WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraversion openness agreeableness

  1. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  2. Followers' agreeableness and extraversion and their loyalty towards authentic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, Lucas; Ripoll, Pilar; Peiró, José María

    2014-01-01

    Effective leaders understand that loyal followers are the key for success. To win their loyalty, leaders usually build social exchange relationships with them, through a wide range of behaviours, such as honouring agreements or using open and transparent communication. However, the effect of these behaviours on their followers' loyalty can differ depending on followers' individual differences, especially in relational traits such as agreeableness and extraversion. We explored the moderating role of followers' agreeableness and extraversion in the relationship between authentic leadership (using transactional leadership as reference group) and followers' loyalty. A two-wave experiment, where 224 participants with and without work experience were randomly assigned to either a transactional or authentic leadership style condition was conducted. Our results show that followers in the authentic leadership condition had higher levels of loyalty toward their leader. Moreover, followers' agreeableness played a negative moderating role in this relationship whereas extraversion played a positive moderating role in it. Our results indicate that followers' characteristics influence the effect of situational factors on their attitudes, such as loyalty, providing support for the need of a more integrative approach to leadership, where followers need to be considered as active elements of this process ofinfluence.

  3. Extraversion and Agreeableness: Divergent Routes to Daily Satisfaction With Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tov, William; Nai, Ze Ling; Lee, Huey Woon

    2016-02-01

    We examined the unique effects of extraversion and agreeableness (and honesty-humility) on everyday satisfaction with family, friends, romantic life, and acquaintances, and explored potential mediators of these effects. Three diary studies (Ns = 206, 139, 185) were conducted on Singaporean university students. In Studies 1 and 2, participants rated their satisfaction with different relationship categories. In Study 3, participants rated their satisfaction and social interactions with 10 target individuals each day for a 1-week period. Both extraversion and agreeableness predicted relationship satisfaction. However, the effect of extraversion was mediated by greater levels of trust in others, whereas the effect of agreeableness was mediated by less frequent negative exchanges (e.g., criticism, perceived anger, and perceived neglect). The effect of honesty-humility on negative exchanges was similar to agreeableness. When both were entered as predictors, only the effect of honesty-humility was significant. We discuss how the processes by which personality affect relationship satisfaction vary depending on the trait as well as the particular measure that is used (IPIP NEO PI-R, California Q-Set, and IPIP-HEXACO).

  4. On the dynamic covariation between interpersonal behavior and affect: prediction from neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, S; Moskowitz, D S

    1998-10-01

    It was posited that the traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness are predictors of dynamic intraindividual processes involving interpersonal behavior and affect. Hypotheses derived from the behavioral concordance model that individuals with high scores on a trait would experience more positively valenced affect when engaging in behavior concordant with that trait than individuals with low scores on the trait were tested. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of the traits and reported on behavior and affect during interpersonal interactions using event-contingent sampling forms approximately 6 times a day for 20 days. Trait scores were related to indexes of the association between each dimension of interpersonal behavior and affect calculated for each individual. Previous findings concerning the trait of Agreeableness were replicated, and results strongly supported the behavioral concordance model for the trait of Neuroticism. Thus, at least some traits can provide information about intraindividual processes that vary over time.

  5. The indirect nature of social motives: the relation of social approach and avoidance motives with likeability via extraversion and agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-02-01

    The current study tested assumptions derived from the whole-trait theory (Fleeson, 2012), which proposes a connection between personality and motivation. We hypothesized that individual differences in social approach and avoidance motives are associated with personality as observed by others. In addition, we expected that observed personality links social approach and avoidance motives to interpersonal outcomes. The sample was composed of 83 young adults (25.3% males, Mage  = 21.66 years) who had recently moved into a shared apartment. Roommates (N = 83; 50.6% males, Mage  = 22.83 years) evaluated the newcomers on Extraversion, Agreeableness, and likeability. Approach motives had an indirect positive effect on likeability through other-reported Extraversion and Agreeableness. Although avoidance motives had some negative effects on likeability mediated through low Extraversion, they were positively associated with Agreeableness. These results demonstrate the complexity of social approach and avoidance motives. Moreover, they highlight the importance of motivational factors for observed personality.

  6. On the social nature of personality : Effects of extraversion, agreeableness, and feedback about collective resource use on cooperation in a resource dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jager, W.; van den Berg, A.E.; Vlek, C.A.J.; Hofstee, W.K.B.

    2001-01-01

    The present research investigated how individual differences in Extraversion and Agreeableness affect cooperation in an experimental resource dilemma. Manipulated feedback indicated either that the common resource was being wed at a sustainable rate or that it was being rapidly depleted. As predicte

  7. On the social nature of personality: effects of extraversion, agreeableness, and feedback about collective resource use on cooperation in a resource dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jager, W.; Berg, van den A.E.; Vlek, C.A.J.; Hofstee, W.K.B.

    2001-01-01

    The present research investigated how individual differences in Extraversion and Agreeableness affect cooperation in an experimental resource dilemma. Manipulated feedback indicated either that the common resource was being used at a sustainable rate or that it was being rapidly depleted. As predict

  8. Psychophysiological correlates of the NEO PI-R openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, C; Donaldson, C; Scarlata, B; Ciorciari, J

    2001-05-01

    Eysenck (1983) has previously proposed biological mechanisms for his three personality dimensions. From a psychometric perspective there has been a growing acceptance of a five-factor model of personality incorporating two of Eysenck's dimensions Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N) together with Openness to Experience (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Despite the growing acceptance of the 'Big 5' model of personality there has been very few studies that have examined the biological basis of O, A and C. In an exploratory study we report the correlations between photic driving at alpha, beta-1, beta-2, delta and theta bands and O, A and C from the NEO PI-R in 16 participants. Significant correlations between the EEG at frontal, occipital-parietal and central-temporal areas at different driving frequencies with O, A and C are discussed.

  9. The agreeableness asymmetry in first impressions: perceivers' impulse to (mis)judge agreeableness and how it is moderated by power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel R; Bianchi, Emily C

    2008-12-01

    Prior research shows that perceivers can judge some traits better than others in first impressions of targets. However, questions remain about which traits perceivers naturally do infer. Here, the authors develop an account of the "agreeableness asymmetry": Although perceivers show little ability to accurately gauge target agreeableness in first impressions, they find that agreeableness is generally the most commonly inferred disposition among the Big Five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability). Using open-ended impressions based on photographs, videos, and face-to-face encounters, three studies show agreeableness as the most prevalently judged of the Big Five, although it is also poorly judged in both absolute and relative terms. The authors use interpersonal power to reveal an underlying mechanism. Manipulating the power of perceivers relative to targets substantially shifts impression content, suggesting that habitual interaction and relational concerns may partially explain perceiver's chronic interest in assessing agreeableness despite their limited ability to do so.

  10. 农民工感知社会支持与宜人性外向性关系%A Research on the Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Agreeableness and Extraversion to Migrant Rural Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武燕; 疏德明; 刘电芝

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the influence of agreeableness and extraversion to perceived social support,by surveying a sample of 480 migrant rural workers through questionnaires.The results show that the current level of perceived social support to migrant rural workers,in which agreeableness and extraversion play significant roles,is high.While agreeableness exercises more influence on perceived social support as a result of interpersonal help,extraversion has more influence on perceived social support from the perspective of the information.The cultivation and development of positive characters help to improve perceived social support.%为考察大五人格中宜人性、外向性对农民工感知社会支持的影响,采取自编感知社会支持情景问卷和大五人格量表对480名农民工进行调查。结果表明:当前农民工感知社会支持水平较高,宜人性和外向性两种人格特质对农民工感知社会支持有重要影响,但宜人性对人际帮助感知社会支持影响较大,外向性对信息帮助感知社会支持影响较大。培养和发展积极的人格品质可以有效提高感知社会支持水平。

  11. Towards Understanding the Two Way Interaction Effects of Extraversion and Openness to Experience on Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined potential two-way interaction effects of the Big Five personality traits extraversion and openness to experience on career commitment measured in terms of three components of career identity, career resilience, and career planning. Participants included 450 managers from public and private sector organizations in North…

  12. L2 Willingness to Communicate, Openness to Experience, Extraversion, and L2 Unwillingness to Communicate: The Iranian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khany, Reza; Nejad, Ali Mansouri

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between L2 willingness to communicate (L2WTC), L2 unwillingness to communicate (L2UWTC) and the personality traits of openness to experience and extraversion in an Iranian context. The Pearson correlation and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the results from a study with 217 English major students. A…

  13. 农民工的主观幸福感及与大五人格中外向性和宜人性的关系%Relationship of subjective well-being to extraversion and agreeableness of big five personality in migrant workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 刘电芝; 孙崇勇; 疏德明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship of subjective well-being to extraversion and agreeableness of big five personality domains in migrant workers. Methods: By convenient sampling, 630 migrant workers in Suzhou were investigated with questionnaires including the Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire for Migrant Workers (SWBQ-MW) and Big Five Marker (BFM). Results: The average score of the migrant workers'SWB was 3 points higher than the intermediate value. The SWBQ-MW total scores and each dimension scores were obviously higher in migrant workers with high extraversion and agreeableness than in those with low extraversion and agreeableness (P <0. 01). The scores of the migrant workers'extraversion and agreeableness were positively correlated with the SWBQ-MW total score (r = 0. 39, 0. 23; P <0. 01), and could predict the scores of SWB (β =0.35,0. 12). In subjects with high agreeableness, there was no difference in SWBQ-MW total scores between people in different gender and income level. In subjects with low agreeableness, the females scored higher SWBQ-MW total score than the males (P < 0. 001), and the SWBQ-MW total scores decreased with increasing income (P < 0. 01). Conclusion: The migrant workers'SWB is above the medium level, and there is a correlation among extraversion, agreeableness and subjective well-being.%目的:考察农民工的主观幸福感(SWB)与大五人格中外向性和宜人性两人格特质的关系.方法:采用方便取样,选取苏州地区630名农民工,用自编农民工主观幸福感问卷(SWBQ-MW)和大五人格量表(BFM)进行调查.结果:受试SWBQ-MW平均分高于中值3分.高外向性(n=171)和高宜人性特质农民工(n=170)的SWBQ-MW总分及各维度分高于低外向性(n=170)和低宜人特质农民工(n=172)(均P<0.001).外向性和宜人性得分与SWBQ-MW总分呈正相关(r=0.39,0.23;P<0.01),且都对SWB有预测作用(β=0.35,0.12).宜人性与性别、收入的交互作用显著(P<0.01或0.001).高宜人性人

  14. Apakah Kepribadian Menentukan Pemilihan Media Komunikasi? Metaanalisis Terhadap Hubungan Kepribadian Extraversion, Neuroticism, dan Openness to Experience dengan Penggunaan Email

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia Ramdhani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As communication technologies such as e-mail have becoming indispensable for business communication, the study of the use and effects of technologies is increasingly relevant. This study is aimed at analyzing the correlation between personality traits and the choice of communication media. Research data from 22 studies published in the journals and the articles posted in the internet in the years of 1999 – 2006 were analyzed using meta analysis technique. The total of 4267 participants were involved in the research. Analysis was focused only on the correlation between three personality traits: extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, and the use of email. Two statis¬tical technique error corrections were applied in analyzing the data, namely sampling error correction and measurement error correction. It was found that after sampling error correction was calculated the correlation between extraversion and email usage was (ř = 0,33. Further, when measurement error was also calculated, the correlation between those two variables increased to (ρ = 0,38. When sampling error corection was applied, the correlation between neuroticism and email usage was (ř = 0,13. Similar to extra¬version when measurement error was cor¬rect¬ed, the correlation between these two variables increased to (ρ = 0,14. The corre¬la¬tion between openness to experience with email usage was (ř = 0,30 when sampling error correction was calculated. Further when the measurement error correction was applied the coeficient correlation was increas¬ed to (ρ = 0,33. These findings indi¬cated that personality traits correlate with email usage. Keywords: meta analisis, extraversion, neu¬ro-ticism, openness to experience, email

  15. Association between extraversion personality and abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Unjin; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Depression and psychological distress are known to be associated with diabetes development as well as the disease progression including glycemic control and chronic complication, but relationship of personality with diabetes is controversial. We examined whether personality trait and the presence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR; diabetes and pre-diabetes) are associated in young women. A total of 1,617 young women aged 19-39 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were participated voluntarily. Personality trait was assessed by self-reported questionnaire using the five-factor model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) consisting of five-point scale ranging from 'strongly disagreeable' to 'strongly agreeable.' Glucose tolerance status was assessed by standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. One hundred and eleven women were newly diagnosed with AGR (6.9 %). Among five factors, only extraversion trait was significantly associated with AGR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant negative association between extraversion trait and 2-h post-load glucose after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and family history of diabetes (β = -0.16, P = 0.026). Multiple logistic regression showed extraversion trait having a significant association with the presence of AGR after adjustment for the same covariates (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.99, P = 0.011). The frequency of AGR was significantly increased according to the decrease in extraversion score (P for trend with exact test = 0.047). In conclusion, extraversion may be an important personality trait having a beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of AGR.

  16. Touch and personality: extraversion predicts somatosensory brain response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The Five-Factor-Model describes human personality in five core dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness). These factors are supposed to have different neural substrates. For example, it has been suggested that behavioral differences between introverts and extraverts can be explained by the fact that introverts exhibit an inherent drive to compensate for overactive cortical activity in reticulo-thalamo-cortical pathways. The current study examined if responses in somatosensory cortices due to tactile stimulation are affected by personality traits. Based on previous studies and theoretical models we hypothesized a relationship of extraversion with somatosensory responses in primary somatosensory cortex (SI). In order to test this hypothesis we applied nonpainful tactile stimulation on the fingers of both hands of 23 healthy young participants (mean 25 years, standard deviation ± 2.8 years). Personality traits were assessed according to the Five-Factor-Model (NEO-FFI). Neuromagnetic source imaging revealed that the cortical activity (dipole strengths) for sources in SI were closely associated with the personality trait extraversion. Thus, the less extraverted the participants were, the higher was the cortical activity in SI. This relationship was in particular valid for the right hemisphere. We conclude that personality seems to depend on primary cortex activity. Furthermore, our results provide further evidence for an inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the social brain.

  17. Agreeableness as obstacle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, B

    2000-08-01

    The author discusses excessive agreeableness as it appears in the analytic situation, the patient agreeing with all interpretations, accepting all the analyst suggests in such a way as to keep the treatment apparently ongoing and peaceful but actually semi-paralysed. This type of agreeableness is linked with what has been described in the literature under the rubric of compliance. The author aims to show the various ways in which this agreeableness is enacted in the relationship with the analyst, and then to explore further the kind of anxieties that this defensive structure tries to ward off. Material from an adolescent patient is used to describe the slow unravelling of very powerful anxieties about being invaded and taken over by her object, anxieties that lead to her having no life and no mind of her own. It is suggested that such deeply paranoid anxieties may unconsciously be present in other patients of this compliant, 'agreeable' type.

  18. The "CEO" of women's work lives: how Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness predict 50 years of work experiences in a changing sociocultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Linda G; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2011-10-01

    Few long-term longitudinal studies have examined how dimensions of personality are related to work lives, especially in women. We propose a life-course framework for studying work over time, from preparatory activities (in the 20s) to descending work involvement (after age 60), using 50 years of life data from the women in the Mills Longitudinal Study. We hypothesized differential work effects for Extraversion (work as pursuit of rewards), Openness (work as self-actualization), and Conscientiousness (work as duty) and measured these 3 traits as predictor variables when the women were still in college. In a prospective longitudinal design, we then studied how these traits predicted the women's subsequent work lives from young adulthood to age 70 and how these effects depended on the changing sociocultural context. Specifically, the young adulthood of the Mills women in the mid-1960s was rigidly gender typed and family oriented; neither work nor education variables at that time were predicted from earlier personality traits. However, as women's roles changed, later work variables became related to all 3 traits, as expected from current Big Five theory and research. For example, early personality traits predicted the timing of involvement in work, the kinds of jobs chosen, and the status and satisfaction achieved, as well as continued work participation and financial security in late adulthood. Early traits were also linked to specific cultural influences, such as the traditional feminine role, the women's movement, and graduate education for careers.

  19. Social anxiety and the Big Five personality traits: the interactive relationship of trust and openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simona C; Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that social anxiety (SA) has a positive relationship with neuroticism and a negative relationship with extraversion. However, findings on the relationships between SA and agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are mixed. In regard to facet-level personality traits, SA is negatively correlated with trust (a facet of agreeableness) and self-efficacy (a facet of conscientiousness). No research has examined interactions among the Big Five personality traits (e.g., extraversion) and facet levels of personality in relation to SA. In two studies using undergraduate samples (N = 502; N = 698), we examined the relationships between trust, self-efficacy, the Big Five, and SA. SA correlated positively with neuroticism, negatively with extraversion, and had weaker relationships with agreeableness, openness, and trust. In linear regression predicting SA, there was a significant interaction between trust and openness over and above gender. In addition to supporting previous research on SA and the Big Five, we found that openness is related to SA for individuals low in trust. Our results suggest that high openness may protect against the higher SA levels associated with low trust.

  20. Extraversion and taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, Yuriy; Mipando, Mwapatsa

    2008-03-01

    The rationale for investigating the gustatory reactivity as influenced by personality dimensions was suggested by some prior findings of an association between extraversion and acuity in other sensory systems. Detection thresholds for sweet, salty, and bitter qualities of taste were measured in 60 young healthy male and female volunteers using a two-alternative forced-choice technique. Personality of the responders was assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Multivariate analysis of variance failed to demonstrate a statistically significant interaction between an extraversion-introversion score, neuroticism score, smoking, gender and age. The only reliable negative association was found between the body mass index (BMI) and taste sensitivity (Roy's largest root = 0.05, F(7436.5) = 8.34, P = 0.003). Possible reasons for lack of differences between introverts and extraverts in the values of taste detection thresholds were discussed.

  1. Agreeableness, conscientiousness, and psychoticism: distinctive influences of three personality dimensions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter; Barkus, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have suggested that the psychoticism (P) personality dimension of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire may be largely redundant with the agreeableness (A) and conscientiousness (C) constructs of the five-factor model. Little research has examined the distinctiveness of these constructs. We utilized a multi-wave, multi-method design to examine the ability of C, A, and P to uniquely predict a number of important outcomes amongst high school students. A total of 778 students (391 males, 387 females; mean age 15.41 years.) completed personality measures in Grade 10. Self-reported self-esteem, social support, health-related behaviours, religious values as well as teachers' assessments of students, were collected 1 and 2 years later. A, C, and P were distinctive in their ability to predict these outcomes, after controlling for gender and socio-economic status as well as Grade 10 extraversion, openness, and neuroticism. The individual P items explained unique variance over and above that explained by A and C. It was concluded that P is not merely the opposite of A and C. Implications for interventions are raised.

  2. Interpersonal conflict, agreeableness, and personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Gleason, Katie A; Adams, Ryan; Malcolm, Kenya T

    2003-12-01

    This multimethod research linked the Big-Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict in childhood. Agreeableness was the personality dimension of focus because this dimension has been associated with maintaining positive interpersonal relations in adolescents and adults. In two studies, elementary school children were assessed on the Big-Five domains of personality. Study 1 (n=276) showed that agreeableness was uniquely associated with endorsements of conflict resolution tactics in children as well as parent and teacher reports of coping and adjustment. Study 2 (n=234) revealed that children's perceptions of themselves and others during conflict was influenced by their agreeableness regardless of their partner's agreeableness. Observers also reported that pairs higher in agreeableness had more harmonious, constructive conflicts. Overall findings suggest that of the Big-Five dimensions, agreeableness is most closely associated with processes and outcomes related to interpersonal conflict and adjustment in children.

  3. Correlates and implications for agreeableness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D

    2002-01-01

    This study is an examination of the relationship between agreeableness and other constructs related to children's social relationships. Third through 6th graders (N = 76; 46 boys, 30 girls) completed self-reports on agreeableness (based on the adult version of the NEO Personality Inventory Manual; Costa & McCrae, 1985), social skills (Social Skills Rating System for Children; Gresham & Elliot, 1991), empathy (Feshbach, 1990) and trust (Children's Trust Scale; Imber, 1973). Using multiple regression, agreeableness was predicted by social skills, empathy, and trust for girls. There were no significant predictors of agreeableness for boys. The discussion focuses on the mutability of childhood personality.

  4. Extraversion-introversion and spatial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A; Eliot, J

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether extraversion-introversion is related to spatial intelligence. First-year psychology students (58 men, 108 women) in an open-admission community college responded to a battery of black and white and color spatial ability tests, and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. As hypothesized, a small but significant relationship was found between scores on extraversion and on the SEK Test (colored spatial test). Gender differences in performance on the spatial tests favored males. Scores on three of the Spatial Dimensionality Tests correlated significantly with those on the SEK Test. Recommendations include investigating the effect of a variety of spatial problems in combination with other personality variables.

  5. Assessment of Dependency, Agreeableness, and Their Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jennifer Ruth; Edmundson, Maryanne; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Agreeableness is central to the 5-factor model conceptualization of dependency. However, 4 meta-analyses of the relationship of agreeableness with dependency have failed to identify a consistent relationship. It was the hypothesis of the current study that these findings might be due in part to an emphasis on the assessment of adaptive, rather…

  6. Agreeableness as a moderator of interpersonal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Campbell, L A; Graziano, W G

    2001-04-01

    This multimethod research linked the Big Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflicts. Agreeableness was the focus because this dimension is associated with motives to maintain positive interpersonal relations. Converging responses to both hypothetical conflicts and to diary records of actual daily interpersonal conflicts across a two-week period were assessed. Agreeableness was expected to moderate affective responses and tactical choices during conflicts. Patterns of daily conflict were related to self-reported reactions to hypothetical conflicts and to teacher-rated adjustment in adolescents. As predicted, Agreeableness was related to responsiveness to conflict. Agreeableness differences and use of destructive tactics in conflict were significantly related to evaluations of the individual's adjustment by knowledgeable raters. Among the Big Five dimensions, Agreeableness was most closely associated with processes and outcomes during interpersonal conflict.

  7. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-10-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states.

  8. Caffeine, extraversion and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that extraverts performing a working memory task benefit more from caffeine than do introverts. The present study aimed to replicate this and extend our knowledge by using a lower dose of caffeine (65 mg) and a range of tasks related to different components of working memory. In addition, tasks assessing psychomotor speed and the encoding of new information were included to determine whether caffeine-extraversion interactions were restricted to working memory tasks. A double-blind design was used, with 128 participants being randomly assigned to caffeinated or de-caffeinated coffee conditions. The results showed that caffeine interacted with extraversion in the predicted direction for serial recall and running memory tasks. Caffeine improved simple reaction time and the speed of encoding of new information, effects which were not modified by extraversion. These results suggest possible biological mechanisms underlying effects of caffeine on cognitive performance.

  9. Agreeableness: dimension of personality or social desirability artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, William G; Tobin, Renée M

    2002-10-01

    Agreeableness is linked to socially valued traits and prosocial motives, so self-reported Agreeableness may be distorted by self-favoring biases (SFB). A three-study multimethod research program explored links between the Big Five dimension of Agreeableness and SFB from three perspectives. First, we examined zero-order relations between Agreeableness and SFB measures (N = 316). Next, we used a round robin design (N = 351) and the Social Relations Model analyses (Kenny, 1994) to partition perceptions of Agreeableness into target and perceiver effects. These effects then were related to SFB concerns, and differential responsiveness to a manipulation of the social desirability of Agreeableness. Study 3 (N = 312) examined a manipulation of Agreeableness as a moderator of the relation between dispositional Agreeableness and interpersonal conflict tactics. Overall, results indicate that Agreeableness is not easily manipulated nor distorted by SFB. Results are discussed in terms of Agreeableness as a substantive system of motives.

  10. On (2,3)-agreeable Box Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Michael; Zell, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    The notion of $(k,m)$-agreeable society was introduced by Deborah Berg et al.: a family of convex subsets of $\\R^d$ is called $(k,m)$-agreeable if any subfamily of size $m$ contains at least one non-empty $k$-fold intersection. In that paper, the $(k,m)$-agreeability of a convex family was shown to imply the existence of a subfamily of size $\\beta n$ with non-empty intersection, where $n$ is the size of the original family and $\\beta\\in[0,1]$ is an explicit constant depending only on $k,m$ and $d$. The quantity $\\beta(k,m,d)$ is called the minimal \\emph{agreement proportion} for a $(k,m)$-agreeable family in $\\R^d$. If we only assume that the sets are convex, simple examples show that $\\beta=0$ for $(k,m)$-agreeable families in $\\R^d$ where $k

  11. The antecedents and correlates of agreeableness in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Pulkkinen, Lea; Adams, Ryan

    2002-07-01

    Data from a 25-year prospective study of 194 individuals indicated that teacher and peer reports of aggression, compliance, and self-control at age 8 distinguished high-agreeable from low-agreeable adults at age 33. Profile analyses revealed two behavioral types in childhood and two personality types in adulthood, with considerable continuity in the composition of these high- and low-agreeable types over time. High-agreeable childhood types had fewer disobedience and concentration problems than low-agreeable childhood types, and among boys, high-agreeable childhood types had better school grades and fewer behavior problems than their low-agreeable counterparts. High-agreeable adulthood types reported less alcoholism and depression, fewer arrests, and more career stability than did low-agreeable adulthood types.

  12. Gruppepsykologi, Arbejdsmarkedet & Introversion/Extraversion

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Nielsen; Nagihan, Celik; Nana, Jacobsen; Anton, Nervil

    2015-01-01

    This paper will examine how the definition of extraversion and introversion - according to the Five-Factor model - has any influence on job performance, and discusses whether this model is fit to define this personality trait. In order to set this into perspective this paper will include aspects of social psychology which will enlighten the social entities of job performance. This paper includes an meta-analysis which examines the correlation between personality traits and job performance. Th...

  13. Popularity, similarity, and the network extraversion bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiler, Daniel C; Kleinbaum, Adam M

    2015-05-01

    Using the emergent friendship network of an incoming cohort of students in an M.B.A. program, we examined the role of extraversion in shaping social networks. Extraversion has two important implications for the emergence of network ties: a popularity effect, in which extraverts accumulate more friends than introverts do, and a homophily effect, in which the more similar are two people's levels of extraversion, the more likely they are to become friends. These effects result in a systematic network extraversion bias, in which people's social networks will tend to be overpopulated with extraverts and underpopulated with introverts. Moreover, the most extraverted people have the greatest network extraversion bias, and the most introverted people have the least network extraversion bias. Our finding that social networks were systematically misrepresentative of the broader social environment raises questions about whether there is a societal bias toward believing other people are more extraverted than they actually are and whether introverts are better socially calibrated than extraverts.

  14. Maladaptive variants of conscientiousness and agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Gore, Whitney L

    2012-12-01

    Although reasonably strong support has been obtained for the Five-Factor Model's (FFM) ability to account for the existing personality disorder (PD) constructs, the support for obsessive-compulsive PD (OCPD) and dependent PD (DPD) has been relatively less consistent. Specifically, the expected correlation between OCPD and the FFM trait of Conscientiousness has varied in magnitude across studies while DPD has, at times, also evinced rather weak relationships with FFM Agreeableness. We determined that these inconsistencies were due primarily to the reliance on FFM measures that lack adequate fidelity to assess the maladaptive aspects of high Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. When alternative measures were utilized, the correlations were generally large and in line with expectations. We conclude that OCPD and DPD can be fruitfully conceptualized within the FFM but encourage the use of measures that provide a comprehensive assessment of both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of the FFM traits.

  15. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Schaik, Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  16. Neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Korteling, J.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  17. Neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Korteling, J.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  18. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A

    1989-01-01

    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  19. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Schaik, van Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); Erp, van Jan B.F.; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  20. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Schaik, Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming

  1. The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, L A; Burke, Lisa A; Barrick, Murray R; Mount, Michael K

    2002-02-01

    The authors hypothesized that the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance would be stronger for persons high in agreeableness than for those low in agreeableness. Results of hierarchical moderated regression analyses for 7 independent samples of employees across diverse occupations provided support for the hypothesis in 5 of the samples. In samples supporting the hypothesis, among the highly conscientious workers, those low in agreeableness were found to receive lower ratings of job performance than workers high in agreeableness. One explanation for lack of an interaction between conscientiousness and agreeableness in the other 2 samples is that those jobs were not characterized by frequent, cooperative interactions with others. Overall, the results show that highly conscientious workers who lack interpersonal sensitivity may be ineffective, particularly in jobs requiring cooperative interchange with others.

  2. Sadness prediction and response: effects of age and agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Ann; Andreoletti, Carrie; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2010-04-01

    Research has suggested that both age and personality play a role in emotional experience and regulation, but these variables have not been considered together to determine the relative contribution of each. This study simultaneously examined age and agreeableness differences in the experience of sad stimuli. Participants were 46 younger adults (age, M = 22.04 years, SD = 5.41 years) and 48 older adults (age, M = 74.23, SD = 7.82 years). Participants were asked to predict how sad stimuli (i.e., sad photos) would make them feel and were then measured on their actual reaction to the stimuli (reactivity) as well as on their emotional recovery. Agreeableness, but not age, was related to predicted levels of sadness, such that the more agreeable, the higher the predicted sadness (beta = 0.37). In contrast to expectations, prediction accuracy was not related to age or agreeableness. For emotional reactivity, agreeableness (beta = 0.16), but not age, was related to reactivity to sad stimuli (i.e., more agreeable, higher reactivity). Finally, age (beta = 0.14) was significantly related to emotional recovery such that the older adults reported lower levels of sadness at posttest than did the younger adults. Similarly, people who were more agreeable also reported better emotional recovery (beta = 0.15). These relationships were not affected by depression or pretest sadness ratings. Overall, these findings suggest distinct roles for age and agreeableness in predicting different components of the emotion regulation process. An individual with advanced age, high levels of agreeableness, or both may be well-positioned for resilience throughout the emotion regulation process.

  3. The indirect nature of social motives: the relation of social approach and avoidance motives with likeability via extraversion and agreeableness

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested assumptions derived from the whole-trait theory (Fleeson, 2012), which proposes a connection between personality and motivation.We hypothesized that individual differences in social approach and avoidance motives are associated with personality as observed by others. In addition,we expected that observed personality links social approach and avoidance motives to interpersonal outcomes.The sample was composed of 83 young adults (25.3% males,Mage = 21.66 years) who had ...

  4. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  5. Agreeableness and activity engagement in nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L; Kolanowski, Ann; Kürüm, Esra

    2010-09-01

    Residents with dementia are the least likely to be engaged in the nursing home and often spend most of their time doing nothing at all. However, resident participation in meaningful activities is important to promote both physical and psychological health. Tailoring activities to individual functional abilities and personality preferences improves both the time and level of participation. This pilot study used an analysis of covariance procedure to test the relationship between the personality trait of agreeableness and engagement when activities are ideally tailored to ability and interest. No significant difference was found between the high and low agreeableness groups, indicating that residents were more engaged when activities were individually tailored, regardless of their agreeableness level. Although low agreeableness may pose a challenge when implementing activities for people with dementia, the results of this study suggest that tailoring activities to functional ability and interest may overcome the effects.

  6. Neuroticism, extraversion and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Erp, J.B.F. van; Korteling, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Low neuroticism and high extraversion seem to be predictors for people performing well during and after extremely stressful circumstances. Here we investigate whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming performance and st

  7. Neuroticism, extraversion and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Erp, J.B.F. van; Korteling, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Low neuroticism and high extraversion seem to be predictors for people performing well during and after extremely stressful circumstances. Here we investigate whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming performance and st

  8. Impulsive behaviour in interpersonal encounters: associations with quarrelsomeness and agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    aan Het Rot, Marije; Moskowitz, D S; Young, Simon N

    2015-02-01

    Associations between impulsivity and interpersonal behaviours have rarely been examined, even though impulsivity may disrupt the flow of social interactions. For example, it is unknown to what extent the commonly used Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) predicts impulsive behaviour in social situations, and how behaving impulsively during interpersonal encounters might influence levels of quarrelsomeness and agreeableness. In this study, 48 healthy working individuals completed the BIS-11 and recorded their behaviour in social situations using event-contingent recording. Record forms included items representing quarrelsome, agreeable, and impulsive behaviours. BIS-11 motor impulsiveness scores predicted impulsive behaviour in social situations. Impulsive behaviour was associated, in different interactions, with both agreeableness and quarrelsomeness. Behaving impulsively in specific interactions was negatively associated with agreeableness in participants with higher BIS-11 motor impulsiveness and positively associated with agreeableness in participants with lower BIS-11 motor impulsiveness. Impulsive quarrelsome behaviour may cause interpersonal problems. Impulsive agreeable behaviour may have positive effects in individuals with low trait impulsivity. The idea that there are between-person differences in the effects of state impulsivity on the flow of social interaction deserves further study.

  9. Mistaking Judgments of the Agreeable and Judgments of Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Raven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant develops a rigorous formulation of aesthetic judgments, in which he makes a sharp distinction between judgments of taste and judgments of the agreeable (both of which are, I claim, types of aesthetic judgments if only to dismiss judgments of the agreeable as worthy objects of study. Kant is primarily concerned with judgments of taste, the main example of which is judging something to be beautiful (whether it be a work of art or a natural object. He asserts that such judgments are subjective, universal, necessary, disinterested, and do not presuppose a purpose. The other type of aesthetic judgment are judgments of the agreeable, “which are the kind of judgment expressed by saying simply that one likes something or finds it pleasing.” These are judgments of what, in Kant’s words, please “the senses in sensation” as opposed to pleasing ourcognition in reflection.

  10. Le football africain entre immobilisme et extraversion

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, Raffaele; Dietschy Paul

    2007-01-01

    Symbole de l’espoir national des États d’Afrique aux indépendances, le football africain s’est radicalement transformé : lors de la Coupe du monde de 1970, aucun des joueurs zaïrois n’évoluait à l’étranger ; en 2006, aucun des footballeurs ivoiriens ne joue dans son pays. Pour comprendre la dynamique de cette extraversion grandissante, il faut prendre en compte un enchevêtrement de facteurs – l’implication d’acteurs locaux dans le transfert de joueurs à l’étranger, la bienveillante attention ...

  11. Agreeableness and activeness as components of conflict behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; Euwema, M C

    1994-01-01

    Handling social conflict is usually described in terms of 2 dimensions that either cause the behavior (concern for one's own and others' goals) or that result from it (integration and distribution). In contrast, agreeableness and activeness are common factors of modes and taxonomies of conflict beha

  12. Low openness on the revised NEO personality inventory as a risk factor for treatment-resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients. METHODS: We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n=35, remitted depressed patients (n=27, and healthy controls (n=66. We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study. RESULTS: Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression.

  13. Right and Left Medial Orbitofrontal Volumes Show an Opposite Relationship to Agreeableness in FTD

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine P. Rankin; Rosen, Howard J.; Kramer, Joel H.; Schauer, Guido F.; Weiner, Michael W.; Schuff, Norbert; Miller, Bruce L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent investigations of the neuroanatomy of complex social behaviors suggest that the underlying brain circuits involve multiple cortical and subcortical structures. The neuroanatomic origins of agreeableness have not yet been clearly elucidated. However, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients can evidence dramatic alterations in agreeableness arising from frontal and temporal lobe damage. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that agreeableness would be negatively correlated with left...

  14. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  15. Perceived performance of daylighting systems: lighting efficacy and agreeableness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontoynont, M. [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l' Etat (France). Dept. Genie Civil et Batiment

    2002-08-01

    Can daylighting systems be assessed through objective procedures? On one hand, they can be considered as lighting techniques and deserve to be characterised through the same type of parameters: illuminances, uniformity, luminances, colour temperature, colour rendering indices, etc. On the other hand, two major aspects differentiate them from artificial lighting installations. Firstly, the daylight source is variable, requiring a long term approach and an assessment of the duration of the phenomena per day, month or year. Secondly, the brightness of the window cannot be totally disconnected from the content of the view and its agreeableness. This suggests that psychological well-being may be in some cases as important as visual comfort issues. For the window component industry, it appears that a serious concern about the two aspects of windows - i.e. lighting efficacy and agreeableness - should be carefully approached for each design. (author)

  16. Speed scaling with power down scheduling for agreeable deadlines

    CERN Document Server

    Bampis, Evripidis; Kacem, Fadi; Milis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a set of n jobs, each one specified by a release time, a deadline and a workload, on a single processor. The objective is to minimize the overall consumed energy, by adapting the processor speed and by shutting down the processor when appropriate. We provide an O(n^3) algorithm computing the optimal schedule in the case of agreeable deadlines.

  17. Do nice guys--and gals--really finish last? The joint effects of sex and agreeableness on income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A; Hurst, Charlice

    2012-02-01

    Sex and agreeableness were hypothesized to affect income, such that women and agreeable individuals were hypothesized to earn less than men and less agreeable individuals. Because agreeable men disconfirm (and disagreeable men confirm) conventional gender roles, agreeableness was expected to be more negatively related to income for men (i.e., the pay gap between agreeable men and agreeable women would be smaller than the gap between disagreeable men and disagreeable women). The hypotheses were supported across 4 studies. Study 1 confirmed the effects of sex and agreeableness on income and that the agreeableness-income relationship was significantly more negative for men than for women. Study 2 replicated these results, controlling for each of the other Big Five traits. Study 3 also replicated the interaction and explored explanations and paradoxes of the relationship. A 4th study, using an experimental design, yielded evidence for the argument that the joint effects of agreeableness and gender are due to backlash against agreeable men.

  18. When nasty breeds nice: threats of violence amplify agreeableness at national, individual, and situational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Li, Yexin Jessica; Mortensen, Chad R; Neuberg, Steven L; Cohen, Adam B

    2012-10-01

    Humans have perennially faced threats of violence from other humans and have developed functional strategies for surviving those threats. Five studies examined the relation between threats of violence and agreeableness at the level of nations, individuals, and situations. People living in countries with higher military spending (Study 1) and those who chronically perceive threats from others (Study 2) were more agreeable. However, this threat-linked agreeableness was selective (Studies 3-5). Participants primed with threat were more agreeable and willing to help familiar others but were less agreeable and willing to help unfamiliar others. Additionally, people from large families, for whom affiliation may be a salient response to threat, were more likely than people from small families to shift in agreeableness. Returning to the national level, military spending was associated with increased trust in ingroup members but decreased trust in outgroups. Together, these findings demonstrate that agreeableness is selectively modulated by threats of violence.

  19. Compassionate liberals and polite conservatives: associations of agreeableness with political ideology and moral values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; DeYoung, Colin G; Xiaowen Xu; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-05-01

    Political conservatism has been characterized by resistance to change and acceptance of inequality, with liberalism characterized by the polar opposite of these values. Political attitudes are heritable and may be influenced by basic personality traits. In previous research, conservatism (vs. liberalism) has been associated positively with Conscientiousness and negatively with Openness-Intellect, consistent with the association of conservatism with resistance to change. Less clear, however, are the personality traits relating to egalitarianism. In two studies, using a personality model that divides each of the Big Five into two aspects, the present research found that one aspect of Agreeableness (Compassion) was associated with liberalism and egalitarianism, whereas the other (Politeness) was associated with conservatism and traditionalism. In addition, conservatism and moral traditionalism were positively associated with the Orderliness aspect of Conscientiousness and negatively with Openness-Intellect. These findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of personality's relation to political attitudes and values.

  20. Right and left medial orbitofrontal volumes show an opposite relationship to agreeableness in FTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Katherine P; Rosen, Howard J; Kramer, Joel H; Schauer, Guido F; Weiner, Michael W; Schuff, Norbert; Miller, Bruce L

    2004-01-01

    Recent investigations of the neuroanatomy of complex social behaviors suggest that the underlying brain circuits involve multiple cortical and subcortical structures. The neuroanatomic origins of agreeableness have not yet been clearly elucidated. However, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients can evidence dramatic alterations in agreeableness arising from frontal and temporal lobe damage. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that agreeableness would be negatively correlated with left medial orbitofrontal cortex size and positively correlated with right amygdala volume. First-degree relatives of 27 FTD patients (diagnosed according to the Lund-Manchester criteria) were asked to fill out the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to assess the patients' current level of agreeableness, a construct comprised of the facets trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness. These patients underwent T(1)-weighted MRI imaging, and gray matter volumes for right and left orbitofrontal lobes and amygdalas were derived via segmentation and region of interest tracing, normalizing for total intracranial volume. Regression analysis revealed that 38% of the variance in the NEO agreeableness score was predicted by a model in which right orbitofrontal volume (beta = 0.731) was positively correlated with agreeableness, and left orbitofrontal lobe volume (beta = -0.638) was negatively correlated with agreeableness (p agreeableness. This finding partly replicates a previous study that used a different measure of social functioning, the Interpersonal Adjective Scale, to delineate a left frontal-right amygdala circuit for agreeableness. These data support the hypothesis that regulation of agreeableness arises from a balanced, mutually inhibitory circuit involving both hemispheres.

  1. The Contribution of Agreeableness and Self-efficacy Beliefs to Prosociality

    OpenAIRE

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Di Giunta, Laura; PANERAI, LAURA; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how agreeableness and self-efficacy beliefs about responding empathically to others’ needs predict individuals’ prosociality across time. Participants were 377 adolescents (66% males) aged 16 at Time 1 and 18 at Time 2 who took part at this study. Measures of agreeableness, empathic self-efficacy and prosociality were collected at two time points. The findings corroborated the posited paths of relations to assigning agreeableness a major role in predicting the level...

  2. Conscientiousness and agreeableness as predictors of rating leniency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, H J; Cooke, D K; Villanova, P

    2000-04-01

    The authors studied the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and rating elevation among 111 students making peer evaluations. It was hypothesized that Conscientiousness (C) scores would be negatively correlated with rating level and that Agreeableness (A) scores would be positively correlated with rating level. We further predicted that individuals who were low on C and high on A would produce the most elevated ratings. As predicted, A scores were positively related to rating level (.33, p < .01) and C scores were negatively correlated with rating level (-.37, p < .01). Using the strong hypothesis test (P. Bobko, 1986), the authors found that ratings by low C and high A individuals were more elevated than all other groups of students combined (p < .01).

  3. Agreeableness, empathy, and helping: a person x situation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, William G; Habashi, Meara M; Sheese, Brad E; Tobin, Renée M

    2007-10-01

    This research program explored links among prosocial motives, empathy, and helping behavior. Preliminary work found significant relations among components of self-reported empathy and personality (N = 223). In Study 1, the authors examined the generality of prosocial behavior across situations and group memberships of victims (N = 622). In Study 2, empathic focus and the victim's outgroup status were experimentally manipulated (N = 87). Study 3 (N = 245) replicated and extended Study 2 by collecting measures of prosocial emotions before helping. In Study 4 (N = 244), empathic focus and cost of helping as predictors of helping behavior were experimentally manipulated. Overall, prosocial motivation is linked to (a) Agreeableness as a dimension of personality, (b) proximal prosocial cognition and motives, and (c) helping behavior across a range of situations and victims. In persons low in prosocial motivation, when costs of helping are high, efforts to induce empathy situationally can undermine prosocial behavior.

  4. Pengaruh Agreeableness, Sikap, Norma Subjektif dan Kontrol Perilaku yang dipersepsikan terhadap intensi OCB

    OpenAIRE

    Sipayung, Ika Corry Hartati

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of agreeableness, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control on organizational citizenship behavior using data collected from 79 lecturers and clerical workers in USMI. Results show that agreeableness, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavior controlhad a significantly positive influence on intension of organizational citizenship behavior. 127029016

  5. Relations of Young Children's Agreeableness and Resiliency to Effortful Control and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland-Li, Amanda; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that the relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's agreeableness would be at least partly indirect through their resiliency was tested. Eighty-two children (M age = 58.67 mos.) were participants. Children nominated peers on agreeableness and completed a behavioral measure of effortful control. Teachers and a…

  6. Selection of UAS Personnel (SUPer) Phase I Report: Identification of Critical Skills, Abilities, and Other Characteristics and Recommendations for Test Battery Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Neuroticism , Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and several of their underlying facets. Reading Comprehension This test...personality domains of Neuroticism , Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness (Manley, 2011). It also includes a Machiavellianism...includes an expanded version of the SDI+ which assesses more facets. Personality Domains Neuroticism Emotional stability, anxiety, sadness, and

  7. Agreeableness accounts for the factor structure of the youth psychopathic traits inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Emily D; Lynam, Donald R; Heyde, Brianne

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Ker, Stattin, & Levander, 2002) in an undergraduate sample. It was hypothesized that Agreeableness would saturate the lower- and higher-order scales of the YPI, and that taking Agreeableness into account would reduce the intercorrelations among the three factors of the YPI. These hypotheses were explored in a sample of 466 undergraduates who completed the YPI and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). Results demonstrated that Agreeableness was the strongest, most consistent correlate of the lower-order scales and three higher-order factors of the YPI. Additionally, analyses showed that Agreeableness accounted for large portions of the three YPI factors, as well as the overlap among factors, helping explain their intercorrelations. Current results underscore the centrality of Agreeableness to the assessment and understanding of psychopathy, particularly as measured by the YPI.

  8. Perceived transgressor agreeableness decreases cortisol response and increases forgiveness following recent interpersonal transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; McCullough, Michael E

    2011-07-01

    Stress associated with interpersonal conflict can adversely impact mental and physical health-especially when it causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Among victims of interpersonal transgressions, certain personality characteristics (viz., neuroticism and agreeableness) have been associated in some studies with successful conflict resolution and decreased physiological activity. How victims' perceptions of their transgressors' personalities affect conflict resolution and physiological reactivity, however, has not been examined. Here, we examined the relationships of (a) victims' agreeableness and neuroticism, and (b) victims' perceptions of their transgressors' agreeableness and neuroticism with plasma cortisol responses in women and (in a larger sample of men and women) forgiveness over time. Victims who perceived their transgressors as highly agreeable had (a) lower cortisol responses following a simulated speech to the transgressor, and (b) higher self-reported forgiveness, even after controlling for initial levels of forgiveness. Participants' own agreeableness and neuroticism had negligible associations with cortisol response and forgiveness over time.

  9. Maternal Agreeableness Moderates Associations Between Young Children's Emotion Dysregulation and Socioemotional Functioning at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipson, Will E; Gardiner, Sarah L; Coplan, Robert J; Ooi, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore associations among maternal agreeableness, child temperament (i.e., emotion dysregulation), and children's social adjustment at school. Participants were 146 children in kindergarten and Grade 1 (76 girls; Mage = 67.78 months, SD = 10.81 months). Mothers provided ratings of their own agreeableness and their child's temperament, and teachers assessed indices of children's socioemotional functioning at school. Among the results, maternal agreeableness moderated associations between child dysregulation and aspects of adjustment at school. Specifically, at higher levels of maternal agreeableness, the relations between child dysregulation and both anxiety with peers and their prosocial behavior were attenuated. Overall, the results suggest that maternal agreeableness may serve as a protective factor for dysregulated children. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  10. Perceiving interpersonal conflict and reacting to it: the case for agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, W G; Jensen-Campbell, L A; Hair, E C

    1996-04-01

    Two converging, multimethod studies probed the hypothesis that individual differences in Agreeableness are related to patterns of interpersonal conflict. In Study 1, participants (N = 263) evaluated the efficacy of 11 modes of conflict resolution within the context of 5 different interpersonal relationships. Across all relationships, high- and low-agreeable participants rated negotiation and disengagement tactics as better choices that power assertion tactics. However, low-agreeable participants rated power assertion as a better choice than did high-agreeable participants. In Study 2, participants (N = 124) were assigned partners and were asked to resolve jointly 2 social conflict problems. Partners were videotaped, and observers coded behaviors. Participants also completed ratings of perceived conflict, partner perception, and liking of their partner. Agreeableness differences, sex of participant, and type of dyad partner were related to patterns of interpersonal conflict. Results were discussed in terms of personality and social influences during interpersonal conflict.

  11. You Are What You See and Choose: Agreeableness and Situation Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresin, Konrad; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Agreeableness positively predicts subjective well-being, but why does it do so? Recent theorizing has highlighted possible substrates related to emotion regulation. Following suit, the present studies focus on the situation selection stage of the emotion regulation sequence. Undergraduate participants reported on their agreeableness levels and completed a picture-viewing task (Studies 1 and 2) or a media choice task (Study 3). Studies 1 and 2 found that the tendency to view negative pictures for a longer period of time than positive pictures was evident at low levels of agreeableness and absent at high levels. The Study 3 paradigm asked individuals whether they typically choose to expose themselves to positive or negative stimuli across diverse media sources. Preferences for positive media were more pronounced at higher levels of agreeableness. The results have systematic implications for understanding the emotional lives of disagreeable versus agreeable people.

  12. Turning the other cheek. Agreeableness and the regulation of aggression-related primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2006-02-01

    Aggression-related cues (e.g., violent media) can prime both hostile thoughts and the tendency to commit aggression. However, not everyone engages in an aggressive act after being exposed to an aggression-related cue. Some thought pattern, perhaps an automatic one, may prevent the cue-aggression sequence in some individuals. These considerations motivated the present research, which examined the potential for agreeableness to moderate the effect of aggression-related cues on behavior and cognition. In Study 1, we found that priming with aggression-related cues increased aggressive behavior, but only among individuals low in agreeableness. Study 2 showed that aggression-related cues activated prosocial thoughts among individuals high in agreeable affect (a component of agreeableness). These results reveal that agreeable individuals are able to short-circuit the cue-aggression sequence, likely by recruiting prosocial thoughts in response to aggression-related primes.

  13. Strong Vocational Interest Blank Introversion Extraversion and Occupational Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Charles B.

    1970-01-01

    Item responses for the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) were contrasted for a group of introverts and extraverts. A scale was constructed for the SVIB to measure a dimension of occupational introversion extraversion (OIE). Test retest reliability of the OIE was ofthe same magnitude as the other SVIB scales. Occupations were then ranked on…

  14. Extraversion, Neuroticism and Strength of the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Jean-Yves

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesized identity of the dimensions of extraversion-introversion and strength of the nervous system was tested on four groups of nine subjects (neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts). Strength of the subjects' nervous system was estimated using the electroencephalographic (EEG) variant of extinction…

  15. Love, work, and changes in extraversion and neuroticism over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollon, Christie Napa; Diener, Ed

    2006-12-01

    The present study examined individual differences in change in extraversion, neuroticism, and work and relationship satisfaction. Of particular interest were the correlations between changes. Data were from the Victorian Quality of Life Panel Study (B. Headey & A. Wearing, 1989, 1992), in which an overall 1,130 individuals participated (ages 16 to 70). Respondents were assessed every 2 years from 1981 to 1989. Four major findings emerged. (a) There were significant individual differences in changes in extraversion and neuroticism. (b) Change was not limited to young adulthood. (c) Development was systematic in that increased work and relationship satisfaction was associated with decreases in neuroticism and increases in extraversion over time; on average, the magnitude of the relation between changes in work and relationship satisfaction and traits was .40. (d) Cross-lagged models indicated traits had a greater influence on role satisfaction; however, marginal support emerged for work satisfaction leading to increased extraversion. Implications of correlated change are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Extraversion and Female EFL Learners as Listeners: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ahmet Selçuk; Takkaç, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate extraversion as a personality trait of female EFL learners as listeners. The study is based on qualitative research design. Five students, who were studying as freshman students at English Language Teaching Department of a public university in Turkey, are the participants of the study. All participants have been…

  17. Study Habits and Eysenck's Theory of Extraversion-Introversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John B.; Hawley, Charles W.

    1982-01-01

    Tested predictions derived from Eysenck's theory of personality in two samples by relating extraversion scores to library study locations, frequency of study breaks, and self-report of factors which influence study location. Found predicted main effects for study location with extraverts occupying locations that provided greater external…

  18. Study Habits and Eysenck's Theory of Extraversion-Introversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John B.; Hawley, Charles W.

    1982-01-01

    Tested predictions derived from Eysenck's theory of personality in two samples by relating extraversion scores to library study locations, frequency of study breaks, and self-report of factors which influence study location. Found predicted main effects for study location with extraverts occupying locations that provided greater external…

  19. Agreeableness and pregnancy: Relations with coping and psychiatric symptoms, a longitudinal study on Spanish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Laura; Carmona, Javier; Marín, Dolores

    2017-01-19

    Agreeableness is associated with good mental health during pregnancy. Although different studies have indicated that agreeableness is related to adaptive coping, this relation has scarcely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible differences between high and low agreeableness in relation to coping strategies and psychiatric symptoms in pregnant women. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study between October 2009 and January 2013. Pregnant women (n = 285) were assessed in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 122 of them were assessed during the third. Data were collected using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Symptom Check List 90-R, and the agreeableness subscale of the NEO-FFI. Using the SPSS 21 statistics package, binary logistic regression, two-way mixed analysis of variance, and multiple regression analyses and a Sobel test were conducted. Higher levels of agreeableness were associated with positive reappraisal and problem-solving, and lower levels of agreeableness were associated with overt emotional expression and negative self-focused coping. Women with low agreeableness had poorer mental health, especially in the first trimester. These findings should be taken into account to improve women's experiences during pregnancy. Nevertheless, given the scarcity of data, additional studies are needed.

  20. The Contribution of Agreeableness and Self-efficacy Beliefs to Prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; DI Giunta, Laura; Panerai, Laura; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2009-09-22

    The present study examined how agreeableness and self-efficacy beliefs about responding empathically to others' needs predict individuals' prosociality across time. Participants were 377 adolescents (66% males) aged 16 at Time 1 and 18 at Time 2 who took part at this study. Measures of agreeableness, empathic self-efficacy and prosociality were collected at two time points. The findings corroborated the posited paths of relations to assigning agreeableness a major role in predicting the level of individuals' prosociality. Empathic self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the relation of agreeableness to prosociality. The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in prosociality and provides guidance with respect to interventions aimed at promoting prosociality.

  1. Loving, hating, vacillating: Agreeableness, implicit self-esteem, and neurotic conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2006-08-01

    An implicit preference for the self over others may be beneficial when pursuing one's own desires but costly when adjusting the self to the desires of others. On the basis of this reasoning, the authors hypothesized that Agreeableness and implicit self-esteem would interact in predicting measures of neurotic distress. Three studies and one meta-analysis, involving 235 undergraduate participants, confirmed that high levels of implicit self-esteem were beneficial (i.e., less neurotic distress) within the context of low levels of Agreeableness but costly (i.e., more neurotic distress) within the context of high levels of Agreeableness. Because findings were robust across various measures of Agreeableness, implicit self-esteem, and neurotic distress, the interpersonal principles examined here appear to have broad relevance for understanding this particular form of intrapsychic conflict and its manifestation in neurotic distress. Results therefore support Horney's (1945) theory concerning the consequences of intrapsychic conflicts related to interpersonal motivation and cognition.

  2. A longitudinal examination of social support, agreeableness and depressive symptoms in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, Karin F; Christensen, Alan J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Raichle, Katherine A; Lawton, William J

    2007-02-01

    Research examining the role of social support in patient adjustment to chronic illness has been inconsistent suggesting that patient individual differences play a moderating role. This study examined the hypothesis that the relationship between social support and depressive symptoms would differ as a function of individual differences in trait Agreeableness. Fifty-nine patients with chronic kidney disease were assessed using the Social Provisions Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and were followed-up a year and a half later. After controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and clinical characteristics, regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between social support and Agreeableness predicting change in depressive symptoms. Greater social support among individuals high in Agreeableness was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms over time, while support had little effect on depression change for individuals low in Agreeableness. These findings underscore the importance of individual difference variables in understanding adjustment to chronic illness.

  3. Hubungan Tipe Kepribadian Extroversion dan Agreeableness dengan Kecenderungan Perilaku Prososial Suku Batak Toba

    OpenAIRE

    Sianipar, Putri Olwinda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to know whether there is correlation between extroversion and agreeableness personality type and prosocial behavior in Batak Toba people. This study used subjects who live in the area of Toba Samosir. Measurement instrument which were used in this research were scale based on the theory of big five personality and prosocial behavior scale. The result shows there is significant positive correlation between the type of agreeableness and prosocial behavior. Furthermo...

  4. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version ...

  5. Trait agreeableness and social status moderate behavioral responsiveness to communal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qi; Moskowitz, Debbie S

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the influence of trait Agreeableness and its interaction with social role status on interpersonal correspondence as reflected in the within-person relation between a person's communal (agreeable-quarrelsome) behavior and perceptions of the interaction partner's communal behavior. We used a sample of working adults (original data set: 113 participants and 12,303 interpersonal events; constrained data set in the work setting: 109 participants and 3,193 interpersonal events) and an event-contingent recording procedure to assess behavior in naturalistic interpersonal events. The results of multilevel modeling indicated that interpersonal correspondence was lower for high trait Agreeableness persons than for low trait Agreeableness persons, apparently due to less responsiveness to more disagreeable behavior by the other person in an interaction. High Agreeableness persons manifest greater interpersonal correspondence when in a high-status role than when in a low-status role, apparently by increasing responsiveness to disagreeable behavior from others. The results imply that high social role status may influence the effortful control process of high trait Agreeableness persons over their behavioral reactions to others' disagreeable behavior during interpersonal interactions.

  6. Conscientiousness and Extraversion relate to responsiveness to tempo in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed.

  7. Extraversion, arousal, and speed of retrieval from secondary storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, M W

    1975-09-01

    Fifty-two subjects were assigned to one of four groups on the basis of scores on the Extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and on the General Activation scale of the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List. The subjects learned two lists composed of categorically related groups of words, with the number of categories and the number of words per category varied. Memory was probed by simultaneously presenting the subject with a category name and an item-position cue, and recording the recall latency. The major finding was that activation and extraversion interactively determined the recall latency for both category and item recall. The results were considered in light of arousal theory.

  8. Field-Dependence and Extraversion: Univariate or Multivariate Research Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    EYSENCK, If. J. (1982) Review of Cognitive styles: essence and origins by H. A. Witkin and D. R. Goodenough. Personality and Individual Differences , 3...103. ’ EYSENCK, It. J. (1983) A repIv to Fine. Personality and Individual Differences , 4, 361. FIN•, B. J. (1972a) Field-dependent introvert and...Field-dependence. extraversion, Evsenck and autarkv. Personality and Individual Differences . 4. 1,59-1,60. FIN. 13. 1J. (1987) The effect of heat and

  9. Extraversion and Performance on Raven's Matrices in 15-16 Year Old Children: An Examination of Anthony's Theory of the Development of Extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, T. G.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Anthony's theory of the development of extraversion in children requires that there should be a negative correlation between extraversion and intelligence after age 13 or 14. To test this Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory were administered to 801 adolescents. Findings did not support Anthony's theory.…

  10. Agreeableness and the Self-Regulation of Negative Affect: Findings Involving the Neuroticism/Somatic Distress Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2007-12-01

    In the temperament literature, agreeableness has been theoretically linked to effortful control. Further, research in this area has suggested that effortful control may play a broad role in moderating temperament-based tendencies toward negative affect. The present three studies, involving a total of 300 undergraduate participants, sought to extend this perspective to the adult literature by examining potential interactions between agreeableness and neuroticism in predicting reported somatic symptoms. Although such symptoms have been linked to neuroticism, they are not characteristic of the interpersonal concerns linked to agreeableness. Nevertheless, all studies found that agreeableness and neuroticism interacted to predict somatic symptoms such that high levels of agreeableness decoupled the relationship between neuroticism and somatic distress. These findings indicate a broad role for agreeableness in the self-regulation of neuroticism-linked distress.

  11. Does quick to blame mean quick to anger? The role of agreeableness in dissociating blame and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Robinson, Michael D

    2004-07-01

    Two studies investigated agreeableness, the accessibility of blame, and their potential interactive effects on anger. To measure the chronic accessibility of blame, a choice reaction time task was created that required participants to classify words as blameworthy or not. It was found that for individuals low in agreeableness, blame accessibility was positively related to anger and arguments during the course of daily life, hostile feelings during the course of a semester, and anger in response to a short video involving a blameworthy action. This same straightforward relationship between the accessibility of blame and anger did not characterize those high in agreeableness. The results suggest that agreeableness plays an important role in facilitating (low agreeableness) or inhibiting (high agreeableness) the link between accessible blame and anger.

  12. On angry leaders and agreeable followers. How leaders' emotions and followers' personalities shape motivation and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; Homan, Astrid C; Beersma, Bianca; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2010-12-01

    Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower's level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict-states that are at odds with agreeable individuals' goals. Happiness facilitates affiliation and positive relations-states that are in line with agreeable individuals' goals. Accordingly, the two studies we conducted showed that agreeableness moderates the effects of a leader's emotional displays. In a scenario study, participants with lower levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to an angry leader, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to a neutral leader. In an experiment involving four-person teams, teams composed of participants with lower average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed anger, whereas teams composed of participants with higher average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed happiness. Team performance was mediated by experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an angry leader. Besides having important practical implications, the findings shed new light on the fundamental question of how emotional expressions regulate social behavior.

  13. Interactions between donor Agreeableness and recipient characteristics in predicting charitable donation and positive social evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Yarkoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agreeable people are more likely to display prosocial attitudes and helpful behavior in a broad range of situations. Here we show that this tendency interacts with the personal characteristics of interaction partners. In an online study (n = 284, participants were given the opportunity to report attitudes toward and make monetary donations to needy individuals who were described in dynamically generated biographies. Using a machine learning and multilevel modeling framework, we tested three potential explanations for the facilitatory influence of Agreeableness on charitable behavior. We find that Agreeableness preferentially increased donations and prosocial attitudes toward targets normatively rated as being more deserving. Our results advance understanding of person-by-situation interactions in the context of charitable behavior and prosocial attitudes.

  14. Do agreeableness and neuroticism explain age differences in the tendency to forgive others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Marianne; Allemand, Mathias; McCullough, Michael E

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has shown that age is positively related to a dispositional tendency to forgive others. The present investigation tested the hypothesis that agreeableness and neuroticism partially mediate the association between age and forgivingness. Data from two representative cross-sectional samples of adults were used to test this hypothesis. Results from Study 1 (N = 962, age range: 19-84 years) support the hypothesis, indicating that agreeableness and neuroticism explained, in part, age differences in tendencies to forgive. Study 2 (N = 451, age range: 20-83 years) replicated and extended the results by including transgression occurrences as a third mediator. The results showed that agreeableness and neuroticism explain the association between age and the tendency to forgive others over and above the effect of transgression occurrences.

  15. Interactions between donor Agreeableness and recipient characteristics in predicting charitable donation and positive social evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkoni, Tal; Ashar, Yoni K; Wager, Tor D

    2015-01-01

    Agreeable people are more likely to display prosocial attitudes and helpful behavior in a broad range of situations. Here we show that this tendency interacts with the personal characteristics of interaction partners. In an online study (n = 284), participants were given the opportunity to report attitudes toward and make monetary donations to needy individuals who were described in dynamically generated biographies. Using a machine learning and multilevel modeling framework, we tested three potential explanations for the facilitatory influence of Agreeableness on charitable behavior. We find that Agreeableness preferentially increased donations and prosocial attitudes toward targets normatively rated as being more deserving. Our results advance understanding of person-by-situation interactions in the context of charitable behavior and prosocial attitudes.

  16. On angry leaders and agreeable followers: How leader emotion and follower personality shape motivation and team performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; Homan, A.C.; Beersma, B.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2010-01-01

    Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower’s level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict—states that are at odds with agreeable individuals’ goals. Happiness facilita

  17. Automatic Activity and Reaction Time in Relation to Extraversion and Behavioral Impulsivity in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Theodore P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Forty-five children and adolescents had skin conductance recorded during a presentation of tones and a reaction time test and were assessed for extraversion. Found that extraversion was negatively correlated with skin conductance response magnitudes to all stimuli--somewhat more strongly for reaction-time stimuli--and with reaction time. (HTH)

  18. Stimulus-Seeking, Extraversion, and Neuroticism in Regular, Occasional, and Non-Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sharon S.; Pargman, David

    To test the hypothesis that stimulus-seeking and extraversion underlie "exercise addiction" and sport involvement, the relationships among stimulus-seeking, extraversion, and exercise frequency were examined in ninety males matched on age and educational level. The Stimulus Variation Seeking Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and Eysenck…

  19. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Jungian Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Correlation of Extraversion-Introversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Robert S.; Kelly, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    C. G. Jung and H. J. Eysenck developed concepts of extraversion-introversion from radically different theoretical orientations. It is hypothesized that given the methods and content similarity of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Extraversion-Introversion scales of the inventories will be significantly…

  20. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness as Predictors of University Students' Self/Peer-Assessment Rating Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Parviz; Siyyari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the role of two personality traits (i.e. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness from the Big Five personality traits) in predicting rating error in the self-assessment and peer-assessment of composition writing. The average self/peer-rating errors of 136 Iranian English major undergraduates…

  1. Agreeableness and neuroticism as predictors of relapse after first-episode psychosis: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, John F; Rawlings, David; Jackson, Henry J; McGorry, Patrick D

    2005-03-01

    Cross-sectional investigations, using the five-factor model of personality have evinced relationships among neuroticism, agreeableness, and psychotic symptoms. The current study examined these relationships via a prospective follow-up study with remitted first-episode psychosis patients. Baseline five-factor model personality profiles, diagnoses, symptom ratings, and premorbid adjustment ratings were followed by nine monthly ratings on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale psychosis items in 60 first-episode patients. Valid baseline personality profiles were completed by 40 patients. Patients who had a return of symptoms scored higher on baseline neuroticism and agreeableness than those who remained in remission. Premorbid adjustment also predicted return of symptoms. After premorbid adjustment was controlled for, the agreeableness differences remained significant, but the neuroticism scores were no longer significantly different. It is concluded that lower agreeableness acts as a mediating variable in relapse. Further studies should clarify whether agreeableness is associated with specific biases in processing interpersonal information, and interpersonal behaviors.

  2. Can One's Temper be Cooled?: A Role for Agreeableness in Moderating Neuroticism's Influence on Anger and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2008-04-01

    The study followed from the idea that neuroticism captures hot or facilitative vulnerabilities related to anger and aggression, whereas agreeableness captures cool or inhibitory processes in relation to these same outcomes. As such, it was predicted that neuroticism and agreeableness should interact to predict anger and aggression according to hot/cool models of self-regulation. This hypothesis was systematically examined among three independent samples of participants (total N = 176). As predicted, neuroticism and agreeableness interacted to predict anger and aggression among all samples, and did so in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that neuroticism-anger relations would be lower at high levels of agreeableness. The results therefore highlight the distinct roles of neuroticism and agreeableness in predicting anger and aggression, while placing these traits in a common interactive self-regulatory framework.

  3. Extraversion and neuroticism in team sport participants, individual sport participants, and nonparticipants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Jessica R; McKelvie, Stuart J; de Man, Anton

    2007-08-01

    Scores on Extraversion and on Neuroticism as measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory were compared for 90 undergraduate team sport participants, individual sport participants, and nonparticipants (43 men, 47 women, M age = 20.3 yr.). From past research and Eysenck's biological theory of personality, it was hypothesized that sport participants would score higher on Extraversion and lower on Neuroticism than nonparticipants, and that team participants would score higher on Extraversion and perhaps higher on Neuroticism than individual sport participants. By comparing scores for students in first year and final year, it was also investigated whether pre-existing personality differences drew people to sport (the gravitational hypothesis) or whether personality changed as a function of sport participation (the developmental hypothesis). The main findings were that team participants scored higher on Extraversion than both individual sport participants and nonparticipants, and that test scores did not change over time, supporting the gravitational hypothesis for Extraversion.

  4. Extraversion and the Rewarding Effects of Alcohol in a Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A; Wright, Aidan G C; Levine, John M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Creswell, Kasey G

    2015-08-01

    The personality trait of extraversion has been linked to problematic drinking patterns. Researchers have long hypothesized that such associations are attributable to increased alcohol-reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals, and surveys suggest that individuals high in extraversion gain greater mood enhancement from alcohol than those low in extraversion. Surprisingly, however, alcohol administration studies have not found individuals high in extraversion to experience enhanced mood following alcohol consumption. Of note, prior studies have examined extraverted participants-individuals who self-identify as being highly social-consuming alcohol in isolation. In the present research, we used a group drinking paradigm to examine whether individuals high in extraversion gained greater reward from alcohol than did those low in extraversion and, further, whether a particular social mechanism (partners’ Duchenne smiling) might underlie alcohol reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals. Social drinkers (n 720) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol, placebo, or control beverage in groups of 3 over the course of 36 min. This social interaction was video-recorded, and Duchenne smiling was coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Results indicated that participants high in extraversion reported significantly more mood enhancement from alcohol than did those low in extraversion. Further, mediated moderation analyses focusing on Duchenne smiling of group members indicated that social processes fully and uniquely accounted for alcohol reward-sensitivity among individuals high in extraversion. Results provide initial experimental evidence that individuals high in extraversion experience increased mood-enhancement from alcohol and further highlight the importance of considering social processes in the etiology of alcohol use disorder. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Extraversion and the Rewarding Effects of Alcohol in a Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levine, John M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Creswell, Kasey G.

    2015-01-01

    The personality trait of extraversion has been linked to problematic drinking patterns. Researchers have long hypothesized that such associations are attributable to increased alcohol-reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals, and surveys suggest that individuals high in extraversion gain greater mood enhancement from alcohol than those low in extraversion. Surprisingly, however, alcohol administration studies have not found individuals high in extraversion to experience enhanced mood following alcohol consumption. Of note, prior studies have examined extraverted participants—individuals who self-identify as being highly social—consuming alcohol in isolation. In the present research, we used a group drinking paradigm to examine whether individuals high in extraversion gained greater reward from alcohol than did those low in extraversion and, further, whether a particular social mechanism (partners’ Duchenne smiling) might underlie alcohol reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals. Social drinkers (n = 720) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol, placebo, or control beverage in groups of three over the course of 36-min. This social interaction was video-recorded, and Duchenne smiling was coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Results indicated that participants high in extraversion reported significantly more mood enhancement from alcohol than did those low in extraversion. Further, mediated moderation analyses focusing on Duchenne smiling of group members indicated that social processes fully and uniquely accounted for alcohol reward-sensitivity among individuals high in extraversion. Results provide initial experimental evidence that individuals high in extraversion experience increased mood-enhancement from alcohol and further highlight the importance of considering social processes in the etiology of Alcohol Use Disorder. PMID:25844684

  6. Energetical bases of extraversion: effort, arousal, EEG, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, André; Brocke, Burkhard; Leue, Anja

    2006-11-01

    This study investigates an extension of H.J. Eysenck's [Eysenck, H.J., 1967. The Biological Basis of Personality. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL] arousal theory of extraversion, incorporating an effort system as a control system for different aspects of arousal. Extraverts were expected to have lower levels of reticocortical arousal than introverts, to invest more effort, and to have lower task performance in a monotonous vigilance task. In a 40-min vigilance task, participants had to react to the shorter of two 1 kHz tones presented binaurally at an event rate of 200 per 10 min. Spontaneous EEG, event-related potential, and performance data of 40 extremely introverted and 41 extremely extraverted students were available for statistical analysis. A tendency for lower arousal levels of extraverts (alpha 2 band), the expected higher effort investment (P300) and a lower performance (hits) of extraverts were found.

  7. The Multifactorial Nature of Extraversion-Introversion in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Eysenck Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipps, Gary J.; Alexander, Ralph A.

    1987-01-01

    The construct validity of extraversion-introversion was explored, as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Findings supported the complexity of extraversion-introversion. Two MBTI scales, Extraversion Introversion and Judging Perceiving, were factorially valid measures of impulsivity…

  8. Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: the role of contextualized extraversion change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, M age = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts.

  9. Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: the role of contextualized extraversion change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, Mage = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts. PMID:26579033

  10. Extraversion is linked to volume of the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Cremers

    Full Text Available Neuroticism and extraversion are personality factors associated with the vulnerability for developing depression and anxiety disorders, and are possibly differentially related to brain structures implicated in the processing of emotional information and the generation of mood states. To date, studies on brain morphology mainly focused on neuroticism, a dimension primarily related to negative affect, yielding conflicting findings concerning the association with personality, partially due to methodological issues and variable population samples under study. Recently, extraversion, a dimension primarily related to positive affect, has been repeatedly inversely related to with symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. In the present study, high resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 65 healthy adults were processed using an optimized Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to test for associations of neuroticism and extraversion with prefrontal and subcortical volumes. Orbitofrontal and right amygdala volume were both positively related to extraversion. Extraversion was differentially related to volume of the anterior cingulate cortex in males (positive and females (negative. Neuroticism scores did not significantly correlate with these brain regions. As extraversion is regarded a protective factor for developing anxiety disorders and depression and has been related to the generation of positive affect, the present results indicate that the reduced likelihood of developing affective disorders in individuals high on extraversion is related to modulation of emotion processing through the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala.

  11. The Relationship between the Agreeableness Trait and Use of the English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Fazeli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The present study aims to find out the relationship between the Agreeableness trait and use of the English Language Learning Strategies (ELLSs for learners of English as a foreign language.Method: Four instruments were used, which were Persian adapted Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, A Background Questionnaire, NEO-Five Factors Inventory (NEO-FFI, and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL. Two hundred and thirteen Iranian female university level learners of English language as a university major in Iran, were volunteer to participate in this research work. The intact classes were chosen.Findings and Results: The results show that there is only a significant relationship between the Agreeableness trait and the use of one of six categories of ELLSs (i.e. Compensation Strategies.

  12. Agreeable smellers and sensitive neurotics -correlations among personality traits and sensory thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona Croy; Maria Springborn; Jörn Lötsch; Johnston, Amy N. B.; Thomas Hummel

    2012-01-01

    Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124) completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tole...

  13. Using the Five-Factor Model of Personality To Enhance Career Development and Organizational Functioning in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Felissa K.; Johnston, Joseph A.; Dougherty, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    The Five-Factor Model measures emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Key issues in its use in organizations include assessing motivation levels, identifying areas for training and development, and enhancing employee fit with work demands and relationships. (SK)

  14. De invloed van persoonlijkheidskenmerken op het bereikte opleidingsniveau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, Koen van; Graaf, Paul M. de

    2001-01-01

    The impact of personality traits on educational attainment This article investigates the effects of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness) on educational attainment in the Netherlands, using data from the 1998 Family Survey

  15. Conciliatory gestures facilitate forgiveness and feelings of friendship by making transgressors appear more agreeable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; McCullough, Michael E; Luna, Lindsey R; Bono, Giacomo; Berry, Jack W

    2012-04-01

    The authors examined how conciliatory gestures exhibited in response to interpersonal transgressions influence forgiveness and feelings of friendship with the transgressor. In Study 1, 163 undergraduates who had recently been harmed were examined longitudinally. Conciliatory gestures exhibited by transgressors predicted higher rates of forgiveness over 21 days, and this relationship was mediated by victims' perceptions of their transgressors' Agreeableness. Study 2 was an experiment including 145 undergraduates who experienced a breach in trust from an anonymous partner during an iterated prisoner's dilemma. When transgressors apologized and offered financial compensation, participants reported higher levels of forgiveness and feelings of friendship when compared to a control condition and an aggravating condition. The effects of apology/compensation on forgiveness and perceived friendship were mediated by victims' perceptions of their transgressors' Agreeableness. Results suggest that conciliatory gestures promote forgiveness in part by depicting transgressors as more sympathetic, considerate, fair, and just (i.e., agreeable). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  17. CONTEXTUAL INTERFERENCE AND INTROVERSION/EXTRAVERSION IN MOTOR LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Cassio M; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Perez, Carlos R

    2015-10-01

    The Introversion/Extraversion dimension may interact with contextual interference, as random and blocked practice schedules imply distinct levels of variation. This study investigated the effect of different practice schedules in the acquisition of a motor skill in extraverts and introverts. Forty male undergraduate students (M = 24.3 yr., SD = 5.6) were classified as extraverts (n = 20) and introverts (n = 20) by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and allocated in one of two practice schedules with different levels of contextual interference: blocked (low contextual interference) and random (high contextual interference). Half of each group was assigned to a blocked practice schedule, and the other half was assigned to a random practice schedule. The design had two phases: acquisition and transfer (5 min. and 24 hr.). The participants learned variations of a sequential timing keypressing task. Each variation required the same sequence but different timing; three variations were used in acquisition, and one variation of intermediate length was used in transfer. Results for absolute error and overall timing error (root mean square error) indicated that the contextual interference effect was more pronounced for introverts. In addition, introverts who practiced according to the blocked schedule committed more errors during the 24-hr. transfer, suggesting that introverts did not appear to be challenged by a low contextual interference practice schedule.

  18. Agentic extraversion modulates the cardiovascular effects of the dopamine D2 agonist bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2006-07-01

    A recent psychobiological theory postulates a dopaminergic basis for the agency facet of extraversion, leading to the prediction that this personality trait modulates the psychophysiological effects of dopaminergic drugs. A single dose of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers. However, it is currently unknown whether this hypotensive effect of bromocriptine is modulated by agentic extraversion. Therefore, we measured resting cardiovascular activation in groups of healthy male volunteers either high or low in agentic extraversion, either under bromocriptine (1.25 mg) or placebo. Focusing the analyses on activation components derived from 18 cardiovascular variables, we found that bromocriptine reduces alpha-adrenergic activation in the sample as a whole, whereas the effects on beta-adrenergic and cholinergic activation are modulated by agentic extraversion.

  19. Extraversion and fronto-posterior EEG spectral power gradient: an independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Bocharov, Andrey V; Pylkova, Liudmila V

    2012-02-01

    Several studies show that the fronto-posterior EEG spectral power gradient is a stable individual characteristic related to personality. Whether this characteristic is specifically related to agentic extraversion and theta band of frequencies or is associated with a broader set of personality traits and frequency bands is a matter of debate, as well as the specific cortical regions contributing to this effect. To clarify these questions, we used group independent component analysis (ICA) and source localization techniques. Agentic extraversion was associated with higher theta activity in the default mode network's (DMN) posterior hub and lower theta activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Regression analyses showed that theta activity predicted agentic extraversion better than other frequency bands and agentic extraversion predicted posterior versus frontal activity better than other personality dimensions. These results are taken to indicate higher tonic activity in OFC and lower activity in DMN in extraverts as compared to introverts.

  20. The point of no return in motor response: Extraversion-related differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUTTA STAHL

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating extraversion-related individual differences in response organization. For this purpose, 50 female participants completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Dickman’s Impulsivity Inventory and performed a stop-signal reaction-time task. The most significant finding was that the so-called point of no return, defined as the point in time where a once initiated response can no longer be withheld, was reliably earlier reached with increasing individual extraversion scores. Extraverts' earlier point of no return appears to be a function of their tendency to continue and augment current response activity as implied by Brebner's theory of extraversion. Additional commonality analysis revealed that the point of no return is primarily modulated by the personality dimension of extraversion rather than the more specific trait of dysfunctional impulsivity.

  1. Forgive and Forget, or Forgive and Regret? Whether Forgiveness Leads to Less or More Offending Depends on Offender Agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Russell, V Michelle

    2016-05-01

    How does forgiveness predict the likelihood of reoffending? One survey study, one experiment, one 4-year longitudinal study, and one 2-week diary study examined the implications of forgiveness for reoffending in relationships. In all four studies, agreeableness interacted with partner forgiveness to predict subsequent offending; partner forgiveness was negatively associated with subsequent offending among more agreeable people but positively associated with subsequent offending among less agreeable people. Furthermore, Study 4 demonstrated a unique mechanism of each simple effect; relatively agreeable people engaged in fewer transgressions against more forgiving partners because they felt obligated to refrain from transgressing against such partners whereas relatively disagreeable people engaged in more transgressions against more forgiving partners because they perceived those partners were less easily angered. These studies indicate that completely understanding the intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of forgiveness requires recognizing the dyadic nature of forgiveness and attending to qualities of the offender.

  2. Blaming the victim: the effects of extraversion and information disclosure on guilt attributions in cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mathias; Ziegele, Marc; Schnauber, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying victims' success in coping with bullying largely depends on schoolmates and other bystanders' social support. However, factors influencing the degree of social support have as yet not been investigated. In this article, the concept of victim blaming is applied to cyberbullying incidents. It is assumed that a cyberbullying victim receives less social support when the victim's behavior is perceived as very overt. It is further assumed that this effect's underlying process is the partial attribution of responsibility for the incident to the victim and not to the bully. The hypotheses are tested with a 2×2 online experiment. In this experiment, varying online self-presentations of a fictitious female cyberbullying victim were presented to 586 Germans aged 16-22. The victim's public Facebook profile was manipulated in terms of the victim's extraversion and the amount of personal information disclosed. The results support the hypotheses. Participants attributed more responsibility for the bullying incident to the victim when the victim was presented as extraverted and very open in revealing personal information. This diminished social support for the victim. The effect was partially mediated by the victim's perceived attractiveness. The study implies that concepts from victimization research can enhance our understanding of cyberbullying incidents. Among other factors, the victim's specific personal characteristics deserve more consideration--not only with regard to the incident itself but also regarding subsequent social dynamics and coping mechanisms.

  3. Emotional intelligence and extraversion – introversion personality dimension of children with mild mental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pibernik, Petra

    2011-01-01

    I researched the areas of emotional intelligence and extraversion – introversion personality dimension of children with mild mental disorder. A child’s development depends significantly on emotional intelligence characteristics, especially the child’s ability to function normally in his or her environment. Emotional intelligence is linked to the extraversion – introversion personality dimension. Two components are characteristic of extroverted people: impulsiveness and social competence. I wa...

  4. Agreeableness and the Self-Regulation of Negative Affect: Findings Involving the Neuroticism/Somatic Distress Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    In the temperament literature, agreeableness has been theoretically linked to effortful control. Further, research in this area has suggested that effortful control may play a broad role in moderating temperament-based tendencies toward negative affect. The present three studies, involving a total of 300 undergraduate participants, sought to extend this perspective to the adult literature by examining potential interactions between agreeableness and neuroticism in predicting reported somatic ...

  5. [Activity involvement and extraversion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Laura; Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between extraversion and wellbeing has been discussed in the literature, however, the impact that this trait has on the wellbeing of older people has been studied to a lesser extent. The relationship between extraversion, participation in activities and psychological wellbeing in older people is analysed in this study. The sample comprised 139 individuals over 55 years from rural and urban areas of the province of Granada who completed the extraversion subscale of the NEO-FFI and the Ryff Scales of the Psychological Wellbeing, as well as responding to questions that evaluated their social participation. A greater social participation was found in rural areas and among women. The activities more frequently performed by the participants were educational and religious activities, walking, everyday chores, crafts, and home improvements. A low positive correlation between extraversion and wellbeing was observed. The multiple regression analysis revealed that extraversion explained 19.9% of the variance in psychological wellbeing, which increased to 25.3% when social participation, gender, and the origin of the sample were considered. Psychological wellbeing appears to be associated with personality traits, such as extraversion. In addition this personality trait is linked to the number and type of activities the elderly perform which also contributes to wellbeing in old age. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Trait-agreeableness influences individual reactions to a physician's affiliative behavior in a simulated bad news delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Gaëtan; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether the personality trait of agreeableness predicts different individual reactions to the level of nonverbal affiliativeness shown by a physician, in the context of a simulated bad news delivery. We predicted that individuals with high levels of agreeableness would react better to a physician adopting a highly affiliative communication style compared to individuals with low levels of agreeableness. We used an experimental design with analogue patients. Eighty participants (40 men/40 women) were randomly assigned to watch a video of a physician who communicated a bad diagnosis either in a highly affiliative or in a less affiliative way. Participants reported their reactions of anger and trust in the physician, and completed the agreeableness scale of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). In accordance with our predictions, the higher the agreeableness score of the participants, the less anger and the more trust they reported after viewing the high as compared to the low affiliative physician. These results suggest that people with high levels of agreeableness may be especially sensitive to highly affiliative physician nonverbal behavior when receiving bad news.

  7. Agreeable smellers and sensitive neurotics--correlations among personality traits and sensory thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Croy

    Full Text Available Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124 completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality.

  8. Agreeable smellers and sensitive neurotics--correlations among personality traits and sensory thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Springborn, Maria; Lötsch, Jörn; Johnston, Amy N B; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-04-27

    Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124) completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality.

  9. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait – extraversion – has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual – both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction. PMID:26161562

  10. Extraversion differentiates between model-based and model-free strategies in a reinforcement learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatova, Anya; Chan, Patricia A; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2013-01-01

    Prominent computational models describe a neural mechanism for learning from reward prediction errors, and it has been suggested that variations in this mechanism are reflected in personality factors such as trait extraversion. However, although trait extraversion has been linked to improved reward learning, it is not yet known whether this relationship is selective for the particular computational strategy associated with error-driven learning, known as model-free reinforcement learning, vs. another strategy, model-based learning, which the brain is also known to employ. In the present study we test this relationship by examining whether humans' scores on an extraversion scale predict individual differences in the balance between model-based and model-free learning strategies in a sequentially structured decision task designed to distinguish between them. In previous studies with this task, participants have shown a combination of both types of learning, but with substantial individual variation in the balance between them. In the current study, extraversion predicted worse behavior across both sorts of learning. However, the hypothesis that extraverts would be selectively better at model-free reinforcement learning held up among a subset of the more engaged participants, and overall, higher task engagement was associated with a more selective pattern by which extraversion predicted better model-free learning. The findings indicate a relationship between a broad personality orientation and detailed computational learning mechanisms. Results like those in the present study suggest an intriguing and rich relationship between core neuro-computational mechanisms and broader life orientations and outcomes.

  11. Neuroticism and extraversion are associated with amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Moji; Veer, Ilya M; van Tol, Marie-José; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Wee, Nic J

    2014-06-01

    The personality traits neuroticism and extraversion are differentially related to socioemotional functioning and susceptibility to affective disorders. However, the neurobiology underlying this differential relationship is still poorly understood. This discrepancy could perhaps best be studied by adopting a brain connectivity approach. Whereas the amygdala has repeatedly been linked to neuroticism and extraversion, no study has yet focused on the intrinsic functional architecture of amygdala-centered networks in relation to both traits. To this end, seed-based correlation analysis was employed to reveal amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and its associations with neuroticism and extraversion in 50 healthy participants. Higher neuroticism scores were associated with increased amygdala RSFC with the precuneus, and decreased amygdala RSFC with the temporal poles, insula, and superior temporal gyrus (p neuroticism may relate to the less-adaptive perception and processing of self-relevant and socioemotional information that is frequently seen in neurotic individuals, whereas the amygdala RSFC pattern associated with extraversion may relate to the heightened reward sensitivity and enhanced socioemotional functioning in extraverts. We hypothesize that the variability in amygdala RSFC observed in the present study could potentially link neuroticism and extraversion to the neurobiology underlying increased susceptibility or resilience to affective disorders.

  12. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Kirkland

    Full Text Available Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait--extraversion--has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual--both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction.

  13. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait--extraversion--has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual--both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction.

  14. Resting state functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex jointly predicts agreeableness and stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John P; Sheu, Lei K; Gianaros, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Further, individual differences in stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity covary with the functionality of corticolimbic brain systems, particularly areas of the cingulate cortex. What remains unclear, however, is how individual differences in personality traits interact with cingulate functionality in the prediction of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. Accordingly, we tested the associations between (i) a particular personality trait, Agreeableness, which is associated with emotional reactions to conflict, (ii) resting state functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex, and (iii) stressor-evoked blood pressure (BP) reactivity. Participants (N=39, 19 men, aged 20-37 years) completed a resting functional connectivity MRI protocol, followed by two standardized stressor tasks that engaged conflict processing and evoked BP reactivity. Agreeableness covaried positively with BP reactivity across individuals. Moreover, connectivity analyses demonstrated that a more positive functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate (BA31) and the perigenual anterior cingulate (BA32) covaried positively with Agreeableness and with BP reactivity. Finally, statistical mediation analyses demonstrated that BA31-BA32 connectivity mediated the covariation between Agreeableness and BP reactivity. Functional connectivity within the cingulate appears to link Agreeableness and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stressor-evoked BP reactivity.

  15. Eating a meal is associated with elevations in agreeableness and reductions in dominance and submissiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    aan het Rot, Marije; Moskowitz, D S; Hsu, Zoe Y; Young, Simon N

    2015-05-15

    Many studies have shown that having a meal together with others increases food intake. In contrast, the effects of having a meal on interactions with others have rarely been examined. More specifically, it is unknown if having a social interaction during a meal alters how people feel, behave, and perceive others. In the present study, 98 working individuals provided information on their everyday social interactions over a three-week period by filling in a form soon after each interaction. Record forms included items representing mood state, interpersonal behaviors, and perceptions of interaction partners. Participants also indicated whether interactions took place during a meal. Engaging in an interaction that involved eating a meal was associated with decreased alertness and, particularly in women, with increased pleasant affect, compared to interactions that did not involve eating a meal. Independently of this, during a meal participants reported fewer dominant and submissive behaviors and more agreeable behaviors, and also perceived interaction partners as more agreeable. These results were largely independent of contextual factors such as the gender and role of the primary social interaction partner, the presence of multiple partners, and the location of the interaction. Overall, social interactions during a meal were more positive in terms of how people felt, behaved, and perceived others. At the same time, agentic behaviors were reduced. These results suggest that shared meals are events in which affiliative bonds are strengthened in the context of weakened displays of hierarchy.

  16. Resting brain metabolic correlates of neuroticism and extraversion in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Ji Hee; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2008-05-28

    Neuroticism and extraversion are two core dimensions of personality and are considered to be associated with emotional disorders. We investigated resting state brain metabolic correlates of neuroticism and extraversion using a positron emission tomography. Twenty healthy young men completed an F-flurodeoxyglucose-PET scan at rest and the Korean version of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with regional glucose metabolism in prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex. Extraversion was positively correlated with metabolism in the right putamen. These results suggest close associations between resting state brain activity in the prefrontal and striatal regions and specific personality traits and thus contribute to the understanding of the neurobiological bases of predisposition to psychiatric disorders.

  17. Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mõttus, René; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

    2013-12-01

    Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later.

  18. Covariance structure of neuroticism and agreeableness: a twin and molecular genetic analysis of the role of the serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K L; Hu, S; Livesley, W J; Angleitner, A; Riemann, R; Ando, J; Ono, Y; Vernon, P A; Hamer, D H

    2001-08-01

    The Revised NEO Personality Inventory domains of Neuroticism and Agreeableness are considered factorially distinct despite several intercorrelations between these domains. The genetic correlation, an index of the degree to which these intercorrelations are caused by genetic influences, was estimated using data from 913 monozygotic and 562 dizygotic volunteer twin pairs from Canada, Germany, and Japan. The serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTTLPR, was assayed in a sample of 388 nontwin sibling pairs from the United States to determine the contribution of the serotonin transporter locus to the covariation between the Neuroticism and Agreeableness scales. In all four samples, genetic influences contributed to the covariance of Neuroticism and Agreeableness, with the serotonin transporter gene accounting for 10% of the relationship between these domains.

  19. Externalizing behavior through the lens of the five-factor model: a focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Jones, Shayne

    2008-03-01

    We examined relations between the Five-factor model (FFM) domains and facets of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, hypothesized behavioral manifestations of these traits (e.g., social information processing and delay discounting), and externalizing behaviors in an undergraduate sample. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were differentially related to the externalizing behaviors and the laboratory tasks, which in turn evinced significant relations with externalizing behaviors. The personality facets displayed evidence of modest incremental validity over the broader domains and were related to the externalizing behaviors even when controlling for the social information processing and behavioral discounting variables. In general, the results support the validity of the FFM domains and facets, particularly Agreeableness, in the prediction of a variety of externalizing behaviors.

  20. The relationship between agreeableness and the development of the working alliance in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Quilty, Lena C; Bagby, R Michael; McMain, Shelley F

    2012-08-01

    The working alliance between therapist and patient is an important component of effective interventions for borderline personality disorder (BPD). The current study examines whether client personality affects the development of the working alliance during the treatment of BPD, and whether this influences treatment effectiveness. Data was based on 87 patients with BPD who were participants in a randomized controlled trial comparing Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and general psychiatric management. Higher levels of trait Agreeableness were associated with steeper increases in working alliance throughout treatment, but only in the DBT condition. Increases in working alliance were in turn associated with better clinical outcomes. Mediation models revealed a significant indirect path from Agreeableness to better clinical outcomes, mediated through larger improvements in working alliance over time. These results highlight the role that patient personality can play during the therapeutic process, with a specific focus on the importance of Agreeableness for alliance development.

  1. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression.

  2. Extraversion and Neuroticism relate to topological properties of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing eGao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent and development of modern neuroimaging techniques, there is an increasing interest in linking extraversion and neuroticism to anatomical and functional brain markers. Here we aimed to test the theoretically derived biological personality model as proposed by Eysenck using graph theoretical analyses. Specifically, the association between the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks and extraversion/neuroticism was explored. To construct functional brain networks, functional connectivity among 90 brain regions was measured by temporal correlation using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data of 71 healthy subjects. Graph theoretical analysis revealed a positive association of extraversion scores and normalized clustering coefficient values. These results suggested a more clustered configuration in brain networks of individuals high in extraversion, which could imply a higher arousal threshold and higher levels of arousal tolerance in the cortex of extraverts. On a local network level, we observed that a specific nodal measure, i.e. betweenness centrality (BC, was positively associated with neuroticism scores in the right precentral gyrus, right caudate nucleus, right olfactory cortex and bilateral amygdala. For individuals high in neuroticism, these results suggested a more frequent participation of these specific regions in information transition within the brain network and, in turn, may partly explain greater regional activation levels and lower arousal thresholds in these regions. In contrast, extraversion scores were positively correlated with BC in the right insula, while negatively correlated with BC in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and regional arousal is not as simple as proposed by Eysenck.

  3. Dispositional pathways to trust: Self-esteem and agreeableness interact to predict trust and negative emotional disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Megan H; Wood, Joanne V; Holmes, John G

    2017-07-01

    Expressing our innermost thoughts and feelings is critical to the development of intimacy (Reis & Shaver, 1988), but also risks negative evaluation and rejection. Past research suggests that people with high self-esteem are more expressive and self-disclosing because they trust that others care for them and will not reject them (Gaucher et al., 2012). However, feeling good about oneself may not always be enough; disclosure may also depend on how we feel about other people. Drawing on the principles of risk regulation theory (Murray et al., 2006), we propose that agreeableness-a trait that refers to the positivity of interpersonal motivations and behaviors-is a key determinant of trust in a partner's caring and responsiveness, and may work in conjunction with self-esteem to predict disclosure. We examined this possibility by exploring how both self-esteem and agreeableness predict a particularly risky and intimate form of self-disclosure, the disclosure of emotional distress. In 6 studies using correlational, partner-report, and experimental methods, we demonstrate that self-esteem and agreeableness interact to predict disclosure: People who are high in both self-esteem and agreeableness show higher emotional disclosure. We also found evidence that trust mediates this effect. People high in self-esteem and agreeableness are most self-revealing, it seems, because they are especially trusting of their partners' caring. Self-esteem and agreeableness were particularly important for the disclosure of vulnerable emotions (i.e., sadness; Study 5) and disclosures that were especially risky (Study 6). These findings illustrate how dispositional variables can work together to explain behavior in close relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Effects of extraversion and mental arithmetic on heart-rate reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G L; Freeman, F G

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of extraversion and task difficulty on heart-rate reactivity. 15 extraverts and 15 introverts as identified by their scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory completed mental arithmetic problems of three levels of difficulty. Two-way analysis of variance indicated that heart-rate reactivity increased as task difficulty increased. Also, introverts showed larger heart-rate reactivity to the task than extraverts. The present findings partially support Eysenck's physiological theory of extraversion in that introverted subjects were more aroused by the mental arithmetic task; however, the factors which produce such a difference are unclear.

  5. Communicator image and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator extraversion-introversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan K; Loffredo, Donald A

    2003-11-01

    This study is an examination of the relationship between communicator image and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) dimensions of extraversion-introversion. The authors found that individuals who prefer extraversion tend to have a more positive communicator image than those who prefer introversion. The results of this study support other research results showing that personality preferences differ in communication behaviors and traits, which could have implications for the individual's comfort and success in society. Results of this research also support the contention that communication behavior has biological aspects.

  6. A psychometric validation analysis of Eysenck’s Neuroticism and Extraversion Scales in a sample of first time depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    Eysenck and Eysenck identified the two-factor structure of personality, namely neuroticism and extraversion which has been widely used in clinical psychiatry, and generated much research on the psychometric properties of the scales. Using a classical psychometric approach the neuroticism...... and extraversion scales have shown robust psychometric properties. The present study used both classical psychometric and item response theory (IRT) analyses to evaluate the neuroticism and extraversion scales and improve scalability of the instrument neuroticism and extraversion. A first time depressed sample...... symptoms related to interpersonal sensitivity were identified. For the extraversion scale a shorter and psychometrically more robust version was identified together with a short introversion scale. Clinically discriminant validity was analysed using correlations. The correlation between depression (Ham...

  7. The HEXACO Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness, and Emotionality factors: a review of research and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; de Vries, Reinout E

    2014-05-01

    We review research and theory on the HEXACO personality dimensions of Honesty-Humility (H), Agreeableness (A), and Emotionality (E), with particular attention to the following topics: (1) the origins of the HEXACO model in lexical studies of personality structure, and the content of the H, A, and E factors in those studies; (2) the operationalization of the H, A, and E factors in the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised; (3) the construct validity of self-reports on scales measuring the H factor; (4) the theoretical distinction between H and A; (5) similarity and assumed similarity between social partners in personality, with a focus on H and A; (6) the extent to which H (and A and E) variance is represented in instruments assessing the "Five-Factor Model" of personality; and (7) the relative validity of scales assessing the HEXACO and Five-Factor Model dimensions in predicting criteria conceptually relevant to H, A, and E.

  8. Towards an integrated measure of need affiliation and agreeableness derived from the Operant Motive Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID SCHEFFER

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Operant Motive Test (OMT has been conceptionalized to measure the amalgam of aroused needs and motive-relevant traits which specifies an implementation strategy of the motive. Therefore the OMT differs conceptionally from the TAT. In Study 1 we found empirical evidence for this interaction hypothesis. The OMT, but not the TAT, was a function of a significant interaction effect of an aroused affiliation need and agreeableness. The overall correlation between OMT and TAT was small and only marginally significant in an experimental arousal condition. Study 1 also yielded evidence that the OMT measure of affiliation (i.e. m affiliation has construct validity. Study 2 gave indirect evidence for stability of OMT m affiliation. In Study 3 the OMT predicted peer ratings of customer service orientation.

  9. CHRM2 variation predisposes to personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R; Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Shuang; Gelernter, Joel

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are among the most complex quantitative traits. Certain personality traits have been postulated to be part of the inherited component of substance dependence (SD) risk. Association between the M2 cholinergic receptor gene (CHRM2) and SD has recently been reported and replicated (Wang et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004);13:1903-1911; Luo et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 2005;14:2421-2434). In this study, we investigated the relationship between CHRM2 variation and personality traits in two American populations. We assessed dimensions of the five-factor model of personality, and genotyped six CHRM2 markers and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in 239 subjects with SD [173 European-Americans (EAs) and 66 African-Americans (AAs)] and 275 healthy subjects (237 EAs and 38 AAs). The relationships between CHRM2 markers and personality traits were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for marker-marker interaction effects and potential confounders. Associations were decomposed by Roy Bargmann stepdown analysis of covariance. Generally, substance-dependent patients, older individuals, males, and AAs scored higher on Neuroticism and lower on other personality factors. Diplotype CTCAAA/CTCGTT (P = 0.005) and the interaction between its two haplotypes (CTCAAA x CTCGTT) (P = 0.003) were associated with lower Conscientiousness scores. Haplotype CTCGAT (P = 0.006) and its interaction with haplotype TCAAAT (P = 0.002) were associated with higher Agreeableness scores. The trait-influencing variant site in CHRM2 for Agreeableness was close to marker rs1824024 (SNP3) (P = 0.002). CHRM2 variation may contribute to the genetic component of variation in personality traits. Personality traits might substantially underlie the heritable component of SD.

  10. The Sociability Aspect of Extraversion as a Situation-Specific Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Shaul

    1984-01-01

    Examined the generalizability of the sociability aspect of extraversion-introversion dimension as measured by Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (1975) in Israeli students (N=900). Results indicated that dissemblances between extraverts and introverts exist in the desire for company and in the overall desire to associate with strangers, where…

  11. Teachers-To-Be: Extraversion/Introversion and Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Oliver H.; Richek, Herbert G.

    1969-01-01

    The study demonstrates that the teacher aspirant who is introverted perceives her phenomenal world less positively than the prospective teacher who is extraverted, however, extravert and introvert groups do not differ in the positiveness of their attitudes toward children. Implications of Extraversion/introversion on teaching roles are discussed.…

  12. The language of extraversion: Extraverted people talk more abstractly, introverts are more concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, C.J.; Tanis, M.A.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the impact of personality, one needs to know how personality differences manifest themselves in language use. The present study investigates the link between extraversion and language abstraction. Participants’ spontaneous verbal utterances in face-to-face interactions were analyzed fo

  13. Influence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1980-01-01

    Relations between personality and happiness were examined in three studies. It was argued that (a) different sets of traits influence type of affect and of satisfaction; (b) extraversion and neuroticism influence type of affect and of satisfaction; and (c) personality differences antedate and predict differences in happiness over a 10-year period.…

  14. Extraversion and communication attitude in people who stutter: A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, L.; Lieftink, A.; Bouwen, J.; Wijnen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between the personality trait extraversion and the communication attitude in people who stutter (PWS). Method: Thirty PWS completed Erickson's Communication Attitude Scale (S-24) (. Andrews & Cutler, 1974) as well as a Dutch adaptation o

  15. Extraversion and communication attitude in people who stutter: A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, L.; Lieftink, A.; Bouwen, J.; Wijnen, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074417258

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between the personality trait extraversion and the communication attitude in people who stutter (PWS). Method: Thirty PWS completed Erickson's Communication Attitude Scale (S-24) (. Andrews & Cutler, 1974) as well as a Dutch adaptation

  16. Teamwork Satisfaction: Exploring the Multilevel Interaction of Teamwork Interest and Group Extraversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…

  17. The Relationship between the Extraversion Trait and Use of the English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between the Extraversion trait and use of the English Language Learning Strategies (ELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Persian adapted Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), a Background Questionnaire, NEO-Five Factors Inventory…

  18. Teamwork Satisfaction: Exploring the Multilevel Interaction of Teamwork Interest and Group Extraversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…

  19. Neuroticism and extraversion in relation to physiological stress reactivity during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Brittany E.; Stam, Jacqueline; Huizink, Anja C.; Willemen, Agnes M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined mean level and change in extraversion and neuroticism across adolescence in relation to physiological stress reactivity to social evaluation. Adolescents (n=327) from the Dutch general population reported on personality measures at five annual assessments. At age 17 years,

  20. Are neuroticism and extraversion related to morning cortisol release in healthy older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Almela, Mercedes; Pulopulos, Matías M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a discrete component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) function that has been widely related to both health and some personality traits. There is evidence that neuroticism and extraversion affect health and well-being and play a damaging or protective role, respectively. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between these personality dimensions and morning cortisol concentrations in people aged 55 or older. To do so, morning saliva samples were collected on two consecutive weekdays from a total of 160 older men and women. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, short form (EPQ-RS). Our results showed that neuroticism was negatively related to overall morning cortisol concentrations (AUCG) (i.e., area under the curve with respect to the ground in cortisol levels), but not to the CAR. When we explored sex as a moderator, neuroticism was related to a CAR of increased magnitude in women, although this relationship was not significant in men. No significant relationships were found between extraversion and CAR or AUCG, regardless of sex. In conclusion, neuroticism - but not extraversion - was related to HPA-axis function in older adults, highlighting its potential relevance in health alterations associated with HPA-axis functioning.

  1. Extraversion and communication attitude in people who stutter: A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, L.; Lieftink, A.; Bouwen, J.; Wijnen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between the personality trait extraversion and the communication attitude in people who stutter (PWS). Method: Thirty PWS completed Erickson's Communication Attitude Scale (S-24) (. Andrews & Cutler, 1974) as well as a Dutch adaptation o

  2. Neuroticism and extraversion in association with quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubayova, Tatiana; Nagyova, Iveta; Havlikova, Eva; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Middel, Berrie; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Personality traits appear as determinants of quality of life (QoL) in most chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to explore whether neuroticism and extraversion contribute to the variance in QoL in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) when controlled for age, functional status and disease dur

  3. Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Extraversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie M; de Moor, Marleen H M; Verweij, K. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Extraversion is a relatively stable and heritable personality trait associated with numerous psychosocial, lifestyle and health outcomes. Despite its substantial heritability, no genetic variants have been detected in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies, which may be due to relatively ...

  4. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not…

  5. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

  6. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not…

  7. Consistency of the Relations of Cognitive Ability and Personality Traits to Pilot Training Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-22

    human personality. The domains are Neuroticism (sometimes called emotional stability), Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness . 250...Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness . In one of the earliest reported studies of the use of personality tests for flying personnel, Sells (1955) showed...assigned to fly airlift/tankers versus those assigned to fly fighters for the NEO PI–R domains of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness . Fighter pilots had

  8. Extraversion differentiates between model-based and model-free strategies in a reinforcement learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prominent computational models describe a neural mechanism for learning from reward prediction errors, and it has been suggested that variations in this mechanism are reflected in personality factors such as trait extraversion. However, although trait extraversion has been linked to improved reward learning, it is not yet known whether this relationship is selective for the particular computational strategy associated with error-driven learning, known as model-free reinforcement learning, versus another strategy, model-based learning, which the brain is also known to employ. In the present study we test this relationship by examining whether humans’ scores on an extraversion scale predict individual differences in the balance between model-based and model-free learning strategies in a sequentially structured decision task designed to distinguish between them. In previous studies with this task, participants have shown a combination of both types of learning, but with substantial individual variation in the balance between them. In the current study, extraversion predicted worse behavior across both sorts of learning. However, the hypothesis that extraverts would be selectively better at model-free reinforcement learning held up among a subset of the more engaged participants, and overall, higher task engagement was associated with a more selective pattern by which extraversion predicted better model-free learning. The findings indicate a relationship between a broad personality orientation and detailed computational learning mechanisms. Results like those in the present study suggest an intriguing and rich relationship between core neuro-computational mechanisms and broader life orientations and outcomes.

  9. The influence of neuroticism and extraversion on the perceived burden of dementia caregivers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abraldes, Isabel; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Most studies reflect dementia caregivers usually sustain higher levels of burden compared to other caregivers. However, they do not consider variability within the caregiver, such as personality traits. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of extraversion and neuroticism on dementia caregiver burden. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 33 caregivers looking after demented-patients. All caregivers had intense burden levels, and their personality, depression, anxiety and self-rated health were evaluated. Personality variables had important effects on the caregiver burden and consequences on their mental health. Neuroticism was significantly correlated with burden (r=0.6, ptrait (r=0.67, pneuroticism (r=-0.42, ptrait anxiety (r=0.66, ppersonality in the theoretical and empirical models of the caring process. It is necessary to adequately assess the caregiver personality, as those presenting high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion are more vulnerable to experience negative caring effects.

  10. Assessment of dependency by the FFDI: Comparisons to the PID-5 and maladaptive agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Whitney L; Widiger, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    The present study explores the validity of the Five Factor Dependency Inventory (FFDI), a measure of dependent personality traits from the perspective of the five factor model, examined across three separate samples and two studies. The first study examined the FFDI with respect to the traits assigned to assess dependent personality disorder (DPD) by the DSM-5 work group, two measures of DSM-IV-TR DPD and three measures of dependent traits, sampling 184 Mechanical Turk participants and 83 students (the latter oversampled for DPD features). Based on responses from an additional 137 students, the second study investigated the role of maladaptive agreeableness in dependency by examining the FFDI in relation to the interpersonal circumplex using three alternative measures. Discriminant validity was provided with respect to DSM-5 traits and the interpersonal circumplex. Incremental validity was provided with respect to the ability of the FFDI to account for variance within DPD measures beyond the variance explained by DSM-5 traits. Implications for the assessment of dependency and the proposed DSM-5 dimensional trait model are discussed.

  11. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE SUCCESS RATE OF ALPHA-TRAINING ON EXTRAVERSION AND NEUROTICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Chernyshev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the relationship of the success rate of alpha-training – learning to voluntarily increase the power of the alpha-rhythm with the help of the neurofeedback – with factors of the "Big Five" model of personality traits (NEO–FFI. It was found that most successful at the task of training were the subjects with low scores on Extraversion dimension and moderately high scores on Neuroticism dimension.

  12. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE SUCCESS RATE OF ALPHA-TRAINING ON EXTRAVERSION AND NEUROTICISM

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Chernyshev; Ye. S. Osokina; N. V. Ilyushina; M. S. Trunova; Ye. G. Chernysheva

    2013-01-01

    The present paper shows the relationship of the success rate of alpha-training – learning to voluntarily increase the power of the alpha-rhythm with the help of the neurofeedback – with factors of the "Big Five" model of personality traits (NEO–FFI). It was found that most successful at the task of training were the subjects with low scores on Extraversion dimension and moderately high scores on Neuroticism dimension.

  13. The trait of Introversion-Extraversion predicts vulnerability to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Richards, Jessica M; Killgore, Desiree B; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J

    2007-12-01

    According to Eysenck's theory of Introversion-Extroversion (I-E), introverts demonstrate higher levels of basal activity within the reticular-thalamic-cortical loop, yielding higher tonic cortical arousal than Extraverts, who are described conversely as chronically under-aroused and easily bored. We hypothesized that higher scores on the trait of Extraversion would be associated with greater declines in psychomotor vigilance performance during prolonged wakefulness. We evaluated the relationship between I-E and overnight psychomotor vigilance performance during 77 h of continuous sleep deprivation in a sample of 23 healthy adult military personnel (19 men; four women), ranging in age from 20 to 35 years. At baseline, volunteers completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and completed psychomotor vigilance testing at approximately 10-min intervals from 00:15 to 08:50 hours over three nights of continuous sleep deprivation. In addition, 12 participants received four repeated administrations of caffeine (200 mg) every 2 h each night. Analysis of covariance and stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that, above and beyond the effects of caffeine, higher Extraversion was significantly related to more extensive declines in speed of responding and more frequent attentional lapses, but only for the first overnight testing session. Sub-factors of Extraversion, including Gregariousness and higher Activity level were most predictive of these changes following sleep loss. These findings are consistent with Eysenck's cortico-reticular activation theory of I-E and suggest that individual differences in the trait of Extraversion confer some vulnerability/resistance to the adverse effects of sleep loss on attention and vigilance.

  14. The effects of chronological age on the relationship of intelligence and academic achievement with extraversion and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G M

    1975-11-01

    This study examines the possibility that the relationships of intelligence and academic achievement with both extraversion and neuroticism may vary with chronological age. A sample of 741 students in the 15-19 age group worked through a battery of four tests, two of which were tests of intelligence and two tests of achievement in chemistry. The nature of the relationships between performance on these tests and measures of extraversion, neuroticism and chronological age were then expressed as multiple regression equations. The results whoed a consistently different pattern of significant relationships for both extraversion and neuroticism with the achievement tests on the one hand and with the intelligence tests on the other. Only the performance on the two achievement tests depended upon an interaction between extraversion and chronological age. There were no such interactions involving neuroticism and chronological age.

  15. Extraversion and short-term memory for chromatic stimuli: an event-related potential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Corinne C; Indermühle, Rebekka; Troche, Stefan J; Rammsayer, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated extraversion-related individual differences in visual short-term memory (VSTM) functioning. Event related potentials were recorded from 50 introverts and 50 extraverts while they performed a VSTM task based on a color-change detection paradigm with three different set sizes. Although introverts and extraverts showed almost identical hit rates and reaction times, introverts displayed larger N1 amplitudes than extraverts independent of color change or set size. Extraverts also showed larger P3 amplitudes compared to introverts when there was a color change, whereas no extraversion-related difference in P3 amplitude was found in the no-change condition. Our findings provided the first experimental evidence that introverts' greater reactivity to punctuate physical stimulation, as indicated by larger N1 amplitude, also holds for complex visual stimulus patterns. Furthermore, P3 amplitude in the change condition was larger for extraverts than introverts suggesting higher sensitivity to context change. Finally, there were no extraversion-related differences in P3 amplitude dependent on set size. This latter finding does not support the resource allocation explanation as a source of differences between introverts and extraverts.

  16. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  17. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lauriola

    Full Text Available Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%. A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38 = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073. The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  18. "Avoiding or approaching eyes"? Introversion/extraversion affects the gaze-cueing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponari, Marta; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario; Conson, Massimiliano

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the extra-/introversion personality dimension can influence processing of others' eye gaze direction and emotional facial expression during a target detection task. On the basis of previous evidence showing that self-reported trait anxiety can affect gaze-cueing with emotional faces, we also verified whether trait anxiety can modulate the influence of intro-/extraversion on behavioral performance. Fearful, happy, angry or neutral faces, with either direct or averted gaze, were presented before the target appeared in spatial locations congruent or incongruent with stimuli's eye gaze direction. Results showed a significant influence of intra-/extraversion dimension on gaze-cueing effect for angry, happy, and neutral faces with averted gaze. Introverts did not show the gaze congruency effect when viewing angry expressions, but did so with happy and neutral faces; extraverts showed the opposite pattern. Importantly, the influence of intro-/extraversion on gaze-cueing was not mediated by trait anxiety. These findings demonstrated that personality differences can shape processing of interactions between relevant social signals.

  19. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L. Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB), whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness), directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173) completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect) of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism) and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating role of self

  20. A genome-wide scan for Eysenckian personality dimensions in adolescent twin sibships: psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism, and lie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Zhu, Gu; Evans, David M; Medland, Sarah E; Wright, Margie J; Martin, Nick G

    2008-12-01

    We report the first genome-wide scan of adolescent personality. We conducted a genome-wide scan to detect linkage for measures of adolescent Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Lie from the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Data are based on 1,280 genotyped Australian adolescent twins and their siblings. The highest linkage peaks were found on chromosomes 16 and 19 for Neuroticism, on chromosomes 1, 7, 10, 13 m, and 18 for Psychoticism, and on chromosomes 2 and 3 for Extraversion.

  1. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB), whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness), directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173) completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect) of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism) and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating role of self

  2. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fadda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB, whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness, directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173 completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating

  3. Task engagement and the relationships between the error-related negativity, agreeableness, behavioral shame proneness and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A S; Wester, Anne E; Lorist, Monicque M; Meijman, Theo F

    2006-08-01

    Previous results suggest that both cortisol mobilization and the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) reflect goal engagement, i.e. the mobilization and allocation of attentional and physiological resources. Personality measures of negative affectivity have been associated both to high cortisol levels and large ERN/Ne amplitudes. However, measures of positive social adaptation and agreeableness have also been related to high cortisol levels and large ERN/Ne amplitudes. We hypothesized that, as long as they relate to concerns over social evaluation and mistakes, both personality measures reflecting positive affectivity (e.g. agreeableness) and those reflecting negative affectivity (e.g. behavioral shame proneness) would be associated with an increased likelihood of high task engagement, and hence to increased cortisol mobilization and ERN/Ne amplitudes. We had female subjects perform a flanker task while EEG was recorded. Additionally, the subjects filled out questionnaires measuring mood and personality, and salivary cortisol immediately before and after task performance was measured. The overall pattern of relationships between our measures supports the hypothesis that cortisol mobilization and ERN/Ne amplitude reflect task engagement, and both relate positively to each other and to the personality traits agreeableness and behavioral shame proneness. We discuss the potential importance of engagement-disengagement and of concerns over social evaluation for research on psychopathology, stress and the ERN/Ne.

  4. Men's Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Behavior Mediates the Relationship Between Their Agreeableness and Their Oral Sex Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Sela, Yael; Jeffery, Austin John

    2015-08-01

    Men perform oral sex on their romantic partner as part of a broader benefit-provisioning mate retention strategy and men higher in Agreeableness are especially likely to provision their partner with benefits. The current research explored whether men's benefit-provisioning mate retention behavior mediated the relationship between their Agreeableness and their oral sex behaviors in their long-term romantic relationship. Men (n = 346) in a committed, sexual, heterosexual relationship completed the Mate Retention Inventory-a 104-item instrument that assesses the frequency with which they performed various mate retention behaviors during the past month, a 40-item personality inventory, and reported on a questionnaire their interest in and the time they spent performing oral sex on their romantic partner during their most recent sexual encounter with her. The results indicated that men higher in Agreeableness reported greater interest in and spent more time performing oral sex on their partner, and that their benefit-provisioning mate retention behaviors partially mediated these relationships. The current research is the first to investigate the relationship between personality dimensions and oral sex behaviors and adds to a growing body of research documenting that mate retention strategies influence sexual behavior.

  5. Assessing extraversion and emotional stability in adolescents: development and validation of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil-Colet, Andreu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Morales-Vives, Fabia; Chico, Eliseo

    2007-10-01

    A reduced version of the Five-factor Personality Inventory, which only considers two of the five original dimensions, was constructed to assess Extraversion and Emotional Stability especially for a sample of 581 adolescents. This used Items 6, 9, 11, 19, 21, 39, 41, 46, 54, 59, 61, 66, 84, 89, 91, and 99. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor structure of the questionnaire is acceptable, and both scales are reliable and correlated with similar measures as The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised.

  6. Do extraversion and neuroticism moderate the association between bullying victimization and internalizing symptoms? A three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, E; Orue, I; Gamez-Guadix, M

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined the moderating roles of neuroticism and extraversion in victims of bullying. According to a stress-diathesis model, we hypothesized that adolescents with high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion would react to victimization with increased symptoms of depression and social anxiety. A sample of 1440 adolescents (648 girls and 792 boys; ages between 13- and 17-years-old) completed measures of extraversion and neuroticism at time 1, as well as measures of bullying victimization, depressive symptoms and social anxiety symptoms at time 1, time 2, and time 3 (in intervals of six months). The results of multilevel analyses for longitudinal data indicated that there was a weak association between bullying victimization and social anxiety symptoms for the adolescents who scored high on extraversion. In addition, the adolescents with high levels of extraversion presented a greater reduction in depressive symptoms over time than adolescents with low levels. Although neuroticism predicted both depression and social anxiety, no significant interactions were evident between neuroticism and bullying victimization. Regarding gender differences, the association between bullying victimization and social anxiety was stronger for boys than for girls, whereas the association between neuroticism and depression was stronger for girls.

  7. Do as You're Told! Facets of Agreeableness and Early Adult Outcomes for Inner-City Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L; Duckworth, Angela L; Urzúa, Sergio; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Lynam, Donald R

    2013-12-01

    With data from the middle cohort of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of inner-city boys, we examined whether Big Five agreeableness facets could be reliably recovered in this sample, and whether facets predicted educational, occupational, social, and antisocial life outcomes assessed a decade later. Caregivers described their adolescent boys' personalities using the Common California Q-Set; twelve years later, participants were interviewed and court records were obtained. Factor analyses recovered two facets: compliance and compassion. Compliance predicted more schooling and lower risk of unemployment, teenage fatherhood, and crime; compassion related to longer committed relationships. Findings highlight the value of studying personality at the facet level.

  8. Striatal response to favorite brands as a function of neuroticism and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Knuth, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska

    2011-11-24

    Recent research has demonstrated that the perception of favorite brands involves similar brain networks than artificially associated reward stimuli. This has been explained by the association of brands with appetitive stimuli due to marketing efforts. Thereby, strong emotional bonds between the brand and the customer may be established. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that the personality dimension extraversion can be linked with the dopaminergic system and reward-sensitive brain areas. The current study aimed to examine if personality traits are associated with the perception of brands as rewarding stimuli. In order to test this hypothesis we conducted an fMRI study in which we presented pictures of chocolate brands, which participants had to rate according to their personal attraction. The personality traits were assessed according to the Five-Factor-Model. Results revealed that favorite brands engaged reward-related brain areas (ventral striatum). This activation was significantly correlated with the degree of extraversion and neuroticism of the participants. Thus, the results demonstrate that personality traits are closely associated with the perception of brands as rewarding stimuli. We discuss the results with recent studies on the neuronal substrates of reward related processing of cultural objects and the role of personality in brand loyalty.

  9. A dynamic extraversion model. The brain's response to a single dose of a stimulant drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio; Micó, Joan C

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a mathematical dynamic modelling of the effect a stimulant drug has on different people which, at the same time, can be a useful tool for future brain studies. To this end, a dynamic model of the evolution of extraversion (considering its tonic and phasic aspects) has been constructed taking into account the unique personality trait theory and the general modelling methodology. This model consists of a delayed differential equation which, on one hand, considers that the active stimulus, a consequence of a single intake, is not constant; on the other hand, it contemplates that the state variable representing the phasic extraversion also represents the brain activation. The derivative of this state variable is calculated as the sum of the homeostatic control flow, the excitatory effect flow and the inhibitor effect flow. The solutions of this equation relate the tonic activation of an individual (that characterizes his or her personality) with his or her phasic activation level, whose evolution over time describes the organism's response to a single drug intake. These solutions quantitatively reproduce the predictions of current personality theories and anticipate vulnerability to drug misuse and addiction development.

  10. Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the association between loneliness and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xia; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Cun, Lingli; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is an unpleasant and distressing feeling that a person experiences when he/she perceives that his/her social relationships are lacking in someway, either quantitatively or qualitatively; this can be linked to anxiety, depression, and suicide risk. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits (which are temporally stable and heritable) are predictors of loneliness. However, little empirical evidence is available on the brain structures associated with loneliness, as well as how personality traits impact the relationship between loneliness and brain structure. Thus, the current study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain structures underlying individual differences in loneliness (as measured by the UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a large sample, and then, applied multiple mediation analyses to explore the nature of the influence of personality traits on the relationship between loneliness and brain structure. The results showed that lonely individuals had greater regional gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which might reflect immature functioning in terms of emotional regulation. More importantly, we found that neuroticism and extraversion partially mediated the relationship between the left DLPFC and loneliness. In summary, through morphometric and multiple mediation analyses, this paper further validates the influence of both neuroticism and extraversion on loneliness.

  11. Do extraverts get more bang for the buck? Refining the affective-reactivity hypothesis of extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; Cooper, Andrew J; Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William

    2012-08-01

    One of the most robust observations in personality and emotion research is the finding that extraverts are happier than introverts. Some theorists have attributed this to differential reactivity of the brain reward system, which is central to many biologically inspired models of extraversion. This affective-reactivity hypothesis, which suggests that extraverts should be more susceptible to the induction of positive affect, has so far received very mixed empirical support. In this article, we consider a more biologically plausible account of extraverts' affective-reactivity. Over 5 experiments, we demonstrate that extraverts show greater affective-reactivity only in response to clearly appetitive stimuli and situations (e.g., where rewards are being pursued). Conversely, after merely pleasant stimuli and situations (without any reward-approach element), extraverts and introverts respond similarly. We also show that it is specifically activated affect (e.g., feelings of alertness), rather than pleasantly valenced affect (e.g., feelings of contentment), that characterizes the affective-reactivity of extraverts. Such reactions may potentially facilitate the reward-seeking behavior associated with extraversion, but they seem unlikely to explain the broadly happy disposition of extraverts.

  12. Extraversion, neuroticism, and sexual behavior: interrelationships in a sample of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, J; Pfrang, H

    1986-12-01

    In his theory on sexuality and personality Eysenck proposed a positive correlation between extraversion and intensified sexual behavior and between neuroticism and problems in sexual behavior. An earlier study with married persons did not show any of these correlations. It was hypothesized that this connection exists only for unmarried persons who are not engaged in long-lasting relationships, because in the latter the quality of the relationship determines the sexual interaction. Within a sample of young unmarried men there was a positive correlation between extraversion and items in which the person described earlier sexual activity with more persons and in higher frequency. No correlation was found with neuroticism. There were also slight correlations with other personality and social attitude scales. Because of the correlation with an acting-out personality scale, the findings were interpreted from a social-psychological perspective. In our culture the young male is expected to take the initiative in sexual interaction which the extraverted young male can realize better than one who is introverted.

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Relationship between Extraversion-introversion and Behavior and Lifestyle Patterns among Engineering Students in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinaw Kumar Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on a descriptive statistical analysis of the relationship between extraversion and introversion tendencies and various factors that can affect extraversion-introversion among engineering students in India. The factors included the native place, age, grades in English, use of social networking websites etc. The results indicated towards some interesting trends like more participants from cities, as compared to metros and villages being extraverts. The younger generation and people from North India were mostly extraverted while aging makes people introverted with time. More of those with better marks in English were extraverts and extraverts were able to speak more number of languages in general as well. A heavy use of Facebook for communication was found to be similar between extraverts and introverts. It was concluded that the study results can be used have better understanding of the relationship between extraversion/introversion and the different variables used in the study.

  14. Self-other agreement and assumed similarity in neuroticism, extraversion, and trait affect: distinguishing the effects of form and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Andrew; Watson, David; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Trait Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) are strongly associated with Neuroticism and Extraversion, respectively. Nevertheless, measures of the former tend to show substantially weaker self-other agreement-and stronger assumed similarity correlations-than scales assessing the latter. The current study separated the effects of item content versus format on agreement and assumed similarity using two different sets of Neuroticism and Extraversion measures and two different indicators of NA and PA (N = 381 newlyweds). Neuroticism and Extraversion consistently showed stronger agreement than NA and PA; in addition, however, scales with more elaborated items yielded significantly higher agreement correlations than those based on single adjectives. Conversely, the trait affect scales yielded stronger assumed similarity correlations than the personality scales; these coefficients were strongest for the adjectival measures of trait affect. Thus, our data establish a significant role for both content and format in assumed similarity and self-other agreement.

  15. "I Wanna Be the Very Best!" Agreeableness and Perseverance Predict Sustained Playing to Pokémon Go: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalot, Fanny; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Pinelli, Mathieu

    2017-06-29

    The smartphone game Pokémon Go™ has attracted much scientific attention regarding its potential health-related outcomes. Most studies, however, limited their investigation to short-term outcomes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of personality traits in predicting sustained playing to the game on a 6-month period as well as related health outcomes in terms of distance walked per day. Pokémon Go players from 10 countries were recruited through social media and answered an online questionnaire. At Phase I (August 2016), 402 participants provided their game statistics and filled an extensive personality inventory (six main personality traits, impulsivity, need for cognition, need for closure, competitiveness, and self-efficacy). At Phase II (December 2016), 151 participants indicated whether they were still playing or not and provided updated game statistics. No personality traits predicted the distance walked by the players. However, the probability of still being playing the game at Phase II was positively predicted by three personality traits: agreeableness, perseverance, and premeditation. Distance walked per day significantly decreased between Phases I and II but remained substantial. This study identified three personality traits that predicted sustained playing and thus potentially higher game-related physical activity in the long run. In comparison with prior work, this study goes a step forward by (i) investigating personality traits underlying use of the game and related health outcomes, and (ii) providing longitudinal data concerning the use of the game. Findings open new perspectives for the development of other exergames.

  16. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, Ppersonality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  17. Personality traits of the five-factor model are associated with effort-reward imbalance at work: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos, Maria; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Kivimäki, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the association between personality traits and work stress. The sample comprised 757 women and 613 men (aged 30 to 45 years in 2007) participating in the Young Finns study. Personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI questionnaire and work stress according to Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. High neuroticism, low extraversion, and low agreeableness were associated with high ERI. Low conscientiousness was associated with high ERI in men. No association was found between openness and ERI. High neuroticism, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were associated with high effort and low neuroticism, high extraversion, and high agreeableness with high rewards. High conscientiousness was associated with high effort, and in women, with high rewards. High openness was associated with high effort. This study suggests that personality traits may predispose to and protect from work stress.

  18. Personality and the perception of transformational leadership: the impact of extraversion, neuroticism, personal need for structure, and occupational self efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felfe, Jörg; Schyns, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    This experimental study examined the influence of followers' personal characteristics on their perception of leadership. Participants were 175 students who self-rated several personality scales (extraversion, neuroticism, personal need for structure, and occupational self-efficacy) at Time 1. Two we

  19. Personality and the perception of transformational leadership: The impact of extraversion, neuroticism, personal need for structure, and occupational self efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felfe, Jörg; Schyns, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    This experimental study examined the influence of followers' personal characteristics on their perception of leadership. Participants were 175 students who self-rated several personality scales (extraversion, neuroticism, personal need for structure, and occupational self-efficacy) at Time 1. Two

  20. The Effects of Chronological Age on the Relationship of Academic Achievement with Extraversion and Neuroticism: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    A sample of 741 students worked through a self-instructional chemistry program after completing tests of extraversion, neuroticism, verbal intelligence, non-verbal intelligence and background knowledge in chemistry. Results showed none of the interactions involving neuroticism was significant, and indicated that the significant interaction…

  1. Birth order and the dominance aspect of extraversion : Are firstborns more extraverted, in the sense of being dominant, than laterborns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study set out to examine the relationship between birth order and the dominance facet of extraversion in a community sample of around 1500 participants. In contrast, to Sulloway's (1995) predictions, the present study, using a between-family design, found firstborns to be less extraverte

  2. Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Extraversion: Findings from the Genetics of Personality Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. van den Berg (Stéphanie); M.H.M. de Moor; K.J.H. Verweij (Karin J.); R.F. Krueger; M. Luciano (Michelle); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); L.K. Matteson (Lindsay); J. Derringer; T. Esko (Tõnu); N. Amin (Najaf); S.D. Gordon (Scott D.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); A.B. Hart (Amy B.); I. Seppälä (Ilkka); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); B. Konte; J. Lahti (Jari); M. Lee (Minyoung); M. Miller (Mike); T. Nutile; T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); A. Viktorin (Alexander); J. Wedenoja (Juho); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); G.R. Abecasis (Goncalo R.); D.E. Adkins (Daniel E.); A. Agrawal (Arpana); J. Allik; K. Appel (Katja); T.B. Bigdeli (Tim); F. Busonero; H. Campbell (Harry); P.T. Costa (Paul); G.D. Smith; G. Davies (Gail); H. de Wit (Harriet); J. Ding (Jun); B.E. Engelhardt (Barbara E.); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); B. Franke (Barbara); I. Giegling (Ina); R. Grucza; A.M. Hartmann (Annette M); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); K. Heinonen (Kati); A.K. Henders (Anjali); G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); W.G. Iacono (William); J.G.E. Janzing (Joost); M. Jokela (Markus); R. Karlsson (Robert); J.P. Kemp (John); M.G. Kirkpatrick (Matthew G.); A. Latvala (Antti); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.A. Madden (Pamela); C. Magri (Chiara); P.K.E. Magnusson (Patrik K. E.); J. Marten (Jonathan); A. Maschio; H. Mbarek; S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); E. Mihailov (Evelin); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); G.W. Montgomery (Grant W.); M. Nauck (Matthias); M. Nivard (Michel); K.G. Ouwens (Klaasjan); A. Palotie (Aarno); E. Pettersson (Erik); O. Polasek (Ozren); Y. Qian (Yong); L. Pulkki-Råback (Laura); O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); A. Realo; R.J. Rose (Richard J.); D. Ruggiero; C.O. Schmidt (Carsten Oliver); W.S. Slutske (Wendy); R. Sorice; J.M. Starr (John); B. St Pourcain (Beate); A.R. Sutin; N. Timpson (Nicholas); H. Trochet (Holly); S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); E. Vuoksimaa (Eero); E. Widen (Elisabeth); J. Wouda (Jasper); M.J. Wright (Margaret); L. Zgaga (Lina); Generation Scotland; D.J. Porteous (David J.); A. Minelli (Alessandra); A.A. Palmer (Abraham A.); D. Rujescu (Dan); M. Ciullo; C. Hayward (Caroline); I. Rudan (Igor); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); J.F. Wilson (James F); L. Keltikangas-Järvinen (Liisa); L.J. Bierut (Laura J.); J.M. Hettema (John M.); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.M. Evans (David M.); D. Schlessinger (David); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); A. Terracciano; M. McGue (Matt); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractExtraversion is a relatively stable and heritable personality trait associated with numerous psychosocial, lifestyle and health outcomes. Despite its substantial heritability, no genetic variants have been detected in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies, which may be due to

  3. Marital Stress and Extraversion Personality as Predicators of Job Satisfaction among Married Women Teachers in Enugu, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elom, Sampson Omena; Egba, Nwamaka A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marital stress and extraversion personality as predictors of job satisfaction among married women teachers in Enugu, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty eight married women teachers in Enugu, Nigeria participated in the study. Three instruments were used to gather information in this study. They included marital stress inventory…

  4. Extraversion and anterior vs. posterior DMN activity during self-referential thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN) hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. I hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, I hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE) was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts.

  5. Extraversion and anterior vs. posterior DMN activity during self-referential thoughts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Knyazev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. We hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, we hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts.

  6. Influence of background noise on the performance in the odor sensitivity task: effects of noise type and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han-Seok; Hähner, Antje; Gudziol, Volker; Scheibe, Mandy; Hummel, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Recent research demonstrated that background noise relative to silence impaired subjects' performance in a cognitively driven odor discrimination test. The current study aimed to investigate whether the background noise can also modulate performance in an odor sensitivity task that is less cognitively loaded. Previous studies have shown that the effect of background noise on task performance can be different in relation to degree of extraversion and/or type of noise. Accordingly, we wanted to examine whether the influence of background noise on the odor sensitivity task can be altered as a function of the type of background noise (i.e., nonverbal vs. verbal noise) and the degree of extraversion (i.e., introvert vs. extrovert group). Subjects were asked to conduct an odor sensitivity task in the presence of either nonverbal noise (e.g., party sound) or verbal noise (e.g., audio book), or silence. Overall, the subjects' mean performance in the odor sensitivity task was not significantly different across three auditory conditions. However, with regard to the odor sensitivity task, a significant interaction emerged between the type of background noise and the degree of extraversion. Specifically, verbal noise relative to silence significantly impaired or improved the performance of the odor sensitivity task in the introvert or extrovert group, respectively; the differential effect of introversion/extraversion was not observed in the nonverbal noise-induced task performance. In conclusion, our findings provide new empirical evidence that type of background noise and degree of extraversion play an important role in modulating the effect of background noise on subjects' performance in an odor sensitivity task.

  7. The Association between High Neuroticism-Low Extraversion and Dual-Task Performance during Walking While Talking in Non-demented Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonda, Brittany C; Mahoney, Jeannette R; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-08-01

    The Walking While Talking (WWT) dual-task paradigm is a mobility stress test that predicts major outcomes, including falls, frailty, disability, and mortality in aging. Certain personality traits, such as neuroticism, extraversion, and their combination, have been linked to both cognitive and motor outcomes. We examined whether individual differences in personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion predicted dual-task performance decrements (both motor and cognitive) on a WWT task in non-demented older adults. We hypothesized that the combined effect of high neuroticism-low extraversion would be related to greater dual-task costs in gait velocity and cognitive performance in non-demented older adults. Participants (N=295; age range,=65-95 years; female=164) completed the Big Five Inventory and WWT task involving concurrent gait and a serial 7's subtraction task. Gait velocity was obtained using an instrumented walkway. The high neuroticism-low extraversion group incurred greater dual-task costs (i.e., worse performance) in both gait velocity {95% confidence interval (CI) [-17.68 to -3.07]} and cognitive performance (95% CI [-19.34 to -2.44]) compared to the low neuroticism-high extraversion group, suggesting that high neuroticism-low extraversion interferes with the allocation of attentional resources to competing task demands during the WWT task. Older individuals with high neuroticism-low extraversion may be at higher risk for falls, mobility decline and other adverse outcomes in aging.

  8. The five-factor model of personality and borderline personality disorder: a genetic analysis of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A; Trull, Timothy J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M; Derom, Catherine A; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-12-15

    Recently, the nature of personality disorders and their relationship with normal personality traits has received extensive attention. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality, consisting of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, is one of the proposed models to conceptualize personality disorders as maladaptive variants of continuously distributed personality traits. The present study examined the phenotypic and genetic association between borderline personality and FFM personality traits. Data were available for 4403 monozygotic twins, 4425 dizygotic twins, and 1661 siblings from 6140 Dutch, Belgian, and Australian families. Broad-sense heritability estimates for neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience, and borderline personality were 43%, 36%, 43%, 47%, 54%, and 45%, respectively. Phenotypic correlations between borderline personality and the FFM personality traits ranged from .06 for openness to experience to .68 for neuroticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that a combination of high neuroticism and low agreeableness best predicted borderline personality. Multivariate genetic analyses showed the genetic factors that influence individual differences in neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion account for all genetic liability to borderline personality. Unique environmental effects on borderline personality, however, were not completely shared with those for the FFM traits (33% is unique to borderline personality). Borderline personality shares all genetic variation with neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion. The unique environmental influences specific to borderline personality may cause individuals with a specific pattern of personality traits to cross a threshold and develop borderline personality.

  9. Extraversion Personality Traits and Social Support as Determinants of Coping Responses among Individuals with HIV/AIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Shaheen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between extraversion personality trait, social support and coping responses among individuals with HIV/AIDS. After detailed literature review, following hypotheses were formulated a. There would be a positive correlation between Extraversion and problem-focused coping in individual with HIV/AIDS. b. Social support play a role as mediating factor in the relationship between coping responses and Extraversion in individual with HIV/AIDS. This study is based on co-relational research design. The sample consisted of 60 participants, selected from different organizations and hospitals that deal with HIV/AIDS patients. As in Karachi (Pakistan most of the identified HIV/AIDS cases were substance addicts, hence the entire sample was of male substance addicts; selected in order to study the phenomenon from their perspective. The age range of the participants was from 18 to 50 years (mean age; 32 years; SD=8.4. After taking the consent from the participants, NEO Five factor Inventory NEOFFI; [1] (Urdu translation, The Coping Responses Inventory- Adult Form CRIAdult; [2] (Urdu translation and Multidimensional Scale for Perceived social support [3], (Urdu translation were administered to measure personality traits, coping responses and level of social support respectively. Prior to the administration of tests permission for Urdu translation was taken from the publishers. To obtain the results descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment co-efficient of correlation and step-wise regression were calculated. It was found that there is a significant positive relationship between extraversion and problem-focused coping (r = 0.420, p< 0.001 and it was found that extraversion predicts problem focused coping responses (F, 6.105, p< 0.05. Research findings from the present study showed that those HIV/AIDS patients who have extraversion personality traits are more likely to use problem focused

  10. The Connection Between Introversion/Extraversion and Social Capital Outcomes of Playing World of Warcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reer, Felix; Krämer, Nicole C

    2017-02-01

    Some studies indicated that playing online games yields a "rich-get-richer effect" and is especially socially beneficial for extraverted players, while other authors argue that online gaming could have compensational effects for introverted players. The current survey study (N = 409) investigates the connection between introversion/extraversion and social capital outcomes of playing the popular role-playing game World of Warcraft and shows that the rich-get-richer and the compensation perspective are not mutually exclusive. Path analysis revealed that extraverted players communicated and self-disclosed more extensively, more often engaged in team play, and, hence, had better chances to build up social capital than introverts. However, at least some of the introverted players used the game for social compensation. These players chose a more social playing style, which increased their chances to acquire social capital. The results demonstrate that the group of introverted players is more heterogeneous than previously thought and that the links between personality aspects and social outcomes of playing are quite complex and rather indirect than direct.

  11. Association Between Extraversion and Exercise Performance Among Elderly Persons Receiving a Videogame Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Kosuke; Nishimura, Yuki; Matsuguma, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Shigekazu

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of an exergame intervention on exercise performance, as well as the influence of players' personality traits on the effects of the intervention. In total, 16 elderly persons (>65 years old) participated in the study for 12 weeks. Participants were required to complete the Big Five Scale. We measured the number of times that the sit-to-stand exercise was performed during the interventions with and without exergames. We compared the average number of times that the sit-to-stand exercise was performed per day in each of the two conditions. The average number of times that exercise was undertaken with exergame use was greater than that without exergame use; however, no significant difference was found. The difference between the average number of times that exercise occurred with and without exergame use was positively correlated with neuroticism, negatively correlated with extraversion, and not associated with conscientiousness. The intervention comprising the use of exergames has a positive motivational influence among less extraverted elderly persons.

  12. On the nature of extraversion: variation in conditioned contextual activation of dopamine-facilitated affective, cognitive, and motor processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Richard A; Fu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA) functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP) with a particular laboratory context (Paired group), a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context) served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i) presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii) measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups). Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also, conditioned facilitation was evident on the first day of extinction in Paired high extraverts, despite the absence of the unconditioned effects of MP. By the last day of extinction, responding returned to day 1 levels. The findings suggest that extraversion is associated with variation in the acquisition of contexts that predict reward. Over time, this variation may lead to differences in the breadth of networks of conditioned contexts. Thus, individual differences in extraversion may be maintained by activation of differentially encoded central representations of incentive contexts that predict reward.

  13. On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard allen Depue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP with a particular laboratory context (Paired group, a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups. Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also, conditioned facilitation was evident on the first day of extinction in Paired high extraverts, despite the absence of the unconditioned effects of MP. By the last day of extinction, responding returned to day 1 levels. The findings suggest that extraversion is associated with variation in the acquisition of contexts that predict reward. Over time, this variation may lead to differences in the breadth of networks of conditioned contexts. Thus, individual differences in extraversion may be maintained by activation of differentially encoded central representations of incentive contexts that

  14. Two-year stability and change of neuroticism and extraversion in treated and untreated persons with depression : Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, Fritz; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Peeters, Frenk; Cuijpers, Pim; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion likely represent part of the vulnerability to depression. The stability over longer time periods of these personality dimensions in depressed patients treated with psychological treatment or medication and in untreated persons with

  15. Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, S. M.; de Moor, M. H. M.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    -analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item...... data were analyzed in > 160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful...... for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta...

  16. Two-year stability and change of neuroticism and extraversion in treated and untreated persons with depression : Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, Fritz; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Peeters, Frenk; Cuijpers, Pim; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion likely represent part of the vulnerability to depression. The stability over longer time periods of these personality dimensions in depressed patients treated with psychological treatment or medication and in untreated persons with

  17. I Want You to Like Me: Extraversion, Need for Approval, and Time on Facebook as Predictors of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C; Bryan, Jennifer L; Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-09-01

    Although social networking sites such as Facebook have been touted as creating a global village, there may be a downside to such computer-mediated interactions on user's well-being. One such consequence is that stimuli via computer-mediated interactions may be anxiety-provoking for some users. As such, recent studies have tried to ascertain personality factors and individual differences that are associated with higher anxiety in connection with extensive Facebook use. The current study evaluated the relationships among extraversion, time on Facebook, need for approval, and anxiety among college students (N=280). Results revealed that need for approval significantly moderated the association between extraversion and anxiety. Specifically, individuals higher in extraversion tended to be less anxious, although this was less true for those extraverts who were higher in need for approval. Further, this moderating effect was stronger among extraverts who were high in need for approval and spent more time on Facebook relative to those who spent less time on Facebook. The present research contributes to the emerging literature by providing evidence regarding how personality factors interact with Facebook usage.

  18. Dopamine agonist and antagonist responders as related to types of nicotine craving and facets of extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Netter, Petra; Toll, Claudia; Hennig, Juergen

    2002-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in drug seeking behavior has been a matter of debate in the literature: One theory claims that DA triggers incentive motivational behavior, the other one favors the idea that DA itself is the rewarding property induced by the positive stimuli. The present experiment tries to contribute to a solution of the controversy by the approach of relating DA-associated motivational behavior to constellations of hormone response to a DA agonistic and DA antagonistic challenge performed in the same subjects and by relating their responses to different aspects of personality and smoking motivation. DA agonist (lisuride = LIS), DA antagonist (fluphenazine = FLU), and placebo (P) were applied to 36 male smokers who were deprived from smoking for 3.5 h in a balanced crossover design. Cigarette craving and prolactin (PRL) responses to the drugs were compared under the three pharmacological conditions and related to personality and smoking motivation. Results showed that PRL responder types to LIS and FLU, defined as differences from respective placebo values, emerged as pure agonist or antagonist responders in two-thirds of the cases and as mixed types in one-third. PRL-LIS responders developed more craving in the LIS condition and PRL-FLU responders when exposed to FLU. Furthermore, the first group scored high on the sensation seeking scale (SSS), which related to the concept of incentive motivation and the FLU responders high on extraversion and smoking motivation for stimulating purposes suggesting the endeavor to replace DA. Thus, evidence for the validity of both theories is proven.

  19. Interpersonal Perceptions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality: An Examination Using the Structural Summary Method for Circumplex Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    Research investigating the structural convergence of the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC; Wiggins, 1979, 1995) with the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) of personality has predominantly focused on the traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. The characteristics of the other three FFM traits: Neuroticism, Openness, and Conscientiousness…

  20. Personality Factors as Predictors of Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses a problem which is inadequately investigated in second language acquisition research, that is, personality predictors of foreign language aptitude. Specifically, it focuses on the Five Factor model which includes Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (Costa & McCrae, 1992) as…

  1. Exploring the Relationship between Workaholism Facets and Personality Traits: A Replication in American Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Tronzo, Casie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we further explored whether any of the dimensions in the five-factor model of personality (i.e., openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) were related to facets of workaholism (i.e., work involvement, work drive, and work enjoyment) in a sample of American workers in various…

  2. Affect Response to Simulated Information Attack during Complex Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-02

    The ability of warfighters to build and maintain situational awareness is a key design characteristic of and training objective for modern weapon...additional training targeting affective vulnerabilities discovered from these results, and a better trait/cognitive screening or vectoring process...analyses (Saucier, 1997), which include Extraversion , Openness, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The model was developed and

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Big 5 Personality Test Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine the validity of Big 5 Personality test inventory of 44 questions with 5-Likert Scale measurement. Confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the good fit indices of the 5 personality types. Those types are 1) extraversion, 2) agreeableness, 3) conscientiousness, 4) openness and 5) neuroticism.…

  4. Gender-Specific Associations between Personality Traits, Physical Activity, and Body Size Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken; Sullivan, Philip

    2017-01-01

    A recently validated trait personality framework is the HEXACO (honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience). Little is yet known about how the HEXACO personality dimensions and its subsets--particularly the dimension of honesty-humility--relates to physical activity and body size…

  5. White Racial Identity Statuses and NEO Personality Constructs: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Timothy J.; Richardson, Tina Q.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between White racial identity development and the personality constructs Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. White college students (N=105) were administered the White Racial Identity Attitude Scale, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and the New Racism Scale. Results indicate that…

  6. Five-factor Personality Dimensions and 3 Healthrelated Personality Constructs as Predictors of Health

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine how 5-factor personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness) and 3 higher-order health-related personality constructs (negative experience, optimistic control, and passivity) are related to self-reports of subjective health outcomes (positive and negative mood, physical symptoms, and general health concern) and objective health conditions (chronic illnesses, serious illnesses, and physical injuries). Meth...

  7. National Intelligence and Personality: Their Relationships and Impact on National Economic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Maciej; Zajenkowski, Marcin; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between national personality traits and intelligence from 51 countries were examined. It was found that extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness measured at the national level were significantly and positively correlated with national IQs; however, in the regression model only the former two were marginally…

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Workaholism Facets and Personality Traits: A Replication in American Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Tronzo, Casie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we further explored whether any of the dimensions in the five-factor model of personality (i.e., openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) were related to facets of workaholism (i.e., work involvement, work drive, and work enjoyment) in a sample of American workers in various…

  9. Student Evaluations of Teaching: Effects of the Big Five Personality Traits, Grades and the Validity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Carol Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the Big Five personality traits and expected student grades relate to student evaluations of teachers and courses at the college level. Extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were found to be personality traits favoured in instructors, whereas neuroticism was not. A…

  10. The Five Factor Model of Personality Applied to Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Lincoln, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally; Menzies, Ross G.; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has not explored the Five Factor Model of personality among adults who stutter. Therefore, the present study investigated the five personality domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), in a sample of 93 adults seeking speech…

  11. Linking "Big" Personality Traits to Anxiety, Depressive, and Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Roman; Gamez, Wakiza; Schmidt, Frank; Watson, David

    2010-01-01

    We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66…

  12. Impact of Widowhood on Parent-Child Relations: Does Parents' Personality Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Manacy; Ha, Jung-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated the extent to which the short-term effect of late life widowhood on parent-child relationships is moderated by 5 personality traits--Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness to Experience--and how these interactive effects differ by gender. Data were from the Changing Lives of Older…

  13. A Big-Five Personality Profile of the Adaptor and Innovator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ng Aik; Rodrigues, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    A study explored the relationship between two creative types (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), in 164 teachers in Singapore. Adaptors were significantly more conscientious than innovators, while innovators were significantly more…

  14. Sense of Identity and Collegiate Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Huffstetler, Beverly C.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Gibson, Lucy W.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of 434 university freshmen, Sense of Identity was found to be positively related to GPA, even controlling for the Big Five personality traits of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness. Similar correlations were found for racial and gender subgroups. When all study variables entered a stepwise…

  15. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Adolescent School Absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Steel, Robert P.; Loveland, James M.; Gibson, Lucy W.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the Big Five personality traits of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness, as well as four narrower traits of Aggression, Optimism, Tough-Mindedness, and Work Drive in relation to absences from school for middle- and high-school students. Participants were 248 seventh grade students, 321 tenth…

  16. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Intention to Withdraw from College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Saudargas, Richard A.; Gibson, Lucy W.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the Big Five (De Raad, 2000) personality traits of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness, plus the narrow personality traits of Aggression, Career-Decidedness, Optimism, Self-Directed Learning, Sense of Identity, Tough-Mindedness, and Work Drive in relation to intention to withdraw from…

  17. Personality and Field of Study Choice in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humburg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the Big five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) measured at age 14 can be linked to field of study choice in university at around age 19. While personality matters less than cognitive skills, such as math ability and verbal ability, for…

  18. Age Differences in Personality: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Australian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard E.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional age differences in the Big Five personality traits were examined in a nationally representative sample of Australians (N = 12,618; age range = 15-84). Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness were negatively associated with age, whereas Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively associated with age. Effect sizes comparing…

  19. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  20. How Taking a Word for a Word Can Be Problematic: Context-Dependent Linguistic Markers of Extraversion and Neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias R. Mehl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study conceptually extends recent research on linguistic markers of psychological processes by demonstrating that psychological correlates of word use can vary with the context in which the words are used. The word use of 90 participants was analyzed across two theoretically defined communication contexts. Information about participants’ public language use was derived from recorded snippets of their daily conversations with others. Information about their private language use was derived from stream-of-consciousness essays. Personality trait–word use associations emerged as highly context dependent. Extraversion as a public trait was related to verbal productivity in public but not private language. Neuroticism as a private trait was related to the verbal expression of emotions in private but not public language. Verbal immediacy was indicative of Extraversion in public and Neuroticism in private language use. The findings illustrate the importance of considering communication contexts in research on psychological implications of natural language use. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i2.16477

  1. Personality and Perceived Health in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Lung Cancer: The Roles of Neuroticism and Extraversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hoerger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Family members’ responsibilities for patients with cancer have increased dramatically over the past decade and will likely continue to rise. Given that caregiving is associated with declines in self-care, there is a need for research on caregivers’ perceptions of their own health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personality is associated with four self-report perceived health items from the SF-36. Methods. The sample consisted of 114 spouses of lung cancer patients who completed cross-sectional measures as part of a larger cohort study on adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Predictors of interest were Neuroticism and Extraversion scores from the NEO-FFI. Covariates were age, gender, conscientiousness, depressive symptoms, and objective illness burden. Results. Multivariate analyses revealed that caregivers with higher Extraversion scores were less likely to respond affirmatively to the item “I expect my health to get worse” (OR = 0.90, p<0.05. Neuroticism was associated with poorer perceived health (ORs from 1.11 to 1.12, p’s < 0.05. Conclusions. The present cross-sectional findings suggest that personality is associated with responses to SF-36 perceived health items beyond what can be accounted for by objective illness burden and other covariates. The potential overestimation of health among extraverted caregivers may have implications for their health outcomes.

  2. Differences in regional brain volume related to the extraversion-introversion dimension--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Lea J; de Manzano, Orjan; Karabanov, Anke; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Extraverted individuals are sociable, behaviorally active, and happy. We report data from a voxel based morphometry study investigating, for the first time, if regional volume in gray and white matter brain regions is related to extraversion. For both gray and white matter, all correlations between extraversion and regional brain volume were negative, i.e. the regions were larger in introverts. Gray matter correlations were found in regions that included the right prefrontal cortex and the cortex around the right temporo-parietal junction--regions that are known to be involved in behavioral inhibition, introspection, and social-emotional processing, e.g. evaluation of social stimuli and reasoning about the mental states of others. White matter correlations extended from the brainstem to widespread cortical regions, and were largely due to global effects, i.e. a larger total white matter volume in introverts. We speculate that these white matter findings may reflect differences in ascending modulatory projections affecting cortical regions involved in behavioral regulation.

  3. [Acoustic evoked driving reactions in the EEG and their conditioning related to the personality factor extraversion-introversion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidmayer, I; Schulter, G

    1980-12-01

    Clicks were delivered in trains of 2,5 s duration at click repetition rates of 5 or 8/s to provoke rhythmical activity in the vertex-EEG ('driving response') and to condition the driving response to neutral stimuli in a discrimination paradigm. The Eysenck Personality Inventory was administered to define an independent personality variable, i.e. extraversion-introversion; the interaction of background activity, driving and conditioned driving response with the personality dimension was analyzed. In the background EEG there was a significant difference in the absolute power of the fast alpha-band between introverts and extraverts. Driving was only observed in the fundamental frequency of acoustic stimulation, not in the first harmonic. There was no interaction between driving response and extraversion-introversion or resting EEG activity. Classical conditioning of the driving response was successful with introverts only. Results were interpreted within the framework of Eysenck's personality theory. The possibility to study neurophysiological correlates of memory processes in humans by means of conditioned driving responses is discussed.

  4. How Extraverted, Open, Agreeable, Conscientious, and Neurotic Are Prospective Early Childhood Pedagogues? A Comparison with the German Socio-Economic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Wilfried; Roux, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of theories and research, it is crucial to gather in-depth information about the Big Five personality traits of pedagogues as well as prospective pedagogues. Such information can be attained by comparing them with a cross section of the population. However, there is a research gap concerning the Big Five of early childhood…

  5. Only-child and non-only-child exhibit differences in creativity and agreeableness: evidence from behavioral and anatomical structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Hou, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yadan; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-03-08

    Different family composition and size inevitably make only-children different from non-only-children. Previous studies have focused on the differences in behaviors, such as cognitive function and personality traits, between the only-child and the non-only-child. However, there are few studies that have focused on the topic of whether different family environments influence children's brain structural development and whether behavior differentially has its neural basis between only-child and non-only-child status. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in cognition (e.g., intelligence and creativity) and personality and the anatomical structural differences of gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) between only-children and non-only-children. The behavioral results revealed that only-children exhibited higher flexibility scores (a dimension of creativity) and lower agreeableness scores (a dimension of personality traits) than non-only-children. Most importantly, the GMV results revealed that there were significant differences in the GMV between only-children and non-only-children that occurred mainly in the brain regions of the supramarginal gyrus, which was positively correlated with flexibility scores; the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which was positively correlated with agreeableness scores; and the parahippocampal gyrus. These findings may suggest that family environment (i.e., only-child vs. non-only-child), may play important roles in the development of the behavior and brain structure of individuals.

  6. The Development of Extraversion and Ability: Analysis of Data from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of Children Tested at 10-11 and 14-15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of analysis of correlations collected by Cookson, following Eysenck and Cookson's study of personality and ability in young people, confirm the finding from previous Cattellian test data that the more intelligent children decline in relative extraversion scores and cast doubt on Eysenck's suggestion that introverts gradually show higher…

  7. The influence of extraversion on preferences and engagement in pleasant activities in patients with substance use disorders: one size fits all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Evans, B.E.; Wiersma, H.; Meyers, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) is its emphasis on getting individuals to increase their engagement in healthy old and new rewarding activities that can compete with substance use. The personality dimension extraversion seems to be an important mechanism underlying activity

  8. Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie M; de Moor, Marleen H M; McGue, Matt; Pettersson, Erik; Terracciano, Antonio; Verweij, Karin J H; Amin, Najaf; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hansell, Narelle K; Huffman, Jennifer; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Luciano, Michelle; Matteson, Lindsay K; Viktorin, Alexander; Wouda, Jasper; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Bierut, Laura; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Smith, George Davey; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbera; Fox, Jean-Paul; de Geus, Eco J C; Giegling, Ina; Gow, Alan J; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M; Heath, Andrew C; Heikkilä, Kauko; Iacono, William G; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Madden, Pamela A F; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Northstone, Kate; Nutile, Teresa; Ouwens, Klaasjan G; Palotie, Aarno; Pattie, Alison; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Polasek, Ozren; Pulkkinen, Lea; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J; Ruggiero, Daniela; Seppälä, Ilkka; Slutske, Wendy S; Smyth, David C; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M; Sutin, Angelina R; Tanaka, Toshiko; Verhagen, Josine; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wright, Margaret J; Zgaga, Lina; Rujescu, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Wilson, James F; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J; Räikkönen, Katri; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Costa, Paul T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Krueger, Robert F; Evans, David M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pedersen, Nancy L; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-07-01

    Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.

  9. CNR1 gene is associated with high neuroticism and low agreeableness and interacts with recent negative life events to predict current depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Chase, Diana; Pegg, Emma; Downey, Darragh; Toth, Zoltan G; Stones, Kathryn; Platt, Hazel; Mekli, Krisztina; Payton, Antony; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian M; Deakin, J F William

    2009-07-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) gene (CNR1) knockout mice are prone to develop anhedonic and helpless behavior after chronic mild stress. In humans, the CB1 antagonist rimonabant increases the risk of depressed mood disorders and anxiety. These studies suggest the hypothesis that genetic variation in CB1 receptor function influences the risk of depression in humans in response to stressful life events. In a population sample (n=1269), we obtained questionnaire measures of personality (Big Five Inventory), depression and anxiety (Brief Symptom Inventory), and life events. The CNR1 gene was covered by 10 SNPs located throughout the gene to determine haplotypic association. Variations in the CNR1 gene were significantly associated with a high neuroticism and low agreeableness phenotype (explained variance 1.5 and 2.5%, respectively). Epistasis analysis of the SNPs showed that the previously reported functional 5' end of the CNR1 gene significantly interacts with the 3' end in these phenotypes. Furthermore, current depression scores significantly associated with CNR1 haplotypes but this effect diminished after covariation for recent life events, suggesting a gene x environment interaction. Indeed, rs7766029 showed highly significant interaction between recent negative life events and depression scores. The results represent the first evidence in humans that the CNR1 gene is a risk factor for depression--and probably also for co-morbid psychiatric conditions such as substance use disorders--through a high neuroticism and low agreeableness phenotype. This study also suggests that the CNR1 gene influences vulnerability to recent psychosocial adversity to produce current symptoms of depression.

  10. Personality Traits as Factors Affecting E-Book Adoption among College Students: Does Personality Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkaliza Bt Khalid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic materials such as e-book have become increasingly accepted as learning tools in the classroom nowadays. This study investigated the relationships between the big five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extroversion with e-book adoption among college students. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regressions were conducted to analyze the data. Results revealed statistically significant relationships between the personality traits (conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion and e-book adoption. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  11. Paradoxical dopaminergic drug effects in extraversion: Dose- and time-dependent effects of Sulpiride on EEG theta activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira-Lynn eChavanon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic drugs frequently produce paradoxical effects depending on baseline performance levels, genotype or personality traits. The present study for the first time aimed to specify the mechanisms underlying such opposite effects using the following recently reported scenario as an example: Depending on the personality trait agentic extraversion (aE; i.e. assertiveness, dominance, ambition, positive emotionality the selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (200 mg had opposite effects on resting posterior versus anterior theta activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG. In order to better describe these opposite pharmaco-EEG effects and to generate hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms, we measured the EEG intermittently over five hours in 80 healthy male volunteers extremely high or low in aE who had received either placebo or one of three doses of sulpiride (50 mg, 200 mg, or 400 mg. The findings suggest a model postulating stronger pre- versus postsynaptic subreceptor effects in high aE individuals compared to low aE individuals. Future studies may now systematically apply the model to other examples of paradoxical dopaminergic drug effects and examine the molecular basis of individual differences in pre- versus postsynaptic dopamine D2 subreceptor sensitivities and densities.

  12. Empirical Study On Influence Of Extraversion On Consumer Passion And Brand Evangelism With Word-Of-Mouth Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep KAUTISH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Word-of-Mouth (WOM is recognized as a powerful marketing instrument. Its importance as a communication mechanism has widely explored and established in influencing purchase decision in the consumer behaviour domain (e.g., Gilly et al. 1998; Herr et al. 1991; Wilson 1991. WOM was recognized as an important determinant of consumer’s buying behaviour early in marketing literature (Butler 1923, its influence reported as greater than personal selling and advertising (Engel et al. 1969; Feldman and Spencer 1965; Katz and Lazarsfeld 1955 and findings show that more extravert consumers are more likely to be passionate consumers and engage in brand evangelism. For decades, it has received extensive attention from both academicians and practitioners, who demonstrated that WOM communications could not only influence consumers' purchase decisions (Arndt 1967b; Whyte 1954, but also shape consumers' expectations (Zeithaml and Bitner 1996, pre-usage attitudes (Herr et al. 1991, and even post-usage perceptions of a product or service (Bone 1995; Burzynski and Bayer 1977. Researchers have documented the existence of certain types of consumers, opinion leaders and market mavens, who have a personal predisposition to disseminate WOM to fellow consumers (Feick and Price 1987; Lazarsfeld et al. 1944 in an influencing manner. This paper is an attempt to figure out the inter relationship of positive influence of extraversion on consumer passion and ultimately on brand evangelism as a marketing phenomenon in Indian context.

  13. Do Gender and Personality Traits Influence Frequency of Use of Deal Sites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Although deal sites cannot be considered a new technology anymore, there is still only a limited amount of quantitative research on the topic. The paper aims to expand the body of knowledge. The study investigates impact of gender and personality traits on frequency of use of deal sites. Big Five......, neuroticism, openness to experience, gender (and possibly agreeableness) are significant. Third, only respondents who use deal sites are taken into account. In the third model, openness to experience (and possibly extraversion) are significant....

  14. Personality Traits and Family Styles of Combat Medics in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolas, Hollie D; Ray, Lashawnna N; Escolas, Sandra M

    2016-06-01

    This descriptive study examines the relationship between four family types and five personality traits. The four family types are balanced, moderately balanced, midrange, and extreme. The five personality traits are extraversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Data were collected through anonymous questionnaires distributed to combat-naïve Soldiers at the beginning of their advanced individual training. This study utilized the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale1 and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory2 as measures. Overall the analyses found that participants classified as a balanced family type scored significantly higher on the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience than those classified in the family types of extreme, midrange, and moderately balanced. It appears that family types are associated with personality traits. This study opens doors to future research including looking at how family and personality types relate to each other in military units and personnel.

  15. Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Responses in Men with Essential Hypertension Compared with Healthy Men Based on Introversion and Extraversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Namdar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. Methods: One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50. Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively. And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036. However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Conclusion: Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects.

  16. 单机主次指标排序问题1|(rj, dj) agreeable, pj = p, pmtn|∑Uj|Tmax%Single-Machine Primary-Secondary Criteria Scheduling Problem 1|(rj,dj) agreeable, pj = p, pmtn|∑Uj|Tmax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉芹; 原晋江

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the single-machine primary-secondary criteria scheduling problem1|rj,pmtn| ∑ Uj |Tmax. Under the case that the jobs' processing times are common and their release dates are agreeable with their due dates, we give a preemptive scheduling polynomial-time algorithm that optimally solve the problem.%本文研究了单机主次指标排序问题1|rj,pmtn|∑Uj|Tmax.在同工期且准备时间和工期具有一致性的情形下,给出了该问题的允许中断抢先的多项式时间算法.

  17. Personality and mental health: Arabic Scale of Mental Health, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Neo Five Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this research was to explore associations of mental health and personality factors through two studies. Two separate convenience samples of volunteer Kuwaiti college students took part in the study (n1 = 193, n2 = 128). Their ages ranged between 18 and 32 years. They responded, in small group sessions, to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and to Costa and McCrae's Five Personality Factors in their Arabic forms. In addition, both samples responded to the Arabic Scale of Mental Health (ASMH). In the first study, scorers on the ASMH were significantly correlated (r) with Neuroticism (-.63), Extraversion (.57), and Lie (.22) scores. Two orthogonal components were retained and labeled "Mental health and Extraversion versus Neuroticism," and "Psychoticism versus Lie." In Study 2, mental health scores were significantly positively correlated with Conscientiousness (.62), Extraversion (.59), Agreeableness (.34), and Openness (.26) scores, and negatively with Neuroticism (-.62) scores. Two orthogonal components were retained and labeled "Mental health, Agreeableness, Extraversion versus Neuroticism," and "Openness, Conscientiousness, and Mental health." It was concluded that the salient associations of the ASMH were with positive traits and scores on Extraversion, Conscientiousness (positive), and with Neuroticism (negative), indicating good construct validity of the ASMH.

  18. A study on effect of big five personality traits on emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Dehghanan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effects of big five personal traits on emotional intelligence on some Iranian firms located in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one, which is originally developed by McCare and Costa (1992 [McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1992. Discriminant validity of NEO-PI-R facet scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 229-237.] for measuring personality traits and the other, which is used for measuring emotional intelligence . The first questionnaire consists of five personal categories including extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability versus neuroticism, and openness. Using structural equation modeling and stepwise regression model, the study has detected a positive and meaningful relationship between four components namely, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness as well as openness and emotional intelligence. In addition, the study detects a negative and meaningful relationship between neuroticism and emotional intelligence.

  19. Positive Orientation and the Five-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miciuk Łukasz Roland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between positive orientation (PO defined as a basic predisposition to perceive and evaluate positive aspects of life, the future and oneself and the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM. Hypotheses postulated positive correlations between PO and extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness; a negative correlation was predicted between PO and neuroticism. Two hundred Polish students completed the following measures: SES (Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg, SWLS (The Satisfaction with Life Scale; Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffin, LOT-R (The Life Orientation Test - Revised; Scheier, Carver & Bridges and NEOFFI (NEO Five Factor Inventory, Costa & McCrae. The results confirmed correlations between PO and extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism; correlations with openness and agreeableness were not supported. According to canonical correlations, PO shows a clear affinity to the FFM.

  20. Personal traits underlying environmental preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Soliño

    Full Text Available Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10 is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity.

  1. Relationships Between Positive and Negative Affect and the Five Factors of Personality in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Zanon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with positive affects (PA and negative affects (NA have been reported in the international literature. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of such relationships in a Brazilian sample, and also to investigate the role of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness in the prediction of PA and NA through the use of a hybrid structural model. Participants were 319 university students, between 17 and 37 years of age (mean = 21.5, SD = 4.9. Approximately 64% of the students were female and 36% male. Results showed that Neuroticism was the most important predictor of PA and NA, followed by Conscientiousness, but not Extraversion. Surprisingly, Agreeableness was shown to be a weak prediction for NA, but had no relationship with PA. As expected, Openness showed no relationship with PA or NA. These results are partially in agreement with the international literature but some important differences were detected.

  2. Longevity, big five personality factors, and health behaviors: presidents from Washington to Nixon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the positive correlation between conscientiousness and death age discovered by H. S. Friedman et al. (1993, 1995) was replicated for 32 American presidents. Conscientiousness scores, using the Big Five variables produced by S. J. Rubenzer, T. R. Faschingbauer, and D. S. Ones (1996, 2000), were correlated with death age, r(30) = .41, p < .01, and the relationship was maintained with controls in a multiple regression framework. Smoking, drinking, and exercise, as assessed by J. R. Bumgarner (1994), were also correlated in the expected fashion with death age. Conscientiousness was correlated negatively with smoking and drinking, but openness to experience was correlated negatively with smoking and drinking to a higher degree and also was positively correlated with exercise. Openness, extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not correlated with death age, and extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not correlated with smoking, drinking or exercise.

  3. Personality in Bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Staes, Nicky; Pereboom, Jeffrey J M; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Eens, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    To better understand human and chimpanzee personality evolution, we obtained trait ratings of personality for 154 captive bonobos (~80% of the U.S. and European population). We found factors that we labeled Assertiveness, Conscientiousness, Openness, Agreeableness, Attentiveness, and Extraversion. The interrater reliabilities and test-retest reliabilities for these factors were comparable to those found in humans and other species. Using orthogonal targeted Procrustes rotations, we compared the bonobo dimensions with those of three samples of captive chimpanzees. Overall congruence coefficients indicated a fair degree of similarity; at the factor level, there was good evidence for Assertiveness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Agreeableness in the chimpanzee samples; evidence for Attentiveness and Extraversion was poor. These findings suggest that, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship, bonobo personality structure resembles chimpanzee personality structure in some respects. However, divergent evolution, perhaps as a result of socioecological differences between bonobos and chimpanzees, also appears to have shaped personality structure in these species.

  4. How to consistently link extraversion and intelligence to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene: on defining and measuring psychological phenotypes in neurogenetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan; Mueller, Erik M; Hennig, Jürgen; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    The evidence for associations between genetic polymorphisms and complex behavioral/psychological phenotypes (traits) has thus far been weak and inconsistent. Using the well-studied Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene as an example, we demonstrate that using theoretical models to guide phenotype definition and measuring the phenotypes of interest with a high degree of specificity reveals strong gene-behavior associations that are consistent with prior work and that would have otherwise gone unnoticed. Only after statistically controlling for irrelevant portions of phenotype variance did we observe strong (Cohen's d = 0.33-0.70) and significant associations between COMT Val158Met and both cognitive and affective traits in a healthy male sample (N = 201) in Study 1: Carriers of the Met allele scored higher in fluid intelligence (reasoning) but lower in both crystallized intelligence (general knowledge) and the agency facet of extraversion. In Study 2, we conceptually replicated the association of COMT Val158Met with the agency facet of extraversion after partialing irrelevant phenotype variance in a female sample (N = 565). Finally, through reanalysis of a large published data set we showed that Met allele carriers also scored higher in indicators of fluid intelligence after partialing verbal fluency. Because the Met allele codes for a less efficient variant of the enzyme COMT, resulting in higher levels of extrasynaptic prefrontal dopamine, these observations provide further support for a role for dopamine in both intelligence and extraversion. More importantly, the present findings have important implications for the definition of psychological phenotypes in neurogenetic research.

  5. Evaluarea personalitãtii din perspectiva modelului Big Five. Date privind adaptarea chestionarului IPIP-50 pe un esantion de studenti români

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Rusu; Maricutoiu, Laurentiu P.; Irina Macsinga; Delia Virga; Florin A Sava

    2012-01-01

    International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) is a project aiming to develop measures of individual differencesas part of the public domain. This project emerged as an alternative to personality assessment instruments, whichare protected by copyright. IPIP-50 is an instrument developed through the IPIP project, which measures the fivedimensions of personality: Openness, Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness.The aim of the present study is to test the validity of ...

  6. Identifying Universal Linguistic Features Associated with Veracity and Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    universal (Costa & McCrae, 1992): Neuroticism, Extraversion , Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Participants respond to each item using a...that are based in low-stakes studies that are not analogous to real-life situations, or that are otherwise not validated, and then training law...enforcement personnel on them would have dire consequences. At least one study has demonstrated detrimental effects of training to detect lies when non

  7. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the psychometric properties of the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FF-NPQ) in a sample of 1,113 people. The FF-NPQ is a non-verbal measure of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). The presented psychometric measures include scale internal consistencies, intercorrelations, and convergences with two verbal Big Five measures. Gender and age differences are reported. Further...

  8. Effects of Gender and Personality on First Impression

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Mattarozzi; Alexander Todorov; Michele Marzocchi; Alba Vicari; Paolo Maria Russo

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores whether and to what extent individual differences (i.e., gender and personality traits of perceiver) predict inferences of trustworthiness from emotionally neutral unfamiliar faces and the related confidence in judgment. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students participated in the study. Personality was assessed using the Big Five model (i.e., Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness to experience) and measures of trait anxiety and...

  9. Inter Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Personality Trait of Educator Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Hudani Md Nawi; Ma'rof Redzuan; Hanina Hamsan

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine inter relationship of emotional intelligence and personality trait (Conscientiousness, Openness to experiences, Extraversion, Agreeableness) among school educator leaders in High Performance Schools (SBT). Two sets of questionnaire to measure emotional intelligence and personality trait were administered to 306 (89%) subjects who were selected by stratified random sampling in 15 SBT schools in Malaysia. Data were analyzed throug...

  10. University Students' Personality Traits as Predictors of their Loneliness Levels

    OpenAIRE

    keldal, gökay; Atli, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Thepurpose of this study is to determine to what extent the personality traitsbased on the Five Factor Theory (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness,openness to experience) predict loneliness levels of university students. Thestudy group of the research was composed of 433 students (260 female and 173 malestudents) who were attending Inonu University and Nigde University in theacademic year of 2013-2014. As the data collection tools, the UCLA LonelinessScale and the Five...

  11. Personality Traits and Social Media Use in 20 Countries: How Personality Relates to Frequency of Social Media Use, Social Media News Use, and Social Media Use for Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil de Zúñiga, Homero; Diehl, Trevor; Huber, Brigitte; Liu, James

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between peoples' personality traits and social media uses with data from 20 societies (N = 21,314). A measure of the "Big Five" personality traits is tested on key social media dimensions: frequency of use, social interaction, and news consumption. Across diverse societies, findings suggest that while extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are all positive predictors of different types of social media use, emotional stability and openness are negatively related to them.

  12. Social networks user: current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1 social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality; 2 personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem. The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connected with socio-demographic and personality characteristics

  13. Soldier Development Following Negative Cross-Cultural Experiences: An Integrated Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    rules and norms regarding the expression of emotions ( Ekman & Friesen, 1975; Grandey, 2000; Hochschild, 1983). In other words, work environments differ...These skills, which encompass the capacity to communicate with others, negotiate, and regulate one’s emotions , not only aid Soldiers in accomplishing...comprise Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness to Experience, have resulted in mixed findings (cf. Abbe et al

  14. Relationship between personality trait and self- management in diabetic patients referred to Bushehr medical centers in 2012-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Noroozi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes is a serious problem and self- management is effective factor for diabetes control. Personality trait is one of the important factors in diabetes self- management. In this study, purpose was determination of effective personality traits in self- management. Material and Methods: In this cross sectional study, data were collected from a convenience sample of 396 diabetic patients, using self- management and Big five personality Scales. For data analysis, multiple linear regression models were used. Results: Among five personality traits, the most effective traits in self- management were conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion (R2= 32%. Conscientiousness and openness were significant predictors for all of self- management aspects. Extraversion was effective factors in self- regulation, self- integration, and following treatment. Conclusion: The education for diabetic patients with neuroticism and agreeableness traits is necessary and Patients with conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion traits can be used as model in educational process.

  15. Relations Between Western Agreeableness and Chinese Personality%西方"愉悦性"人格维度与中国人人格的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔红; 王登峰

    2005-01-01

    本研究旨在通过实证研究探索西方愉悦性(Agreeableness)人格维度的本土化内涵及其与中国人人格结构的关系.1500多名被试完成了QZPS(中国人人格量表)和NEOPI-R(西方大五人格量表)的Agreeableness量表(中文版),因素分析的结果表明Agreeableness的本土化结构包括坦诚利他(CA1)、周到信任(CA2)、精明自信(CA3)、含蓄礼让(CA4)、谦虚宽容(CA5)和重情随和(CA6)等六个小因素,与NEO PI-R中Agreeableness的六个层面没有对应关系,但分别与中国人人格结构中的外向性、善良、行事风格、才干、情绪性和处世态度等六个维度密切相关,其中CA2、CA3和CA5的内容与中国人人格结构中的人际关系(RG)维度的内容比较一致.Agreeableness在中国人的人格结构中并非作为一个独立的人格维度出现,而是其有关的内容分布在不同的人格维度之中.

  16. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  17. Emerging late adolescent friendship networks and Big Five personality traits: a social network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten; Burk, William; Branje, Susan; Denissen, Jaap; van Aken, Marcel; Meeus, Wim

    2010-04-01

    The current study focuses on the emergence of friendship networks among just-acquainted individuals, investigating the effects of Big Five personality traits on friendship selection processes. Sociometric nominations and self-ratings on personality traits were gathered from 205 late adolescents (mean age=19 years) at 5 time points during the first year of university. SIENA, a novel multilevel statistical procedure for social network analysis, was used to examine effects of Big Five traits on friendship selection. Results indicated that friendship networks between just-acquainted individuals became increasingly more cohesive within the first 3 months and then stabilized. Whereas individuals high on Extraversion tended to select more friends than those low on this trait, individuals high on Agreeableness tended to be selected more as friends. In addition, individuals tended to select friends with similar levels of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Openness.

  18. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers.

  19. Affect of Agreeableness on College Students' Amative Forgiveness: Mediated Moderation%宜人性对大学生恋爱宽恕的影响:有中介的调节模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张田; 傅宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:探索人格因素(宜人性)、恋爱满意度、共情能力和大学生恋爱宽恕之间的关系.方法:对556名有过恋爱经历的在校大学生进行了相关问卷的测试.结果:①在面对恋爱中的伤害时,大学生更愿意选择消极沉思的方式来应对,而较少选择去报复对方;②人格因素中的宜人性能够有效预测个体的恋爱宽恕水平;③在宜人性对于恋爱宽恕的影响中,共情能力起中介作用、恋爱满意度起调节作用,四者之间是一个有中介的调节关系.结论:宜人性能够通过共情影响大学生的恋爱宽恕,且这一关系受到恋爱满意度的调节.%Objective:The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship among amative forgiveness,agreeableness,amative satisfaction and empathy of college students.Methods:556 college students who had an experience of being in love were investigated by some scales to explore the relationship mentioned above.Results:①Chinese college students preferred rumination to revenging the person who had hurt him/her; ②The factors of personality,especially agreeableness,could significantly predict college students' amative forgiveness; ③The relationship among university students'amative forgiveness,agreeableness,amative satisfaction and empathy was mediated moderation.Conclusion:Agreeableness can influent college students' amative forgiveness through empathy,and the relationship is moderated by amative satisfaction.

  20. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  1. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  2. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  3. Tinnitus severity, depression, and the big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langguth, B; Kleinjung, T; Fischer, B; Hajak, G; Eichhammer, P; Sand, P G

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of self-report measures for the evaluation of tinnitus severity has become available to research and clinical practice. This has led to an increased awareness of depression and personality as predictors of tinnitus severity in addition to loudness and other psychoacoustic measures. However, the net impact of personality dimensions on tinnitus ratings has not been investigated when the effect of depressed mood is controlled. In the present study, we demonstrate the role of the big five personality traits, 'Neuroticism', 'Extraversion', 'Openness', 'Agreeableness', and 'Conscientiousness', in affecting scores on two standard instruments for grading tinnitus-related complaints, the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), and the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). When 72 individuals with chronic tinnitus were examined, 'Agreeableness' negatively correlated with THI scores (p=.003), whereas the anxiety trait 'Neuroticism' correlated both with depressive symptomatology (pdepression, low 'Agreeableness' was thus identified as a novel predictor of tinnitus severity on the THI.

  4. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  5. Association between personality and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the association between adolescents' personality traits and smoking, and tested whether this association was moderated by birth order or gender. Participants were 832 Dutch siblings aged 13 to 17 years participating at baseline assessment (T1) and at follow-up 12 months later (T2). Personality was assessed by applying a variable-centered approach including five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience), and a person-oriented approach using three personality types (i.e., Resilients, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers). Cross-sectional findings indicated that Extraversion (at T1 and T2), Agreeableness (at T2), Conscientiousness (at T2), and Emotional Stability (at T2) were related to adolescent smoking. Longitudinal findings indicated that only Extraversion and Emotional Stability were related to onset of adolescent smoking. Using a person-oriented approach, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers did not differ from Resilients on smoking onset. No indication was found for a moderating effect of birth order on the association between personality and smoking. Additional findings showed that gender moderated the effect of Agreeableness on adolescents' smoking onset. Implications for prevention are also addressed.

  6. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  7. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  8. Personality correlates of the Five-Factor Model for a sample of business owners/managers: associations with scores on Self-Monitoring, Type A Behavior, Locus of Control, and Subjective Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, K A

    1997-02-01

    Bivariate relationships were examined between scores on the Five-Factor Model of personality and four personality dimensions including Self-monitoring, Locus of Control, Type A Behavior, and Subjective Well-being. Data were collected from 307 franchise business owner/managers from four different industries. Scores for Self-monitoring were positively related to those on Extraversion; Self-monitoring was the only personality measure significantly correlated with scores on Openness to Experience. Scores for Type A Behavior, measured by the Jenkins Activity Survey, were negatively correlated with Agreeableness and positively correlated with those for Extraversion. Somewhat surprisingly, the score for Type A Behavior had a relatively low correlation with the score for Conscientiousness. Scores for Subjective Well-being and Locus of Control were most strongly correlated with the positive pole of Neuroticism (Emotional Stability), Conscientiousness, and Extraversion. Possible explanations for the observed relationships are discussed.

  9. FFM description of the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Rosario; Segarra, Pilar; Esteller, Àngels; López, Raúl; Moltó, Javier

    2014-03-01

    This study examined differential associations between phenotypic domains of the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition; Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009), as assessed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010b), and the five-factor model (FFM) of normal personality, as indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Spanish version, Costa & McCrae, 1999), in 349 undergraduates (96 men). Distinctive patterns of correlations for psychopathy components did not differ significantly across gender, although relations between Meanness and Agreeableness were stronger for men than for women. Our findings are largely consistent with the conceptualization of psychopathy in terms of FFM constructs and provide discriminant evidence in support of all 3 triarchic domains. Thus, meanness is marked by low Agreeableness and some degree of low Conscientiousness, whereas disinhibition is characterized both by low Conscientiousness and low Agreeableness along with high Neuroticism and Extraversion. Notably, the constellation of low Neuroticism, high Extraversion, and high Openness, with facets of low Agreeableness, supports the idea that boldness encompasses some adaptive features of psychological adjustment while depicting the interpersonal features of psychopathy. 2014 APA

  10. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  11. Open Brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To commence the thirtieth annual conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ, held on Australia’s Gold Coast in July 2013, ten delegates were invited with very little warning to take five minutes and one image to offer a provocation on the open matters of architectural history in the present moment. The term “open” was taken as the conference theme—a device used by SAHANZ meetings not so much to define the scope of papers presented as to declare the conference flavour year by year. It was not, therefore, an open conference (anything goes so much as a conference on open issues (where, indeed, to go.  The ten interlocutors were invited after the conference to document their interventions and they are presented here as a record of the preoccupations of a specific moment and institutional geography with all the idiosyncrasies and commonalities it might reveal to a broader audience.

  12. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  13. Alcohol expectancies mediate and moderate the associations between Big Five personality traits and adolescent alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ignacio Ibáñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediation and moderation effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the Five-Factor Model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies, alcohol use during the week and at the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive alcohol expectancies mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and alcohol expectancies to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  14. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  15. The Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Open darkness and light, remembrance and oblivion, coming into existence and disappearing in death play their originary co-belonging, or co-figuration. Existence belongs to this opening and is exposed to its coming to presence: it is on the basis of this originary opening, this originary historical which is revealed to this mortal being called ‘man,’ on the basis of this revelation, man founds something like politics and history. There thus comes into existence out of this freedom, out of this “play space”2, this field called ‘polis’3 where there takes place war and festival, where historical revolutions tear apart history, brings ruptures and discontinuities in the very mode of his existence, where man seeks the foundation of his own foundation (which is his metaphysical task , where occurs the dialectics of negativity between man and man, where man puts at stake his own death, his own dissolution, and by the power of his own dissolution stands in relation to the total world that he seeks to dominate. This means that man’s attempts to metaphysically found his own political and historical existence must presuppose a far more originary non-foundation, the differentiating revealing of the open, the ungrounded spacing play, or playing space of natality and mortality.

  16. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    by small, new, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as the linkage of individual actions and motivations to open innovation. Other opportunities include better measuring the costs, benefits, antecedents, mediators and moderators of the effects of OI on performance, and understanding why and how OI...

  17. Agreeableness scale- short version: item selection and psychometric properties / Escala fatorial de socialização- versão reduzida: seleção de itens e propriedades psicométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiana Farias Oliveira Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at selecting items from the Agreeableness Factor Scale for obtaining a short version of this test that could keep adequate psychometric properties. One thousand one hundred participants composed the sample. Items were selected using a qualitative strategy, which focused on item content that was not related to clinical descriptions and a quantitative analysis based on Rasch's model. The scale was reduced from 70 to 28 items, based on these criteria. In order to check the psychometric properties of the short version, both versions were compared by Rasch indices and by reanalyzing validity studies conducted with the original scale. The short version kept good psychometric properties, which suggests the possibility of using it when there is time restriction.

  18. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  19. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  20. OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Präsentationsfolien zum Vortrag „OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data“ in der Session „Ausgestaltung eines wissenschaftsadäquaten APC-Marktes: Grundsätze, Finanzierungsansätze und Management“ der Open-Access-Tage 2015 in Zürich (https://www.open-access.net/community/open-access-tage/open-access-tage-2015-zuerich/programm/#c1974)

  1. Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

    2015-02-01

    Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Open Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Museums around the world hold enormous troves of public domain artworks. In digitized form, they can be powerful tools for research and learning, as well as building blocks, in the hands of students, teachers, scholars, developers, and creative people. By opening up their digitized assets for reuse......, museums have a unique opportunity to broaden the scope of their public mission to serve and educate the public on 21st century media terms. What could be controversial about that? Art museums have a long legacy of restricting access to high quality images of artworks in order to protect them from improper...

  3. Open University

    CERN Document Server

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  4. Personality factors and attitudes toward euthanasia in Iran: implications for end-of-life research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Naser; Wasserman, Jason Adam; Hatami, Javad

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship of personality and euthanasia attitudes. Results from a survey of 165 Iranian students showed that religiosity, honesty-humility, agreeableness, and extraversion were related to negative attitudes toward euthanasia, whereas openness was related to acceptance of euthanasia, with the unconventionality facet driving this relationship. Moreover, openness explained additional variance when added to a multivariate model containing religiosity and HEXACO factors. This study illustrates the possibility of accounting for variation beyond the traditional group level predictors of attitudes toward euthanasia and promoting future cross-cultural studies into personality and end-of-life issues and informing end-of-life conversations at the bedside.

  5. Relationships of Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence at high school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.

  6. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  7. An investigation on the effects of personal characteristics on creativity and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Memarzadeh Tehran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of big Five factors including openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism on creativity and innovation among selected employees of municipality in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses a standard questionnaire developed by Costa and McCrae (1980 [Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1980. Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(4, 668.] to measure the effects of five personality characteristics. In addition, the study has adopted a questionnaire developed by Torrents et al. (2010 [Torrents, C., Castaner, M., DINUŠOVÁ, M., & Anguera, M. T. (2010. Discovering new ways of moving: Observational analysis of motor creativity while dancing contact improvisation and the influence of the partner. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 44(1, 53-69.] for measuring creativity. Using a simple regression analysis, the study has detected negative and meaningful relationship between neuroticism and creativity and innovation (β = -0.229, t-value = -3.196, a positive and meaningful relationship between extraversion and creativity and innovation (β = 0.209, t-value = 3.204 and finally a positive and meaningful relationship between openness and creativity and innovation (β = 0.225, t-value = 3.717. However, the study did not confirm any relationship between agreeableness as well as conscientiousness and creativity & innovation.

  8. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Buczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors—including genetics, personality, and environment—affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers’ scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers’ activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers’ dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism and compliance (a component of agreeableness. The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals’ needs.

  9. Incremental prediction and moderating role of the perceived emotional intelligence over aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on aggression dimensions (Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Hostility, and Anger) above and beyond the effects of gender, age, and personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience), as well as the moderating role of PEI on the relationship between personality and aggressive behavior, among young adults. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Big-Five Inventory, and the Aggression Questionnaire were administered to a 313 Spanish community sample, comprised of both males (39.0%) and females (61.0%), ranging from 14 to 69 years old (X = 24.74; SD = 9.27). Controlling the effects of age, gender, and personality, PEI dimensions (Attention, Clarity and Repair) accounted for 3% of the variance (p personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and the aggression dimensions. Particularly, the interaction between Attention and Extraversion and between Clarity and Neuroticism were significant predictors of Total Aggression (b = .67, t(313) = 2.35, p personality-aggression relationship.

  10. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A.; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors—including genetics, personality, and environment—affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers’ scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers’ activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers’ dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals’ needs. PMID:28134805

  11. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  12. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  13. Gallbladder removal - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystectomy - open; Surgery - gallbladder - open ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic cholecystectomy ). Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  14. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  15. Relationship between hypnosis and personality trait in participants with high or low hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Yunke; Shen, Chanchan; Ye, Yingying; Shen, Si; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between normal personality and hypnotic susceptibility is important for understanding mental processing and mental disorders, but it is less consistent in normal people or in patients with a psychiatric disorder. We have hypothesized that the correlation exists but varies in individuals with different levels of hypnotizability. We invited 72 individuals with high (HIGH group) and 47 individuals with low (LOW group) hypnotic susceptibilities to undertake tests of NEO-PI-R and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSSC). The HIGH group scored significantly higher than the LOW group did on openness to experience and its facet openness to feelings. In the LOW group, SHSSC total was positively predicted by openness to ideas; age regression was positively predicted by openness to experience and negatively predicted by extraversion; anosmia to ammonia was negatively predicted by agreeableness; and negative visual hallucination was positively predicted by openness to experience. In the HIGH group, hallucinated voice was positively predicted by openness to experience and negatively predicted by agreeableness, and posthypnotic amnesia was positively predicted by extraversion and negatively predicted by openness to experience. The associations between normal personality traits and hypnotic susceptibility items were weak and different in the two groups, which imply that managing mental or somatoform disorders might be through adjusting hypnotizability and mobilizing personality functions.

  16. Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Whiteman, Shawn D; Hampson, Sarah E; Roberts, Brent W; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-06-01

    Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25-74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors.

  17. Construção e validação de uma escala de extroversão no modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade Development and validation of an extraversion scale in the Big Five Personality model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou a construção e validação de construto de uma escala para a mensuração de extroversão no modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade. Nesse modelo, extroversão engloba traços que descrevem nível de comunicação, assertividade, gregariedade, busca por diversão, ente outros. A validade de construto da Escala Fatorial de Extroversão (EFE contou com uma amostra de 1.084 pessoas de cinco estados brasileiros, de ambos os sexos, com nível de escolarização médio ou superior. Foram realizadas análises fatoriais para a verificação da dimensionalidade da EFE, sendo a solução de quatro fatores considerada a mais adequada. Os fatores extraídos foram denominados comunicação, altivez, assertividade e interações sociais, com alfas de Cronbach de 0,90; 0,78; 0,78 e 0,83, respectivamente. A escala geral apresentou uma consistência interna de 0,91.The present study was designed to develop and obtain construct validity for a scale to measure extraversion in the Big Five model. In this model, extraversion is comprised by traits that describe level of communication, assertivity, gregariousness, search for pleasure, among others. The participants in the construct validity study of the Extraversion Factorial Scale (EFE were 1.084 individuals, from five states in Brazil, of both sexes, with high school or university level of education. Factor analyses were conducted to determine the EFE dimensions. A 4-factor solution was found to be more adequate. The factors found were named Communication, Pride, Assertiveness, and Social Interaction. Cronbach's alphas were .90, .78, .78, and .83 respectively. The general scale presented internal consistency level of .91.

  18. Open life science research, open software and the open century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youhua Chen

    2015-01-01

    At the age of knowledge explosion and mass scientific information, I highlighted the importance of conducting open science in life and medical researches through the extensive usage of open software and documents. The proposal of conducting open science is to reduce the limited repeatability of researches in life science. I outlined the essential steps for conducting open life science and the necessary standards for creating, reusing and reproducing open materials. Different Creative Commons licenses were presented and compared of their usage scope and restriction. As a conclusion, I argued that open materials should be widely adopted in doing life and medical researches.

  19. The Role of Personality Traits in Young Adult Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Thompson, Laura M.; Knight, Rachel L.; Flett, Jayde A. M.; Richardson, Aimee C.; Brookie, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    This project investigated how individual differences in the big-five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) predicted plant-food consumption in young adults. A total of 1073 participants from two samples of young adults aged 17–25 reported their daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and two unhealthy foods for comparison purposes using an Internet daily diary for 21 or 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Participants also completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measure of personality, and demographic covariates including gender, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Analyses used hierarchical regression to predict average daily fruit and vegetable consumption as separate dependent variables from the demographic covariates (step 1) and the five personality traits (step 2). Results showed that young adults higher in openness and extraversion, and to some extent conscientiousness, ate more fruits and vegetables than their less open, less extraverted, and less conscientious peers. Neuroticism and agreeableness were unrelated to fruit and vegetable consumption. These associations were unique to eating fruit and vegetables and mostly did not extend to unhealthy foods tested. Young adult women also ate more fruit and vegetables than young adult men. Results suggest that traits associated with greater intellect, curiosity, and social engagement (openness and extraversion), and to a lesser extent, discipline (conscientiousness) are associated with greater plant-food consumption in this population. Findings reinforce the importance of personality in establishing healthy dietary habits in young adulthood that could translate into better health outcomes later in life. PMID:28223952

  20. Open life science research, open software and the open century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youhua Chen

    2015-01-01

    At the age of knowledge explosion and mass scientific information, I highlighted the importance of conducting open science in life and medical researches through the extensive usage of open software and documents...

  1. Big five personality and adolescent Internet addiction: The mediating role of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yueyue; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA. Mediation analyses further indicated that conscientiousness had an indirect impact on adolescent IA through decreased emotion-focused coping, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience had indirect impacts on adolescent IA through increased emotion-focused coping. In contrast, problem-focused coping had no mediating role. These findings suggest that emotion-focused coping may, in part, account for the association between big five personality and adolescent IA.

  2. Personality and body image: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E

    2016-12-01

    This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion. Agreeableness was not related to body image, and findings for Conscientiousness and Openness were indeterminate. After taking study quality into account, negative body image was also associated with lower levels of Conscientiousness. Neuroticism was associated with negative body image in both women and men. Sex moderation effects for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness were indeterminate. Large-sample, prospective studies of personality and body image are recommended.

  3. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  4. Development and validation of an Agreeableness scale in the Big Five personality model / Construção e validação da escala fatorial de Socialização no modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to develop and assess construct validity of an Agreeableness scale (Escala Fatorial de Socialização – EFS in the Big Five model. In this model, Agreeableness is comprised by traits that describe altruism, straightforwardness, trust in people, as well as coldness, antisocial behaviors, among others. The participants were 1.100 individuals, from five States in Brazil, of both sexes, with high school or university level of education. Factor analyses were conducted to determine the EFS dimensions. A 3-factor solution was found to be more adequate. The factors found were named: Cordiality, Pro-sociability, and Trust in people. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas for the factors were .91, .84, and .80 respectively, and .92 for the general scale.

  5. Interaction Effects between Openness and Fluid Intelligence Predicting Scholastic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Figural reasoning as an indicator of fluid intelligence and the domains of the Five Factor Model were explored as predictors of scholastic performance. A total of 836 Chinese secondary school students (406 girls from grades 7 to 11 participated. Figural reasoning, as measured by Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices, predicted performance in Math, Chinese, and English, and also for a composite score. Among the personality domains, Openness had a positive effect on performance for all subjects after controlling for all the other variables. For Conscientiousness, the effects were smaller and only significant for Math. Neuroticism had a negative effect on Math grades. The effects of Extraversion on all grades were very small and not significant. Most importantly, hierarchical latent regression analyses indicated that all interaction effects between Openness and figural reasoning were significant, revealing a compensatory interaction. Our results further suggest that scholastic performance basically relies on the same traits through the secondary school years. However, importance is given to interaction effects between ability and personality. Implications along with limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. How personality traits affect clinician-supervisors' work engagement and subsequently their teaching performance in residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Renée A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2016-11-01

    Clinician-supervisors often work simultaneously as doctors and teachers. Supervisors who are more engaged for their teacher work are evaluated as better supervisors. Work engagement is affected by the work environment, yet the role of supervisors' personality traits is unclear. This study examined (i) the impact of supervisors' personality traits on work engagement in their doctors' and teachers' roles and (ii) how work engagement in both roles affects their teaching performance. Residents evaluated supervisors' teaching performance, using the validated System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities. Supervisors' reported work engagement in doctor and teacher roles separately using the validated Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Supervisors' personality traits were measured using the Big Five Inventory's five factor model covering conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, emotional stability and openness. Overall, 549 (68%) residents and 636 (78%) supervisors participated. Conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness were positively associated with supervisors' engagement in their teacher work, which was subsequently positively associated with teaching performance. Conscientious, extraverted, and agreeable supervisors showed more engagement with their teacher work, which made them more likely to deliver adequate residency training. In addition to optimizing the work environment, faculty development and career planning could be tailor-made to fit supervisors' personality traits.

  7. The Interface between Iranian EFL Instructors' Personality and their Self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, teachers' self-efficacy has demonstrated a profound influence on the daily lives of teachers and their students. However, little is known about the relationship between teachers' personality traits and their self-efficacy. To gain more insight into this area, this study sought to explore the interface between 100 male and female EFL instructors' personality and their self-efficacy at 11 English language institutes in Bandar Abbas, Iran. In order to glean data, two instruments were applied: the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFIR, and Second Language Teaching Efficacy Scale (SLTES. Moreover, to see whether there was a significant relationship between the variables under study, Spearman Rank Order Correlation was applied to analyze the data. At the end, the results revealed a significant relationship between EFL instructors' personality and their self-efficacy. In addition, it is concluded that there is a meaningful and positive relationship between Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and the traits of self-efficacy; nevertheless, the relationship between Neuroticism and each trait of self-efficacy turns out to be negative. Moreover, the results revealed that Agreeableness is the best predictor for student engagement, extraversion is the most important predictor for instructional strategies and classroom management, and the best predictors of self-efficacy are classroom management for extraversion and student engagement for agreeableness.

  8. The Role of Interpersonal Traits in Social Decision Making: Exploring Sources of Behavioral Heterogeneity in Economic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-08-01

    Economic games are well-established experimental paradigms for modeling social decision making. A large body of literature has pointed to the heterogeneity of behavior within many of these games, which might be partly explained by broad interpersonal trait dispositions. Using the Big Five and HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience) personality frameworks, we review the role of personality in two main classes of economic games: social dilemmas and bargaining games. This reveals an emerging role for Big Five agreeableness in promoting cooperative, egalitarian, and altruistic behaviors across several games, consistent with its core characteristic of maintaining harmonious interpersonal relations. The role for extraversion is less clear, which may reflect the divergent effects of its underlying agentic and affiliative motivational components. In addition, HEXACO honesty-humility and agreeableness may capture distinct aspects of prosocial behavior outside the bounds of the Five-Factor Model. Important considerations and directions for future studies are discussed within the emerging personality-economics interface. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Personality and Alcohol Consumption: Pooled Analysis of 72,949 Adults from Eight Cohort Studies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Batty, G. David; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of personality as a determinant of alcohol consumption has long been debated, but prospective evidence is scarce. Methods We performed individual participant meta-analysis to examine the association between the Five-Factor Model personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience) and alcohol consumption using data from eight cohort studies sampled from the USA, UK, Germany, and Australia (total n=72,949; mean age=50 years, 54 % female). Alcohol consumption was categorized into abstinence, moderate consumption, and heavy consumption. Results After adjustment for age, sex, and race, higher extraversion (odds ratio for 1 standard deviation’s increase in the score; 95% confidence interval: 1.14; 1.01–1.29) and lower conscientiousness (0.89; 0.79–1.00) were associated with increased risk of transitioning from moderate to heavy alcohol consumption over time, and also with heavy alcohol consumption. Lower extraversion (0.91; 0.85–0.98), higher agreeableness (1.09; 1.02–1.15), and lower openness (0.90; 0.86–0.95) were associated with increased odds of transitioning from moderate consumption to abstinence as well as with alcohol abstinence. Conclusion Findings from this individual-participant meta-analysis suggest that high and increasing alcohol consumption is more common among extraverts and those low on conscientiousness whereas high agreeableness and low openness to experience may increase odds of reducing alcohol consumption and preferring abstinence. PMID:25823906

  10. Research on Structural Relationship Between Career Adaptability and the Big Five of University Graduates%高校毕业生生涯适应力与大五人格结构关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽璐; 陈熙

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study on the personality traits relationship between the Big Five and career re-silience of 437 university graduates,we found that there is significant positive correlation between the openness to experience,agreeableness and career flexibility of university graduates,and their career flexibility is positively correlated with conscientiousness,but it is negatively related with extraversion. The extraversion,openness to experience,agreeableness and conscientiousness are powerful predictors of career adaptability and stability.The relationships between career flexibility and openness to experi-ence,agreeableness and conscientiousness are agreeableness with conclusions of foreign research, while the relationships between neuroticism and extroversion are different with conclusions of foreign research.%通过对437名高校毕业生生涯适应力和大五人格特质关系进行研究,发现:高校毕业生生涯适应力与开放性、宜人性存在显著正相关,与严谨性存在正相关,与外倾性存在负相关。外倾性、开放性、宜人性和严谨性是生涯适应力稳定有力的预测指标,生涯适应力和开放性、严谨性、宜人性的关系与国外研究结论一致,而和外倾性、神经质的结论则与国外研究结论有差异。

  11. Neural Signatures of Trust During Human-Automation Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    connectivity changes following explicit-memory training for face-name pairs in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Neurorehabil Neural...Descriptions Human: Mr. Steve Williams Mr. Steve Williams (Human) is a trained luggage screener, with extensive knowledge in identifying illegal imports... Extraversion 41.92 ± 3.37 40.42 ± 3.26 t = 1.11, p = .280 Openness 37.75 ± 3.60 36.92 ± 4.72 t = 0.49, p = .631 Agreeableness 38.67 ± 4.05 41.00

  12. A Meta-analytic for the Relationship between Personality Traits and Marital Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Nabeel Mouhammad Khalili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini menyajikan meta-analisis terkait hubungan antara tipe kepribadian berdasar five factors model (FFM dan penyesuaian pernikahan. Studi ini mereview 17 kajian yang terdiri dari 12 artikel, 2 tesis, dan 3 disertasi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan hubungan yang lemah antara tipe kepribadian dan penyesuaian pernikahan. Koefisien korelasi berkisar antara 0,0006 hingga 0,099 pada tiap faktor kepribadian (-0.005 pada neuroticism, 0,021 pada extraversion, 0,0006 pada openness, 0,099 pada agreeableness, dan 0,045 pada conscientiousness.

  13. Data from ‘Cohort Differences in Big Five Personality Factors Over a Period of 25 Years’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris A. M. Smits

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This data set comprises of scores of 8,954 psychology freshmen from the University of Amsterdam (1982-2007 on the ‘Vijf PersoonlijkheidsFactoren Test’ or 5PFT developed by Elshout and Akkerman, which is an instrument to measure the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Data were collected during the yearly freshmen-testing program from 1982-2007 and include scores at the level of 70 items that can be used in studies of psychometrics and the nature of personality.

  14. Data from "Cohort differences in big five personality factors over a period of 25 years"

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Iris A. M.; Conor V Dolan; Harrie C. Vorst; Jelte M Wicherts; Timmerman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This data set comprises of scores of 8,954 psychology freshmen from the University of Amsterdam (1982-2007) on the ‘Vijf PersoonlijkheidsFactoren Test’ or 5PFT developed by Elshout and Akkerman, which is an instrument to measure the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Data were collected during the yearly freshmen-testing program from 1982-2007 and include scores at the level of 70 items that can be used in stud...

  15. Happy Twitter tweets are more likely in American states with lower levels of resident neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2014-06-01

    Relations between Big Five personality scores aggregated at the American state level and the happiness of Twitter tweet content emanating from each of the 50 American states were explored with the 50 states as the units of analysis. Tweet happiness correlated negatively with Neuroticism, and the relation remained when partial correlation and multiple regression adjusted and controlled for state socioeconomic status, white population percent, and urban population percent. In contrast, state levels of Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness showed no relation to state levels of the happiness of tweet content.

  16. Personality and Coping in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise V. Contreras-Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the personality traits and the copingstyles used by 99 college students, and observe if this variable are related.The NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI], and the Coping StrategiesQuestionnaire [CAE] was used. The results confirm that Neuroticism isrelated with passive and emotion focused coping strategies (maladaptivecopings whereas, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness arerelated with rational and active focused coping. Openness to Experienceit was not associate with no one coping strategies. The findings provideevidence for the understanding of individual’s differences about how theyoung people cope the several environment requests.

  17. Examination of the relations of the Myers-Briggs type indicator and the NEO-4 Personality Inventory in a Polish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkosz, Waldemar; Iskra, Justyna

    2010-10-01

    The present study was designed to replicate McCrae and Costa's research findings on the relation of NEO-4 domains with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scales in a Polish sample of 300 psychology student volunteers (175 women, 125 men). Their mean age was 22.3 yr. (SD = 4.5). Correlations for scores on the MBTI scales with NEO-4 domains ranged from .72 to .02 for Extraversion, from -.60 to -.16 for Openness to experience, from -.56 to -.04 for Agreeableness, and from .55 to -.07 for Conscientiousness. Two domains assessed with the NEO-4 correspond to preferences measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

  18. Escala fatorial de socialização: versão reduzida: seleção de itens e propriedades psicométricas Agreeableness scale: short version: item selection and psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiana Farias Oliveira Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi selecionar itens da Escala Fatorial de Socialização (EFS para a obtenção de uma versão reduzida, que mantivesse propriedades psicométricas adequadas. Baseou-se em uma amostra de 1.100 sujeitos. Para a seleção de itens, realizou-se análise qualitativa, buscando aqueles sem conteúdo clínico explícito e uma análise quantitativa, pelo modelo de Rasch. Tais critérios permitiram reduzir a EFS de 70 para 28 itens. As características psicométricas da versão reduzida foram verificadas pela comparação entre versões por Rasch e pela reanálise dos dados de estudos de validade realizados com a EFS. A versão reduzida manteve características psicométricas adequadas, o que sugere a possibilidade de utilização dessa versão da EFS em situações de avaliação com tempo restrito.This study aimed at selecting items from the Agreeableness Factor Scale for obtaining a short version of this test that could keep adequate psychometric properties. One thousand one hundred participants composed the sample. Items were selected using a qualitative strategy, which focused on item content that was not related to clinical descriptions and a quantitative analysis based on Rasch's model. The scale was reduced from 70 to 28 items, based on these criteria. In order to check the psychometric properties of the short version, both versions were compared by Rasch indices and by reanalyzing validity studies conducted with the original scale. The short version kept good psychometric properties, which suggests the possibility of using it when there is time restriction.

  19. Sandia OpenSHMEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-15

    Sandia OpenSHMEM is an implementation of the OpenSHMEM Standard over the Portals 4 Networking API and the OpenFabrics Interface (OFI). Sandia OpenSHMEM is designed to be a low-overhead implementation of the OpenSHMEM standard which takes advantage of the many features of the Portals 4 specification.

  20. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  1. Personality traits of British hospice volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Claxton-Oldfield, Jane; Paulovic, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In total, 120 British female hospice volunteers completed the NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) of Costa Jr and McCrae. The NEO-FFI measures the so-called big 5 personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Compared to both American NEO-FFI norms for adult females and emerging British NEO-FFI norms for adult females, the hospice volunteers scored significantly lower, on average, in neuroticism and significantly higher, on average, in agreeableness and conscientiousness. No significant differences were found on any of the 5 traits between the British female hospice volunteers' scores and the NEO-FFI scores previously collected from a sample of Canadian female hospice palliative care volunteers. Implications for the recruitment of British hospice volunteers are discussed.

  2. Understanding organizational commitment: A meta-analytic examination of the roles of the five-factor model of personality and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daejeong; Oh, In-Sue; Colbert, Amy E

    2015-09-01

    We examined the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and three forms of organizational commitment (affective, normative, and continuance commitment) and their variability across individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Meta-analytic results based on 55 independent samples from 50 studies (N = 18,262) revealed that (a) all FFM traits had positive relationships with affective commitment; (b) all FFM traits had positive relationships with normative commitment; and (c) Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience had negative relationships with continuance commitment. In particular, Agreeableness was found to be the trait most strongly related to both affective and normative commitment. The results also showed that Agreeableness had stronger relationships with affective and normative commitment in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures. We provide theoretical and practical implications of these findings for personality, job attitudes, and employee selection and retention.

  3. The relations between parents' Big Five personality factors and parenting: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Deković, Maja; Reijntjes, Albert H A; Belsky, Jay

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the association between Big Five personality factors and three dimensions of parenting-warmth, behavioral control, and autonomy support-the authors conducted meta-analyses using 5,853 parent-child dyads that were included in 30 studies. Effect sizes were significant and robust across mother and father reports and across assessment methods of parenting (self-report versus observations) but were generally small in magnitude. Higher levels of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness and lower levels of Neuroticism were related to more warmth and behavioral control, whereas higher levels of Agreeableness and lower levels of Neuroticism were related to more autonomy support. Several factors moderated the relationship between specific personality dimensions and parenting: child and parental age, reliability of observational assessment of parenting behavior, and study design. Taken together, these results indicate that personality can be seen as an inner resource that affects parenting.

  4. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - open ... lung machine is used in most cases during open heart surgery. While the surgeon works on the ... with these procedures, the surgeon may have to open the chest to do the surgery.

  5. Openness to Experience and Intellect Differentially Predict Creative Achievement in the Arts and Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Quilty, Lena C; Grazioplene, Rachael G; Hirsh, Jacob B; Gray, Jeremy R; Peterson, Jordan B; DeYoung, Colin G

    2016-04-01

    The Big Five personality dimension Openness/Intellect is the trait most closely associated with creativity and creative achievement. Little is known, however, regarding the discriminant validity of its two aspects-Openness to Experience (reflecting cognitive engagement with perception, fantasy, aesthetics, and emotions) and Intellect (reflecting cognitive engagement with abstract and semantic information, primarily through reasoning)-in relation to creativity. In four demographically diverse samples totaling 1,035 participants, we investigated the independent predictive validity of Openness and Intellect by assessing the relations among cognitive ability, divergent thinking, personality, and creative achievement across the arts and sciences. We confirmed the hypothesis that whereas Openness predicts creative achievement in the arts, Intellect predicts creative achievement in the sciences. Inclusion of performance measures of general cognitive ability and divergent thinking indicated that the relation of Intellect to scientific creativity may be due at least in part to these abilities. Lastly, we found that Extraversion additionally predicted creative achievement in the arts, independently of Openness. Results are discussed in the context of dual-process theory.

  6. Apraxia of lid opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebasingh Y

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apraxia of lid opening is a condition where patients do not have ptosis but have difficulty in overcoming levator palpebrae inhibition. We report a patient who presented with difficulty in opening eyelids with out diurnal variation, ptosis or blepharospasm. The diagnosis of Apraxia of lid opening is confirmed by electro physiology. The possibility of apraxia of lid opening should be considered in patients who present with difficulty in opening eyes. Various causes of Apraxia of lid opening are discussed.

  7. Brain correlates of pro-social personality traits: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho,Joana; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Miguel; Soares, José Miguel; Gonçalves, Óscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Of the five personality dimensions described by the Big Five Personality Model (Costa and McCrae 1992), Extraversion and Agreeableness are the traits most commonly associated with a pro-social orientation. In this study we tested whether a pro-social orientation, as expressed in terms of Extraversion and Agreeableness, is associated with a specific grey matter phenotype. Fifty-two healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-...

  8. Personality as a predictor of the value of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Derek R

    2003-09-01

    The opportunity for workers to provide input, also known as voice, has received extensive study. The contrasting relational and instrumental theories of voice have stimulated research investigating why people value voice. However, researchers have yet to assess individual differences in the actual value that people place on voice. This consideration is particularly important because the effect of voice on perceived procedural fairness varies according to the value of voice. This laboratory study is an examination of the Big Five (extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, neuroticism, and conscientiousness; L. Goldberg, 1992) and core self-evaluations (neuroticism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control; T. Judge, E. Locke, & C. Durham, 1997) as predictors of the value of voice for 96 undergraduates. Although both the Big Five and core self-evaluations accounted for significant variance in the value of voice, only 2 individual components (extraversion and self-efficacy) significantly predicted the value of voice.

  9. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    within average population values. No significant differences were found between long-lived family members and their spouses.Discussion. Personality factors and more specifically low neuroticism and high extraversion may be important for achieving extreme old age. In addition, personality scores of family......Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...

  10. Beş Faktör Kişilik Özellikleri ve Öznel İyi Oluş = The Five Factor Personality Traits and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun DOĞAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relations between personality traits and subjective well-being. The number of the participants of the research was 234 (98 women/136 men. The age range of the study group was 18-61. The Oxford Happiness Scale-Short Form and the Big Five Personality Scale were used. Findings showed that there was a significantly negative relationship between neurotic personality trait and subjective well-being. Findings also revealed that there were positive relationships between subjective well-being and extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness. Besides, it was found that neurotic personality trait was a negative and extraversion was a positive predictor of subjective well-being.

  11. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Schmitt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short-term mating, especially with extra-pair mating. Neuroticism and openness were associated with short-term mating as well, but these links were less consistent across sex and nation. Nation-level links between personality and sexuality replicated within-region findings, such as the strong association between national extraversion and national sociosexuality. Discussion focuses on the origins of personality-sexuality links and their implications across nations.

  12. Gender differences in personality across the ten aspects of the Big Five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna J Weisberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates gender differences in personality traits, both at the level of the Big Five and at the sublevel of two aspects within each Big Five domain. Replicating previous findings, women reported higher Big Five Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism scores than men. However, more extensive gender differences were found at the level of the aspects, with significant gender differences appearing in both aspects of every Big Five trait. For Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, the gender differences were found to diverge at the aspect level, rendering them either small or undetectable at the Big Five level. These findings clarify the nature of gender differences in personality and highlight the utility of measuring personality at the aspect level.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : It is often argued that a blend of personality characteristics is necessary for people to be successful in their career. Educators, researchers, and psychologists have been constantly searching for parsimonious set of variables that predicts patterns of students’ behaviours and their relationship to academic achievement .so this study was done to find out the relationship between Big Five personality traits and academic achievement in an undergraduate medical students (n=150 .In this study All personality traits are positively and significantly predicted students overall grade except Extraversion. Of all traits Openness and Neuroticism were positively related to student’s academic achievement than agreeableness and conscientiousness and are more important predictors of overall grade of the students. Extraversion was positively related (r =.150 but not statistically significant. The present results provide evidence supporting the Relationship between Personality Traits and Academic Performance in medical students.

  14. Happiness is a personal(ity) thing: the genetics of personality and well-being in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Bates, Timothy C; Luciano, Michelle

    2008-03-01

    Subjective well-being is known to be related to personality traits. However, to date, nobody has examined whether personality and subjective well-being share a common genetic structure. We used a representative sample of 973 twin pairs to test the hypothesis that heritable differences in subjective well-being are entirely accounted for by the genetic architecture of the Five-Factor Model's personality domains. Results supported this model. Subjective well-being was accounted for by unique genetic influences from Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness, and by a common genetic factor that influenced all five personality domains in the directions of low Neuroticism and high Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These findings indicate that subjective well-being is linked to personality by common genes and that personality may form an "affective reserve" relevant to set-point maintenance and changes in set point over time.

  15. Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Heller, Daniel; Mount, Michael K

    2002-06-01

    This study reports results of a meta-analysis linking traits from the 5-factor model of personality to overall job satisfaction. Using the model as an organizing framework, 334 correlations from 163 independent samples were classified according to the model. The estimated true score correlations with job satisfaction were -.29 for Neuroticism, .25 for Extraversion, .02 for Openness to Experience, .17 for Agreeableness, and .26 for Conscientiousness. Results further indicated that only the relations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with job satisfaction generalized across studies. As a set, the Big Five traits had a multiple correlation of .41 with job satisfaction, indicating support for the validity of the dispositional source of job satisfaction when traits are organized according to the 5-factor model.

  16. Do gender and personality traits influence use of deal sites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature on impact of personality traits on technology adoption. But majority of these studies are never replicated and, therefore, it is hard to estimate how general are their findings. The focus of this paper is adoption of deal sites, and its aim to replicate...... in the Czech Republic a research of deal sites use originally conducted in Denmark. While in Denmark, agreeableness, neuroticism, and gender significantly influenced use of deal sites, in the Czech Republic, it was the remaining traits - extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience, and gender....... In both surveys, women used deal sites more than men. If usage is defined as at least one purchase within last six months, then only gender and extraversion are significant and conscientiousness is borderline significant....

  17. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Young Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110 in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Results: Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010 and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031. Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003 and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003. Conclusion: Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  18. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Young; Park, So Youn

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110) in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010) and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031). Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003) and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003). Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  19. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  20. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources

  1. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources

  2. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  3. Dimensions of Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    as a matter of engaging educational activities in sociocultural practices of a surrounding society. Openness is not only a matter of opening up the existing, but of developing new educational practices that interact with society. The paper outlines three pedagogical dimensions of openness: transparency...... practices. Openness as joint engagement in the world aims at establishing interdependent collaborative relationships between educational institutions and external practices. To achieve these dimensions of openness, educational activities need to change and move beyond the course as the main format...... for openness. With examples from a university case, the paper discusses how alternative pedagogical formats and educational technologies can support the three dimensions of openness....

  4. Open access and open source in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Matthew H

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific data are being generated and shared at ever-increasing rates. Two new mechanisms for doing this have developed: open access publishing and open source research. We discuss both, with recent examples, highlighting the differences between the two, and the strengths of both.

  5. Een boekje open over Open Source ERP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2009-01-01

    Er zijn vele ERP-systemen die met behulp van open source worden ontwikkeld. Organisaties die open source ERP willen implementeren staan voor twee strategische keuzes: hoe zit het met de continuïteit en wie gaat het systeem onderhouden?

  6. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  7. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  8. ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY TRAITS ACCORDING TO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayat ÇELEBİ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate the relations and differences between personality traits of teachers and some demographic variables. This research is designed in a descriptive survey model. The study group is composed of 407 teachers who are working in 22 public high schools from Ataşehir, Beşiktaş, Güngören and Ümraniye districts of Istanbul. Big Five Inventory, which is developed by Benet-Martinez and John (1998 and adapted to Turkish by Sümer and Sümer (2005, is used in order to assess the teacher personality traits. The scale of Alpha coefficient is, .699. As a result, teachers the highest average is in openness to experience and the lowest average is in neuroticism. Also it is found that significant differences exist between teachers’ personality traits and demographic variables. In accordance to this, significant differences are observed between gender variable and conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism. There are similar differences between marital status variable and openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness. The differences between branch variable and openness to experience, extraversion are also significant.

  9. Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Katherine A; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2011-11-01

    A large body of evidence, including longitudinal analyses of personality change, suggests that core personality traits are predominantly stable after age 30. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated changes in personality in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event. Intriguingly, double-blind controlled studies have shown that the classic hallucinogen psilocybin occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values. In the present report we assessed the effect of psilocybin on changes in the five broad domains of personality - Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Consistent with participant claims of hallucinogen-occasioned increases in aesthetic appreciation, imagination, and creativity, we found significant increases in Openness following a high-dose psilocybin session. In participants who had mystical experiences during their psilocybin session, Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than 1 year after the session. The findings suggest a specific role for psilocybin and mystical-type experiences in adult personality change.

  10. Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unjin Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. METHODS: We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. RESULTS: Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0 ± 9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0 ± 15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β=0.032, P<0.05. BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.026, P<0.05. Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β=-0.072, agreeableness β=0.068 and waist circumference (openness to experience: β=-0.202, agreeableness: β=0.227 (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention and treatment of

  11. Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Unjin; Kim, Han-Na; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0 ± 9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0 ± 15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β=0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β=-0.072, agreeableness β=0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β=-0.202, agreeableness: β=0.227) (P<0.05). Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention and treatment of abnormal BMI.

  12. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  13. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  14. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  15. Open Hardware Business Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the September issue of the Open Source Business Resource, Patrick McNamara, president of the Open Hardware Foundation, gave a comprehensive introduction to the concept of open hardware, including some insights about the potential benefits for both companies and users. In this article, we present the topic from a different perspective, providing a classification of market offers from companies that are making money with open hardware.

  16. Open Source Business Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This analyses the Open source movement. Open source development process and management is seen different from the classical point of view. This focuses on characteristics and software market tendencies for the main Open source initiatives. It also points out the labor market future evolution for the software developers.

  17. OpenFlow cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smiler S, Kingston

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for network protocol developers, SDN controller application developers, and academics who would like to understand and develop their own OpenFlow switch or OpenFlow controller in any programming language. With basic understanding of OpenFlow and its components, you will be able to follow the recipes in this book.

  18. Open Rotor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  19. Openness as infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbanks John

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry.

  20. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  1. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  2. OpenSubspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering and projected clustering are recent research areas for clustering in high dimensional spaces. As the field is rather young, there is a lack of comparative studies on the advantages and disadvantages of the different algorithms. Part of the underlying problem is the lack...... of available open source implementations that could be used by researchers to understand, compare, and extend subspace and projected clustering algorithms. In this paper, we discuss the requirements for open source evaluation software. We propose OpenSubspace, an open source framework that meets...... these requirements. OpenSubspace integrates state-of-the-art performance measures and visualization techniques to foster research in subspace and projected clustering....

  3. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  4. Open-ended education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Paaskesen, Rikke Berggreen

    2016-01-01

    THE ARTICLE DESCRIBES OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THE COMING TOGETHER OF OPEN-ENDED TECHNOLOGY, OPEN-ENDED PROJECTS, AND OPEN-ENDED INSTITUTIONS IN WAYS THAT FOSTER AND PROMOTE FUTURE EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP IN SOCIETY. THROUGH THE CASE OF THE CODING PIRATES FUTURE ISLAND......, THE ARTICLE DEMONSTRATES HOW OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION CAN BE PRACTICED TO FOSTER AND PROMOTE TECHNOLOGICAL IMAGINATION, ENTERPRISING, AND PARTICIPATION. THIS PRACTICE IS THEN DEVELOPED INTO A THEORETICAL MODEL FOR THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION AS A WAY OF AND FRAMEWORK FOR PRACTICING FUTURE EDUCATION FOR 21......ST CENTURY LEARNING WITH NEW TECHNOLOGIES. THE ARTICLE PRESENTS AN ANSWER TO THE CALL FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THOROUGHLY COLLABORATIVE, COMMUNICATIVE, CREATIVE, AND CRITICALLY REFLECTIVE THROUGH THE CASE AND THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION. IT OUTLINES THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS CALL...

  5. Open algebraic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  6. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review...... articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics...... such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc....

  7. Open-ended education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Paaskesen, Rikke Berggreen

    2016-01-01

    THE ARTICLE DESCRIBES OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THE COMING TOGETHER OF OPEN-ENDED TECHNOLOGY, OPEN-ENDED PROJECTS, AND OPEN-ENDED INSTITUTIONS IN WAYS THAT FOSTER AND PROMOTE FUTURE EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP IN SOCIETY. THROUGH THE CASE OF THE CODING PIRATES FUTURE ISLAND......, THE ARTICLE DEMONSTRATES HOW OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION CAN BE PRACTICED TO FOSTER AND PROMOTE TECHNOLOGICAL IMAGINATION, ENTERPRISING, AND PARTICIPATION. THIS PRACTICE IS THEN DEVELOPED INTO A THEORETICAL MODEL FOR THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION AS A WAY OF AND FRAMEWORK FOR PRACTICING FUTURE EDUCATION FOR 21......ST CENTURY LEARNING WITH NEW TECHNOLOGIES. THE ARTICLE PRESENTS AN ANSWER TO THE CALL FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THOROUGHLY COLLABORATIVE, COMMUNICATIVE, CREATIVE, AND CRITICALLY REFLECTIVE THROUGH THE CASE AND THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION. IT OUTLINES THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS CALL...

  8. Relations Between Extraversion and Satisfaction with Life:Chain Mediating Effect of Affect and Self-Esteem%大学生外倾性与生活满意度的关系:情绪和自尊的链式中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚; 王振宏; 马娟; 霍静萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relations among extraversion, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life in college students. Methods: 348 college students were investigated with Extraversion Scale of Neo-FFI-R, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results:① Correlation analysis showed that, extraversion, positive affect, self-esteem and satisfaction with life correlated significantly with each other, while extraversion, self-esteem and satisfaction with life negatively correlated with negative affect.② Structural equation modeling showed that, extraversion could exert effects on satisfaction with life directly, also through the mediating effect of self-esteem and the chain mediating effects of positive affect-self-esteem and negative affect-self-esteem. Conclusion: Extraversion could affect satisfaction with life, not only through the direct path, but also through the indirect path of mediation of self-esteem and mediational chains of affect and self-esteem.%目的:探讨大学生外倾性、积极情绪、消极情绪、自尊和生活满意度之间的关系.方法:采用简式大五人格量表的外倾性分量表、积极和消极情感量表、Rosenberg自尊量表和生活满意度量表对348名大学生进行调查.结果:①相关分析显示,外倾性、积极情绪、自尊和生活满意度两两显著正相关;外倾性、自尊和生活满意度与消极情绪显著负相关.②结构方程模型分析表明,外倾性不仅直接影响个体的生活满意度,而且还通过自尊的中介作用与积极情绪-自尊中介链和消极情绪-自尊中介链的中介作用对生活满意度产生间接效应.结论:外倾性既通过直接路径,也通过自尊的中介作用和情绪-自尊的链式中介作用等间接路径影响个体的生活满意度.

  9. The relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies in a corporate pharmaceutical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Storm

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were associated with Neuroticism, low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were associated with lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and higher personal accomplishment. Constructive coping strategies were associated with personal accomplishment. Opsomming Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om te bepaal of daar ’n verband tussen uitbranding, persoonlikheidstrekke en coping-strategieë bestaan. ’n Opnameontwerp is gebruik. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan uit 131 werknemers van ’n korporatiewe apteekgroep. Drie vraelyste is gebruik, naamlik die Maslach-Uitbrandingsvraelys, die NEO Personality Inventory Revised en die COPE. Aktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring en Konsensieusheid, terwyl passiewe coping-strategieë geassosieer is met Neurotisisme, lae Inskiklikheid en lae Konsensieusheid. Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring, Inskiklikheid en Konsensieusheid is geassosieer met lae emosionele uitputting, lae depersonalisasie en hoë persoonlike bereiking. Konstruktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met persoonlike bereiking.

  10. Person-environment transactions: personality traits moderate and mediate the effects of child sexual victimization on psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Pujol, David; Pereda, Noemí

    2013-05-01

    Personality, environmental adversity and psychopathology are related, and different models have been proposed to explain their interaction. The theory of person-environment transactions may elucidate the role of personality in these interactions beyond traditional conceptualizations. To our knowledge, hardly any studies have explored the relationships between the Five Factor Model, child sexual victimization and general psychopathology. We hypothesized (1) that neuroticism and conscientiousness will moderate the effect of sexual victimization on psychopathology and (2) that neuroticism will mediate the relationship between sexual victimization and psychopathology. Our findings partially support these hypotheses. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and sexual victimization have a direct effect on psychopathology, whereas extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness do not. With regard to interactive effects, conscientiousness, but not neuroticism, moderates the effect of sexual victimization on psychopathology, and neuroticism does mediate the aforementioned effect. No other interactions were found with regard to extraversion, agreeableness or openness to experience. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first global test of person-environment transactions with regard to psychopathology and sexual victimization within the framework of the Five Factor Model.

  11. The relationship between spiritual intelligence and personality traits among Jordanian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M; Shammout, Nizar A; Alkhazaleh, Ziad M; Al-Alwan, Ahmed F; Abu-Eita, Jawhara D

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the level of spiritual intelligence and its correlation with personality traits among a group of Jordanian undergraduate students. A purposive sample of 716 male and female students was chosen from different faculties at the Hashemite University. Two questionnaires on spiritual intelligence and personality traits were distributed to members of the sample during the academic year 2013-2014. Results illustrated a medium level of spiritual intelligence in students, and indicated a positive and statistically significant relationship between spiritual intelligence dimensions (critical existential thinking, personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion) and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), but no significant correlation between personal meaning production and transcendental awareness dimensions and neuroticism personality traits. Finally, regression analysis results indicate that critical existential thinking is the first predictor dimension of spiritual intelligence in terms of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In the light of the results of this study, many recommendations were written by the researchers.

  12. Personality Traits and Successful Aging: Findings From the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yousun; Martin, Peter; Siegler, Ilene C; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W

    2016-09-01

    The current study attempted to describe how personality traits of older adults are associated with components of successful aging (cognition, volunteering, activities of daily living, and subjective health). Three-hundred and six octogenarians and centenarians who participated in the third phase of the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the existence of two higher-order factors of the Big Five personality traits, and a two-factor model (alpha and beta) fit the data well. Also, blocked multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between personality traits and four components of successful aging. Results indicated that low scores on neuroticism and high scores on extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are significantly related to the components of successful aging. After controlling for demographic variables (age, gender, residential type, and race/ethnicity), alpha (i.e., emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) was associated with higher levels of cognition, higher likelihood of engaging in volunteer work, higher levels of activities of daily living, and higher levels of subjective health. Beta (i.e., extraversion and openness to experience) was also positively associated with cognition and engaging in volunteer work.

  13. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  14. Inter Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Personality Trait of Educator Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hudani Md Nawi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine inter relationship of emotional intelligence and personality trait (Conscientiousness, Openness to experiences, Extraversion, Agreeableness among school educator leaders in High Performance Schools (SBT. Two sets of questionnaire to measure emotional intelligence and personality trait were administered to 306 (89% subjects who were selected by stratified random sampling in 15 SBT schools in Malaysia. Data were analyzed through inferential statistics such as correlation. The finding by the bivariate analysis using the Pearson correlation method indicates that the personality trait such as Conscientiousness (r=.552, p<.05,Openness to experiences (r=.362, p<.05, Extraversion (r=.505, p<.05, Agreeableness (r=.193, p<.05 are positively and significant correlated with overall emotional intelligence among the schools educator leaders. The correlation values of the personality Conscientiousness trait (r=.552, p<.05 are higher than the correlation values of the rest of others personality traits and emotional intelligence. This finding suggests that personality Conscientiousness trait have stronger relationship with emotional intelligence compare to the others traits. On a practical note, the assessment of psychological construct in schools setting such as emotional intelligence and personality could possibly assist in enhancing the work performances in delivering huge benefits to the society especially in the educational contexts.

  15. The relationship between spiritual intelligence and personality traits among Jordanian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasneh AM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mahasneh,1 Nizar A Shammout,1 Ziad M Alkhazaleh,1 Ahmed F Al-Alwan,1 Jawhara D Abu-Eita2 1Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education Sciences, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan; 2Department of Curricula, Princess Alia College, Al-Balaq’a Applied University, Amman, Jordan Abstract: This study was aimed at identifying the level of spiritual intelligence and its correlation with personality traits among a group of Jordanian undergraduate students. A purposive sample of 716 male and female students was chosen from different faculties at the Hashemite University. Two questionnaires on spiritual intelligence and personality traits were distributed to members of the sample during the academic year 2013–2014. Results illustrated a medium level of spiritual intelligence in students, and indicated a positive and statistically significant relationship between spiritual intelligence dimensions (critical existential thinking, personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, but no significant correlation between personal meaning production and transcendental awareness dimensions and neuroticism personality traits. Finally, regression analysis results indicate that critical existential thinking is the first predictor dimension of spiritual intelligence in terms of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In the light of the results of this study, many recommendations were written by the researchers. Keywords: Spiritual intelligence, personality traits, Jordanian University students

  16. The Big Five default brain: functional evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Adriana; Soares, José Miguel; Coutinho, Joana; Sousa, Nuno; Gonçalves, Óscar F

    2014-11-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that different dimensions of human personality may be associated with specific structural neuroanatomic correlates. Identifying brain correlates of a situation-independent personality structure would require evidence of a stable default mode of brain functioning. In this study, we investigated the correlates of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness/Intellect, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy adults completed the NEO-Five Factor. The results showed that the Extraversion (E) and Agreeableness (A) were positively correlated with activity in the midline core of the DMN, whereas Neuroticism (N), Openness (O), and Conscientiousness (C) were correlated with the parietal cortex system. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with A and negatively with C. Regions of the parietal lobe were differentially associated with each personality dimension. The present study not only confirms previous functional correlates regarding the Big Five personality dimensions, but it also expands our knowledge showing the association between different personality dimensions and specific patterns of brain activation at rest.

  17. OpenSHS: Open Smart Home Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Alshammari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new hybrid, open-source, cross-platform 3D smart home simulator, OpenSHS, for dataset generation. OpenSHS offers an opportunity for researchers in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT and machine learning to test and evaluate their models. Following a hybrid approach, OpenSHS combines advantages from both interactive and model-based approaches. This approach reduces the time and efforts required to generate simulated smart home datasets. We have designed a replication algorithm for extending and expanding a dataset. A small sample dataset produced, by OpenSHS, can be extended without affecting the logical order of the events. The replication provides a solution for generating large representative smart home datasets. We have built an extensible library of smart devices that facilitates the simulation of current and future smart home environments. Our tool divides the dataset generation process into three distinct phases: first design: the researcher designs the initial virtual environment by building the home, importing smart devices and creating contexts; second, simulation: the participant simulates his/her context-specific events; and third, aggregation: the researcher applies the replication algorithm to generate the final dataset. We conducted a study to assess the ease of use of our tool on the System Usability Scale (SUS.

  18. Open Data and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederika Welle Donker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external benefits, including societal and economic benefits. The private sector also recognizes potential benefits of making their datasets available as open data. One such company is Liander, an energy network administrator in the Netherlands. Liander views open data as a contributing factor to energy conservation. However, to date there has been little research done into the actual effects of open data. This research has developed a monitoring framework to assess the effects of open data, and has applied the framework to Liander’s small-scale energy consumption dataset.

  19. Open port sampling interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, Gary J

    2017-04-25

    A system for sampling a sample material includes a probe which can have an outer probe housing with an open end. A liquid supply conduit within the housing has an outlet positioned to deliver liquid to the open end of the housing. The liquid supply conduit can be connectable to a liquid supply for delivering liquid at a first volumetric flow rate to the open end of the housing. A liquid exhaust conduit within the housing is provided for removing liquid from the open end of the housing. A liquid exhaust system can be provided for removing liquid from the liquid exhaust conduit at a second volumetric flow rate, the first volumetric flow rate exceeding the second volumetric flow rate, wherein liquid at the open end will receive sample, liquid containing sample material will be drawn into and through the liquid exhaust conduit, and liquid will overflow from the open end.

  20. Open-mindedness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Open-mindness1 is a much-valued2 quality of human being. We value such a quality, because it is good to society as a whole. Almost all the great men are marked with such a quality. It is the openness to things new and strange. Open-minded person is willing toconsider new opinions, new arguments and new way of doing things.

  1. Opening and Closing in Open Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Orrin E.

    In open information systems, such as in the case of human interchange with the self and the environment, input quantities have no upper limits. The human information utilization system, however, is psychologically and behaviorally unable to accept ever increasing loads of information. Because of this apparent fact, human information systems should…

  2. Visitors speak openly on the Open Day

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On Open Day, CERN was filled with visitors from around Europe—and beyond—who toured the LHC detector sites and visited a multitude of experimental halls and workshops across the Meyrin and Prevessin sites, the vast majority in buildings normally closed to the public.

  3. Gray and white matter correlates of the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privado, Jesús; Román, Francisco J; Saénz-Urturi, Carlota; Burgaleta, Miguel; Colom, Roberto

    2017-05-04

    Personality neuroscience defines the scientific study of the neurobiological basis of personality. This field assumes that individual differences in personality traits are related with structural and functional variations of the human brain. Gray and white matters are structural properties considered separately in previous research. Available findings in this regard are largely disparate. Here we analyze the relationships between gray matter (cortical thickness (CT), cortical surface area (CSA), and cortical volume) and integrity scores obtained after several white matter tracts connecting different brain regions, with individual differences in the personality traits comprised by the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience). These psychological and biological data were obtained from young healthy women. The main findings showed statistically significant associations between occipital CSA variations and extraversion, as well as between parietal CT variations and neuroticism. Regarding white matter integrity, openness showed positive correlations with tracts connecting posterior and anterior brain regions. Therefore, variations in discrete gray matter clusters were associated with temperamental traits (extraversion and neuroticism), whereas long-distance structural connections were related with the dimension of personality that has been associated with high-level cognitive processes (openness).

  4. Open3DQSAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Open3DQSAR is a freely available open-source program aimed at chemometric analysis of molecular interaction fields. MIFs can be imported from different sources (GRID, CoMFA/CoMSIA, quantum-mechanical electrostatic potential or electron density grids) or generated by Open3DQSAR itself. Much focus...... has been put on automation through the implementation of a scriptable interface, as well as on high computational performance achieved by algorithm parallelization. Flexibility and interoperability with existing molecular modeling software make Open3DQSAR a powerful tool in pharmacophore assessment...

  5. Open data for citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Morelli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    A large quantity of open data is now available to institutions, business and citizens. The potential of such new resource, though, has not been explored yet, also because of a lack of perspectives and scenarios on how open data can be used. The workshop aims at broadening the perspectives...... on the use of open data by investigating new scenarios for a wide use of open data, where citizens without any IT skills can be involved in a co-design session with the relevant stakeholders....

  6. Open data assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Roumen; Yoshinov, Radoslav; Jekov, Boyan; Pavlova, Galya

    2017-06-01

    The last decade together with rapidly developing of Information and Communication Technologies data and its variety of application fields gaining in popularity. Initially the data becomes Big. Everyday accumulation of so big amount of data and the possibility to analyze it contributes to the ease of modern life. The curiosity of the world enforces the Big Data to become Open and then to connect the available open data in linked. This article presents the Open data and their implication in different fields. Detailed is examined the quality of Open data as the methodology for its evaluation is presented.

  7. SEMI-OPENNESS AND ALMOST-OPENNESS OF INDUCED MAPPINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangXianjiu; ZengFanping; ZhangGengrong

    2005-01-01

    Given a mapping f between continua. Let 2f and C(f) mean the induced mappings between hyperspaces. Relations are studied under the conditions :f is semi-open (almost open, respectively), 2f is semi-open (almost open, respectively) and C(f) is semi-open (almost open, respectively).

  8. In Your Eyes Only? Discrepancies and Agreement Between Self- and Other-Reports of Personality From Age 14 to 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2017-02-16

    Do others perceive the personality changes that take place between the ages of 14 and 29 in a similar fashion as the aging person him- or herself? This cross-sectional study analyzed age trajectories in self- versus other-reported Big Five personality traits and in self-other agreement in a sample of more than 10,000 individuals from the myPersonality Project. Results for self-reported personality showed maturation effects (increases in extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability), and this pattern was generally also reflected in other-reports, albeit with discrepancies regarding timing and magnitude. Age differences found for extraversion were similar between the self- and other-reports, but the increase found in self-reported conscientiousness was delayed in other-reports, and the curvilinear increase found in self-reported openness was slightly steeper in other-reports. Only emotional stability showed a distinct mismatch with an increase in self-reports, but no significant age effect in other-reports. Both the self- and other-reports of agreeableness showed no significant age trends. The trait correlations between the self- and other-reports increased with age for emotional stability, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; by contrast, agreement regarding extraversion remained stable. The profile correlations confirmed increases in self-other agreement with age. We suggest that these gains in agreement are a further manifestation of maturation. Taken together, our analyses generally show commonalities but also some divergences in age-associated mean level changes between self- and other-reports of the Big Five, as well as an age trend toward increasing self-other agreement. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Pro OpenSSH

    CERN Document Server

    Stahnke, Michael

    2006-01-01

    SSH, acronym for Secure Socket Shell, is for users and administrators wishing to establish secure communication between disparate networks. 'Pro OpenSSH', authored by two Fortune 100 system administrators, provides readers with a highly practical reference for configuring and deploying OpenSSH in their own environment.

  10. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  11. Open Data and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle Donker, Frederika; Loenen, Van Bastiaan; Bregt, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external

  12. OpenJDK cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kasko, Alex; Mironchenko, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced Java developer using Java 7 platform and want to get your grips on OpenJDK for Java development, this is the book for you. JDK users who wish to migrate to OpenJDK will find this book very useful.

  13. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  14. Open Data and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle Donker, Frederika; Loenen, Van Bastiaan; Bregt, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external benefits

  15. Open G(2) strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; de Medeiros, P.; El-Showk, S.; Sinkovics, A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider an open string version of the topological twist previously proposed for sigma-models with G(2) target spaces. We determine the cohomology of open strings states and relate these to geometric deformations of calibrated submanifolds and to flat or anti-self-dual connections on such submani

  16. Bisimilarity of Open Terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Palamidessi, C.; Parrow, J.

    1997-01-01

    The standard way of lifting a binary relation, R, from closed terms of an algebra to open terms is to define its closed-instance extension, R_{ci}, which holds for a given pair of open terms if and only if R holds for all their closed instantiations. In this paper, we study alternatives for the case

  17. Creating Open Source Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  18. Open source community organization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Open Source communities (OSCs), sometimes referred to as virtual or online communities play a significant role in terms of the contribution they continue to make in producing user-friendly Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. Many projects have...

  19. Open Verlinde line operators

    CERN Document Server

    Gaiotto, Davide

    2014-01-01

    We reformulate the action of Verlinde line operators on conformal blocks in a 3d TFT language and extend it to line operators labelled by open paths joining punctures on the Riemann surface. We discuss the possible applications of open Verlinde line operators to quantum Teichm\\"uller theory, supersymmetric gauge theory and quantum groups

  20. All channels open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Alle kanalen staan open. The rapid changes taking place in the media landscape in the Netherlands - characterised by digitisation and convergence of media technologies - raise the question of how the Dutch are dealing with the many new opportunities that have opened up. All channels

  1. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  2. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  3. Open Access policy effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses the policy elements that are necessary for an effective open access policy, according to the findings of the analysis of the revamped ROARMAP tool for open access policies by PASTEUR4OA. It contains graphs, charts and numbers for evidence-based arguments

  4. Creating Open Source Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  5. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  6. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  7. The Genetic and Environmental Sources of Resemblance Between Normative Personality and Personality Disorder Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Aggen, S H; Gillespie, Nathan; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Krueger, R F; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Ystrom, Eivind; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2017-04-01

    Recent work has suggested a high level of congruence between normative personality, most typically represented by the "big five" factors, and abnormal personality traits. In 2,293 Norwegian adult twins ascertained from a population-based registry, the authors evaluated the degree of sharing of genetic and environmental influences on normative personality, assessed by the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and personality disorder traits (PDTs), assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Norwegian Brief Form (PID-5-NBF). For four of the five BFI dimensions, the strongest genetic correlation was observed with the expected PID-5-NBF dimension (e.g., neuroticism with negative affectivity [+], conscientiousness with disinhibition [-]). However, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness had substantial genetic correlations with other PID-5-NBF dimensions (e.g., neuroticism with compulsivity [+], agreeableness with detachment [-]). Openness had no substantial genetic correlations with any PID-5-NBF dimension. The proportion of genetic risk factors shared in aggregate between the BFI traits and the PID-5-NBF dimensions was quite high for conscientiousness and neuroticism, relatively robust for extraversion and agreeableness, but quite low for openness. Of the six PID-5-NBF dimensions, three (negative affectivity, detachment, and disinhibition) shared, in aggregate, most of their genetic risk factors with normative personality traits. Genetic factors underlying psychoticism, antagonism, and compulsivity were shared to a lesser extent, suggesting that they are influenced by etiological factors not well indexed by the BFI.

  8. Self-esteem instability and personality: the connections between feelings of self-worth and the big five dimensions of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Holden, Christopher J; Enjaian, Brian; Southard, Ashton C; Besser, Avi; Li, Haijiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-02-01

    Relatively few studies have focused on the connections between self-esteem and basic personality dimensions. The purpose of the present studies was to examine whether self-esteem level and self-esteem instability were associated with the Big Five personality dimensions and whether self-esteem instability moderated the associations that self-esteem level had with these personality features. This was accomplished by conducting a series of studies that included samples from the United States, Israel, and China. Across these studies, self-esteem level was associated with high levels of extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, whereas self-esteem instability was associated with low levels of emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the highest levels of emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, whereas those with stable low self-esteem had the lowest levels of openness. The results of these studies suggest that feelings of self-worth are associated with self-reported and perceived personality features.

  9. Personality profiles associated with different motivations for playing World of Warcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lindsay T; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-03-01

    Gamers play massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) for a variety of reasons. For example, some gamers play primarily as a form of socialization, whereas others play to gain a sense of achievement. Past studies have shown that these motives are associated with individual differences such as gender and number of years spent playing online games. What other individual differences might affect why people play MMORPGs? Personality is known to be associated with in-game behaviors, raising the possibility of link between personality and gaming motives. The present study examines the relationship between gamers' Big Five personality traits and their motivations for playing World of Warcraft. Results reveal several links between a player's personality and gaming motivations. For instance, individuals playing to socialize tend to be high on extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness, whereas individuals playing to gain a sense of achievement tend to be high on extraversion and neuroticism, but low on agreeableness and conscientiousness. Findings are discussed with respect to previous research on links between personality and motives in other MMORPGs and in terms of how and why the connections between personality and motives may differ across online and offline contexts.

  10. The relationship between personality and performance of football referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirooz Sayfollahpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After coaches and athletes, referees are the third side of sporting events. If the judgment is done properly, the result of competition will be determined according to skill and tactical superiority; otherwise, other environmental factors may affect the result of competition. Personality is one of the distinctive aspects of every individual’s life. Personality characteristics predispose an individual to perform various actions in specific situations. Football is one of the most stressful jobs and it seems personality is one the most important factors in Judgment method of referees. This study examines the relationship between extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and performance of referees. The research method used was correlation. All 61 premier League Soccer's Referees (the season 2012-2011 were selected as the study population. Due to the limitation of population, all subjects were considered as the sample. The NEO Personality Inventory (60 items and 5 scales was used. For collecting the data, researcher visited Tehran’s referees in their training location; questionnaire was sent via e-mail to the referees in other cities. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results showed that there was significant relationship between personality dimensions and judgment methods. There was a positive relationship between flexibility and judgment quality. Also, the present study showed there was not significant relationship between neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and judgment quality.

  11. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods.

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  13. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song E Kim

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950 were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  14. The Relationship between Happiness and NEO-FFI Personality Questionnaire Dimensions in High School Students of Mobarekeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Salesi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the relationship between NEO personality factors with happiness in the Mobarekeh city high school students. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, correlation design study, 120 students from first year to pre-university from high school (in base 30 from Mobarekeh city, were selected by combination of cluster and stratify sampling and responded to inventory of the Oxford happiness (α=0.91 and the NEO-FFI personality questionnaire (α=0.814T. Results: Data analysis by Pearson correlation coefficient indicated between the components of conscientious, agreeableness, extraversion, there is a positive correlation with happiness levels. These components, respectively, at 0.0001, 0.0001 and 0.001 were significant. Between neuroticism and openness there was not a correlation with happiness levels4T. Conclusion: The results indicate that by programming for education and thriving components of conscientious, agreeableness and extraversion we can increase happiness in this age group4T.4T

  15. Big Five Personality sebagai Prediktor Kreativitas dalam Meningkatkan Kinerja Angggota Dewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardani Widhiastuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of the Big Five Personality Factors, which consists of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness on the Creativity and its implications to the performance of City Council members of ‘S’ city within the period of 2009-2014. A total number of 36 legistators who were still active became the subjects of the research. Linear Regression Analysis of the two phases was used to analyze the collected data with SPSS 19. The results showed that for Extraversion, t valued 2,340 with sig. 0.026, for Agreeableness, t valued 2.760 with sig. 0,010 and for Conscientiousness, t valued 2,241 with sig. 0,033. Thus, all the three factors had significant and positive effect on creativity. In the two-stage regression test, the value of t was 2.431 with a sig. 0,020. In general, the Big Five Personality traits have made positive and significant effect on the creativity and performance of City Council members of the ‘S’ city. Keywords: Big Five Personality, creativity, performance, council

  16. Personality structure in Slovenian three-year-olds: The inventory of child individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the validity of the newly developed culturally- and age-decentered instrument (International Inventory of Individual Differences, ICID, an internationally designed measure of individual differences in children, aged 3 to 12 years, based on a child personality lexicon from parental free descriptions. Using the fifteen of the ICID mid-level scales, three hundred and fifty-two Slovenian three-years-old children were assessed independently by their mothers, fathers and preschool teachers. The preschool teachers also rated children's social adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale. Data on satisfactory internal reliability of the childhood personality scales, their congruence across multiple observers and occasions of observed behavior as well as evidence of differential links of these scales to other measures of individual differences (social competence and maladaptive behavior are reported. The factor structure of the ICID scales across the observers is also shown in comparison to the data collected in other countries. The composition of the mid-level scales into four broad-band personality dimensions (Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism appeared remarkably similar when the factor structures of mothers' and fathers' assessments of three-year-old children were compared, while the preschool teachers' perceived organization of the child personality was found somewhat less differentiated (represented by the combined Conscientiousness/Openness, Extraversion/Neuroticism, and Agreeableness dimensions in comparison to the parental one.

  17. Open innovation with an effective open innovation team.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanvoorden, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This master's thesis explores how open innovation teams can successfully support open innovation inside of an organisation. Open innovation is a paradigm introduced by Henry Chesbrough (2003) a decade ago. It expands the innovation potential of organisations by opening them up to new ways of working with external partners. To implement open innovation, many companies rely on a small group of managers named open innovation teams. Although open innovation teams can potentially be vital for impl...

  18. Demystifying Open Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mele, Salvatore (CERN)

    2007-05-30

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access which retains all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, brings the spiraling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  19. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  20. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  1. Open Media Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Moltke Martiny, Kristian; Pedersen, David Budtz; Hansted, Allan Alfred Birkegaard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present three challenges to the emerging Open Science (OS) movement: the challenge of communication, collaboration and cultivation of scientific research. We argue that to address these challenges OS needs to include other forms of data than what can be captured in a text...... and extend into a fully-fledged Open Media movement engaging with new media and non-traditional formats of science communication. We discuss two cases where experiments with open media have driven new collaborations between scientists and documentarists. We use the cases to illustrate different advantages...

  2. Open3DGRID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Description Open3DGRID is an open-source software aimed at high-throughput generation of molecular interaction fields (MIFs). Open3DGRID can generate steric potential, electron density and MM/QM electrostatic potential fields; furthermore, it can import GRIDKONT binary files produced by GRID and Co......, Solaris x86 32/64-bit, FreeBSD 32/64-bit, Intel Mac OS X 32/64-bit), source code is portable and can be compiled under any *NIX platform supporting POSIX threads. The modular nature of the code allows for easy implementation of new features, so that the core application can be customized to meet...

  3. Open Access Policy

    OpenAIRE

    University of East London, .

    2013-01-01

    The University of East London is committed to and supports open access to its research publications.\\ud There is a worldwide move towards free and unrestricted access to research publications, with benefits\\ud for researchers, universities and wider society. UEL supports this initiative and recognises the\\ud importance of open access in increasing the visibility and impact of research. This policy is aligned with\\ud and supports HEFCE’s Policy for Open Access in the Post‐2014 REF, and is alig...

  4. Open Media Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Moltke Martiny, Kristian; Pedersen, David Budtz; Hansted, Allan Alfred Birkegaard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present three challenges to the emerging Open Science (OS) movement: the challenge of communication, collaboration and cultivation of scientific research. We argue that to address these challenges OS needs to include other forms of data than what can be captured in a text...... and extend into a fully-fledged Open Media movement engaging with new media and non-traditional formats of science communication. We discuss two cases where experiments with open media have driven new collaborations between scientists and documentarists. We use the cases to illustrate different advantages...

  5. A genome-wide linkage study of individuals with high scores on NEO personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N; Schuur, M; Gusareva, E S; Isaacs, A; Aulchenko, Y S; Kirichenko, A V; Zorkoltseva, I V; Axenovich, T I; Oostra, B A; Janssens, A C J W; van Duijn, C M

    2012-10-01

    The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory divides human personality traits into five dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness. In this study, we sought to identify regions harboring genes with large effects on the five NEO personality traits by performing genome-wide linkage analysis of individuals scoring in the extremes of these traits (>90th percentile). Affected-only linkage analysis was performed using an Illumina 6K linkage array in a family-based study, the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. We subsequently determined whether distinct, segregating haplotypes found with linkage analysis were associated with the trait of interest in the population. Finally, a dense single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array (Illumina 318K) was used to search for copy number variations (CNVs) in the associated regions. In the families with extreme phenotype scores, we found significant evidence of linkage for conscientiousness to 20p13 (rs1434789, log of odds (LOD)=5.86) and suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD >2.8) for neuroticism to 19q, 21q and 22q, extraversion to 1p, 1q, 9p and12q, openness to 12q and 19q, and agreeableness to 2p, 6q, 17q and 21q. Further analysis determined haplotypes in 21q22 for neuroticism (P-values = 0.009, 0.007), in 17q24 for agreeableness (marginal P-value = 0.018) and in 20p13 for conscientiousness (marginal P-values = 0.058, 0.038) segregating in families with large contributions to the LOD scores. No evidence for CNVs in any of the associated regions was found. Our findings imply that there may be genes with relatively large effects involved in personality traits, which may be identified with next-generation sequencing techniques.

  6. Construção e validação da escala fatorial de Socialização no modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade Development and validation of an Agreeableness scale in the Big Five personality model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou a construção e validação de construto de uma escala para a mensuração de Socialização no modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade. Neste Modelo, Socialização é uma dimensão da personalidade que agrupa traços como altruísmo, franqueza, confiança nas pessoas, bem como frieza, falta de empatia, comportamentos antisociais, etc. Os participantes deste estudo foram 1.100 pessoas de cinco estados brasileiros, de ambos os sexos, com nível de escolarização médio ou superior. Foram realizadas análises fatoriais para a verificação da dimensionalidade da EFS, sendo que a solução de três fatores foi considerada mais adequada. Os fatores extraídos foram denominados Amabilidade, Pró-sociabilidade e Confiança nas pessoas. A consistência interna dessas escalas (calculada por Alpha de Cronbach foi de 0,91; 0,84 e 0,80 respectivamente, e da escala geral 0,92.The present study was designed to develop and assess construct validity of an Agreeableness scale (Escala Fatorial de Socialização - EFS in the Big Five model. In this model, Agreeableness is comprised by traits that describe altruism, straightforwardness, trust in people, as well as coldness, antisocial behaviors, among others. The participants were 1.100 individuals, from five States in Brazil, of both sexes, with high school or university level of education. Factor analyses were conducted to determine the EFS dimensions. A 3-factor solution was found to be more adequate. The factors found were named: Cordiality, Pro-sociability, and Trust in people. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas for the factors were .91, .84, and .80 respectively, and .92 for the general scale.

  7. Commentary: open access, open business, closed fairness!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A strong trend to move from print to online publication is largely perceived in scientific and nonscientific fields. A growing number of publishers increasingly opt for online publication as an option or a compulsory alternative. From readers' perspective, this is a highly appreciated facility, but from the author's, things are different mainly because of excessive article processing charges (APC) that make the open access system sometimes as a hindrance for many authors but a lucrative enterprise for many shareholders, enticing the most traditional and conservative publishers.

  8. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    ’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  9. Special restaurant opening times

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    1-EASTER Restaurant No. 1 (Novae) will be closed from Friday, 21 March to Monday, 24 March inclusive and will re-open at 7.00 a.m. on Tuesday, 25 March. Restaurant No. 2 (DSR) will remain open during the four days in question (the opening hours can be consulted at: http://resto2.web.cern.ch/resto2/Events/easter2008.html 2-ASCENSION Restaurant No. 2 (DSR) will be closed from Thursday, 1st May to Friday, 2 May. Restaurant No. 2 (Novae) will remain open during the two days in question (from 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. on the Thursday and from 7.00 till midnight, as usual, on the Friday).

  10. Open Hardware at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Knowledge Transfer Group

    2015-01-01

    CERN is actively making its knowledge and technology available for the benefit of society and does so through a variety of different mechanisms. Open hardware has in recent years established itself as a very effective way for CERN to make electronics designs and in particular printed circuit board layouts, accessible to anyone, while also facilitating collaboration and design re-use. It is creating an impact on many levels, from companies producing and selling products based on hardware designed at CERN, to new projects being released under the CERN Open Hardware Licence. Today the open hardware community includes large research institutes, universities, individual enthusiasts and companies. Many of the companies are actively involved in the entire process from design to production, delivering services and consultancy and even making their own products available under open licences.

  11. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Robert Stowers [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  12. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  13. Summer Restaurant opening times

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Restaurant No. 1: Open as usual in July and August. Open from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. on Thursday, 10 September (Jeûne genevois).   Restaurant No. 2: Open as usual in July and August. Closed on Thursday, 10 September (Jeûne genevois) and Friday, 11 September. The Brasserie (table service) will be closed from Monday, 4 August to Friday, 11 September.   Restaurant No. 3: Open as usual in July and August, but closed on Saturday, 1 August; Saturday, 15 August; Thursday, 10 September (Jeûne genevois); and Friday, 11 September.   Snack bar in Building 54: Closed from Monday, 4 August to Friday, 11 September.   Snack bars in Buildings 13, 30 and 6: Closed on Thursday, 10 September (Jeûne genevois) and Friday, 11 September.

  14. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  15. Trade Openness and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasfi Fkili Wahiba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to test the effect of trade openness on inequality of wage distribution in Tunisia. The study through econometric estimates showed that the impact of openness on inequality is remarkable in the period marked by an intensive integration into the global economy. However, investment in human capital can have a positive effect and leas to reduce wage disparities. Opening to the world economy is able to achieve positive economic performance, except that one of the challenges for Tunisia is to find the best equilibrium between the benefits and costs of this policy. Globalization can be beneficial for the economy, but the debate is open about its impact on the social level, many are those who accuse it of increasing disparities and inequalities between workers.

  16. The Open Access Divide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-01-01

      This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do...

  17. ON REICH'S OPEN QUESTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石生

    2003-01-01

    Under more general form and more general conditions an affirmative answer to Reich's open question is given. The results presented also extend and improve some recent results of Reich, Shioji, Takahashi and Wittmann.

  18. Opening the Floodgates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel, Michael; Thies, Ferdinand; Benlian, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Managing platform ecosystems requires providers to govern the permeability of platform boundaries in order to strike a balance between openness and control. But is it worthwhile for platform providers to conduct screening processes for third-party offerings, or should they rather apply a laissez......,000 crowdfunding campaigns with a combined funding of over $1.9 billion that cover a 4-year period around the policy change, we find that increasing platform openness was a double-edged sword for the platform’s ecosystem. While Kickstarter’s revenue from commissions surged after the policy change due...... uncertainties as project creators invest less in reducing information asymmetries. Our evidence from this natural experiment therefore suggests that increasing platform openness for third-party offerings can destabilize a platform’s ecosystem. We thus extend the literature on platform openness...

  19. Open3DALIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    of the dataset either the single conformation originally imported or the conformational databases previously obtained by QMD. Additionally, SDF conformational databases can be easily imported from external conformational engines such as MOE and OMEGA. In the latter case, the conformers which best fit...... application can be customized to meet individual needs. A detailed ChangeLog is kept to keep track of the additions and modifications during Open3DALIGN's development.......Description Open3DALIGN is an open-source software aimed at unsupervised molecular alignment. Open3DALIGN is a command-line tool which is operated by means of a few commands which can be entered interactively from a command prompt, read from a batch script or piped through standard input. If Py...

  20. Official Antimonopoly Website Opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's antimonopoly law website opened in December 19, 2009.Netizens can log in at http://www.antimonopolylaw.org to see the update information of indepth anti-monopoly law theory and case studies, according to the organizer.

  1. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  2. Funding open access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Gene D.; Zimmermann, Frank

    2009-03-01

    We were happy to see the 10-year anniversary of our open-access journal Physical Review Special Topics: Accelerators and Beams (PRST-AB) mentioned in your news article on open-access publishing (December 2008 pp13-14). However, your statement that PRST-AB "is funded by US national labs, whose researchers publish about 150 papers per year in the journal" is not entirely correct.

  3. Open source molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-09-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. An updated online version of this catalog can be found at https://opensourcemolecularmodeling.github.io.

  4. Demystifying Open Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  5. Open Access Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hadfield

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of open source online journals, free online courses, and other changes in the research and education environment, coined the "academic spring" by some commentators, represents an increasing trend in opening up the rules of access for research. Universities, libraries, publishers and even govern­ments are paying attention to this new movement often referred to with the acronym A2K (access to knowledge.

  6. Open for Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Nazanin; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how an open approach to new venture creation - purposefully managing knowledge flows across the venture's organizational boundary - can be beneficial for start-up entrepreneurs. Our inductive case study, of both failure and success, identifies the key attributes of this open...... for entrepreneurship and innovation research and practice, providing some attention points for researchers, entrepreneurs, investors and policy makers interested in developing successful new ventures....

  7. The Open AUC Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cölfen, Helmut; Laue, Thomas M; Wohlleben, Wendel; Schilling, Kristian; Karabudak, Engin; Langhorst, Bradley W; Brookes, Emre; Dubbs, Bruce; Zollars, Dan; Rocco, Mattia; Demeler, Borries

    2010-02-01

    Progress in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) has been hindered by obstructions to hardware innovation and by software incompatibility. In this paper, we announce and outline the Open AUC Project. The goals of the Open AUC Project are to stimulate AUC innovation by improving instrumentation, detectors, acquisition and analysis software, and collaborative tools. These improvements are needed for the next generation of AUC-based research. The Open AUC Project combines on-going work from several different groups. A new base instrument is described, one that is designed from the ground up to be an analytical ultracentrifuge. This machine offers an open architecture, hardware standards, and application programming interfaces for detector developers. All software will use the GNU Public License to assure that intellectual property is available in open source format. The Open AUC strategy facilitates collaborations, encourages sharing, and eliminates the chronic impediments that have plagued AUC innovation for the last 20 years. This ultracentrifuge will be equipped with multiple and interchangeable optical tracks so that state-of-the-art electronics and improved detectors will be available for a variety of optical systems. The instrument will be complemented by a new rotor, enhanced data acquisition and analysis software, as well as collaboration software. Described here are the instrument, the modular software components, and a standardized database that will encourage and ease integration of data analysis and interpretation software.

  8. Business Models for Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saebi, Tina; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    of open business models by systematically linking open innovation strategies to core business model dimensions, notably the content, structure, governance of transactions. We further illustrate a continuum of open innovativeness, differentiating between four types of open business models. We contribute......Research on open innovation suggests that companies benefit differentially from adopting open innovation strategies; however, it is unclear why this is so. One possible explanation is that companies’ business models are not attuned to open strategies. Accordingly, we propose a contingency model...... to the open innovation literature by specifying the conditions under which business models are conducive to the success of open innovation strategies....

  9. Business Models for Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saebi, Tina; Foss, Nicolai J.

    2015-01-01

    of open business models by systematically linking open innovation strategies to core business model dimensions, notably the content, structure, governance of transactions. We further illustrate a continuum of open innovativeness, differentiating between four types of open business models. We contribute......Research on open innovation suggests that companies benefit differentially from adopting open innovation strategies; however, it is unclear why this is so. One possible explanation is that companies' business models are not attuned to open strategies. Accordingly, we propose a contingency model...... to the open innovation literature by specifying the conditions under which business models are conducive to the success of open innovation strategies....

  10. Relationship between hypnosis and personality trait in participants with high or low hypnotic susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Yingchun Zhang,1,2,* Yunke Wang,1,* Chanchan Shen,1,2 Yingying Ye,1 Si Shen,1 Bingren Zhang,1,2 Jiawei Wang,1,2 Wei Chen,2 Wei Wang1,2 1Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, 2Department of Mental Health, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The relationship between normal personality and hypnotic susceptibility is important for understanding mental processing and mental disorders, but it is less consistent in normal people or in patients with a psychiatric disorder. We have hypothesized that the correlation exists but varies in individuals with different levels of hypnotizability. Participants and methods: We invited 72 individuals with high (HIGH group and 47 individuals with low (LOW group hypnotic susceptibilities to undertake tests of NEO-PI-R and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSSC. Results: The HIGH group scored significantly higher than the LOW group did on openness to experience and its facet openness to feelings. In the LOW group, SHSSC total was positively predicted by openness to ideas; age regression was positively predicted by openness to experience and negatively predicted by extraversion; anosmia to ammonia was negatively predicted by agreeableness; and negative visual hallucination was positively predicted by openness to experience. In the HIGH group, hallucinated voice was positively predicted by openness to experience and negatively predicted by agreeableness, and posthypnotic amnesia was positively predicted by extraversion and negatively predicted by openness to experience. Conclusion: The associations between normal personality traits and hypnotic susceptibility items were weak and different in the two groups, which imply that managing mental or somatoform disorders might be through adjusting hypnotizability and mobilizing personality

  11. UK Open Access Policy Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Picarra, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    Two distinct paths for open access are being promoted in UK open access policies: open access publishing (gold open access) by RCUK (Gold OA) and self-archiving (green open access) by HEFCE. This requires continuous and coordinated efforts to support universities, academic libraries and researchers in achieving compliance.

  12. Open Day: General Information

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ With 50 visit points, including theatre performances, debates and visits to installations that have never before been opened to the public, CERN's 50th anniversary Open Day is set to be a day to remember. Seven hundred volunteers have signed up to help for the day. The Open Day team truly appreciates this wonderful show of support! The Open Day would not be possible without their help. Car parking and Access Cars with a CERN sticker can access all CERN sites as normal. However, to avoid congestion on Meyrin site, we ask you to park in areas that will not be open to the public (see below) and to use the shuttle services wherever possible for your transport during the day. Private cars on the French side of the border without a CERN sticker will be diverted to a car park area in the Prévessin site. There is a shuttle service connecting the Meyrin and Prévessin sites via SM18 every 20 minutes. Private cars on the Swiss side of the border without a CERN sticker will be diverte...

  13. CERN: Digitally open, too

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    The Open Days are here!! From tomorrow onwards, we will be welcoming thousands of people to CERN. No barriers, no boundaries!   For decades, we have welcomed researchers and visitors from around the world to work at CERN, discuss physics research and attend our training sessions, lectures and conferences. This is how fundamental research should be conducted!!! But have you ever noticed how you are welcome at CERN in the digital world, too? Once you are affiliated and are registered with CERN, you receive a CERN computing account and e-mail address.  You can register your laptops, PCs and smartphones to use our (wireless) network, you can easily create your personal webpage, and profit from a vast disk space for file storage (AFS and DFS). CERN is indeed an Open Campus and not only during the Open Days. CERN is an Open Campus in the digital world. This digital Open Campus culture is exactly the reason why “computer security” has been dele...

  14. Global OpenSearch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  15. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.

  16. Open3DALIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Description Open3DALIGN is an open-source software aimed at unsupervised molecular alignment. Open3DALIGN is a command-line tool which is operated by means of a few commands which can be entered interactively from a command prompt, read from a batch script or piped through standard input. If Py...... systems (Windows 32/64-bit, Linux 32/64-bit, Solaris x86 32/64-bit, FreeBSD 32/64-bit, Intel Mac OS X 32/64-bit), source code is portable and can be compiled under any *NIX platform supporting POSIX threads. The modular nature of the code allows for easy implementation of new features, so that the core...

  17. Support open access publishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo) med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante tidsskriftsinformati......Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo) med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante...... tidsskriftsinformationer (faglig disciplin, BFI niveau, Impact Factor, Open Access) vil kunne danne sig et hurtigt overblik, for derved at kunne træffe et kvalificeret valg om, hvor og hvordan man skal publicere sine forskningsresultater....

  18. Personality goes a long a way: an interhemispheric connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylco S. Hoppenbrouwers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the development of psychology the delineation of personality has played a central role. Together with the NEO-PI-R, a questionnaire derived from the Five Factor Model of Personality, and recent advances in research technology it is now possible to investigate the relationship between personality features and neurophysiological brain processes. The NEO-FFI, the short version of the NEO-PI-R, reliably measures five main personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. As behaviour and some psychiatric disorders have been related to interhemispheric connectivity, the present study used the combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and electroencephalography (EEG to measure frontal interhemispheric connectivity and its association with personality as indexed by the NEO-FFI. Results demonstrated that prefrontal interhemispheric connectivity between the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC correlates with Agreeableness in healthy subjects. This is the first study to relate personality features to interhemispheric connectivity through TMS-EEG and suggests that Agreeableness relates to the effectiveness of prefrontal communication between hemispheres.

  19. Personality goes a long a way: an interhemispheric connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Farzan, Faranak; Barr, Mera S; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the development of psychology the delineation of personality has played a central role. Together with the NEO-PI-R, a questionnaire derived from the Five Factor Model of Personality, and recent advances in research technology it is now possible to investigate the relationship between personality features and neurophysiological brain processes. The NEO-FFI, the short version of the NEO-PI-R, reliably measures five main personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. As behavior and some psychiatric disorders have been related to interhemispheric connectivity, the present study used the combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to measure frontal interhemispheric connectivity and its association with personality as indexed by the NEO-FFI. Results demonstrated that prefrontal interhemispheric connectivity between the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex correlates with Agreeableness in healthy subjects. This is the first study to relate personality features to interhemispheric connectivity through TMS-EEG and suggests that Agreeableness relates to the effectiveness of prefrontal communication between hemispheres.

  20. Brain correlates of pro-social personality traits: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Joana F; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Miguel; Soares, José M; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2013-09-01

    Of the five personality dimensions described by the Big Five Personality Model (Costa and McCrae 1992), Extraversion and Agreeableness are the traits most commonly associated with a pro-social orientation. In this study we tested whether a pro-social orientation, as expressed in terms of Extraversion and Agreeableness, is associated with a specific grey matter phenotype. Fifty-two healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), a self-report measure of the Big Five personality traits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate the correlation between brain structure and the personality traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. We found that Extraversion was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the middle frontal and orbitofrontal gyri while Agreeableness was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the inferior parietal, middle occipital and posterior cingulate gyri. No positive correlations were found. These results suggest that pro-social personality traits seem to be associated with decreases in grey matter density in more frontal regions for Extraversion, and more posterior regions for Agreeableness.

  1. Borderline and avoidant personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality: a comparison between DSM-IV diagnoses and NEO-PI-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberg, T; Urnes, O; Friis, S; Pedersen, G; Karterud, S

    1999-01-01

    A self-report measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality, NEO-PI-R, was administered to a sample of patients with borderline (BPD, N = 29) or avoidant PD (AVPD, N = 34), admitted to a day treatment program, to investigate the NEO-PI-R profiles of the disorders, and the ability of NEO-PI-R to discriminate between the two disorders. The diagnoses were assessed according to the LEAD standard. AVPD was associated with high levels of Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and low levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. BPD was associated with high levels of Neuroticism and low levels of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Eighty-eight percent of the AVPD group had high scores on Neuroticism and low scores on Extraversion, whereas 65% of the BPD group were high on Neuroticism and low on Agreeableness. The Extraversion and Agreeableness scales of NEO-PI-R discriminated between patients with BPD and those with AVPD. Patients with BPD scored significantly higher on the Angry Hostility and Impulsiveness subscales of Neuroticism and significantly lower on three Extraversion subscales, three Agreeableness subscales, and one Conscientiousness subscale. At the DSM-IV criterion level, there were more significant relationships between the subscales of NEO-PI-R and the AVPD criteria than with the BPD criteria. The findings suggest that the FFM has good discriminating ability regarding BPD and AVPD. However, there may be a closer conceptual relationship between the FFM and AVPD than between the FFM and BPD.

  2. New gate opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  3. Open Day at SHMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  4. Using OpenRefine

    CERN Document Server

    Verborgh, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    The book is styled on a Cookbook, containing recipes - combined with free datasets - which will turn readers into proficient OpenRefine users in the fastest possible way.This book is targeted at anyone who works on or handles a large amount of data. No prior knowledge of OpenRefine is required, as we start from the very beginning and gradually reveal more advanced features. You don't even need your own dataset, as we provide example data to try out the book's recipes.

  5. Gates Wide Open

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China vows to further open up its market to spur international and domestic economic development China’s entry into the WTO 10 years a go was a major step in the country’s reform and opening up. It indicated the "beginning of a new historic stage"in the country’s interaction with the rest of the world, said Chinese President Hu Jintao, at a high-level forum marking the 10th anniversary of China’s accession to the

  6. Ready to be Open?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monteiro, L. Felipe; Mol, Michael J.; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2016-01-01

    suggest that a firm's lack of resources and absorptive capacity, as well as its use of secrecy, are significant barriers to benefiting from openness to external knowledge. Using responses from 12,152 firms to the fourth and fifth UK versions of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS), we generate findings......This paper provides new theory and evidence about the benefits of openness on a firm's innovation performance and, more importantly, the specific firm-level contingencies under which those benefits are more (or less) likely to be observed. Building on Dyer and Singh's (1998) relational view, we...

  7. Ready to be Open?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monteiro, L. Felipe; Mol, Michael J.; Birkinshaw, Julian

    suggest that a firm's lack of resources and absorptive capacity, as well as its use of secrecy, are significant barriers to benefiting from openness to external knowledge. Using responses from 12,152 firms to the fourth and fifth UK versions of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) we generate findings......This paper provides new theory and evidence about the benefits of openness on a firm's innovation performance and, more importantly, the specific firm-level contingencies under which those benefits are more (or less) likely to be observed. Building on Dyer and Singh's (1998) relational view, we...

  8. A meta-analysis of personality and workplace safety: addressing unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beus, Jeremy M; Dhanani, Lindsay Y; McCord, Mallory A

    2015-03-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(2) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-08139-001). Table 3 contained formatting errors. Minus signs used to indicate negative statistical estimates within the table were inadvertently changed to m-dashes. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The purpose of this meta-analysis was to address unanswered questions regarding the associations between personality and workplace safety by (a) clarifying the magnitude and meaning of these associations with both broad and facet-level personality traits, (b) delineating how personality is associated with workplace safety, and (c) testing the relative importance of personality in comparison to perceptions of the social context of safety (i.e., safety climate) in predicting safety-related behavior. Our results revealed that whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with unsafe behaviors, extraversion and neuroticism were positively associated with them. Of these traits, agreeableness accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in safety-related behavior and openness to experience was unrelated. At the facet level, sensation seeking, altruism, anger, and impulsiveness were all meaningfully associated with safety-related behavior, though sensation seeking was the only facet that demonstrated a stronger relationship than its parent trait (i.e., extraversion). In addition, meta-analytic path modeling supported the theoretical expectation that personality's associations with accidents are mediated by safety-related behavior. Finally, although safety climate perceptions accounted for the majority of explained variance in safety-related behavior, personality traits (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism) still accounted for a unique and substantive proportion of the explained variance. Taken together, these results substantiate the value of considering personality traits as key

  9. Torii, an Open Portal over Open Archives

    CERN Document Server

    Bertocco, S

    2001-01-01

    The world of academic publishing is undergoing many changes. Everywhere paper-based publishing is being replaced by electronic archives and ink printing by bits. Unrestricted (web) access to many resources is becoming a fundamental feature of the academic research environment. Particularly in the high-energy physics community, the pre-print distribution has moved completely away from the paper-based system into a fully electronic system based on open archives. At the same time, freely accessible peer-reviewed journals have started to challenge the more traditional, and paper-based journals showing that the entire paper-based cycle can be effectively replaced by a web-based one. The TIPS project was born in this environment and from these observations. It is based on the idea that further progress in information distribution and scientific publishing on the web requires some key ingredients: the implementation of a more extensive semantic structure in the documents that are exchanged; a unified, desktop-like, ...

  10. Building the Open Elements of an Open Data Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Guy, Marieke; Herder, Eelco; Parodi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The European Union is increasingly committed to pushing forward open approaches as indicated by the G8 Open Data Charter, the Opening Up Education initiative, the launch of the Open Education Europa Portal for OER resources and other similar initiatives. The EU-funded LinkedUp Project (Linking Web d

  11. CERN openlab Open Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Purcell, Andrew Robert

    2015-01-01

    The CERN openlab Open Day took place on 10 June, 2015. This was the first in a series of annual events at which research and industrial teams from CERN openlab can present their projects, share achievements, and collect feedback from their user communities.

  12. Open Source Software Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens; Holm Larsen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Lately we have seen a growing interest from both public and private organisations to adopt OpenSource Software (OSS), not only for a few, specific applications but also on a more general levelthroughout the organisation. As a consequence, the organisations' decisions on adoption of OSS arebecoming...

  13. Open source development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses innovations based on open source or non-proprietary knowledge. Viewed through the lens of private property theory, such agency appears to be a true anomaly. However, by a further turn of the theoretical kaleidoscope, we will show that there may be perfectly justifiable reason...

  14. Massive and Open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  15. Bisimulation from Open Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyal, André; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1996-01-01

    and van Glabeek and Goltz. A tie-up with open maps in a (pre)topos, as they appear in the work of Joyal and Moerdijk, brings to light a new model, presheaves on categories of pomsets, into which the usual category of labelled event structures embeds fully and faithfully. As an indication of its promise...

  16. Bisimulation and open maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyal, André; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1993-01-01

    ), and Goltz and van Glabeek (1989). A tie-up with open maps in a (pre)topos brings to light a promising new model, presheaves on categories of pomsets, into which the usual category of labeled event structures embeds fully and faithfully. As an indication of its promise, this new presheaf model has refinement...

  17. Van: An Open Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  18. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  19. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  20. Open Source in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…