperature leads to an increase of the atmospheric convection over the tropical Atlantic, as well as to a an anomalous downward motion over North America. This atmospheric response to AMV inhibits the precipitation over there and drives a deficit of soil moisture. In the summer, the latent heat of

  9. FUNCTIONAL STATE OF ORGANISM OF INTERN DOCTORS WITH DIFFERENT SUCCESS LEVEL ACTIVITY IN EXTREME CONDITIONS IN THE COURSE OF DAILY DUTY IN CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Madzigon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of daily duty in clinic, the indeces of functional status, functional reserve of organism and mnestic (operator’s performance ability of intern doctors with different success level activity in extreme conditions were determined twice (in the beginning and at the end of the duty. It is shown that the higher success level activity in extreme conditions of interns, the more tolerance and strength of their body functional system formed in work process and it means the higher professional activity performance. Intern graduates activity preparation in extreme conditions is one of activities of Medical Institutions of Higher Education quality improvement

  10. Explosive Chemistry: Simulating the Chemistry of Energetic Materials at Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, E J; Manaa, M R; Fried, L E

    2003-11-18

    In the brief instant of a high-explosive detonation, the shock wave produces a pressure 500,000 times that of the Earth's atmosphere, the detonation wave travels as fast as 10 kilometers per second, and internal temperatures soar up to 5,500 Kelvin. As the shock propagates through the energetic material, the rapid heating coupled with compression that results in almost 30% volume reduction, initiate complex chemical reactions. A dense, highly reactive supercritical fluid is established behind the propagating detonation front. Energy release from the exothermic chemical reactions serve in turn to drive and sustain the detonation process until complete reactivity is reached. Several experimental results suggest the existence of strong correlations between the applied mechanical stress and shocks, the local heterogeneity and defects (dislocations, vacancies, cracks, impurities, etc.), and the onset of chemical reactions. The reaction chemistry of energetic materials at high pressure and temperature is, therefore, of considerable importance in understanding processes that these materials experience under impact and detonation conditions. Chemical decomposition models are critical ingredients in order to predict, among other things, the measured times to explosion and the conditions for ignition of hot spots, localized regions of highly concentrated energy associated with defects. To date, chemical kinetic rates of condense-phase energetic materials at detonation conditions are virtually non-existent, and basic questions such as: (a) which bond in a given energetic molecule breaks first, and (b) what type of chemical reactions (unimolecular versus bimolecular, etc.) that dominate early in the decomposition process, are still largely unknown.

  11. SIPEX 2012: Extreme sea-ice and atmospheric conditions off East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, P.; Stammerjohn, S.; Reid, P.; Massom, R. A.; Hutchings, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, Antarctic sea-ice coverage was marked by weak annual-mean climate anomalies that consisted of opposing anomalies early and late in the year (some setting new records) which were interspersed by near-average conditions for most of the austral autumn and winter. Here, we investigate the ocean-ice-atmosphere system off East Antarctica, prior to and during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment [SIPEX] 2012, by exploring relationships between atmospheric and oceanic forcing together with the sea-ice and snow characteristics. During August and September 2012, just prior to SIPEX 2012, atmospheric circulation over the Southern Ocean was near-average, setting up the ocean-ice-atmosphere system for near-average conditions. However, below-average surface pressure and temperature as well as strengthened circumpolar winds prevailed during June and July 2012. This led to a new record (19.48×106 km2) in maximum Antarctic sea-ice extent recorded in late September. In contrast to the weak circum-Antarctic conditions, the East Antarctic sector (including the SIPEX 2012 region) experienced positive sea-ice extent and concentration anomalies during most of 2012, coincident with negative atmospheric pressure and sea-surface temperature anomalies. Heavily deformed sea ice appeared to be associated with intensified wind stress due to increased cyclonicity as well as an increased influx of sea ice from the east. This increased westward ice flux is likely linked to the break-up of nearly 80% of the Mertz Glacier Tongue in 2010, which strongly modified the coastal configuration and hence the width of the westward coastal current. Combined with favourable atmospheric conditions the associated changed coastal configuration allowed more sea ice to remain within the coastal current at the expense of a reduced northward flow in the region around 141°-145°E. In addition a westward propagating positive anomaly of sea-ice extent from the western Ross Sea during austral winter

  12. An archaeal tRNA-synthetase complex that enhances aminoacylation under extreme conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Hausmann, Corinne D;

    2011-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play an integral role in protein synthesis, functioning to attach the correct amino acid with its cognate tRNA molecule. AaRSs are known to associate into higher-order multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes (MSC) involved in archaeal and eukaryotic translation...... in the catalytic efficiency of serine attachment to tRNA, but had no effect on the activity of MtArgRS. Further, the most pronounced improvements in the aminoacylation activity of MtSerRS induced by MtArgRS were observed under conditions of elevated temperature and osmolarity. These data indicate that formation...

  13. Quantification of Cation Sorption to Engineered Barrier Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Schlautman, Mark [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nitsche, Heino [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The objective of this research is to examine mechanisms and thermodynamics of actinide sorption to engineered barrier materials (iron (oxyhydr)oxides and bentonite clay) for nuclear waste repositories under high temperature and high ionic strength conditions using a suite of macroscopic and microscopic techniques which will be coupled with interfacial reaction models. Gaining a mechanistic understanding of interfacial processes governing the sorption/sequestration of actinides at mineral-water interfaces is fundamental for the accurate prediction of actinide behavior in waste repositories. Although macroscale sorption data and various spectroscopic techniques have provided valuable information regarding speciation of actinides at solid-water interfaces, significant knowledge gaps still exist with respect to sorption mechanisms and the ability to quantify sorption, particularly at high temperatures and ionic strengths. This objective is addressed through three major tasks: (1) influence of oxidation state on actinide sorption to iron oxides and clay minerals at elevated temperatures and ionic strengths; (2) calorimetric titrations of actinide-mineral suspensions; (3) evaluation of bentonite performance under repository conditions. The results of the work will include a qualitative conceptual model and a quantitative thermodynamic speciation model describing actinide partitioning to minerals and sediments, which is based upon a mechanistic understanding of specific sorption processes as determined from both micro-scale and macroscale experimental techniques. The speciation model will be a thermodynamic aqueous and surface complexation model of actinide interactions with mineral surfaces that is self-consistent with macroscopic batch sorption data, calorimetric and potentiometric titrations, X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, mainly Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)), and electron microscopy analyses. The novelty of the proposed work lies largely in

  14. Laboratory measurements of materials in extreme conditions; The use of high energy radiation sources for high pressure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1998-06-01

    High energy lasers can be used to study material conditions that are appropriate fort inertial confinement fusion: that is, materials at high densities, temperatures, and pressures. Pulsed power devices can offer similar opportunities. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a high energy multi-beam laser designed to achieve the thermonuclear ignition of a mm-scale DT-filled target in the laboratory. At the same time, NE will provide the physics community with a unique tool for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers and pulsed power tools can contribute to investigations of high energy density matter in the areas of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  15. A New Force-Matched Reactive Force Field for Bulk Water Under Extreme Thermodynamic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Laurence; Koziol, Lucas

    2015-06-01

    A many-body classical force field is presented for water under dissociative thermodynamic conditions. The force field is optimized by force-matching to ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The force field contains short-ranged central and many-body over-coordination terms, and long-range Ewald electrostatics. It is optimized and tested on water at density 1.5 g/mL and 2000 K, which is approximately 10% dissociated according to DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce DFT radial distribution functions, as well as the distribution of wat and dissociation products. The calculated atomic self-diffusion constants appear about 50% lower than in DFT, although precise comparison is impossible due to the short timescale accessible to AIMD (about 20 ps). The force field is also compared to ReaxFF using the CHO parameter set of Chenowith et al. ReaxFF structural and dynamical properties are in overall fair agreement with DFT, although ReaxFF water is not dissociative at these conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Synchrotron Radiation and High Pressure: New Light on Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Current technological advances now make it possible to perform experiments on materials subjected to static or sustained conditions up to multimegabar pressures (>300 GPa) and from cryogenic temperatures to several thousand degrees (˜0.5 eV range). With these techniques, densities of condensed matter can be increased over an order of magnitude, causing numerous transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area largely been made possible by accelerating developments in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with new synchrotron radiation techniques. Significant advances have occurred in x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy. With recent developments, structure refinements based on polycrystalline data up to multimegabar pressures have been possible. Single-crystal methods have been extended to megabar pressure, with the prospect of full crystallographic refinements. `Three- dimensional' diffraction data can be collected for determining strength, deformation, and elastic tensors at high P-T conditions. Studies carried out during the past three years provide numerous breakthroughs in high-pressure x-ray spectroscopy and a broad range of inelastic scattering methods. Other experiments have exploited the use of x-ray radiography over a range of pressures. Finally, synchrotron infrared measurements have revealed a wealth of high-pressure phenomena, particularly for molecular systems. Examples to be discussed include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials.

  17. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  18. Sputtering at Mars: MAVEN observations of precipitating and escaping oxygen during nominal and extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Leblanc, Francois; Modolo, Ronan; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Hara, Takuya; Halekas, Jasper; Dong, Yaxue; Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; McFadden, James; Espley, Jared R.; Mitchell, David; Connerney, Jack; Eparvier, Frank; Lillis, Robert J.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Sputtering is believed to be one of the dominant escape mechanisms during the early epochs of our solar system when the solar activity and EUV intensities were much higher than the present day. Mars lacks a global dynamo magnetic field, which creates a scenario where the solar wind directly interacts with the upper atmosphere and newly created ions can be picked up and swept away by the background convection electric field. These pick-up ions can directly escape or precipitate back into the atmosphere and induce atmospheric sputtering of neutrals.The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetic topology and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during numerous Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) impacts spanning from March 2015 to June 2016. ICMEs are associated with enhanced solar wind velocities, densities and magnetic field strength, and often drive heavy ion precipitation at much higher rates than during nominal conditions. Thus, ICMEs provide a unique environment for observing sputtering. We will compare MAVEN observations of heavy ion precipitation during nominal conditions as well as during ICMEs. Additionally, we will present global MHD and test particle simulations of the ICMEs in order to calculate sputtering escape rates for oxygen. Finally, we will use the observed and modeled sputtering escape rates to provide an initial estimate of the total sputtered atmospheric escape from Mars over billions of years.

  19. Modulation of Pleurodeles waltl DNA polymerase mu expression by extreme conditions encountered during spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Schenten

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase µ is involved in DNA repair, V(DJ recombination and likely somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our previous studies demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect immunoglobulin gene expression and somatic hypermutation frequency. Consequently, we questioned whether Polμ expression could also be affected. To address this question, we characterized Polμ of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl and exposed embryos of that species to spaceflight conditions or to environmental modifications corresponding to those encountered in the International Space Station. We noted a robust expression of Polμ mRNA during early ontogenesis and in the testis, suggesting that Polμ is involved in genomic stability. Full-length Polμ transcripts are 8-9 times more abundant in P. waltl than in humans and mice, thereby providing an explanation for the somatic hypermutation predilection of G and C bases in amphibians. Polμ transcription decreases after 10 days of development in space and radiation seem primarily involved in this down-regulation. However, space radiation, alone or in combination with a perturbation of the circadian rhythm, did not affect Polμ protein levels and did not induce protein oxidation, showing the limited impact of radiation encountered during a 10-day stay in the International Space Station.

  20. The impact of extreme weather conditions on the life of settlers in the Central Russia in X - XVI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Irina; Nizovtsev, Viacheslav; Erman, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    A special place in the reconstruction of climate dynamics takes an analysis of extraordinary meteorological phenomena. These extreme weather events in the first place impact the functioning of, the rhythm and dynamics of the landscapes and determine not only the features of economy, but also certain aspects of historical development. In the analysis of primary chronicles and published data, along with the direct climatic characteristics (hot, warm, cold, wet, dry, etc.) a lot of attention was paid to abnormal (extreme) natural phenomena and indirect indications of climate variability (floods, crop failures, hunger years, epidemics, etc.). As a result, tables were compiled reflecting climatic basic characteristics and extremes for each year since 900 BC. X-XI centuries was a period of minor climatic optimum - the climate was warmer and drier than the modern one. In addition to higher temperatures (up to 1-3C above than mordern), during this period there were no severe winters. A small amount of summer rainfall has led to a reduction in the number of small water reservoirs and flooding rivers. This is evidenced by Slavic settlements on floodplains of a number of rivers in the Moscow region. It is in this favorable climatic time the way "from the Vikings to the Greeks" was open. Catastrophic natural events had a minimum repeatability. For example, during the X century the Russian chronicles mentioned 41 extreme event, but for the XIII century - 102. Most of the villages and towns were located on the low floodplain terraces of rivers. The main farmland was concentrated there as well. In the "period of contrasts" (XIII - XIV centuries) there was an increase of intra-seasonal climate variability, humidity and widespread reduction in summer temperatures by 1-2C. The number of extreme weather events increased: cold prolonged winters, long rains in summers, cold weather returns in the early summer, early frosts in late summer - early autumn. Such conditions often

  1. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Pineda De Castro

    Full Text Available In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow.

  2. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda De Castro, Luis Felipe; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures) such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF) to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow. PMID:27167213

  3. Seasonal variations in microbial populations and environmental conditions in an extreme acid mine drainage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K J; Gihring, T M; Banfield, J F

    1999-08-01

    Microbial populations, their distributions, and their aquatic environments were studied over a year (1997) at an acid mine drainage (AMD) site at Iron Mountain, Calif. Populations were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridizations with group-specific probes. Probes were used for the domains Eucarya, Bacteria, and Archaea and the two species most widely studied and implicated for their role in AMD production, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Results show that microbial populations, in relative proportions and absolute numbers, vary spatially and seasonally and correlate with geochemical and physical conditions (pH, temperature, conductivity, and rainfall). Bacterial populations were in the highest proportion (>95%) in January. Conversely, archaeal populations were in the highest proportion in July and September ( approximately 50%) and were virtually absent in the winter. Bacterial and archaeal populations correlated with conductivity and rainfall. High concentrations of dissolved solids, as reflected by high conductivity values (up to 125 mS/cm), occurred in the summer and correlated with high archaeal populations and proportionally lower bacterial populations. Eukaryotes were not detected in January, when total microbial cell numbers were lowest (numbers of prokaryotes (10(8) to 10(9) cells/ml). T. ferrooxidans was in highest abundance (>30%) at moderate pHs and temperatures ( approximately 2.5 and 20 degrees C) in sites that were peripheral to primary acid-generating sites and lowest (0 to 5%) at low-pH sites (pH approximately 0.5) that were in contact with the ore body. L. ferrooxidans was more widely distributed with respect to geochemical conditions (pH = 0 to 3; 20 to 50 degrees C) but was more abundant at higher temperatures and lower pHs ( approximately 40 degrees C; pH approximately 0.5) than T. ferrooxidans.

  4. Physicochemical processes taking place in the reactor core under severe accident conditions. Procesos fisicoquimicos que tienen lugar en el Nucleo de un reactor en conditiones de accidente severo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban Hernandez, J.A.; Diaz Arocas, P.P.; Carrion Martin, J.G. (1-652-450 (Spain))

    1990-01-01

    Information is provided on UO[sup 2]-ZRY, ZRY steam and UO[sup 2] steam interactions. Performance of grid spacers. Integrated codes for analysis of accidents. Damage evolution of the Central module of the experiment LP-FP-2-Fission products generation. Physicochemical state of the fission products within oxide-type fuels. Solid radionuclide migration Behaviour of volatile fission products inside the fuel rods. Fission products release out of the fuel rods. Fission products behaviour under red and simulated accidents.

  5. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  6. Embedded optical probes for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement of materials in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, R. L.; Rodriguez, G.; Gibson, L. L.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Grover, M.; Lalone, B. M.; Udd, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present recent efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop sensors for simultaneous, in situ pressure and temperature measurements under dynamic conditions by using an all-optical fiber-based approach. While similar tests have been done previously in deflagration-to-detonation tests (DDT), where pressure and temperature were measured to 82 kbar and 400°C simultaneously, here we demonstrate the use of embedded fiber grating sensors to obtain high temporal resolution, in situ pressure measurements in inert materials. We present two experimental demonstrations of pressure measurements: (1) under precise shock loading from a gas-gun driven plate impact and (2) under high explosive driven shock in a water filled vessel. The system capitalizes on existing telecom components and fast transient digitizing recording technology. It operates as a relatively inexpensive embedded probe (single-mode 1550 nm fiber-based Bragg grating) that provides a continuous fast pressure record during shock and/or detonation. By applying well-controlled shock wave pressure profiles to these inert materials, we study the dynamic pressure response of embedded fiber Bragg gratings to extract pressure amplitude of the shock wave and compare our results with particle velocity wave profiles measured simultaneously.

  7. Energy efficiency and renewable energy under extreme conditions: Case studies from Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin, Tina [Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition, BP 80358, 45163 Olivet, CEDEX 3 (France); Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Blake, David [British Antarctic Survey (United Kingdom); Magill, Peter [Australian Antarctic Division (Australia); El Naggar, Saad [Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany); Lidstrom, Sven [Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (Sweden); Ishizawa, Kenji [National Institute of Polar Research (Japan); Berte, Johan [International Polar Foundation (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    This article showcases a range of small and large scale energy efficiency and renewable energy deployments at Antarctic research stations and field camps. Due to the cold and harsh environment, significant amounts of fuel are needed to support humans working and living in Antarctica. The purchase, transportation and storage of large amounts of fossil fuel entail significant economic costs and environmental risks and have motivated developments in energy efficiency and renewable energy deployment. Over the past three decades, improved building design, behavioral change, cogeneration, solar collectors, solar panels and wind turbines have been found to be effective in Antarctica, demonstrating that harsh environmental conditions and technological barriers do not have to limit the deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The ambition to run entire stations or field camps on 100% renewable energy is increasingly common and feasible. While the power requirements of Antarctic research stations are small compared to urban installations on other continents, these case studies clearly demonstrate that if energy efficiency and renewable energy can be deployed widely on the coldest, darkest and most remote continent of the world, their deployment should be more widespread and encouraged on other continents. (author)

  8. Domain wall network as QCD vacuum and the chromomagnetic trap formation under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelko, Sergei N.; Voronin, Vladimir E. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    The ensemble of Euclidean gluon field configurations represented by the domain wall network is considered. A single domain wall is given by the sine-Gordon kink for the angle between chromomagnetic and chromoelectric components of the gauge field. The domain wall separates the regions with Abelian self-dual and anti-self-dual fields. The network of the domain wall defects is introduced as a combination of multiplicative and additive superpositions of kinks. The character of the spectrum and eigenmodes of color-charged fluctuations in the presence of the domain wall network is discussed. Conditions for the formation of a stable thick domain wall junction (the chromomagnetic trap) during heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and the spectrum of color-charged quasi-particles inside the trap is evaluated. An important observation is the existence of the critical size L{sub c} of a single trap stable against gluon tachyonic modes. The size L{sub c} is related to the value of gluon condensate left angle g{sup 2} F{sup 2} right angle. The growth of large lumps of merged chromomagnetic traps and the concept of the confinement-deconfinement transition in terms of the ensemble of domain wall networks are outlined. (orig.)

  9. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  10. First-Principles Investigations on Thermal Conductivity and Average Ionization of CH Ablators Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    A plastic CH ablator (polystyrene) is often used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs. Upon intense laser or x-ray ablations, a CH ablator can be shocked to warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions. Many-body coupling and quantum electron degeneracy are expected to play an essential role in determining the properties of such warm dense plasmas. Using ab initio methods of quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), we have performed investigations on the principal Hugoniot of a CH ablator, the first-principles equation-of-state table of CH, and its effect on ICF simulations. In this presentation, we focus on the thermal conductivity and average ionization of CH-ablators under a wide range of plasma temperatures and densities. The resulting thermal conductivity (κ) and average ionization () show large differences from the usual model predictions in the WDM regime. These results, being fitted with analytical functions of plasma density and temperature, have been incorporated into radiation -hydrodynamics codes. Their effects on the ICF implosion simulations will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and the Scientific Campaign 10 at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. Spirituality and Aging in Place: The Impact of Extreme Climatic Conditions on Domestic Gardening Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joanne; Pascal, Jan; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    There is limited research exploring how domestic water restrictions imposed as a result of drought conditions impact upon the lives of independently living older people. Within this age group (60 years plus), the domestic garden frequently forms an intrinsic component of ongoing health and well-being. Gardening practice offers components of both mental and physical activity and, for many older people, leads to emotional and spiritual connection on a number of levels. The capacity of older people to maintain a garden during a period of water restrictions is greatly reduced, and the resulting impact on health and well-being is considerable. A recent study, conducted in south-eastern Australia, aimed to determine the benefits to health and well-being of maintaining a domestic garden for older people and the impact of water restrictions on garden practice. This occurred at a time following a prolonged period of drought and, in central Victoria, a complete ban on outside watering. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 gardeners aged between 60 and 83 who had tended their garden over an extended period. The lived experience of gardening was explored through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Clear benefits to health and well-being were established, and yet, the essence of this experience lay in the capacity of gardeners to remain connected to their garden despite change. The crisis imposed by ongoing drought and restricted use of water generated a strong impetus for adaptation, resilience and acceptance of change. The spiritual nature of gardening practice clearly emerged and appeared to intensify the experience of gardening and consolidate adaption to change on a number of levels.

  12. Men in extreme conditions: some medical and psychological aspects of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil-Weiss, T

    1983-08-01

    The second world war ended many years ago. Most of those who survived the stay at the German concentration camp at Auschwitz have already died of the consequences of their imprisonment; those still alive are already in the last third of their life. Is there any point in returning to the experiences of those days? Consideration of the mental hygiene of former prisoners cautions us that perhaps we should not do it. But consideration of the general interest holds that we are not entitled to ignore any knowledge that can contribute to social development--including medicine and psychology--even if acquired under unspeakably awful conditions. In addition, since the war new generations have grown up that play an increasingly significant role in various spheres of life but have little concrete information about those events; they can neither rationally nor emotionally understand how the horrors connected with fascism and the war could have happened. In a sense it is encouraging that they cannot grasp such inhuman behavior; nevertheless, we must adhere to the following motto: "Nothing must be forgotten, nobody will be forgotten." We owe it to those millions who did not survive--both the victims of the Holocaust and those who fought against it. These are arguments in favor of returning to the facts that are ineffaceably recorded somewhere in our memories. In doing so, however, we must remember that at times we are revisiting experiences of a boy of 14 as recalled by a 50-year-old man. The material below, examining the medical as well as psychological aspects of imprisonment at Auschwitz, is based on my own memories, as an adolescent imprisoned at Auschwitz. I have tried to move from this individual account to more general statements, although the methodological apparatus on which scientific analysis is usually based is absent.

  13. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  14. West Africa Extreme Rainfall Events and Large-Scale Ocean Surface and Atmospheric Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on daily precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP data during April–October of the 1997–2014 period, the daily extreme rainfall trends and variability over West Africa are characterized using 90th-percentile threshold at each grid point. The contribution of the extreme rainfall amount reaches ~50–90% in the northern region while it is ~30–50% in the south. The yearly cumulated extreme rainfall amount indicates significant and negative trends in the 6°N–12°N; 6°N–12°N; 17°W–10°W and 4°N–7°N; 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E domains, while the number of days exhibits nonsignificant trends over West Africa. The empirical orthogonal functions performed on the standardized anomalies show four variability modes that include all West Africa with a focus on the Sahelian region, the eastern region including the south of Nigeria, the western part including Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea-Bissau, and finally a small region at the coast of Ghana and Togo. These four modes are influenced differently by the large-scale ocean surface and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Atlantic. The results are applicable in planning the risks associated with these climate hazards, particularly on water resource management and civil defense.

  15. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  16. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-09-01

    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  17. Morphological variations of wild populations of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) living in extreme environmental conditions in the Kenyan Rift-Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiwa, T.C.; Nyingi, D. W.; Claude, J.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use geometric morphometric method to establish morphological differences between natural populations of Nile tilapia from two extreme environmental conditions (high temperature and salinity) in Kenya, and compare them to two populations from regions experiencing less extreme conditions. To determine genetic influence on morphology, we correlated genetic data with morphological data. The study observed significant morphological differences between all studied populations, inc...

  18. Kinetics of Materials at Extreme Conditions: Understanding the Time Dependent Approach to Equilibrium at MaRIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mcnabb, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eggert, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Borg, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerreta, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dattelbaum, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greeff, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stolken, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The National Nuclear Security Agency has recently recognized that a long-term need exists to establish a stronger scientific basis for the assessment and qualification of materials and manufacturing processes for the nuclear stockpile and other national security applications. These materials may have undergone substantial changes with age, or may represent new materials that are being introduced because of difficulties associated with reusing or recreating materials used in original stockpile components. Also, with advancements in manufacturing methods, the NNSA anticipates opportunities for an enhanced range of control over fabricated components, an enhanced pace of materials development, and enhanced functionality. The development of qualification standards for these new materials will require the ability to understand and control material characteristics that affect both mechanical and dynamic performance. A unique aspect for NNSA is that the performance requirements for materials are often set by system hydrodynamics, and these materials must perform in extreme environments and loading conditions. Thus, the scientific motivation is to understand “Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE).”

  19. Extreme storm surges in the south of Brazil: atmospheric conditions and shore erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Klose Parise

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The region under study is regularly subject to the occurrence of storms associated with frontal systems and extratropical cyclones, since it is located near one of the cyclogenetic regions in South America. These storms can generate storm surges that cause anomalous high sea level rises on Cassino Beach. The use of reanalysis data along with an efficient technique for the location of the cyclone, using a vorticity threshold, has provided a new classification based upon the trajectories of events that produce positive sea level variation. Three patterns have been identified: 1 Cyclogenesis to the south of Argentina with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 47.5ºS and 57.5ºS; 2 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 35ºS and 42.5ºS; and 3 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the southeast and a trajectory between 35ºS and 57.5ºS. Maximum water level elevation above the mean sea level and beach erosion were associated, respectively, with winter and summer storms. Cassino beach displayed a seasonal morphological behavior, with short periods of episodic erosion associated with winter storm events followed by long periods of accretion characterized by the dominance of fair weather conditions.Marés meteorológicas que geram sobre-elevações do nível do mar são freqüentes na costa do Rio Grande do Sul e respondem às variações ocorridas na atmosfera. Torna-se importante, dessa maneira, definir padrões meteorológicos sinóticos responsáveis por gerar eventos de marés meteorológicas intensas na Praia do Cassino como objetivo desse trabalho. O uso de dados de reanálise associados a uma técnica eficiente de localização do ciclone, aplicando o conceito de vorticidade, permitiu definir uma nova classificação com base na trajetória de ciclones extratropicais responsáveis pela subida do nível do mar. Três padrões de trajetórias foram

  20. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  1. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Physics Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Lee, H. J.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Physics Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); White, T.; Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Wei, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 87544 (United States); Zastrau, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Institute for Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  2. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    , but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.......European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European...... beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation...

  3. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzinger, J; Thaler, S; Schmid, E;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of seven different, widely applied crop models in predicting heat and drought stress effects. The study was part of a recent suite of model inter-comparisons initiated at European level and constitutes a component that has been...... lacking in the analysis of sources of uncertainties in crop models used to study the impacts of climate change. There was a specific focus on the sensitivity of models for winter wheat and maize to extreme weather conditions (heat and drought) during the short but critical period of 2 weeks after...... or minimum tillage. Since no comprehensive field experimental data sets were available, a relative comparison of simulated grain yields and soil moisture contents under defined weather scenarios with modified temperatures and precipitation was performed for a 2-week period after flowering. The results may...

  4. Analyses of crystal field and exchange interaction of Dy3Ga5O12 under extreme conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Qi Xin; Yue Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the effects of crystal field and exchange interaction field on magnetic properties in dysprosium gallium garnet under extreme conditions (low temperatures and high magnetic fields) based on quantum theory. Here, five sets of crystal field parameters are discussed and compared. It demonstrates that, only considering the crystal field effect, the experiments can not be successfully explained. Thus, referring to the molecular field theory,an effective exchange field associated with the Dy-Dy exchange interaction is further taken into account. Under special consideration of crystal field and the exchange interaction field, it obtains an excellent agreement between the theoretical results and experiments, and further confirms that the exchange interaction field between rare-earth ions has great importance to magnetic properties in paramagnetic rare-earth gallium garnets.

  5. Imaging Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Science, Nature, JACS, JPC , ChemPhysChem, PNAS, Nano Lett., and Angewandte Chemie. The applications of 4D UEM (and diffraction) are numerous, and we...Caltech were reported in Science, Nature, JACS, JPC , ChemPhysChem, PNAS, Nano Lett., and Angewandte Chemie. The applications of 4D UEM (and diffraction

  6. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success of the mission. References: [1] A. Maslow (1943) Theory of Human Motivation [2] J. Stuster (1996) Bold Endeavors, Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration [3] Mars Society, Mars Desert Research Station in Utah

  7. Extreme thermodynamic conditions: novel stoichiometries, violations of textbook chemistry, and intriguing possibilities for the synthesis of new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Elissaios

    As evidenced by numerous experimental and theoretical studies, application of high pressure can dramatically modify the atomic arrangement and electronic structures of both elements and compounds. However, the great majority of research has been focused on the effect of pressure on compounds with constant stoichiometries (typically those stable under ambient conditions). Recent theoretical predictions, using advanced search algorithms, suggest that composition is another important variable in the search for stable compounds, i.e. that the more stable stoichiometry at elevated pressures is not a priory the same as that at ambient pressure. Indeed, thermodynamically stable compounds with novel compositions were theoretically predicted and experimentally verified even in relatively simple chemical systems including: Na-Cl, C-N, Li-H, Na-H, Cs-N, H-N, Na-He, Xe-Fe. These materials are stable due to the formation of novel chemical bonds that are absent, or even forbidden, at ambient conditions. Tuning the composition of the system thus represents another important, but poorly explored approach to the synthesis of novel materials. By varying the stoichiometry one can design novel materials with enhanced properties (e.g. high energy density, hardness, superconductivity etc.), that are metastable at ambient conditions and synthesized at thermodynamic conditions less extreme than that those required for known stoichiometries. Moreover, current outstanding questions, ``anomalies'' and ``paradoxes'' in geo- and planetary science (e.g. the Xenon paradox) could be addressed based on the stability of surprising, stoichiometries that challenge our traditional ``textbook'' picture. In this talk, I will briefly present recent results and highlight the need of close synergy between experimental and theoretical efforts to understand the challenging and complex field of variable stoichiometry under pressure. Finally, possible new routes for the synthesis of novel materials will be

  8. Site restoration: Estimation of attributable costs from plutonium-dispersal accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanin, D.I.; Murfin, W.B. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A nuclear weapons accident is an extremely unlikely event due to the extensive care taken in operations. However, under some hypothetical accident conditions, plutonium might be dispersed to the environment. This would result in costs being incurred by the government to remediate the site and compensate for losses. This study is a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the potential scope of the post-accident response that includes technical factors, current and proposed legal requirements and constraints, as well as social/political factors that could influence decision making. The study provides parameters that can be used to assess economic costs for accidents postulated to occur in urban areas, Midwest farmland, Western rangeland, and forest. Per-area remediation costs have been estimated, using industry-standard methods, for both expedited and extended remediation. Expedited remediation costs have been evaluated for highways, airports, and urban areas. Extended remediation costs have been evaluated for all land uses except highways and airports. The inclusion of cost estimates in risk assessments, together with the conventional estimation of doses and health effects, allows a fuller understanding of the post-accident environment. The insights obtained can be used to minimize economic risks by evaluation of operational and design alternatives, and through development of improved capabilities for accident response.

  9. Reaction of Basaltic Materials under High-Fidelity Venus Surface Conditions using the Glenn Extreme Environment Rig: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoman-Shaw, Brandon; Harvey, Ralph; Costa, Gustavo; Nakley, Leah Michelle; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Both historical and current investigations of Venus suggest that atmosphererock interactions play a critical role in the evolution of its atmosphere and crust. We have begun a series of systematic experiments designed to further our understanding of atmosphere-driven weathering and secondary mineralization of basaltic materials that may be occurring on Venus today. Our experiments expose representative igneous phases (mineral, glasses and rocks) to a high-fidelity simulation of Venus surface conditions using the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. GEER is a very large (800L) vessel capable of producing a long-term, high fidelity simulation of both the physical conditions (750 K and 92 bar) and atmospheric chemistry (down to the ppb-level) asso-ciated with the Venusian surface. As of this writing we have just finished the first of several planned experiments: a 42-day exposure of selected mineral, rocks and volcanic glasses. Our goal is to identify and prioritize the reactions taking place and better our understanding of their importance in Venus' climate history.

  10. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  11. The [CII]/[NII] far-infrared line ratio at z>5: extreme conditions for “normal” galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA), observations of atomic far-infrared fine structure lines are a very productive way of measuring physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies at high redshift, because they provide an unobscured view into the physical conditions of star formation. While the bright [CII] line has become a routine probe of the dynamical properties of the gas, its intensity needs to be compared to other lines in order to establish the physical origin of the emission. [NII] selectively traces the emission coming from the ionized fraction of the [CII]-emitting gas, offering insight into the phase structure of the ISM. Here we present ALMA measurements of [NII] 205 μm fine structure line emission from a representative sample of galaxies at z=5-6 spanning two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized gas properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L[CII]/L[NII] ratio. First, we find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] from a “typical” Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG-1), likely due to low dust content and reminiscent of local dwarfs. Second, the dusty Lyman Break Galaxy HZ10 and the extreme starburst AzTEC-3 show ionized gas fractions typical of local star-forming galaxies and show hints of spatial variations in their [CII]/[NII] line ratio. These observations of far-infrared lines in “normal” galaxies at z>5 yield some of the first constraints on ISM models for young galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time and shed light on the observed evolution of the dust and gas properties.

  12. Taps/valves in extreme conditions. Choice for tap-actuator sets for refining and petrochemical operations in severe conditions. Main steam isolation valves in extremely severe conditions. Presentation of the SRV (Safety Relief Valve) development; Robinets vannes en conditions extremes. Choix d`ensembles robinets-operateurs pour des operations en conditions severes dans le raffinage et la petrochimie. Vannes d`isolement vapeur principales en conditions tres severes. Presentation du developpement de la vanne SRV (safety relief valve)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, X.F.; Aubry, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Guesnon, D. [Technicatome Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Martin, R. [Vanatome, 07 - Annonay (France); Mainguette, Ph. [Adareg (France)

    1998-05-01

    This series of 3 papers was presented during a workshop organized by the French Society of mechanical engineers in 1997. The aim of the workshop was to take stock of the most recent developments in the domain of taps and valves devoted to extreme condition uses (very high or very low temperatures or pressures and corrosive ambiences). The first paper deals with selection criteria for the choice of valve-actuator sets devoted to high temperature liquid aromatic fluids in the refining and petrochemical industries (technical specifications, selection, qualification tests, quality control and tests feedback). The second paper presents the global conceiving process which led to adapt a general concept of valve to a specific application to propulsion reactors of nuclear ships: the steam isolation valves (technical specifications, particular constraints, prototype and serial product, maintenance and experience feedback). The third paper concerns the development of a safety relief valve for the superfluid helium cooling system of the superconducting magnets of the future LHC (Large Hadron Collider) of the CERN (technical specifications, general characteristics, functioning principle, technology and conceiving, test of prototypes and results). (J.S.)

  13. The role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies on the life cycle of rainfall extremes over South America: non-summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Fernando E.; Grimm, Alice M.

    2016-09-01

    Previous study showed that the interaction of synoptic disturbances with intraseasonal anomalies is important for heavy rainfall in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and the La Plata basin during the austral summer. Here, we conduct similar analysis to study the evolution of rainfall extremes during austral spring (SON), fall (MAM) and winter (JJA). A relatively homogeneous region over southeastern South America, whose limits change little from season to season, is heavily affected by extreme precipitation events, as indicated by the value of the 95th percentile of daily rainfall, higher during the spring season (16.94 mm day-1) and lower in winter (13.79 mm day-1). From 1979 to 2013, extreme rainfall events are more frequent in spring (131 events) and less frequent in fall (112 events). Similar to summertime extreme events, synoptic-scale waves continue to be the main drivers of extreme precipitation over the region. The interaction between these waves and intraseasonal anomalies during the development of rainfall extremes over southeastern South America is observed especially during neutral ENSO and La Niña conditions. Warm ENSO phases tend to favor more frequent extremes in all three seasons and extreme events during El Niños are associated with synoptic waves, with no significant interaction with intraseasonal anomalies.

  14. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  15. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  16. High genetic variation in marginal fragmented populations at extreme climatic conditions of the Patagonian Cypress Austrocedrus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, María Verónica; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Pastorino, Mario J; Sebastiani, Federico; Marchelli, Paula

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge about current patterns of genetic structure of populations together with the evolutionary history of a species helps to understand and predict the adaptation of populations to future climate change. We assayed variation at nuclear microsatellite markers among peripheral vs. continuous populations of the temperate South American species Austrocedrus chilensis, to investigate the role of historical vs. demographical forces in shaping population genetic structure. This species occurs in continuous populations in the west and central distribution range, but becomes highly fragmented at the eastern limit, which comprised ice-free areas during Quaternary glaciations and has extreme climatic conditions at present times. Bayesian analysis methods identified two contrasting patterns of genetic structure; (I) populations from humid, mesic and peri-glacial regions formed a single deme with relatively low genetic differentiation and high admixture levels whereas (II) a highly heterogeneous genetic structure with low level of admixture was found in the steppe, towards the east and northeast limit of the distribution range. In the steppe, population fragmentation, restricted gene flow and isolation-by-distance were also inferred. In addition, several small steppe populations showed high genetic diversity and divergent gene pools, suggesting that they constitute ancient refuges from pre-Holocene glaciations with just a subgroup of them contributing significantly to post-glacial spread. These results are discussed in relation to patterns of genetic variation found for other temperate species and the contribution of the particular southern Andes topography and climate to post-glacial spread.

  17. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5-17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.

  18. Flexible Dielectric Nanocomposites with Ultrawide Zero-Temperature Coefficient Windows for Electrical Energy Storage and Conversion under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Khurram; Xu, Yang; Gao, Chao; Li, Hanying; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hasan, Tawfique; Luo, Jack; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-03-01

    Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low cost, and high breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. Achieving dielectric constants with low/zero-temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultrawide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as a significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity, and stability. By creating a series of percolative polymer composites, we demonstrated hybrid carbon filler based composites can exhibit a zero-temperature coefficient window of 200 °C (from -50 to 150 °C), the widest 0TC window for all polymer composite dielectrics reported to date. We further show the electric and dielectric temperature coefficient of the composites is highly stable against stretching and bending, even under AC electric field with frequency up to 1 MHz. We envision that our method will push the functional limits of polymer dielectrics for flexible electronics in extreme conditions such as in hybrid vehicles, aerospace, power electronics, and oil/gas exploration.

  19. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  20. Exploratory results from a new rotary shear designed to reproduce the extreme deformation conditions of crustal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.; Spagnuolo, E.; Smith, S.; Violay, M. E.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Di Felice, F.; Di Stefano, G.; Romeo, G.; Scarlato, P.

    2011-12-01

    A challenging goal in experimental rock deformation is to reproduce the extreme deformation conditions typical of coseismic slip in crustal earthquakes: large slip (up to 50 m), slip rates (0.1-10 m/s), accelerations (> 10 m/s2) and normal stress (> 50 MPa). Moreover, fault zones usually contain non-cohesive rocks (gouges) and fluids. The integration of all these deformation conditions is such a technical challenge that there is currently no apparatus in the world that can reproduce seismic slip. Yet, the determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates remains one of the main unknowns in earthquake physics, as it cannot be determined (or very approximately) by seismic wave inversion analysis. In the last thirty years, rotary shear apparatus were designed that combine large normal stresses and slip but low slip rates (high-pressure rotary shears first designed by Tullis) or low normal stresses but large slip rates and slip (rotary shears first designed by Shimamoto). Here we present the results of experiments using a newly-constructed Slow to HIgh Velocity Apparatus (SHIVA), installed at INGV in Rome, which extends the combination of normal stress, slip and slip rate achieved by previous apparatus and reproduces the conditions likely to occur during an earthquake in the shallow crust. SHIVA uses two brushless engines (max power 300 kW, max torque 930 Nm) and an air actuator (thrust 5 tons) in a rotary shear configuration (nominally infinite displacement) to slide hollow rock cylinders (30/50 mm int./ext. diameter) at slip rates ranging from 10 micron/s up to 6.5 m/s, accelerations up to 80 m/s2 and normal stresses up to 50 MPa. SHIVA can also perform experiments in which the torque on the sample (rather than the slip rate) is progressively increased until spontaneous failure occurs: this experimental capability should better reproduce natural conditions. The apparatus is equipped with a sample chamber to carry out experiments in the presence of fluids (up to 15

  1. Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions and pyrite mineral surfaces on formation and hydrolysis of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Wittekindt, Carsten; Marx, Dominik

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive study of free energy landscapes and mechanisms of COS-mediated polymerization of glycine via N-carboxy anhydrides (NCAs, "Leuchs anhydrides") and peptide hydrolysis at the water-pyrite interface at extreme thermodynamic conditions is presented. Particular emphasis is set on the catalytic effects of the mineral surface including the putative role of the ubiquitous sulfur vacancy defects. It is found that the mere presence of a surface is able to change the free energetics of the elementary reaction steps. This effect can be understood in terms of a reduction of entropic contributions to the reactant state by immobilizing the reactants and/or screening them from bulk water in a purely geometric ("steric") sense. Additionally, the pyrite directly participates chemically in some of the reaction steps, thus changing the reaction mechanism qualitatively compared to the situation in bulk water. First, the adsorption of reactants on the surface can preform a product-like structure due to immobilizing and scaffolding them appropriately. Second, pyrite can act as a proton acceptor, thus replacing water in this role. Third, sulfur vacancies are found to increase the reactivity of the surface. The finding that the presence of pyrite speeds up the rate-determining step in the formation of peptides with respect to the situation in bulk solvent while stabilizing the produced peptide against hydrolysis is of particular interest to the hypothesis of prebiotic peptide formation at hydrothermal aqueous conditions. Apart from these implications, the generality of the studied organic reactions are of immediate relevance to many fields such as (bio)geochemistry, biomineralization, and environmental chemistry.

  2. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, compression.

  3. Opportunities for in-situ diffraction studies of advanced materials under extreme conditions at the US spallation neutron source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Hodges

    2008-11-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Currently ramping up to 1.4 MW operating power, SNS will provide the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. Built by a partnership of six DOE laboratories SNS is operated as a user facility, open to scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and government laboratories in the United States and abroad. Eighteen dedicated beamline instruments are currently funded; four are completed and in operation, five are to be commissioned within a year and the others are at various stages of design and construction. All instruments at SNS have been designed to best in class and will provide unprecedented opportunities to explore the structure and dynamics of all materials. Amongst the funded instruments are a high-resolution very fast powder diffractometer (POWGEN3) optimized for parametric studies of materials under a wide range of conditions (, , and flowing gases), an ultrahigh-pressure diffractometer (SNAP) for materials under extreme conditions of pressure (up to 100 GPa) and temperature, an engineering materials diffractometer (VULCAN) for mapping strain, texture and fundamental aspects of materials behaviour of high performance materials under strain forces, a high flux disordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) for liquids, glasses and disorder in crystalline materials, and a small angle scattering diffractometer (EQSANS) for investigating precipitates, crystallization, domains and nanoparticles in composite materials. ORNL/SNS is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  4. Anthropogenic changes to seawater buffer capacity combined with natural reef metabolism induce extreme future coral reef CO2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily C; McNeil, Ben I; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard; Bates, Michael L

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification, via an anthropogenic increase in seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 ), is potentially a major threat to coral reefs and other marine ecosystems. However, our understanding of how natural short-term diurnal CO2 variability in coral reefs influences longer term anthropogenic ocean acidification remains unclear. Here, we combine observed natural carbonate chemistry variability with future carbonate chemistry predictions for a coral reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef based on the RCP8.5 CO2 emissions scenario. Rather than observing a linear increase in reef flat partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in concert with rising atmospheric concentrations, the inclusion of in situ diurnal variability results in a highly nonlinear threefold amplification of the pCO2 signal by the end of the century. This significant nonlinear amplification of diurnal pCO2 variability occurs as a result of combining natural diurnal biological CO2 metabolism with long-term decreases in seawater buffer capacity, which occurs via increasing anthropogenic CO2 absorption by the ocean. Under the same benthic community composition, the amplification in the variability in pCO2 is likely to lead to exposure to mean maximum daily pCO2 levels of ca. 2100 μatm, with corrosive conditions with respect to aragonite by end-century at our study site. Minimum pCO2 levels will become lower relative to the mean offshore value (ca. threefold increase in the difference between offshore and minimum reef flat pCO2 ) by end-century, leading to a further increase in the pCO2 range that organisms are exposed to. The biological consequences of short-term exposure to these extreme CO2 conditions, coupled with elevated long-term mean CO2 conditions are currently unknown and future laboratory experiments will need to incorporate natural variability to test this. The amplification of pCO2 that we describe here is not unique to our study location, but will occur in all shallow coastal environments where high

  5. Car accidents determined by stopped cars and traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-qing; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2002-12-01

    The product of traffic flow and the fraction of stopped cars is proposed to determine the probability Pac for car accidents in the Fukui-Ishibashi model by analysing the necessary conditions of the occurrence of car accidents. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the probability Pac can well be explained. A strategy for avoiding car accidents is suggested.

  6. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  7. Assessment of hydrological extremes in the basins of Shilka and Argun rivers (Far East of Russia) in changing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Daria; Semenova, Olga; Vinogradova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Transbaikal region of Russia is formed by the basins of the Argun and Shilka Rivers (the upreaches of the Amur River). This region is simultaneously under the flood and drought hazard threat due to the combination of dry continental climate and monsoon impacts. Observed intensification of extreme hazard events in the region requires the scientific base of development of adaptation and mitigation measures. The aim of the study is the analysis of long-term variability of hydrological characteristics of the region by the means of mathematical statistics and projection of hydrological extremes in changing conditions of climate and landscapes based on hydrological modelling. Our research consisted of two stages. Firstly, we developed the database of observed daily hydrographs for about 50 runoff gauges of the region with average continuous period of observations 50 years (up to 2013) and areas from 12.3 to 200000 km2. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted and the trends of changes were assessed and analyzed. At the second stage we selected four river watersheds as the objects of modelling, namely, the gauging stations at the rivers Zun-Cooka, Gazipur, Borzya and Mogoytuy, ranging in size from 100 to 4000 km2. The basins are characterized by the variety of runoff conditions. Average elevation is about 650 m, hilly plateaus dominate the relief. The landscapes are taiga and forest-steppe with discontinuous permafrost. The climate is continental, annual precipitation varies within the range 200-450 mm, runoff - from 30 to 100 mm. The objectives of modelling stage were 1) the estimation of the hydrological model's parameters and its validation at historical data, 2) development of conceptual scenarios of changes of climate and landscapes, 3) running the model in projection mode to assess the implications of possible changes in hydrological regime. High variability of climate and hydrological regime do not allow for conventional modelling procedures to be

  8. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Granulites by name but eclogite facies by formation conditions: extreme metamorphism recorded by Saxony-type granulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Brien, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    The type locality `granulite' from the Saxonian Granulitgebirge is a felsic, granitic to granodioritic rock, composed predominantly of feldspars and quartz along with minor garnet, kyanite and rutile, and exhibiting a strong mylonitic fabric. In such rocks abundant mesoperthitic K-feldspar testifies to the former presence of high temperature (>900^oC) ternary feldspar. In intermediate to mafic layers the common antiperthite, when reconstituted to its single phase precursor, yields unequivocal ultrahigh-temperature (>1000^oC) conditions by feldspar solvus thermometry. The presence of kyanite together with such feldspar requires pressures (>15 kbar) equivalent to mantle depths. In addition, orthopyroxene, where present, is demonstrably of secondary origin. Importantly, experimental results show that the position of the orthopyroxene-out reaction curve for granitic/granodioritic compositions coincides with that of the plagioclase-out reaction in rocks of quartz-tholeiite composition. This means that the orthopyroxene-free felsic `granulites' formed at conditions above those generally taken as defining the start of the eclogite facies. It has long been known that rare mafic lenses contain clinopyroxene with jadeite content approaching or even exceeding that of omphacite. The presence or absence of plagioclase in these omphacite-bearing rocks is purely a function of bulk composition: more quartz tholeiitic rocks are plagioclase-free and are thus eclogites. Likewise, tectonic lenses of garnet peridotites in the granulite massifs are a clear indicator of metamorphism at mantle depths. Recent discoveries have extended the formation depths of some of these rocks even further as coesite (in eclogite) and microdiamond (in granulites) have been discovered in the nearby Erzgebirge. Even more remarkable are consistent ca. 340 Ma zircon ages which, along with other evidence, point to exhumation rates of several mm/a. The presence of garnet peridotites, combined with the

  10. Cushions of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) do not facilitate other plants under extreme altitude and dry conditions in the north-west Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Dvorský, Miroslav; Chlumská, Zuzana; Řeháková, Klára; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2011-09-01

    Cushion plants are commonly considered as keystone nurse species that ameliorate the harsh conditions they inhabit in alpine ecosystems, thus facilitating other species and increasing alpine plant biodiversity. A literature search resulted in 25 key studies showing overwhelming facilitative effects of different cushion plants and hypothesizing greater facilitation with increased environmental severity (i.e. higher altitude and/or lower rainfall). At the same time, emerging ecological theory alongside the cushion-specific literature suggests that facilitation might not always occur under extreme environmental conditions, and especially under high altitude and dryness. To assess these hypotheses, possible nursing effects of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) were examined at extremely high altitude (5900 m a.s.l.) and in dry conditions (precipitation plants were detected. The number and abundance of species were greater outside cushions than within and on the edge of cushions. None of the 13 species detected was positively associated with cushions, while nine of them were negatively associated. Plant diversity increased with the size of the area sampled outside cushions, but no species-area relationship was found within cushions. The results support the emerging theoretical prediction of restricted facilitative effects under extreme combinations of cold and dryness, integrating these ideas in the context of the ecology of cushion plants. This evidence suggests that cases of missing strong facilitation are likely to be found in other extreme alpine conditions.

  11. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  12. Study of radon measurement instrumentation in extreme environmental conditions; Estudio de la instrumentacion de medida de radon en condiciones ambientales extremas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, V.; Baixeras, C.; Amgarou, K.; Font, L.; Vargas, A.; Grossi, C.

    2011-07-01

    Within the framework of the scientific project of the Nuclear Safety Council ''Study of environmental monitoring instrumentation and measurement of radon in extreme environmental conditions' at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona has established a partnership with the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) to conduct a study to identify the most appropriate filters to minimize the influence of measurement conditions, particularly with respect to moisture on the response of continuous radon detectors and integrators. (Author)

  13. Left-right coordination from simple to extreme conditions during split-belt locomotion in the chronic spinal adult cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Alain; Desrochers, Étienne; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Dambreville, Charline

    2017-01-01

    Coordination between the left and right sides is essential for dynamic stability during locomotion. The immature or neonatal mammalian spinal cord can adjust to differences in speed between the left and right sides during split-belt locomotion by taking more steps on the fast side. We show that the adult mammalian spinal cord can also adjust its output so that the fast side can take more steps. During split-belt locomotion, only certain parts of the cycle are modified to adjust left-right coordination, primarily those associated with swing onset. When the fast limb takes more steps than the slow limb, strong left-right interactions persist. Therefore, the adult mammalian spinal cord has a remarkable adaptive capacity for left-right coordination, from simple to extreme conditions. Although left-right coordination is essential for locomotion, its control is poorly understood, particularly in adult mammals. To investigate the spinal control of left-right coordination, a spinal transection was performed in six adult cats that were then trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Spinal cats performed tied-belt locomotion from 0.1 to 1.0 m s(-1) and split-belt locomotion with low to high (1:1.25-10) slow/fast speed ratios. With the left hindlimb stepping at 0.1 m s(-1) and the right hindlimb stepping from 0.2 to 1.0 m s(-1) , 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 left-right step relationships could appear. The appearance of 1:2+ relationships was not linearly dependent on the difference in speed between the slow and fast belts. The last step taken by the fast hindlimb displayed longer cycle, stance and swing durations and increased extensor activity, as the slow limb transitioned to swing. During split-belt locomotion with 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 relationships, the timing of stance onset of the fast limb relative to the slow limb and placement of both limbs at contact were invariant with increasing slow/fast speed ratios. In contrast, the timing of stance onset of the slow limb

  14. Consideration of Task Performance for Robots Engaged in Extremely Dangerous Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Mo; Han, Kee Soo; Yi, Sung Deok; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, it is started to pay more attention to operation and accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For domestic nuclear industry, it was recommended to establish corresponding strategies against accidents due to extremely dangerous natural disasters. Each nuclear power plant is also preparing to establish strategies to secure nuclear safety functions by estimating the counterplans for extreme accidents. Robots are particularly being used to access the areas where those are dangerous for human beings to access or to restore the accident. Robot technologies in NPPs are emerging cutting-edge technologies that are just a start except the developed countries like USA, Japan, etc. But they are carefully considered because they have the advantages of performing tasks in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs instead of human beings. In this study, the applicability of robots will be considered in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs. Accurate judgment of the inside situation of the plant and quick actions in the extreme condition like earthquake accompanied by loss of all AC powers should be considered as major function in terms of prevention of accident spread. According to the reported stress test results of domestic NPPs, the difficult things for operators to carry out in extreme conditions can be predictable, therefore the active use of robots as accident mitigation strategies will be helpful to reduce the unnecessary spending for facility improvement. Current trend of domestic and foreign robot technology development focuses on the information search of the inside of the plant and development of preventive maintenance of NPPs. As seen actually in Fukushima Daiichi, main roles of robots place emphasis on measuring the inside radiation level accessing to the area where operator cannot access and delivering information which can support operator's decision-making and actions. Therefore, it is considered that development of

  15. Value-at-Risk-Estimation in the Mexican Stock Exchange Using Conditional Heteroscedasticity Models and Theory of Extreme Values

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Iván Aguirre Salado; Humberto Vaquera Huerta; Martha Elva Ramírez Guzmán; José René Valdez Lazalde; Carlos Arturo Aguirre Salado

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an approach for estimating value at risk (VaR) of the Mexican stock exchange index (IPC) by using a combination of the autoregressive moving average models (ARMA); three different models of the arch family, one symmetric (GARCH) and two asymmetric (GJR-GARCH and EGARCH); and the extreme value theory (EVT). The ARMA models were initially used to obtain uncorrelated residuals, which were later used for the analysis of extreme values. The GARCH, EGARCH and GJR-GARCH models, by...

  16. Materials research in the solar furnace. Materials testing in extreme conditions; Materialforschung im Sonnenofen. Werkstoffpruefung unter extremen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmuecker, M. [DLR-Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung, Koeln-Porz (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Extreme temperatures can be achieved with concentrated solar radiation. High heating and cooling rates are possible, and furnace walls are not required. This makes the solar furnace a unique tool for testing of high-temperature materials as cooperations with the DLR Institute of Materials Research have shown. (orig.) [German] Mit konzentrierter Sonnenstrahlung koennen extreme Temperaturen erreicht werden. Hohe Aufheiz- und Abkuehlraten sind moeglich; im Allgemeinen kann auf begrenzende Ofenwandungen verzichtet werden. Damit stellt der Sonnenofen, in Verbindung mit einer geeigneten Mess- und Regeltechnik, ein einzigartiges Pruefwerkzeug fuer Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe dar, wie Kooperationen mit dem DLR-Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung gezeigt haben. (orig.)

  17. Simulations of the design basis accident at conditions of power increase and the o transient of MSIV at overpressure conditions of the Laguna Verde Power Station; Simulaciones del accidente base de diseno a condiciones de aumento de potencia y del transitorio de cierre de MSIV a condiciones de sobrepresion de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araiza M, E.; Nunez C, A. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the analysis of the simulation of the loss of coolant accident at uprate power conditions, that is 2027 MWt (105% of the current rated power of 1931MWt). This power was reached allowing an increase in the turbine steam flow rate without changing the steam dome pressure value at its rated conditions (1020 psiaJ. There are also presented the results of the simulation of the main steam isolation va/ve transient at overpressure conditions 1065 psia and 1067 MWt), for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. Both simulations were performed with the best estimate computer code TRA C BF1. The results obtained in the loss of coolant accident show that the emergency core coolant systems can recover the water level in the core before fuel temperature increases excessively, and that the peak pressure reached in the drywell is always below its design pressure. Therefore it is concluded that the integrity of the containment is not challenged during a loss of coolant accident at uprate power conditions.The analysis of the main steam isolation valve transients at overpressure conditions, and the analysis of the particular cases of the failure of one to six safety relief valves to open, show that the vessel peak pressures are below the design pressure and have no significant effect on vessel integrity. (Author)

  18. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, J

    1999-09-01

    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  19. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Identification of Extreme Events Under Climate Change Conditions Over Europe and The Northwest-atlantic Region: Spatial Patterns and Time Series Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G.; Ulbrich, U.; Speth, P.

    In the context of climate change and the resulting possible impacts on socio-economic conditions for human activities it seems that due to a changed occurrence of extreme events more severe consequences have to be expected than from changes in the mean climate. These extreme events like floods, excessive heats and droughts or windstorms possess impacts on human social and economic life in different categories such as forestry, agriculture, energy use, tourism and the reinsurance business. Reinsurances are affected by nearly 70% of all insured damages over Europe in the case of wind- storms. Especially the December 1999 French windstorms caused damages about 10 billion. A new EU-founded project (MICE = Modelling the Impact of Climate Ex- tremes) will focus on these impacts caused by changed occurrences of extreme events over Europe. Based upon the output of general circulation models as well as regional climate models, investigations are carried out with regard to time series characteristics as well as the spatial patterns of extremes under climate changed conditions. After the definition of specific thresholds for climate extremes, in this talk we will focus on the results of the analysis for the different data sets (HadCM3 and CGCMII GCM's and RCM's, re-analyses, observations) with regard to windstorm events. At first the results of model outputs are validated against re-analyses and observations. Especially a comparison of the stormtrack (2.5 to 8 day bandpass filtered 500 hPa geopotential height), cyclone track, cyclone frequency and intensity is presented. Highly relevant to damages is the extreme wind near the ground level, so the 10 m wind speed will be investigated additionally. of special interest to possible impacts is the changed spatial occurrence of windspeed maxima under 2xCO2-induced climate change.

  1. EXTREME WINTERS IN XX–XXI CENTURIES AS INDICATORS OF SNOWINESS AND AVALANCHE HAZARD IN THE PAST AND EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches. 

  2. Severe accident risks from external events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.

  3. Temporal variation of sandy beach macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental conditions on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Sá Rodrigues da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations of the macrofauna of sandy beaches have been related to variations in the beach morphodynamics and also to the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the temporal variation of the intertidal macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental condition on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil. At each site three transect lines 50 m apart were defined perpendicular to the shore line, from which samples were collected monthly in triplicate at 4 intertidal levels (10 m apart from June 2004 to May 2005. During winter a generally low density was observed, due to the absence of recruitments and to the mud deposition, which occurred just before sampling (in April 2004, and to low intensity stranding events. Spring witnessed a population explosion of Scolelepis gaucha, a migration of Mesodesma mactroides adults from the subtidal zone, and a strong stranding event. In the summer, recruitment of M. mactroides, Donax hanleyanus and Emerita brasiliensis was observed. Fall was characterized by low densities, except for D. hanleyanus recruitment. The macrofauna at both sites showed a striking seasonal variation in density and diversity, perhaps attributable to the recruitment of numerically dominant species and physical disturbances (stranding and mud deposition.Variações sazonais da macrofauna bentônica de praias arenosas têm sido relacionadas com variações da morfodinâmica da praia e também aos recrutamentos das espécies dominantes. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a variabilidade temporal da macrofauna da zona entremarés de dois locais com distintas características ambientais na praia do Cassino, extremo sul do Brasil. Em cada local foram demarcadas três transversais (separadas por 50m perpendiculares à linha de água, nas quais amostras foram coletadas em triplicata em 4 níveis entremarés (separados por 10 m, entre junho/2004 e maio/2005. Durante o inverno ocorreram baixas

  4. Geometric and Road Environmental Effects against Total Number of Traffic Accidents in Kendari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdin, M. Akbar; Welendo, La; Annisa, Nur

    2017-05-01

    From the large number of traffic accidents that occurred, the carrying of Kendari as the biggest contributor to accidents in the Southeast. The number of accidents in Kendari row since 2011 was recorded at 18 accidents due to the influence of geometric road, in 2012 registered at 13 accident and in 2013 amounted to 6 accidents, with accident data because of the influence Geometric recorded for 3 consecutive years the biggest contributor to accidents because of the influence of geometric is Abeli districts. This study aimed to determine the road which common point of accident-prone (Black spot) in Kecamatan Abeli as accident-prone areas in Kendari, analyze the influence of geometric and road environment against accidents on roads in Kecamatan Abeli, provide alternative treatment based on the causes of accidents on the location of the accident-prone points (blackspot) to reduce the rate of traffic accidents. From the results of a study of 6 curve the accident-prone locations, that the curve I, II, and VI is the “Black Spot” influenced by the amount and condition of traffic accidents, while at the curve II, a traffic accident that occurred also be caused by unsafe geometric where the type of geometric should be changed from Spiral-Spiral type to Spiral-Circle-Spiral type. This indicates geometric effect on the number of accidents.

  5. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  6. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  7. Rehabilitation of the living environment in Belarus territories affected by the Chernobyl accident: the Core programme; Rehabilitation des conditions de vie dans les territoires de Bielorussie affectes par l'accident de Tchernobyl: le programme CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trafimchik, Z. [Cooperation pour la Rehabilitation des Conditions de Vie dans les Territoires Contamines par la Catastrophe de Tchernobyl (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15

    The paper is a description of the CORE Programme that is testing since 2003 in the Republic of Belarus for the duration of 5 years an innovative approach of rehabilitation of the living conditions after the Chernobyl catastrophe based on the involvement of the affected population. The background information on the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus is presented. The paper contains the description of the CORE organizational structures, application in practice of the participatory approach, the Programme achievements and perspectives. (author)

  8. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  9. 2005-2014年我国不利天气条件下交通事故特征分析%Analysis of Characteristics of Traffic Accidents Under Adverse Weather Conditions in China During 2005 -20 1 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁贵财; 康彩燕; 陈东辉; 孙广林; 刘君; 王式功; 尚可政; 马敏劲

    2016-01-01

    Through analysis of the number of traffic accidents,the economic losses of traffic accident,the injured number,the deaths number due to traffic accidents under adverse weather conditions and the meteorological observations from 2005 to 2014,the results are as follows:(1 )The number of traffic accidents and the injured occurring on rainy days was most,second for snowy days and third for foggy days.The economic losses and the deaths due to traffic accidents happened on rainy day were largest,second for foggy days and third for snowy days.The average economic losses for each accident were largest on foggy days,then for snowy days and rainy days, the average injured due to traffic accidents was most on hail days,then for foggy days and snowy days,the average deaths number due to traffic accidents was most on foggy days,then for sand days and hail days.(2)Considering the related cooperation policy between the traffic administration and the meteorological department,the number of traffic accidents and their economic losses,the injured and the deaths number were reduced effectively on rainy days,snowy days and windy days.(3)Due to the unprecedented disasters of low temperature,persistent rain,snow and ice storms in 2008,the number of traffic accidents and their economic losses,the injured and the deaths number increased obviously on snowy days in this year.(4)Through analysis of the traffic death toll on eight types of road under rainy days,snowy days and foggy days from 2005 to 2014,the largest traffic death toll in recent ten years happened on the sec-ondary roads under rainy days or snowy days,but under foggy days,the traffic death toll was most on the highway.%根据2005—2014年全国不利天气条件发生的交通事故起数、其经济损失和伤亡人数及气象观测资料研究近10 a我国不利天气条件下的交通事故特征,结果表明:(1)不利天气条件造成的交通事故起数及受伤人数雨天>雪天>雾天,造成经济

  10. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  11. 压水堆严重事故后安全壳内辐射环境计算分析%Calculation and Analysis for the Radiation Condition in the Containment of PWR after Severe Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞; 张普忠; 刘新建

    2013-01-01

    In order to mitigate severe accident effectively,validation of equipment and instrument after severe accident need to be evaluated.The temperature,pressure,humidity and radiation are key parameters for the validation evaluation.For the source term released from the molten core to the containment,NUREG-1465 was adopted for PWR.Effect of spray and leakage on concentrations of radioactive nuclides in the containment was ignored.In this paper,γ and 3 radiation condition in the containment after severe accident were calculated and analyzed,which is very important to validation evaluation of equipment and instrument after severe accident.%为了确保有效的缓解严重事故,需要对用于缓解和监测严重事故进程的重要设备、仪表在严重事故环境下的可用性进行评估.而温度、压力、湿度、辐射等参数是可用性评估的重要输入条件.本文针对百万千瓦级压水堆核电机组,参考美国核管会发布的《轻水堆核电厂事故源项》(NUREG-1465)关于严重事故后放射性物质的释放阶段和释放份额的假设,计算出事故后由堆芯释放到安全壳内的放射性源项.对于放射性物质在安全壳内的分布,不考虑喷淋和泄漏的影响,计算并分析了严重事故后安全壳内的γ和β辐射环境条件,并与APl000的设备鉴定源项进行了对比分析.本文的计算对于设备和仪表在严重事故后的可用性分析以及其所需耐受的辐射条件具有重要的参考意义.

  12. TMI-2 accident: core heat-up analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardron, K.H.; Cain, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes NSAC study of reactor core thermal conditions during the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The study focuses primarily on the time period from core uncovery (approximately 113 minutes after turbine trip) through the initiation of sustained high pressure injection (after 202 minutes). The transient analysis is based upon established sequences of events; plant data; post-accident measurements; interpretation or indirect use of instrument responses to accident conditions.

  13. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  14. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  15. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  16. Application of Induced Containment Therapy with adapted protocol for home care and its contributions to the motor condition and patient rehabilitation after encephalic vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tonús

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encephalic Vascular Accident (EVA is among the most important diseases that cause physical and functional limitations. Hemiplegia is the most common physical changes post-EVA, as compromises the upper and lower limbs at the same side of the body, characterized by a rigid pattern of the flexor muscles of the upper limb and the extensor muscles of the lower limb. The Induced Containment Therapy has been a major rehabilitation technique recently aiming to promote functional improvement of the hemiplegic limb of those who suffered EVA and enable performance and quality of life of the individual. Objective: This study aimed to identify the possible contributions of Induced Containment Therapy using a protocol adapted to technique application to the hemiplegic limb. Moreover, this research points out the influence of the environment interventions, which on the present study, occurred in the participant’s home. Method: this is a case study with exploratory feature. Results and Conclusion: The results indicated improvements in functional ability at the time of execution of the tasks and increased use of hemiplegic limb, increasing motor performance after applying the Induced Containment Therapy adapted protocol compared to the start of treatment

  17. Coupled large-eddy simulation and morphodynamics of a large-scale river under extreme flood conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Stony Brook University Team

    2016-11-01

    We present a coupled flow and morphodynamic simulations of extreme flooding in 3 km long and 300 m wide reach of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, which includes three islands and hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the VFS-Geophysics model to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 500 year flood. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. The geometrical data of the river, islands and structures are obtained from LiDAR, sub-aqueous sonar and in-situ surveying to construct a digital map of the river bathymetry. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river reveal complex sediment dynamics near the hydraulic structures. The numerically captured scour depth near some of the structures reach a maximum of about 10 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems. This work was funded by a Grant from Minnesota Dept. of Transportation.

  18. DATA ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND THEIR CAUSES IN GOMEL FOR 2013 AND 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Azemsha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures undertaken for improvement of road traffic safety presuppose clampdown on violation of road traffic regulations but no attention is paid to the fact that there is no possibility to ensure road traffic safety due to inconformity of roads to the modern safety requirements. Therefore reduction in accident rate is connected with some changes in approaches to designing, construction and maintenance of roads. Nowadays when the number of automobiles is extremely large and their number is increasing with every passing year driver’s professionalism becomes the most significant factor. In these circumstances the professionalism is demonstrated not so much while driving in bad road conditions as it was previously but the professionalism is more revealed in the case when it is necessary to drive in conditions of large workloads and high manoeuvring rate when a special important role is given to the capability to forecast a situation, in other words the capability to read the road. Moral climate on the road is no less important as well and it practically fully depends on a driver.The paper contains an analysis of the Gomel traffic police data on quantitative distribution of road traffic accidents and their victims according to the time of day and month, lighting conditions, weather conditions, age and sex factors, types of violations. Situations of traffic behavior, motivations of drivers and road users, drivers training have been shown in terms of impact on the road traffic accident risk. The paper considers a human factor which rather often causes an accident. An evaluation has been given to such factor as road speed of transport facilities which exerts a significant influence on an accident risk and its severity.

  19. From dimer to condensed phases at extreme conditions: accurate predictions of the properties of water by a Gaussian charge polarizable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricaud, Patrice; Predota, Milan; Chialvo, Ariel A; Cummings, Peter T

    2005-06-22

    Water exhibits many unusual properties that are essential for the existence of life. Water completely changes its character from ambient to supercritical conditions in a way that makes it possible to sustain life at extreme conditions, leading to conjectures that life may have originated in deep-sea vents. Molecular simulation can be very useful in exploring biological and chemical systems, particularly at extreme conditions for which experiments are either difficult or impossible; however this scenario entails an accurate molecular model for water applicable over a wide range of state conditions. Here, we present a Gaussian charge polarizable model (GCPM) based on the model developed earlier by Chialvo and Cummings [Fluid Phase Equilib. 150, 73 (1998)] which is, to our knowledge, the first that satisfies the water monomer and dimer properties, and simultaneously yields very accurate predictions of dielectric, structural, vapor-liquid equilibria, and transport properties, over the entire fluid range. This model would be appropriate for simulating biological and chemical systems at both ambient and extreme conditions. The particularity of the GCPM model is the use of Gaussian distributions instead of points to represent the partial charges on the water molecules. These charge distributions combined with a dipole polarizability and a Buckingham exp-6 potential are found to play a crucial role for the successful and simultaneous predictions of a variety of water properties. This work not only aims at presenting an accurate model for water, but also at proposing strategies to develop classical accurate models for the predictions of structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties.

  20. The critical role of N- and C-terminal contact in protein stability and folding of a family 10 xylanase under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stabilization strategies adopted by proteins under extreme conditions are very complex and involve various kinds of interactions. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of proteins have their N- and C-terminal elements in close contact and suggested they play a role in protein folding and stability. However, the biological significance of this contact remains elusive. METHODOLOGY: In the present study, we investigate the role of N- and C-terminal residue interaction using a family 10 xylanase (BSX with a TIM-barrel structure that shows stability under high temperature, alkali pH, and protease and SDS treatment. Based on crystal structure, an aromatic cluster was identified that involves Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 holding the N- and C-terminus together; this is a unique and important feature of this protein that might be crucial for folding and stability under poly-extreme conditions. CONCLUSION: A series of mutants was created to disrupt this aromatic cluster formation and study the loss of stability and function under given conditions. While the deletions of Phe4 resulted in loss of stability, removal of Trp6 and Tyr343 affected in vivo folding and activity. Alanine substitution with Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 drastically decreased stability under all parameters studied. Importantly, substitution of Phe4 with Trp increased stability in SDS treatment. Mass spectrometry results of limited proteolysis further demonstrated that the Arg344 residue is highly susceptible to trypsin digestion in sensitive mutants such as DeltaF4, W6A and Y343A, suggesting again that disruption of the Phe4-Trp6-Tyr343 (F-W-Y cluster destabilizes the N- and C-terminal interaction. Our results underscore the importance of N- and C-terminal contact through aromatic interactions in protein folding and stability under extreme conditions, and these results may be useful to improve the stability of other proteins under suboptimal conditions.

  1. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. FEATURES OF MENTAL CONDITIONS OF THE PATIENTS HAVING OBLITERATING ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES AT A STAGE OF AN AGGRAVATION AND REMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yur’evna Shpakovskaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Article is devoted to an urgent problem of mental conditions of patients of the lower extremities having obliterating atherosclerosis. Authors set as the purpose to analyse mental conditions of the patients having obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremities at a stage of an aggravation and remission. Research techniques. Psychodiagnostic research techniques: poll, observation, content analysis of medical documentation. Results. In a research it is shown that at patients as at a stage of remission as well as at an aggravation stage emotional states have the expressed adverse character. The characteristic of features of subjective health, activity and mood, indexes of personal and situational uneasiness of the patients who are at different stages of a disease and healthy people is given. Significant distinctions, in features of emotional reaction at patients with an obliterating atherosclerosis, with a dominance of neurotic frustration as a neurasthenia, existence of the alarm as situationally – caused, and quality of the personal characteristic are revealed. Range of application of results. Results of a research can be used in the course of medico-psychological maintenance and rehabilitation of patients with an obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremities at a stage of an aggravation and remission.

  3. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unraveling the plasma-material interface with real time diagnosis of dynamic boron conditioning in extreme tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gutiérrez, F. Javier; Bedoya, Felipe; Krstić, Predrag S.; Allain, Jean P.; Irle, Stephan; Skinner, Charles H.; Kaita, Robert; Koel, Bruce

    2017-08-01

    We present a study of the role of boron and oxygen in the chemistry of deuterium retention in boronized ATJ graphite irradiated by the extreme environment of a tokamak deuterium plasma. The experimental results were obtained by the first XPS measurements inside the plasma chamber of the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, between the plasma exposures. The subtle interplay of boron, carbon, oxygen and deuterium chemistry is explained by reactive molecular dynamics simulations, verified by quantum-classical molecular dynamics and successfully compared to the measured data. The calculations deciphered the roles of oxygen and boron for the deuterium retention and predict deuterium uptake into a boronized carbon surface close in value to that previously predicted for a lithiated and oxidized carbon surface.

  5. The critical role of partially exposed N-terminal valine residue in stabilizing GH10 xylanase from Bacillus sp.NG-27 under poly-extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms that govern protein stability under poly-extreme conditions continues to be a major challenge. Xylanase (BSX from Bacillus sp. NG-27, which has a TIM-barrel structure, shows optimum activity at high temperature and alkaline pH, and is resistant to denaturation by SDS and degradation by proteinase K. A comparative circular dichroism analysis was performed on native BSX and a recombinant BSX (R-BSX with just one additional methionine resulting from the start codon. The results of this analysis revealed the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in the unfolding of BSX in response to an increase in temperature. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the poly-extremophilicity of BSX to deduce the structural features responsible for its stability under one set of conditions, in order to gain information about its stability in other extreme conditions. To systematically address the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in BSX stability, a series of mutants was generated in which the first hydrophobic residue, valine (Val1, was either deleted or substituted with various amino acids. Each mutant was subsequently analyzed for its thermal, SDS and proteinase K stability in comparison to native BSX. CONCLUSIONS: A single conversion of Val1 to glycine (Gly changed R-BSX from being thermo- and alkali- stable and proteinase K and SDS resistant, to being thermolabile and proteinase K-, alkali- and SDS- sensitive. This result provided insight into the structure-function relationships of BSX under poly-extreme conditions. Molecular, biochemical and structural data revealed that the poly-extremophilicity of BSX is governed by a partially exposed N-terminus through hydrophobic interactions. Such hitherto unidentified N-terminal hydrophobic interactions may play a similar role in other proteins, especially those with TIM-barrel structures. The results of the present study are therefore of major significance for protein folding

  6. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T

    1993-06-01

    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  7. Research progress on assessment of reactor vessel integrity under severe accident conditions%严重事故条件下压力容器完整性评价的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文青龙; 陈军; 卢冬华; 赵华

    2011-01-01

    堆芯熔融物堆内滞留(In-Vessel Retention,IVR)是以AP1000为代表的第三代轻水反应堆严重事故管理的重要策略之一,也是严重事故条件下保证压力容器完整性(Reactor Vessel Integrity,RVI)的典型方法之一.该文综述了国外在严重事故条件下压力容器完整性试验研究和理论分析的现状,总结了相关的试验装置、试验方法以及基于试验数据拟合得到的经验关联式,评价了严重事故条件下压力容器完整性数值分析的工具和方法,以第三代压水堆热工水力技术为工程背景,探讨了严重事故条件下压力容器完整性热工水力基础研究的方向.%As a representative method of reactor vessel integrity (RVI) under severe accident conditions, In-vessel retention of molten core debris (IVR) is an important severe accident management strategy employed in the API000 generation-3 Pressuried Water Reactor. In this paper, research progress on the test and theoretical analysis based on RVI is reviewed. Test facilities and techniques, as well as the modeling are summarized. In addition, tools for numerical simulation for RVI are evaluated. Finally, based on the applications in thermal hydraulic technology for the generation-3 Pressuried Water Reactor in China, the potential research direction of thermal-hydraulics under RVI conditions are discussed.

  8. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  9. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  10. The near-term prediction of drought and flooding conditions in the northeastern United States based on extreme phases of AMO and NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Rouzbeh; Driscoll, Charles T.; Adamowski, Jan F.

    2017-10-01

    frequency of wet, average, and dry discharge conditions with regards to the extreme phases of AMO and NAO. While the function was decaying, the tail asymptotically merged into and stabilized at the theoretical probability of the event. As the basin scale increased, the probability of wet, average, and dry discharge conditions decreased. The Merrimack River watershed will most likely experience greater than average discharge as its extreme condition, therefore development should be avoided on flood plains. Furthermore, the current reservoir storage capacity in the Merrimack should be improved in order to accommodate excess water input and minimize flood damage. Future research should target changes in the magnitude and timing of high discharge events in order to develop adaptation strategies for aging hydraulic infrastructure in the region.

  11. Development of a high-resolution apparatus to monitor physiological state of a person undergoing extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodermyatov Radik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research has shown that ECG recordings and parameters of the body functional state are crucial for all kinds of the astronaut pre-flight preparations (centrifuge, thermal chamber, pressure chamber, pressure chamber with special equipment. It is, therefore, important to develop methods and tools for early detection of the preclinical forms of the functional state disorders in patients undergoing high-intensity loads of mixed character. The method based on the hardware-software compleх (HSC with nanosensors of high resolution has been proposed to measure the electrophysiological characteristics and bioelectrical impedance of the body tissues directly exposed to loading. The hardware-software compleх is subjected to clinical trials in Tomsk Research Institute for Cardiology. The obtained results show that the use of nanosensors of high resolution in the HSC without standard filters allows elimination of the power-line interference in ECG recordings. Monitoring of the tissue bioimpedance parameters under test loads enables the detection of preclinical (latent forms of various diseases. After clinical trials in Tomsk Institute for Cardiology the developed apparatus will be proposed for in-depth study of the cardiovascular system and the functional state of the body of astronauts and other persons exposed to extreme loads.

  12. Biohydrogen production from glucose in upflow biofilm reactors with plastic carriers under extreme thermophilic conditions (70 degrees C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-08-01

    Biohydrogen could efficiently be produced in glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers and operated at 70 degrees C. Batch experiments were, in addition, conducted to enrich and cultivate glucose-fed extreme-thermophilic hydrogen producing microorganisms from a biohydrogen CSTR reactor fed with household solid waste. Kinetic analysis of the biohydrogen enrichment cultures show that substrate (glucose) likely inhibited hydrogen production when its concentration was higher than 1 g/L. Different start up strategies were applied for biohydrogen production in biofilm reactors operated at 70 degrees C, and fed with synthetic medium with glucose as the only carbon and energy source. A biofilm reactor, started up with plastic carriers, that were previously inoculated with the enrichment cultures, resulted in higher hydrogen yield (2.21 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed) but required longer start up time (1 month), while a biofilm reactor directly inoculated with the enrichment cultures reached stable state much faster (8 days) but with very low hydrogen yield (0.69 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed). These results indicate that hydraulic pressure is necessary for successful immobilization of bacteria on carriers, while there is the risk of washing out specific high yielding bacteria.

  13. SAMPSON Parallel Computation for Sensitivity Analysis of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, M.; Bautista Gomez, L.; Maruyama, N.; Naitoh, M.; Matsuoka, S.; Cappello, F.

    2014-06-01

    On March 11th 2011 a high magnitude earthquake and consequent tsunami struck the east coast of Japan, resulting in a nuclear accident unprecedented in time and extents. After scram started at all power stations affected by the earthquake, diesel generators began operation as designed until tsunami waves reached the power plants located on the east coast. This had a catastrophic impact on the availability of plant safety systems at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi, leading to the condition of station black-out from unit 1 to 3. In this article the accident scenario is studied with the SAMPSON code. SAMPSON is a severe accident computer code composed of hierarchical modules to account for the diverse physics involved in the various phases of the accident evolution. A preliminary parallelization analysis of the code was performed using state-of-the-art tools and we demonstrate how this work can be beneficial to the nuclear safety analysis. This paper shows that inter-module parallelization can reduce the time to solution by more than 20%. Furthermore, the parallel code was applied to a sensitivity study for the alternative water injection into TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi unit 3. Results show that the core melting progression is extremely sensitive to the amount and timing of water injection, resulting in a high probability of partial core melting for unit 3.

  14. Discussions about Calculation of Conditional Extreme of Multivariate Function%多元函数条件极值的求法探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方倩珊; 吴全荣

    2014-01-01

    Combined with examples, this paper first discussed six methods about calculation of conditional extreme of multivariate function: the substitution elimination method, the Lagrange multiplier method, the geometrical model method, the parametric equation method, the gradient inner product method, inequality method. And then it analyzed applicable condition of various calculation methods and pointed out the non-precise aspects in some textbooks about calculation of conditional extreme of multivariate function in order to help students choose the appropriate method when solving such problems.%结合具体实例,分别从代入消元法、拉格朗日乘数法、几何模型法、参数方程法、梯度内积法、不等式法等六个角度探讨了多元函数条件极值的多种求法,比较了各种求法适用的条件,并指出某些教材中多元函数条件极值求法的不严谨性。旨在帮助学生在求解此类问题时选择适当的方法,把握正确的解题方向。

  15. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kotenko К.V.; Korchazhkina N.B.; Petrova М.S.; Ruzova Т.К.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years) with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a cond...

  16. Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress: Multilevel Influences on the Determinants of Resilience in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved…

  17. Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress: Multilevel Influences on the Determinants of Resilience in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved…

  18. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  19. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  20. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  1. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  2. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person’s chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals’ chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light–dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  3. [Multiple injuries in mass accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondrák, E

    1984-01-01

    The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons.

  4. Analysis of Maximum Reasonably Foreseeable Accidents for the Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.B. Ross; R.E. Best; S.J. Maheras; T.I. McSweeney

    2001-08-17

    Accidents could occur during the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This paper describes the risks and consequences to the public from accidents that are highly unlikely but that could have severe consequences. The impact of these accidents would include those to a collective population and to hypothetical maximally exposed individuals (MEIs). This document discusses accidents with conditions that have a chance of occurring more often than 1 in 10 million times in a year, called ''maximum reasonably foreseeable accidents''. Accidents and conditions less likely than this are not considered to be reasonably foreseeable.

  5. The Fukushima accident; Accident nucleaire a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, D.

    2012-02-15

    The Fukushima accident is characterized by a sequence of natural disasters: earthquake and tsunamis that deprived simultaneously 3 reactors from cooling and electrical power for quite a long time. A series of hydrogen explosion has added to the mess. Experts agree to say that certainly nuclear fuel has melt to form corium in all 3 reactors. The accident has contaminated tens of thousand acres of land around the plant and has jeopardized local coastal fishery. The human toll is unexpectedly low: no direct casualty in the population but several suicides among the people that was forced to leave their home. 5 people from the plant staff died certainly from the consequences of the tsunami. (A.C.)

  6. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  7. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation Systems Development Dept.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71.

  8. FUNDING OF ACCIDENT INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gamankova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of financial provision of public and private accident insurance. Analyzes the methodology of forming insurance premium rates in private accident insurance. The study examines the practice of reforming the financial security of the state social insurance against accidents. The results show need to implement scientifically proven approach to determining premium rates in the state social insurance based on mathematical statistics and actuarial calculations to ensure that such conditions on the one hand, can insure the risk, and the other - to provide the insurer the ability to perform insurance obligations' commitments. One of the promising areas of improvement Accident Insurance determines to define increasing the role of the private sector to create and attraction of investments, financing, reduce costs, and provision of insurance services on insurance against accidents at a qualitatively higher level. The results show the need to consider the usefulness of a mixed provision of services to accident insurance under state or non-state system, and the viability and effectiveness of the combination of these systems.

  9. A comprehensive literature review of the pelvis and the lower extremity FE human models under quasi-static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dirini, R M A; Thewlis, D; Paul, G

    2012-01-01

    Finite Element Modeling (FEM) has become a vital tool in the automotive design and development processes. FEM of the human body is a technique capable of estimating parameters that are difficult to measure in experimental studies with the human body segments being modeled as complex and dynamic entities. Several studies have been dedicated to attain close-to-real FEMs of the human body (Pankoke and Siefert 2007; Amann, Huschenbeth et al. 2009; ESI 2010). The aim of this paper is to identify and appraise the state-of-the art models of the human body which incorporate detailed pelvis and/or lower extremity models. Six databases and search engines were used to obtain literature, and the search was limited to studies published in English since 2000. The initial search results identified 636 pelvis-related papers, 834 buttocks-related papers, 505 thigh-related papers, 927 femur-related papers, 2039 knee-related papers, 655 shank-related papers, 292 tibia-related papers, 110 fibula-related papers, 644 ankle-related papers, and 5660 foot-related papers. A refined search returned 100 pelvis-related papers, 45 buttocks-related papers, 65 thigh-related papers, 162 femur-related papers, 195 knee-related papers, 37 shank-related papers, 80 tibia-related papers, 30 fibula-related papers and 102 ankle-related papers and 246 foot-related papers. The refined literature list was further restricted by appraisal against a modified LOW appraisal criteria. Studies with unclear methodologies, with a focus on populations with pathology or with sport related dynamic motion modeling were excluded. The final literature list included fifteen models and each was assessed against the percentile the model represents, the gender the model was based on, the human body segment/segments included in the model, the sample size used to develop the model, the source of geometric/anthropometric values used to develop the model, the posture the model represents and the finite element solver used for the

  10. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Johannsson, Ora E.; Laurent, Pierre; Chevalier, Claudine; Kisipan, Mosiany L.; Kavembe, Geraldine D.; Papah, Michael B.; Brix, Kevin V.; De Boeck, Gudrun; Maina, John N.; Ojoo, Rodi O.; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C) and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1) were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03). Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1) and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1) and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1) and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1). Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin) and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG) were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO), TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage). Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  11. Metabolism and antioxidant defense in the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus: adjustments to diel variations in the extreme conditions of Lake Magadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas F. Bianchini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa, which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time. Additionally, changes in larval metabolism and antioxidant defense correlated with diel variations in the extremely hostile environmental conditions of the lake are described. Wide variations in water temperature (20.2-29.3°C and dissolved oxygen content (3.2-18.6 mg O2 l−1 were observed at different times of day, without significant change in water pH (10.0±0.03. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were higher at 13:00 h (29.3±0.4°C and 18.6±1.0 mg O2 l−1 and 19:00 h (29.3±0.8°C and 16.2±1.6 mg O2 l−1 and lower at 01:00 h (21.1±0.1°C and 10.7±0.03 mg O2 l−1 and 07:00 h (20.2±0.4°C and 3.2±0.7 mg O2 l−1. Significant and parallel increases in parameters related to metabolism (cholinesterase, glucose, cholesterol, urea, creatinine and hemoglobin and the antioxidant system (SOD, GPx, GR, GSH and GSSG were observed in larvae collected at 13:00 h. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in pro-oxidants (ROS and NO, TOSC and oxidative damage parameters (LPO and DNA damage. Therefore, the observed increases in temperature and dissolved O2 content in Lake Magadi were associated with changes in the antioxidant system of T. minutipalpus larvae. Adjustments performed by the chironomid larvae were efficient in maintaining body homeostasis, as well as protecting biomolecules against oxidative damage, so that oxidative stress did not occur. GSH-GSSG and GPx-GR systems appeared to

  12. Seasonal Prediction of Hydro-Climatic Extremes in the Greater Horn of Africa Under Evolving Climate Conditions to Support Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Habib, S.; Funk, C. C.; Senay, G. B.; Dinku, T.; Policelli, F. S.; Block, P.; Baigorria, G. A.; Beyene, S.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective strategies to adapt to changes in the character of droughts and floods in Africa will rely on improved seasonal prediction systems that are robust to an evolving climate baseline and can be integrated into disaster preparedness and response. Many efforts have been made to build models to improve seasonal forecasts in the Greater Horn of Africa region (GHA) using satellite and climate data, but these efforts and models must be improved and translated into future conditions under evolving climate conditions. This has considerable social significance, but is challenged by the nature of climate predictability and the adaptability of coupled natural and human systems facing exposure to climate extremes. To address these issues, work is in progress under a project funded by NASA. The objectives of the project include: 1) Characterize and explain large-scale drivers in the ocean-atmosphere-land system associated with years of extreme flood or drought in the GHA. 2) Evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art seasonal forecast methods for prediction of decision-relevant metrics of hydrologic extremes. 3) Apply seasonal forecast systems to prediction of socially relevant impacts on crops, flood risk, and economic outcomes, and assess the value of these predictions to decision makers. 4) Evaluate the robustness of seasonal prediction systems to evolving climate conditions. The National Drought Mitigation Center (University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA) is leading this project in collaboration with the USGS, Johns Hopkins University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, NASA, and GHA local experts. The project is also designed to have active engagement of end users in various sectors, university researchers, and extension agents in GHA through workshops and/or webinars. This project is expected improve and implement new and existing climate- and remote sensing-based agricultural

  13. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  14. Surface-active potential of biosurfactants produced in curd whey by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain-PP2 and Kocuria turfanesis strain-J at extreme environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kirti V; Charde, Pravin N; Meshram, Sudhir U; Shendre, Latika P; Dubey, Vijay S; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2012-12-01

    Surface-active potential of biosurfactants produced cost-effectively in curd whey by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain-PP2 and Kocuria turfanesis strain-J were tested using parameters viz. surface tension (ST) reduction, F(CMC) (highest dilution factor to reach critical micelle concentration) and emulsification index (EI-24) of pesticides; monocrotophos and imidacloprid at extreme environmental conditions. Results have shown that ST reduction of biosurfactants was stable at pH 2-11. High F(CMC) of the biosurfactant in the fermented whey at low pH improved emulsification of pesticides. ST marginally increased at 5% and 15% NaCl, resulting in high EI-24 and F(CMC). Over a range of temperatures 30-121 °C, ST remained low with a higher F(CMC) and EI-24 at 60 °C than at 121 and 30 °C. The biosurfactants have shown differences in their surface-active property and have marked specificity to emulsify pesticides in extreme environmental conditions.

  15. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  16. Model Test Setup and Program for Experimental Estimation of Surface Loads of the SSG Kvitsøy Pilot Plant from Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Brian Juul

    This report presents the preparations done prior to model tests planned for November 2005 focusing on experimental estimation of the surface loads on the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) due to extreme wave conditions. SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple...... the planned pilot plant site is also modeled. The tests will be carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank.......This report presents the preparations done prior to model tests planned for November 2005 focusing on experimental estimation of the surface loads on the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) due to extreme wave conditions. SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple...... reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs have been used. Model tests are planned using a model (length scale 1:60) of the SSG prototype at the planned location of a pilot plant at the west coast of the island Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The properties of the coastal area surrounding...

  17. Effect of preharvest anti-fungal compounds on Aspergillus steynii and A. carbonarius under fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García Cela, Esther; Gil-Serna, J.; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Acevedo, H. (Horacio); B. Patiño; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been found in pre-harvest and freshly harvested wheat. Spanish climatic conditions point to Aspergillus species as probably responsible for this OTA. In this study the effectiveness of 5 non-specific antifungal chemicals used on wheat fields (25.9% tebuconazole + 60.0% N,N-capramide dimethyl; 12.70% tebuconazole + 12.7% prothioconazole + 59.5% N,N‐amide dimethyldecane; 12.5% epoxiconazole; 12.5% tetraconazole; and 70% thiophanate methyl) and an extract from Equisetum ar...

  18. Consortium for Health and Military Performance and American College of Sports Medicine consensus paper on extreme conditioning programs in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Michael F; Nindl, Bradley C; Deuster, Patricia A; Baumgartner, Neal; Kane, Shawn F; Kraemer, William J; Sexauer, Lisa R; Thompson, Walter R; O'Connor, Francis G

    2011-01-01

    A potential emerging problem associated with increasingly popularized extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) has been identified by the military and civilian communities. That is, there is an apparent disproportionate musculoskeletal injury risk from these demanding programs, particularly for novice participants, resulting in lost duty time, medical treatment, and extensive rehabilitation. This is a significant and costly concern for the military with regard to effectively maintaining operational readiness of the Force. While there are certain recognized positive aspects of ECPs that address a perceived and/or actual unfulfilled conditioning need for many individuals and military units, these programs have limitations and should be considered carefully. Moreover, certain distinctive characteristics of ECPs appear to violate recognized accepted standards for safely and appropriately developing muscular fitness and are not uniformly aligned with established and accepted training doctrine. Accordingly, practical solutions to improve ECP prescription and implementation and reduce injury risk are of paramount importance.

  19. Method for calculating coolant resonance frequencies under normal and accident conditions in nuclear power plants with WWER-type pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, K.N. (Moskovskij Ehnergeticheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1983-03-01

    Mathematical models are proposed for calculating acoustic oscillation resonance frequencies in the coolant in various components of the WWER type primary circuit (core, steam generator, pressurizer, piping). Due to the correspondence between model calculations and experimental results obtained in operating nuclear power plants, the developed models can be used for practical calculations. The possibility of calculating the eigenfrequencies of the coolant oscillation under different operating conditions leads to the interpretation of operational data, to the analysis of operational conditions, to the detection of coolant boiling in the reactor, and to design changes in order to prevent resonance oscillations within the coolant.

  20. Occupational Accidents: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauha Hussain Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of fatalities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occuptional accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents & their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method. The findings of this research show that ?fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite? are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as ?fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool? are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper

  1. Necessary Condition for Conditional Extreme Values under Equality Constrains and Application in the Theory of Optimization%等式约束条件极值存在的必要条件及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐军强

    2014-01-01

    The conditional extreme values for multivariable functions under equality constrains was investigated by start⁃ing from the method of Lagrange multipliers. The necessary condition for the existence of conditional extreme values was obtained by theory of linear equations. Its application in the theory of optimization was discussed. The optimal solution is obtained with this necessary condition by converting inequality constrains into equality constrains.%从拉格朗日乘子法出发,考虑多元函数在等式约束条件下的极值问题。由线性方程组理论得到多元函数在一个或多个等式约束条件下极值点存在的必要条件。并进一步考虑该条件在优化理论中的应用,通过将不等式约束转化为等式约束,运用等约束条件下极值存在的必要条件获得最优解。

  2. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths