WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraterrestrial intelligent life

  1. Theology after contact: religion and extraterrestrial intelligent life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, J F

    2001-12-01

    The prospect of encountering extraterrestrial intelligent life raises important questions for religion and theology. Even if an actual encounter with extraterrestrials never actually takes place, or proves impractical, terrestrial religious thought already has resources that can render intelligible and allow us theologically to appreciate such an eventuality.

  2. Philosophical issues in the search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jean

    2013-07-01

    In the search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence, it is essential to clarify what is to be meant by `life' and `intelligence'. I first analyse what it means to `define' these words. I will show that some philosophical prejudice is unavoidable. As a working hypothesis, I consider two types of philosophy: `natural philosophy', seeking for some essence of things, and `critical (or analytical) philosophy', devoted to the analysis of the procedures by which we claim to construct a reality. An extension of critical philosophy, epistemo-analysis (i.e. the psycho-analysis of concepts) is presented and applied to the definition of exolife and to extraterrestrial `intelligence'. Some pragmatic conclusions are finally drawn for future search strategies.

  3. Christian theology and extraterrestrial intelligent life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas F O'Meara

    1999-01-01

    .... intelligent and free beings with some form of body or matter. After reviewing the considered opinions of five theologians chosen from the history of theology, he then asks whether any biblical passages (e.g. Colossians 1:15-18...

  4. A Numerical Testbed for Hypotheses of Extraterrestrial Life and Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been heavily influenced by solutions to the Drake Equation, which returns an integer value for the number of communicating civilisations resident in the Milky Way, and by the Fermi Paradox, glibly stated as: "If they are there, where are they?". Both rely on using average values of key parameters, such as the mean signal lifetime of a communicating civilisation. A more accurate answer must take into account the distribution of stellar, planetary and biological attributes in the galaxy, as well as the stochastic nature of evolution itself. This paper outlines a method of Monte Carlo realisation which does this, and hence allows an estimation of the distribution of key parameters in SETI, as well as allowing a quantification of their errors (and the level of ignorance therein). Furthermore, it provides a means for competing theories of life and intelligence to be compared quantitatively.

  5. The search for extraterrestrial intelligence: Listening for life in the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Thomas R.

    The reasons for and the activities of SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) are discussed. The history of the notion of intelligent life existing on other worlds is reviewed, and ideas of aliens in modern popular culture are examined. Arguments for and against the existence of intelligent life elsewhere are considered. Reports of extraterrestrial intelligence that turned out to be false are described, as are the messages sent out from earth to any aliens that may find them. The fight to maintain SETI funding and the related efforts in other countries are discussed. The arguments about UFOs are reviewed.

  6. How far are extraterrestrial life and intelligence after Kepler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Amri

    2017-08-01

    The Kepler mission has shown that a significant fraction of all stars may have an Earth-size habitable planet. A dramatic support was the recent detection of Proxima Centauri b. Using a Drake-equation like formalism I derive an equation for the abundance of biotic planets as a function of the relatively modest uncertainty in the astronomical data and of the (yet unknown) probability for the evolution of biotic life, Fb. I suggest that Fb may be estimated by future spectral observations of exoplanet biomarkers. It follows that if Fb is not very small, then a biotic planet may be expected within about 10 light years from Earth. Extending this analyses to advanced life, I derive expressions for the distance to putative civilizations in terms of two additional Drake parameters - the probability for evolution of a civilization, Fc, and its average longevity. Assuming "optimistic" values for the Drake parameters, (Fb Fc 1), and a broadcasting duration of a few thousand years, the likely distance to the nearest civilizations detectable by SETI is of the order of a few thousand light years. Finally I calculate the distance and probability of detecting intelligent signals with present and future radio telescopes such as Arecibo and SKA and how it could constrain the Drake parameters.

  7. Christian Soteriology and Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, C.

    The paper presents an argument for the incompatibility of classical Christian soteriology (doctrine of salvation) with belief in numerous extraterrestrial intelligent life forms (ETI). Four popular answers to the problem are discussed and rejected: a) unlike humanity, extraterrestrial intelligent species are not in need of salvation; b) Jesus of Nazareth has reconciled the entire cosmos to God; c) God or the second person of the Trinity has incarnated (or will incarnate) himself multiple times; d) alien sinners have been or are going to be saved by means different from a divine incarnation. The final section deals with remaining options for rational Christian believers and speculates briefly about consequences for interstellar space flight.

  8. The need for operating guidelines and a decision making framework applicable to the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; Randolph, Richard O.

    While formal principles have been adopted for the eventuality of detecting intelligent life in our galaxy (SETI Principles), no such guidelines exist for the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life within the solar system. Current scientifically based planetary protection policies for solar system exploration address how to undertake exploration, but do not provide clear guidance on what to do if and when life is detected. Considering that martian life could be detected under several different robotic and human exploration scenarios in the coming decades, it is appropriate to anticipate how detection of non-intelligent, microbial life could impact future exploration missions and activities, especially on Mars. This paper discusses a proposed set of interim guidelines based loosely on the SETI Principles and addresses issues extending from the time of discovery through future handling and treatment of extraterrestrial life on Mars or elsewhere. Based on an analysis of both scientific and ethical considerations, there is a clear need for developing operating protocols applicable at the time of discovery and a decision making framework that anticipates future missions and activities, both robotic and human. There is growing scientific confidence that the discovery of extraterrestrial life in some form is nearly inevitable. If and when life is discovered beyond Earth, non-scientific dimensions may strongly influence decisions about the nature and scope of future missions and activities. It is appropriate to encourage international discussion and consideration of the issues prior to an event of such historical significance.

  9. Unidentified flying objects and extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Carole

    Discusses efforts to find intelligent life on other planets and theories on this topic and describes UFO sightings and other phenomena that are given as evidence of extraterrestrial visitors among us.

  10. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    2003-01-01

    Traces the efforts of Searching for Extraterrestrial Technological Intelligence (SETI) since 1960 when a radio-telescope was used to see if any messages were being sent from the vicinity of two nearby stars. Describes attempts to detect microwave/optical signals and technological modification of the cosmic environment. (Author/KHR)

  11. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them.

  12. The search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T L

    2001-02-22

    As far as we know, humanity is alone in the Universe: there is no definite evidence for the existence of extraterrestrial life, let alone extraterrestrial civilizations (ETCs) capable of communicating or travelling over interstellar distances. Yet popular speculation about the existence of ETCs abounds, including reports of alien visitations either now or in the past. But there is a middle way. It is now possible to put limits on the existence of ETCs of varying capabilities, within arbitrary distances from the Solar System, and conceive of real-world strategies whereby we might communicate with ETCs, or they with us.

  13. Extraterrestrial Intelligence: What Would it Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Results from NASA's Kepler mission imply a hundred million Earth-like habitable worlds in the Milky Way galaxy, many of which formed billions of years before the Earth. Each of these worlds is likely to have all of the ingredients needed for biology. The real estate of time and space for the evolution of intelligent life is formidable, begging the question of whether or not we are alone in the universe. The implications of making contact have been explored extensively in science fiction and the popular culture, but less frequently in the serious scientific literature. Astronomers have carried out searches for extraterrestrial intelligence for over half a century, with no success so far. In practice, it is easier to search for alien technology than to discern intelligence of unknown function and form. In this talk, the modes of technology that can currently be detected are summarized, along with the implications of a timing argument than any detected civilization is likely to be much more advanced than ours. Fermi's famous question ``Where Are They?'' is as well posed now as it was sixty years ago. The existence of extraterrestrial intelligence would have profound practical, cultural, and religious implications for humanity.

  14. The Scientific Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: a Sociological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesberg, Daniel Ray

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, as it has been conducted by scientists over the past century. The following questions are explored: (1) What are the historical patterns of American scientific interest in extraterrestrial intelligence? From a sociology of science perspective, how can these patterns of interest be explained? (2) Who are the most prominent scientists involved in SETI? What are their academic backgrounds? (3) How has the rather exotic idea of extraterrestrial intelligence managed to penetrate the realm of respectable science?. In order to measure the historical fluctuations of scientific interest in extraterrestrial intelligence, a frequency distribution of relevant articles published in American scientific journals over the past century has been constructed. The core scholars of the "extraterrestrial" field have been determined via citation analysis, in a selected portion of the scientific literature. An analysis of recent scientific literature on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has revealed a number of tactics of legitimation and de-legitimation used by SETI proponents, as well as opponents. This study has generated the following findings: (1) Historically, there are three factors which tend to stimulate general scientific interest in extraterrestrial intelligence: First, the strong demonstration of the plausibility of extraterrestrial intelligence, or life, especially in a tangible, and therefore studiable location. Scientific laboratories are primary agents of plausibility here. Second, the organized political activity of SETI scientists. Third, the availability of government funding for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence, or life. (2) Statistically, the leading scholars of modern SETI are Sagan, Drake and Morrison. The field itself tends to be dominated by astronomers and physicists. (3) Because SETI has no concrete data, and is easily stigmatized as an illegitimate scientific activity

  15. How likely is extraterrestrial life?

    CERN Document Server

    Halley, J Woods

    2012-01-01

    What does existing scientific knowledge about physics, chemistry, meteorology and biology tell us about the likelihood of extraterrestrial life and civilizations? And what does the fact that there is currently no credible scientific evidence for the existence of extraterrestrial biospheres or civilizations teach  us? This book reviews the various scientific issues that arise in considering the question of how common extraterrestrial life is likely to be in our galaxy and whether humans are likely to detect it. The book stands out because of its very systematic organization and relatively unbiased treatment of the main open question. It covers all relevant aspects of many disciplines required to present the different   possible answers. It has and will provide undergraduates with a stimulating introduction to many of these fields at an early stage in their university careers, when they are still choosing a specialty. The difficulties and the range of possible answers to the title question are carefully addr...

  16. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  17. Science, religion, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, David

    2013-01-01

    If the discovery of life elsewhere in the universe is just around the corner, what would be the consequences for religion? Would it represent another major conflict between science and religion, even leading to the death of faith? Some would suggest that the discovery of any suggestion of extraterrestrial life would have a greater impact than even the Copernican and Darwinian revolutions. It is now over 50 years since the first modern scientific papers were published on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Yet the religious implications of this search and possible discovery have never been systematically addressed in the scientific or theological arena. SETI is now entering its most important era of scientific development. New observation techniques are leading to the discovery of extra-solar planets daily, and the Kepler mission has already collected over 1000 planetary candidates. This deluge of data is transforming the scientific and popular view of the existence of extraterrestrial intel...

  18. Psycholinguistics and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Krotenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article reveals the possibilities of psycholinguistics in the identifi cation and interpretation of languages and texts of Alien Civilizations. The author combines modern interdisciplinary research in psycholinguistics with the theory “Evolving Matter” proposed by Oleg Bazaluk and concludes that the identifi cation of languages and texts of Alien Civilizations, as well as the communication of terrestrial civilization with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is in principle possible. To that end, it is necessary to achieve the required level of the modeling of neurophilosophy and to include these achievements of modern psycholinguistics studies: а language acquisition; b language comprehension; c language production; d second language acquisition. On the one hand, the possibilities of neurophilosophy to accumulate and model advanced neuroscience research; on the other hand, highly specialized psycholinguistic studies in language evolution are able to provide the communication of terrestrial civilization with Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

  19. The Log Log Prior for the Frequency of Extraterrestrial Intelligences

    CERN Document Server

    Lacki, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how frequently life and intelligence arise on planets. I consider a Bayesian prior for the probability P(ETI) that intelligence evolves at a suitable site, with weight distributed evenly over ln(1 - ln P(ETI)). This log log prior can handle a very wide range of P(ETI) values, from 1 to 10^(-10^122), while remaining responsive to evidence about extraterrestrial societies. It is motivated by our uncertainty in the number of conditions that must be fulfilled for intelligence to arise, and it is related to considerations of information, entropy, and state space dimensionality. After setting a lower limit to P(ETI) from the number of possible genome sequences, I calculate a Bayesian confidence of 18% that aliens exist within the observable Universe. With different assumptions about the minimum P(ETI) and the number of times intelligence can appear on a planet, this value falls between 1.4% and 47%. Overall, the prior leans towards our being isolated from extraterrestrial intelligences, but indicates ...

  20. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Fact, not Fiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarter, Jill (SETI Institute, Director)

    2009-03-11

    Jill Tarter, director of the Center for SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Research, will discuss the new Allen Telescope Array being developed for SETI that will provide the first systematic look at the transient radio universe.

  1. Cultural aspects of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, J.

    SETI is an acronym which stands for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. The NASA SETI High Resolution Microwave Survey Project is a new and comprehensive search for evidence of microwave signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. It will formally begin on October 12, 1992, and last to the end of the century. The discovery of another form of intelligent life would be an important milestone for our civilization. In addition to the new scientific knowledge that we might acquire on the chemistry, physiology, behavior and evolutionary history of extraterrestrial life forms, we may also learn of the cultural achievements of another civilization, or indeed of many other civilizations. It is likely that the society that we detect will be much in advance of our own, so that they may long ago have passed through the evolutionary stage we are at now. The implications of such a discovery would have important consequences for our own future. This paper presents an analysis of some of the important areas which will require study as we approach the beginning of the NASA search. There are significant questions about the ease or difficulty of incorporating the new knowledge into the belief structures of different religions. Sociological and educational changes over time may equal or exceed those of the Copernican revolution. The status of the other civilization relative to ours is a challenging question for international space law. There are institutional and international questions on who will represent Earth in any future interstellar communication endeavors that we may attempt. There may be challenges in how we absorb the knowledge of an advanced technology. In political science we may have much to learn from their history, and what influence it may have on our own future. Last but not least, there is the effect of the discovery on individual and group psychology. These are the cultural aspects of SETI. Each area warrants further study, and recommendations are made

  2. The Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Antiquity to 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Michael J.; Dowd, Matthew F.

    This chapter provides an overview of the Western historical debate regarding extraterrestrial life from antiquity to the beginning of the twentieth century. Though schools of thought in antiquity differed on whether extraterrestrial life existed, by the Middle Ages, the Aristotelian worldview of a unified, finite cosmos without extraterrestrials was most influential, though there were such dissenters as Nicholas of Cusa. That would change as the Copernican revolution progressed. Scholars such as Bruno, Kepler, Galileo, and Descartes would argue for a Copernican system of a moving Earth. Cartesian and Newtonian physics would eventually lead to a view of the universe in which the Earth was one of many planets in one of many solar systems extended in space. As this cosmological model was developing, so too were notions of extraterrestrial life. Popular and scientific writings, such as those by Fontenelle and Huygens, led to a reversal of fortunes for extraterrestrials, who by the end of the century were gaining recognition. From 1700 to 1800, many leading thinkers discussed extraterrestrial intelligent beings. In doing so, they relied heavily on arguments from analogy and such broad principles and ideas as the Copernican Principle, the Principle of Plenitude, and the Great Chain of Being. Physical evidence for the existence of extraterrestrials was minimal, and was always indirect, such as the sighting of polar caps on Mars, suggesting similarities between Earth and other places in the universe. Nonetheless, the eighteenth century saw writers from a wide variety of genres—science, philosophy, theology, literature—speculate widely on extraterrestrials. In the latter half of the century, increasing research in stellar astronomy would be carried out, heavily overlapping with an interest in extraterrestrial life. By the end of the eighteenth century, belief in intelligent beings on solar system planets was nearly universal and certainly more common than it would be by

  3. Funding the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence with a Lottery Bond

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    I propose the establishment of a SETI Lottery Bond to provide a continued source of funding for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The SETI Lottery Bond is a fixed rate perpetual bond with a lottery at maturity, where maturity occurs only upon discovery and confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligent life. Investors in the SETI Lottery Bond purchase shares that yield a fixed rate of interest that continues indefinitely until SETI succeeds---at which point a random subset of shares will be awarded a prize from a lottery pool. SETI Lottery Bond shares also are transferable, so that investors can benefact their shares to kin or trade them in secondary markets. The total capital raised this way will provide a fund to be managed by a financial institution, with annual payments from this fund to support SETI research, pay investor interest, and contribute to the lottery fund. Such a plan could generate several to tens of millions of dollars for SETI research each year, which would help to revital...

  4. Extraterrestrial Life: Processes, Implications, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyson, Joseph T.

    Provided are background materials relating the study of extraterrestrial life to common biological principles. A history of the creation of the sun and earth is included, as well as a summary of one current theory regarding the origin of life on earth. Relationships are identified regarding possible origins of life on other planets. Factors…

  5. The Recognition of Extraterrestrial Intelligence - Are Humans up to it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, D.

    SETI strategies tend to overlook the uncertain nature of intelligence. How can we search for intelligence when we do not really know what it is? This paper explores the nature of intelligence and tries to identify its essence. It questions the validity of the human model of intelligence that is used to measure intelligence in terrestrial animals and underpins SETI projects. It concludes that we may only be able to recognise intelligence in an extraterrestrial animal from its behaviour and proposes several patterns of behaviour that could be used.

  6. International law implications of the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopal, Vladimir

    This paper first considers whether the present law of outer space, as it has been enshrined in five United Nations treaties and other legal documents concerning outer space, provides a satisfactory basis for SETI/CETI activities. In the author's opinion, these activities may serve "the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes," as recognized in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. The use of the radio frequency spectrum for SETI/CETI purposes should be in conformity with the legal principles governing this valuable natural resource, as expressed in the International Telecommunication Convention and related documents, and with allocations of the relevant segments of the spectrum by the competent bodies of the International Telecommunication Union. In the second part the author examines the impact that the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals may have on the present body of space law. A possible role for the United Nations in this respect is also explored and a timely interest of the world body in discussing questions relating to this subject is recommended. Consideration of these questions could become a tool helping to concentrate the attention of the world community on problems of common concern and thus to strengthen international cooperation. However, the author believes that a law-making process that would aim at elaborating a special regulation of activities in this field would be premature at this stage. It should be initiated only when the boundary between possibilities and realities is crossed. Finally, the paper outlines some likely transformation in our space law thinking that would be the consequence of the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Elaboration of the principles and norms to govern relations between the international community of our own planet and other intelligent communities in the universe would add a new dimension to the present body of outer space

  7. Information theory, animal communication, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Johnston, Simon; Hanser, Sean F.

    2011-02-01

    We present ongoing research in the application of information theory to animal communication systems with the goal of developing additional detectors and estimators for possible extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Regardless of the species, for intelligence (i.e., complex knowledge) to be transmitted certain rules of information theory must still be obeyed. We demonstrate some preliminary results of applying information theory to socially complex marine mammal species (bottlenose dolphins and humpback whales) as well as arboreal squirrel monkeys, because they almost exclusively rely on vocal signals for their communications, producing signals which can be readily characterized by signal analysis. Metrics such as Zipf's Law and higher-order information-entropic structure are emerging as indicators of the communicative complexity characteristic of an "intelligent message" content within these animals' signals, perhaps not surprising given these species' social complexity. In addition to human languages, for comparison we also apply these metrics to pulsar signals—perhaps (arguably) the most "organized" of stellar systems—as an example of astrophysical systems that would have to be distinguished from an extraterrestrial intelligence message by such information theoretic filters. We also look at a message transmitted from Earth (Arecibo Observatory) that contains a lot of meaning but little information in the mathematical sense we define it here. We conclude that the study of non-human communication systems on our own planet can make a valuable contribution to the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence by providing quantitative general measures of communicative complexity. Studying the complex communication systems of other intelligent species on our own planet may also be one of the best ways to deprovincialize our thinking about extraterrestrial communication systems in general.

  8. Alien Mindscapes—A Perspective on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, and life and cognitive sciences, combined with developments in communication theory, bioneural computing, machine learning, and big data analysis, create new opportunities to explore the probabilistic nature of alien life. Brought together in a multidisciplinary approach, they have the potential to support an integrated and expanded Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI1), a search that includes looking for life as we do not know it. This approach will augment the odds of detecting a signal by broadening our understanding of the evolutionary and systemic components in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), provide more targets for radio and optical SETI, and identify new ways of decoding and coding messages using universal markers.

  9. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence in Earth's Solar Transit Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Pudritz, Ralph E

    2016-04-01

    Over the past few years, astronomers have detected thousands of planets and candidate planets by observing their periodic transits in front of their host stars. A related method, called transit spectroscopy, might soon allow studies of the chemical imprints of life in extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Here, we address the reciprocal question, namely, from where is Earth detectable by extrasolar observers using similar methods. We explore Earth's transit zone (ETZ), the projection of a band around Earth's ecliptic onto the celestial plane, where observers can detect Earth transits across the Sun. ETZ is between 0.520° and 0.537° wide due to the noncircular Earth orbit. The restricted Earth transit zone (rETZ), where Earth transits the Sun less than 0.5 solar radii from its center, is about 0.262° wide. We first compile a target list of 45 K and 37 G dwarf stars inside the rETZ and within 1 kpc (about 3260 light-years) using the Hipparcos catalogue. We then greatly enlarge the number of potential targets by constructing an analytic galactic disk model and find that about 10(5) K and G dwarf stars should reside within the rETZ. The ongoing Gaia space mission can potentially discover all G dwarfs among them (several 10(4)) within the next 5 years. Many more potentially habitable planets orbit dim, unknown M stars in ETZ and other stars that traversed ETZ thousands of years ago. If any of these planets host intelligent observers, they could have identified Earth as a habitable, or even as a living, world long ago, and we could be receiving their broadcasts today. The K2 mission, the Allen Telescope Array, the upcoming Square Kilometer Array, or the Green Bank Telescope might detect such deliberate extraterrestrial messages. Ultimately, ETZ would be an ideal region to be monitored by the Breakthrough Listen Initiatives, an upcoming survey that will constitute the most comprehensive search for extraterrestrial intelligence so far.

  10. Extrasolar Asteroid Mining as Forensic Evidence for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Forgan, Duncan; Elvis, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The development of civilisations like ours into spacefaring, multi-planet entities requires significant raw materials to construct vehicles and habitats. Interplanetary debris, including asteroids and comets, may provide such a source of raw materials. In this article we present the hypothesis that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) engaged in asteroid mining may be detectable from Earth. Considering the detected disc of debris around Vega as a template, we explore the observational signat...

  11. The biological universe. The twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does 'biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts to answer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and this is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, the author shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a 'biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  12. The biological universe: the twentieth-century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does `biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts toanswer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and The Biological Universe is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a `biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  13. Anthropological Contributions to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Three recent annual conferences of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) have included symposia on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). This paper reviews these symposia, which dealt with themes associated with the overarching AAA conference themes for each year: in 2004, the SETI session addressed Anthropology, Archaeology, and Interstellar Communication: Science and the Knowledge of Distant Worlds; in 2005, it dealt with Historical Perspectives on Anthropology and SETI; and in 2006, the session examined Culture, Anthropology, and SETI. Among the topics considered in these symposia were analogues for contact with extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), examining anthropologists’ experience in the field encountering other cultures-past and present. Similarly, the methodologies of archaeologists provide analogies for making contact with temporally distant civilizations, based on reconstructions from fragmentary information. Case studies helped make such analogies concrete in the symposia. The challenges of comprehending intelligences with different mental worlds was explored through a study of the meetings of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, for example, while the decryption of Mayan hieroglyphics provided lessons on understanding others of own species.

  14. Philosophy and problems of the definition of Extraterrestrial Life

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Jean

    2011-01-01

    When we try to search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence, we have to follow some guidelines. The first step is to clarify what is to be meant by "Life" and "intelligence", i.e. an attempt to define these words. The word "definition" refers to two different situations. First, it means an arbitrary convention. On the other hand it also often designates an attempt to clarify the content of a pre-existing word for which we have some spontaneous preconceptions, whatever their grounds, and to catch an (illusory) "essence" of what is defined. It is then made use of pre-existing plain language words which carry an a priori pre-scientific content likely to introduce some confusion in the reader's mind. The complexity of the problem will be analyzed and we will show that some philosophical prejudice is unavoidable. There are two types of philosophy: "Natural Philosophy", seeking for some essence of things, and "Critical (or analytical) Philosophy", devoted to the analysis of the procedures by which we claim to ...

  15. A new empirical approach in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Astrobiological nonlocality at the cosmological level

    CERN Document Server

    Thaheld, F H

    2006-01-01

    Over a period of several decades a concerted effort has been made to determine whether intelligent life exists outside of our solar system, known as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence or SETI. This has been based primarily upon attempting to intercept possible radio transmissions at different frequencies with arrays of radio telescopes. In addition, astrophysical observations have also been undertaken to see if other worlds or solar systems exist with similar conditions such as ours, which might be conducive to life. And, numerous papers have been written exploring different possibilities for the existence of life or why we have not observed it as of yet, since none of these approaches have been successful. It may now be possible to explore this issue from another standpoint. Recent theoretical and experimental results in the field of biophysics appear to indicate the possibility of quantum entanglement and nonlocality at the biological level, between spatially separated pairs of human subjects and ...

  16. Extrasolar asteroid mining as forensic evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.; Elvis, Martin

    2011-10-01

    The development of civilisations like ours into spacefaring, multi-planet entities requires significant raw materials to construct vehicles and habitats. Interplanetary debris, including asteroids and comets, may provide such a source of raw materials. In this article we present the hypothesis that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) engaged in asteroid mining may be detectable from Earth. Considering the detected disc of debris around Vega as a template, we explore the observational signatures of targeted asteroid mining (TAM), such as unexplained deficits in chemical species, changes in the size distribution of debris and other thermal signatures which may be detectable in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a debris disc. We find that individual observational signatures of asteroid mining can be explained by natural phenomena, and as such they cannot provide conclusive detections of ETIs. But, it may be the case that several signatures appearing in the same system will prove harder to model without extraterrestrial involvement. Therefore signatures of TAM are not detections of ETI in their own right, but as part of "piggy-back" studies carried out in tandem with conventional debris disc research, they could provide a means of identifying unusual candidate systems for further study using other SETI techniques.

  17. Extrasolar Asteroid Mining as Forensic Evidence for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    The development of civilisations like ours into spacefaring, multi-planet entities requires significant raw materials to construct vehicles and habitats. Interplanetary debris, including asteroids and comets, may provide such a source of raw materials. In this article we present the hypothesis that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) engaged in asteroid mining may be detectable from Earth. Considering the detected disc of debris around Vega as a template, we explore the observational signatures of targeted asteroid mining (TAM), such as unexplained deficits in chemical species, changes in the size distribution of debris and other thermal signatures which may be detectable in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a debris disc. We find that individual observational signatures of asteroid mining can be explained by natural phenomena, and as such they cannot provide conclusive detections of ETIs. But, it may be the case that several signatures appearing in the same system will prove harder to model without...

  18. Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence SETI Past, Present, and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Shuch, H Paul

    2011-01-01

    This book is a collection of essays written by the very scientists and engineers who have led, and continue to lead, the scientific quest known as SETI, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Divided into three parts, the first section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Past’, written by the surviving pioneers of this then emerging discipline, reviews the major projects undertaken during the first 50 years of SETI science and the results of that research. In the second section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Present’, the present-day science and technology is discussed in detail, providing the technical background to contemporary SETI instruments, experiments, and analytical techniques, including the processing of the received signals to extract potential alien communications. In the third and final section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Future’, the book looks ahead to the possible directions that SETI will take in the next 50 years, addressing such important topics as interstellar message construction, the risks and assump...

  19. Galactic extraterrestrial intelligence. I - The constraint on search strategies imposed by the possibility of interstellar travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, C. E.

    1982-03-01

    The possibility that extraterrestrial intelligence might settle the Galaxy by interstellar travel is investigated. The existence of this possibility is shown to be incompatible with the existence of a large number of potential sources of communication from extraterrestrial intelligences in the Galaxy. A detailed examination of suggested resolutions of this contradiction is presented. These include physical, temporal and sociological explanations. The sociological explanations include the so-called disinterest, self-destruction, fizzle, ZPG, taboo, and private zoo hypotheses. Each of these is carefully shown to require incredible universal ad hoc assumptions about the nature of extraterrestrial intelligence. It is concluded that proposed serial search modes for communication from extraterrestrial intelligence have negligible chance of success. A mathematical formalism for evaluating other search modes is also developed.

  20. Beyond the Drake Equation: On the Probability of the Nature of Extraterrestrial Life Forms in Our Galaxy Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss my research into the issues associated with the nature of any extraterrestrials that may be encountered in the future in our galaxy. This research was sparked by statements made by Stephen Hawking in 2010 regarding his fear of emitting radiation from our Earth so that an extraterrestrial intelligent civilization may be alerted to our existence in the galaxy today. While addressing issues of extraterrestrial altruism, a probabilistic equation was developed which addresses the number of extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that may exist in our galaxy today, who could use our bodies for nourishment or reproductive purposes. The equation begins with the results from a Drake Equation calculation, and proceeds by addressing such biochemical parameters as the fraction of ETIs with: dextro sugar stereo-isomers; levo amino acid stereo-isomers; similar codon interpretation; chromosomal length and, similar cell membrane structure to allow egg penetration.

  1. Radio Searches for Signatures of Advanced Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Andrew

    Over the last several decades, observational astronomy has produced a flood of discoveries that suggest that the building blocks and circumstances that gave rise to life on Earth may be the rule rather than the exception. It has now been conclusively shown that planets are common and that some 5-15% of FGKM stars host planets existing in their host star's habitable zone. Further, terrestrial biology has demonstrated that life on our own planet can thrive in extraordinarily extreme environments, dramatically extending our notion of what constitutes habitability. The deeper question, yet unanswered, is whether or not life in any form has ever existed in an environment outside of the Earth. As humans, we are drawn to an even more profound question, that of whether or not extraterrestrial life may have evolved a curiosity about the universe similar to our own and the technology with which to explore it. Radio astronomy has long played a prominent role in searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), beginning with the first suggestions by Cocconi and Morrison (1959) that narrow-band radio signals near 1420 MHz might be effective tracers of advanced technology and early experiments along these lines by Frank Drake in 1961, continuing through to more recent investigations searching for several types of coherent radio signals indicative of technology at a wider range of frequencies. The motivations for radio searches for extraterrestrial intelligence have been throughly discussed in the literature, but the salient arguments are the following: 1. coherent radio emission is commonly produced by advanced technology (judging by Earth’s technological development), 2. electromagnetic radiation can convey information at the maximum velocity currently known to be possible, 3. radio photons are energetically cheap to produce, 4. certain types of coherent radio emissions are easily distinguished from astrophysical background sources, especially within the so

  2. Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence with the Square Kilometre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Siemion, Andrew P V; Cheng-Jin, Jin; Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Cordes, James; DeBoer, David R; Falcke, Heino; Garrett, Mike; Garrington, Simon; Gurvits, Leonid; Hoare, Melvin; Korpela, Eric J; Lazio, Joseph; Messerschmitt, David; Morrison, Ian S; O'Brien, Tim; Paragi, Zsolt; Penny, Alan; Spitler, Laura; Tarter, Jill; Werthimer, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The vast collecting area of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), harnessed by sensitive receivers, flexible digital electronics and increased computational capacity, could permit the most sensitive and exhaustive search for technologically-produced radio emission from advanced extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) ever performed. For example, SKA1-MID will be capable of detecting a source roughly analogous to terrestrial high-power radars (e.g. air route surveillance or ballistic missile warning radars, EIRP (EIRP = equivalent isotropic radiated power, ~10^17 erg sec^-1) at 10 pc in less than 15 minutes, and with a modest four beam SETI observing system could, in one minute, search every star in the primary beam out to ~100 pc for radio emission comparable to that emitted by the Arecibo Planetary Radar (EIRP ~2 x 10^20 erg sec^-1). The flexibility of the signal detection systems used for SETI searches with the SKA will allow new algorithms to be employed that will provide sensitivity to a much wider variety of si...

  3. What should we say to extraterrestrial intelligence?: An analysis of responses to “Earth Speaks”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.; Lower, Timothy A.; Niles, Britton A.; Rast, Katrina A.; DeCou, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    If scientists engaged in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) detect a signal from an extraterrestrial civilization, one of the most pressing issues facing humankind will be "Should we reply, and if so, what should we say?" Building on an infrastructure that the SETI Institute used to gather over 50,000 messages from around the world to send onboard the Kepler mission, Earth Speaks invites people to submit online their text messages, pictures, and sounds, as they ponder what they would want to say to an extraterrestrial civilization. Participants for the study have been recruited from 68 nations, from all walks of life. By tracking demographic variables for each person submitting a message, we have identified commonalities and differences in message content that are related to such factors as age and gender. Similarly, by tracking the date on which messages were submitted and the location from which the message was sent, we have also identified the way in which message content is related to time and geographic location. Furthermore, when we compare previous themes derived from textual messages to our current categorical analysis of submitted images, we find our textual themes to be concurrently validated. In doing so, we find the Earth Speaks Website not only allows for the construction of interstellar messages, but also functions as a projective psychological assessment of species-level human identity. We next proceed to demonstrate the generative power of our method by showing how we can synthesize artificial messages from the Earth Speaks messages. We then discuss how these artificially generated messages can be tailored to represent both commonality and diversity in human thought as it is revealed through our data. We end by discussing our method's utility for cross-disciplinary research in the social sciences and humanities.

  4. In the search for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study of stellar, planetary and galactic evolution leads to the conclusion that the phenomenon of life must be coursing through the universe. It is estimated, by means of telescopic sampling, that there are billions of stars capable of having those photochemical reactions necessary for the origin of life. One approach in the search for other life would be to deploy men and instruments in spacecraft. Radio contact with other civilizations is another approach. Finally, the question might be approached by considering life as an inevitable consequence of the evolution of matter. A survey of Martian characteristics shows the possibility of life there to be dubious. The possibility of life in other parts of the galaxy is supported by a fundamental conclusion of living matter that all organisms have a common chemical ancestry. The experiment of Urey and Miller, wherein four amino acids were obtained by subjecting a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water to an electric arc, is believed to duplicate the initial organic syntheses which led to the emergence of life on earth.

  5. Homes for extraterrestrial life: extrasolar planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, D W

    2001-12-01

    Astronomers are now discovering giant planets orbiting other stars like the sun by the dozens. But none of these appears to be a small rocky planet like the earth, and thus these planets are unlikely to be capable of supporting life as we know it. The recent discovery of a system of three planets is especially significant because it supports the speculation that planetary systems, as opposed to single orbiting planets, may be common. Our ability to detect extrasolar planets will continue to improve, and space missions now in development should be able to detect earth-like planets.

  6. The Role of Extraterrestrial Materials in the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    It has been well established for some time now that C-rich organic materials are relatively common in a number of environments in space. This is known through the telescopic detection of these materials using spectroscopy techniques in the infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges and through the identification of organics in extraterrestrial materials. Extraterrestrial materials in which organics have been found include collected meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, and samples returned by NASA spacecraft from comets. These organics are produced by a variety of astrochemical processes. Despite their abiotic origins, these organic materials of are considerable interest to astrobiology for several reasons. First, organic materials of any composition are important as a means of delivering the elements C, H, O, and N to the surfaces of newly formed planets, and these elements are likely critical to the origin and subsequent evolution of life (certainly for life as we know it). In addition, it is clear that at least a portion of the organics found in space are in the form of molecules that play important roles in modern biology - for example, molecules like amino acids, amphiphiles, quinones, etc. Thus, the delivery of extraterrestrial organics to planetary surfaces brings not only bulk C, H, O, and N, but also molecular complexity in forms that are potentially useful for the origin and early evolution of life. This suggests that the production and delivery of cosmic organic compounds may have played key roles in the origin of life on Earth and, by extension, on other planets in the universe.

  7. Detecting extraterrestrial life with the Colossus telescope using photosynthetic biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J.; Harrington, D.; Moretto, G.; Langlois, M.; Halliday, D.; Harlingten, C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose to search for life on Earth-like planets in habitable zones using photosynthesis biosignatures. Many life forms on Earth process the solar light and utilize it to support their own activity and to provide a valuable energy source for other life forms. We expect therefore that photosynthesis is very likely to arise on another planet and can produce conspicuous biosignatures. We have recently identified biological polarization effects, e.g., selective light absorption or scattering by photosynthetic molecules which can be used for remote detection of extraterrestrial life. Here we present synthetic spectra and polarization of Earth-like planets with photosynthetic life and evaluate the sensitivity of the Colossus telescope for their remote detection in the solar neighborhood.

  8. Religions and extraterrestrial life how will we deal with it?

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, David A

    2014-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the debate about life on other worlds is quickly changing from the realm of speculation to the domain of hard science. Within a few years, as a consequence of the rapid discovery by astronomers of planets around other stars, astronomers very likely will have discovered clear evidence of life beyond the Earth. Such a discovery of extraterrestrial life will change everything.  Knowing the answer as to whether humanity has company in the universe will trigger one of the greatest intellectual revolutions in history, not the least of which will be a challenge for at least some terrestrial religions. Which religions will handle the discovery of extraterrestrial life with ease and which will struggle to assimilate this new knowledge about our place in the universe? Some religions as currently practiced appear to only be viable on Earth. Other religions could be practiced on distant worlds but nevertheless identify both Earth as a place and humankind as a species of singular spiritual re...

  9. Basic elements of an international terrestrial reply following the detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, G. C. M.

    One of the most tantalizing questions human intelligence has posed itself since the beginnings of time is whether we are alone in the Universe. And if not, where are "the others," and is it possible that these "others" may contact us, with or without our knowledge? Scientific literature abounds with theories pro and con, and if any subject ever lent itself to make-believe it is this one. Connected with the scientific theories on the subject, which are so often misunderstood, popular belief has led to a steady stream of publications which have done nothing if they have not greatly hampered the real issue. In legal circles the subject of possible contacts with extraterrestrial intelligence was first discussed in the literature in the early 1960's when, among others, Andrew Haley wrote, in 1965, about "Space Law and Government." This publication appeared in the midst of the United Nations preparations for what was to become, in 1967, the Outer Space Treaty. Though the idea of an international protocol governing actions after the detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence has never been on the agenda of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, space lawyers continue to think and to write about that subject. Recent advances in spaceflight, in particular the Voyager missions to the outer planets of our solar system, give the subject a new impetus. The present paper is intended to dwell upon present scientific thoughts about the likelihood that a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence will be detected in the near future. Although this likelihood appears to be remote, it seems, nevertheless, worthwhile that discussion continues in space legal circles regarding the formulation of an international protocol for activities following the detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence. Since the confirmed detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence could well be of crucial importance for the continuing existence of

  10. Intelligent life in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  11. Intelligent Life in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, Frank J

    2003-01-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the Modern Synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski, and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Second, I shall develop the Fermi Paradox: if they existed they'd be here. Third, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  12. Fermi's paradox, extraterrestrial life and the future of humanity: a Bayesian analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Verendel, Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    The Great Filter interpretation of Fermi's great silence asserts that $Npq$ is not a very large number, where $N$ is the number of potentially life-supporting planets in the observable universe, $p$ is the probability that a randomly chosen such planet develops intelligent life to the level of present-day human civilization, and $q$ is the conditional probability that it then goes on to develop a technological supercivilization visible all over the observable universe. Evidence suggests that $N$ is huge, which implies that $pq$ is very small. Hanson (1998) and Bostrom (2008) have argued that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would point towards $p$ not being small and therefore a very small $q$, which can be seen as bad news for humanity's prospects of colonizing the universe. Here we investigate whether a Bayesian analysis supports their argument, and the answer turns out to depend critically on the choice of prior distribution.

  13. Measuring the effect of an astrobiology course on student optimism regarding extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L.

    2017-07-01

    Students in an introductory undergraduate Astrobiology course were given a pre/post-test based on the Drake Equation in an attempt to measure changes in their perceptions regarding the prevalence of life in the Galaxy after taking the course. The results indicated that, after taking the course, the students were considerably more optimistic, by a 2 to 1 margin or more, about the prospect of habitable planets, the origin of life, and the evolution of intelligence in other planetary systems. The results suggest that, while it may not be the explicit goal of an astrobiology course to change student beliefs about the abundance or rarity of extraterrestrial life, such changes in opinion can and do occur.

  14. Fermi's paradox, extraterrestrial life and the future of humanity: a Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verendel, Vilhelm; Häggström, Olle

    2017-01-01

    The Great Filter interpretation of Fermi's great silence asserts that Npq is not a very large number, where N is the number of potentially life-supporting planets in the observable universe, p is the probability that a randomly chosen such planet develops intelligent life to the level of present-day human civilization, and q is the conditional probability that it then goes on to develop a technological supercivilization visible all over the observable universe. Evidence suggests that N is huge, which implies that pq is very small. Hanson (1998) and Bostrom (2008) have argued that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would point towards p not being small and therefore a very small q, which can be seen as bad news for humanity's prospects of colonizing the universe. Here we investigate whether a Bayesian analysis supports their argument, and the answer turns out to depend critically on the choice of prior distribution.

  15. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence in the 1960s: Science in Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the advancement of technology during the Second World War and the important scientific discoveries which have been made about the structure and components of the universe, scientists, especially in radio astronomy and physics, began seriously addressing the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence in the 1960s. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) quickly became one of the most controversial scientific issues in the post Second World War period. The controversy played out, not only in scientific and technical journals, but in newspapers and in popular literature. Proponents for SETI, including Frank Drake, Carl Sagan, and Philip Morrison, actively used a strategy of engagement with the public by using popular media to lobby for exposure and funding. This paper will examine the use of popular media by scientists interested in SETI to popularize and heighten public awareness and also to examine the effects of popularization on SETI's early development. My research has been generously supported by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  16. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence signals in astronomical spectra, including existing data

    CERN Document Server

    Borra, Ermanno F

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to make Astronomers aware that Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence can be carried out by analyzing standard astronomical spectra, including those they already have taken. Simplicity is the outstanding advantage of a search in spectra. The spectra can be analyzed by simple eye inspection or a few lines of code that uses Fourier transform software. Theory, confirmed by published experiments, shows that periodic signals in spectra can be easily generated by sending light pulses separated by constant time intervals. While part of this article, like all articles on searches for ETI, is highly speculative the basic physics is sound. In particular, technology now available on Earth could be used to send signals having the required energy to be detected at a target located 1000 light years away. Extraterrestrial Intelligence (ETI) could use these signals to make us aware of their existence. For an ETI, the technique would also have the advantage that the signals could be det...

  17. The SERENDIP III 70 cm Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Stuart; Korpela, Eric; Cobb, Jeff; Lebofsky, Matt; Werthimer, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We employed the SERENDIP III system with the Arecibo radio telescope to search for possible artificial extraterrestrial signals. Over the four years of this search we covered 93% of the sky observable at Arecibo at least once and 44% of the sky five times or more with a sensitivity of ~3E-25 W/m2. The data were sent to a 4 million channel spectrum analyzer. Information was obtained from over 1E+14 independent data points and the results were then analyzed via a suite of pattern detection algorithms to identify narrow band spectral power peaks that were not readily identifiable as the product of human activity. We separately selected data coincident with interesting nearby G dwarf stars that were encountered by chance in our sky survey for suggestions of excess power peaks. The peak power distributions in both these data sets were consistent with random noise. We report upper limits on possible signals from the stars investigated and provide examples of the most interesting candidates identified in the sky sur...

  18. Implications of extraterrestrial material on the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Stanley Miller's discovery of an abiotic organic synthesis relevant to the early earth provided a route to the scientific consideration of the origin of life. Since the 1950s, several thousands of experiments have shown that the precursor molecules to living biochemical systems could come about naturally. That these processes are active in the universe has been demonstrated by the detection of organic molecules in chondritic meteorites. Indeed, the very delivery of organics by extraterrestrial material may have been a viable source of important prebiotic molecules on the early earth. In this talk I will review the delivery of organics and other elements to the early earth, and will attempt to quantify the mass of material that might have been present from extraterrestrial sources on the early earth.The flux of prebiotic material on the early earth was influenced by the increase in delivery in the early history of the solar system, and by the sources available in the early solar system. Carbonaceous asteroids, comets, stony chondritic bodies, and differentiated asteroids each would have provided different materials to the early earth. The atmosphere would have provided a filter for some of this material, and the amount that reached the earth's surface would have depended on material strength, angle of entry, and atmospheric composition.Previously I reported that carbonaceous chondrites and micrometeorites would have provided a diffuse source of organic molecules on the early earth, whereas differentiated asteroids would have provided concentrated point sources for other materials, such as phosphorus (Pasek and Lauretta, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 2008). These results are reconsidered in the light of new ideas on the bombardment history of the early solar system, and with new considerations of the composition of source material that reached the earth.

  19. Astrobiology in culture: the search for extraterrestrial life as "science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Linda

    2012-10-01

    This analysis examines the social construction of authority, credibility, and legitimacy for exobiology/astrobiology and, in comparison, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), considering English-language conceptions of these endeavors in scientific culture and popular culture primarily in the United States. The questions that define astrobiology as a scientific endeavor are multidisciplinary in nature, and this endeavor is broadly appealing to public audiences as well as to the scientific community. Thus, it is useful to examine astrobiology in culture-in scientific culture, official culture, and popular culture. A researcher may explore science in culture, science as culture, by analyzing its rhetoric, the primary means that people use to construct their social realities-their cultural environment, as it were. This analysis follows this path, considering scientific and public interest in astrobiology and SETI and focusing on scientific and official constructions of the two endeavors. This analysis will also consider whether and how scientific and public conceptions of astrobiology and SETI, which are related but at the same time separate endeavors, converge or diverge and whether and how these convergences or divergences affect the scientific authority, credibility, and legitimacy of these endeavors.

  20. "Gulliver", an experiment for extraterrestrial life detection and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, G V; Heim, A H; Thompson, M F; Beem, D R; Horowitz, N H

    1964-01-01

    Based on the probability that extraterrestrial life is biochemically somewhat similar to life on Earth, a life detection experiment is being prepared to explore Mars. The experiment will be performed by an automated device which will carry a microbiological medium being developed to support a wide range of earth microorganisms. Selected ingredients of the medium will be labeled with radioactive isotopes. A sticky string, shot out from and reeled back into the device, will gather a sample of the Martian soil. It is hoped the radioactive atoms in the compounds will be metabolized by the unknown organisms in the soil and evolved in a labelled gas. The gas will be collected by a chemical "getter" and the radioactivity measured for transmission to Earth. A positive response from the test unit and a negative, or lesser, response from a poisoned control unit would constitute evidence of life. The device can also differentiate between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic metabolic activity. Data from field tests on Earth are presented.

  1. Life, Intelligence and Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Galantai, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Hypothetical existence of other universes gives an opportunity not only to extend the scope of physics, but the scope of biology, SETI, and METI as well. Some steps of the development of alien life concept shall be briefly summarized, then the multiverse proposal shall be used as a framework of interpretation to introduce an extended taxonomy of possible or at least imaginable types of life and intelligence based on either different biochemistry or physics. Some consequences shall be presented about SETI and METI in connection with both multiverse hypothesis and anthropic principle.

  2. Strategic considerations in SETI, and a microwave approach. [Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Plausible options in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and the need to reserve a suitable portion of the EM (microwave) spectrum for SETI research, are discussed. Reasons for selection of a portion of the spectrum, specifically the 'water hole' near 1.5 GHz in the terrestrial microwave window (1-25 GHz), are presented, and competition with various emitters for that band (existing satellite downlink transmissions) is discussed. SETI search policies and options are summarized in a table. Speculative considerations guiding initial phases of the SETI pursuit are discussed.

  3. The quest for extraterrestrial life: what about the viruses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale Warren

    2013-08-01

    Recently, viruses have been recognized as the most numerous entities and the primary drivers of evolution on Earth. Historically, viruses have been mostly ignored in the field of astrobiology due to the view that they are not alive in the classical sense and if encountered would not present risk due to their host-specific nature. What we currently know of viruses is that we are most likely to encounter them on other life-bearing planets; that while some are exquisitely host-specific, many viruses can utilize hundreds of different host species; that viruses are known to exist in our planet's most extreme environments; and that while many do not survive long outside their hosts, some can survive for extended periods, especially in the cold. In our quest for extraterrestrial life, we should be looking for viruses; and while any encountered may pose no risk, the possibility of an encounter with a virus capable of accessing multiple cell types exists, and any prospective contact with such an organism should be treated accordingly.

  4. The nations united in the scientific and political debate of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, Bess

    Since 1959 (Cocconi and Morrison), the item of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) has continuously been debated in scientific fora. Since the 1970's (Fasan, 1970; Reijnen 1976), political and legal experts have regularly written on the subject while, in 1977, the UNCOPUOS published a review on SETI (UN Doc. A/AC. 105/206, of 18.10.77) entitled: 'Messages to extraterrestrial Civilizations'. In the mid-1980 s, international agreements as well as legal principles relating to contact and communication with ETI were proposed (Acta Astronautica, 1990). Though there is, as yet, no confirmed evidence of an extra-terrestrial contact with Earth ever having been established, the search continues. The international political and legal framework as well as the contents of a potential terrestrial reply also remains an issue of continuous discussions (Acta Astronautica, 1990). The time seems ripe for a concerted effort by humankind to address the societal and, principally, political decisions to be taken in international governmental bodies equipped to deal with the multitude of scientific and political questions and implications to be solved. The political/legal questions will be investigated, the main remaining issues addressed, and suggestions presented for implementation of the issue in intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies. 'SETI essentially is a philosophical venture and, perhaps, the most important man has ever contemplated'. (Coffey, 1980).

  5. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence in Earth's Solar Transit Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, astronomers have detected thousands of planets and planet candidates by observing their periodic transits in front of their host stars. A related transit method, called transit spectroscopy, might soon allow studies of the chemical imprints of life in extrasolar planetary atmospheres. We here address the reciprocal question, namely, from where is Earth detectable by extrasolar observers using similar methods. Thus, we explore the Earth's transit zone (ETZ), the projection of a band around the Earth's ecliptic onto the celestial plane, where observers can detect Earth transits across the Sun. The ETZ is between $0.520^\\circ$ and $0.537^\\circ$ wide due to the non-circular Earth orbit. The restricted ETZ (rETZ), where the Earth transits the Sun less than 0.5 solar radii from its center, is about $0.262^\\circ$ wide. We compile a target list of 45 K and 37 G dwarf stars inside the rETZ and within 1 kiloparsec (about 3260 lightyears). We construct an analytic galactic disk model and find th...

  6. Discovery of extra-terrestrial life: assessment by scales of its importance and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almár, Iván; Race, Margaret S

    2011-02-13

    The Rio Scale accepted by the SETI Committee of the International Academy of Astronautics in 2002 is intended for use in evaluating the impact on society of any announcement regarding the discovery of evidence of extra-terrestrial (ET) intelligence. The Rio Scale is mathematically defined using three parameters (class of phenomenon, type of discovery and distance) and a δ factor, the assumed credibility of a claim. This paper proposes a new scale applicable to announcements alleging evidence of ET life within or outside our Solar System. The London Scale for astrobiology has mathematical structure and logic similar to the Rio Scale, and uses four parameters (life form, nature of phenomenon, type of discovery and distance) as well as a credibility factor δ to calculate a London Scale index (LSI) with values ranging from 0 to 10. The level of risk or biohazard associated with a purported discovery is evaluated independently of the LSI value and may be ranked in four categories. The combined information is intended to provide a scalar assessment of the scientific importance, validity and potential risks associated with putative evidence of ET life discovered on Earth, on nearby bodies in the Solar System or in our Galaxy.

  7. Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributions and the identification of terrestrial and extraterrestrial intelligence objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Haitun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical criteria used today in the analysis of radio signals suspected on reasonable extraterrestrial origin, are based on the assumption that all the radio signals of natural origin are described by a Gaussian distribution, which is traditionally understood as the Gauss distribution. Usually the normal (Gauss distribution is opposed to all the others. However, this is difficult to recognize the reasonable, because in nature there are many different distributions. The article offers a more realistic dichotomy: the Gaussian distributions, obeying the central limiting theorem, dominate in nature, while non-Gaussian ones, obeying the Gnedenko-Doeblin limiting theorem, are generated by intelligent beings. When identifying objects belonging to an extraterrestrial civilization described by a non-Gaussian distribution is preferable to use the rank form distributions. Using this criterion is associated with certain difficulties: (1 in nature there are also non-Gaussian distributions; (2 in their activities animals generate non-Gaussian distributions like humans; (3 the identification of non-Gaussian distributions in the rank form is hampered sometimes by the rank distortion effect of mathematical nature.

  8. Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity : implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Burkhardt, Jürgen; Cockell, Charles S; Cray, Jonathan A; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Fox-Powell, Mark; Kee, Terence P; Kminek, Gerhard; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Timson, David J; Voytek, Mary A; Westall, Frances; Yakimov, Michail M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-01-01

    Since a key requirement of known life forms is available water (water activity; aw ), recent searches for signatures of past life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have targeted places known to have contained significant quantities of biologically available water. However, early life

  9. Polyphase-discrete Fourier transform spectrum analysis for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, G. A.; Gulkis, S.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of a matched filter-detection system to a finite-duration continuous wave (CW) tone is compared with the sensitivities of a windowed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) system and an ideal bandpass filter-bank system. These comparisons are made in the context of the NASA Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) microwave observing project (MOP) sky survey. A review of the theory of polyphase-DFT filter banks and its relationship to the well-known windowed-DFT process is presented. The polyphase-DFT system approximates the ideal bandpass filter bank by using as few as eight filter taps per polyphase branch. An improvement in sensitivity of approx. 3 dB over a windowed-DFT system can be obtained by using the polyphase-DFT approach. Sidelobe rejection of the polyphase-DFT system is vastly superior to the windowed-DFT system, thereby improving its performance in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI).

  10. Extraterrestrial intelligence and human imagination SETI at the intersection of science, religion, and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Traphagan, John

    2015-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) represents one of the most significant crossroads at which the assumptions and methods of scientific inquiry come into direct contact with—and in many cases conflict with—those of religion. Indeed, at the core of SETI is the same question that motivates many interested in religion: What is the place of humanity in the universe? Both scientists involved with SETI (and in other areas) and those interested in and dedicated to some religious traditions are engaged in contemplating these types of questions, even if their respective approaches and answers differ significantly. This book explores this intersection with a focus on three core points: 1) the relationship between science and religion as it is expressed within the framework of SETI research, 2) the underlying assumptions, many of which are tacitly based upon cultural values common in American society, that have shaped the ways in which SETI researchers have conceptualized the nature of their endeavo...

  11. Sampling the Radio Transient Universe: Studies of Pulsars and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennamangalam, Jayanth

    The transient radio universe is a relatively unexplored area of astronomy, offering a variety of phenomena, from solar and Jovian bursts, to flare stars, pulsars, and bursts of Galactic and potentially even cosmological origin. Among these, perhaps the most widely studied radio transients, pulsars are fast-spinning neutron stars that emit radio beams from their magnetic poles. In spite of over 40 years of research on pulsars, we have more questions than answers on these exotic compact objects, chief among them the nature of their emission mechanism. Nevertheless, the wealth of phenomena exhibited by pulsars make them one of the most useful astrophysical tools. With their high densities, pulsars are probes of the nature of ultra-dense matter. Characterized by their high timing stability, pulsars can be used to verify the predictions of general relativity, discover planets around them, study bodies in the solar system, and even serve as an interplanetary (and possibly some day, interstellar) navigation aid. Pulsars are also used to study the nature of the interstellar medium, much like a flashlight illuminating airborne dust in a dark room. Studies of pulsars in the Galactic center can help answer questions about the massive black hole in the region and the star formation history in its vicinity. Millisecond pulsars in globular clusters are long-lived tracers of their progenitors, low-mass X-ray binaries, and can be used to study the dynamical history of those clusters. Another source of interest in radio transient astronomy is the hitherto undetected engineered signal from extraterrestrial intelligence. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is an ongoing attempt at discovering the presence of technological life elsewhere in the Galaxy. In this work, I present my forays into two aspects of the study of the radio transient universe---pulsars and SETI. Firstly, I describe my work on the luminosity function and population size of pulsars in the globular

  12. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  13. Fear, pandemonium, equanimity and delight: human responses to extra-terrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A

    2011-02-13

    How will people respond to the discovery of extra-terrestrial life? Potentially useful resources for addressing this question include historical prototypes, disaster studies and survey research. Reactions will depend on the interplay of the characteristics of the newly found life, the unfolding of the discovery, the context and content of the message and human information processing as shaped by biology, culture and psychology. Pre-existing images of extra-terrestrials as god-like, demonic, or artificial will influence first impressions that may prove highly resistant to change. Most probably people will develop comprehensive images based on minimal information and assess extra-terrestrials in the same ways that they assess one another. Although it is easy to develop frightening scenarios, finding microbial life in our Solar System or intercepting a microwave transmission from many light years away are less likely to be met with adverse reactions such as fear and pandemonium than with positive reactions such as equanimity and delight.

  14. EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE: SOME ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS OF METEORITES ANDTHEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR POSSIBLE EXTRATERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICALEVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin; Vaughn, Susan K.

    1959-12-07

    In order to decide the value and type of information to be obtained from outer space with regard to its pertinence for the evolution of life, a brief review is presented of the current status of our thinking on the origin of life on earth. This points up the particular kinds of chemicals whose presence, or absence, on other astral bodies might be significant. Heretofore, the only data available are the result of telescopic spectroscopy. We report here information indicating the presence in meteorites of complex organic materials, some of them apparently uniquely pertinent to life processes.

  15. The Berkeley piggyback SETI program - SERENDIP II. [Search for Extraterrestrial Radio Emission from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S.; Werthimer, D.; Lindsay, V.

    1988-01-01

    The SERENDIP (Search for Extraterrestrial Radio Emission from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations) II system is currently operating at NRAO's 300-ft telescope in Greenbank, WV. The paper reports on the characteristics of this system in combination with this telescope, as well as elements of an off-line analysis program which are intended to identify signals of special interest. The sensitivity and relative probability of acquisition are evaluated.

  16. An Opportunistic Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) with the Murchison Widefield Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, S. J.; Tremblay, C.; Walsh, A.; Urquhart, R.

    2016-08-01

    A spectral line image cube generated from 115 minutes of MWA data that covers a field of view of 400 sq, deg. around the Galactic Center is used to perform the first Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Our work constitutes the first modern SETI experiment at low radio frequencies, here between 103 and 133 MHz, paving the way for large-scale searches with the MWA and, in the future, the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array. Limits of a few hundred mJy beam-1 for narrowband emission (10 kHz) are derived from our data, across our 400 sq. deg. field of view. Within this field, 45 exoplanets in 38 planetary systems are known. We extract spectra at the locations of these systems from our image cube to place limits on the presence of narrow line emission from these systems. We then derive minimum isotropic transmitter powers for these exoplanets; a small handful of the closest objects (10 s of pc) yield our best limits of order 1014 W (Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power). These limits lie above the highest power directional transmitters near these frequencies currently operational on Earth. A SETI experiment with the MWA covering the full accessible sky and its full frequency range would require approximately one month of observing time. The MWA frequency range, its southern hemisphere location on an extraordinarily radio quiet site, its very large field of view, and its high sensitivity make it a unique facility for SETI.

  17. An Opportunistic Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) with the Murchison Widefield Array

    CERN Document Server

    Tingay, S J; Walsh, A; Urquhart, R

    2016-01-01

    A spectral line image cube generated from 115 minutes of MWA data that covers a field of view of 400 sq. deg. around the Galactic Centre is used to perform the first Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) with the Murchison Widefield Array. Our work constitutes the first modern SETI experiment at low radio frequencies, here between 103 and 133 MHz, paving the way for large-scale searches with the MWA and, in the future, the low frequency Square Kilometre Array. Limits of a few hundred mJy/beam for narrow band emission (10 kHz) are derived from our data, across our 400 sq. deg. field of view. Within this field, 45 exoplanets in 38 planetary systems are known. We extract spectra at the locations of these systems from our image cube, to place limits on the presence of narrow line emission from these systems. We then derive minimum isotropic transmitter powers for these exoplanets; a small handful of the closest objects (10s of pc) yield our best limits of order $10^{14}$ W (Equivalent Isotropic Radiated...

  18. Supporting Research and Technology Activities for a Microwave Observing Program to Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill; Backus, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Curriculum materials based on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) were developed for grades 3 through 9 science classes. The project was supported in part by NASA. Six teacher's guides, plus ancillary visuals, addressing topics in astronomy, biology, chemistry, geosciences, and physics as well as mathematics, social sciences, and language arts, were designed by a team of teachers, scientists. curriculum developers, and artists. First drafts were piloted by 10 design team teachers; revised drafts were field tested by 109 teachers in 30 states. Extensive feedback from these teachers and their students and reviews by scientists were used to revise materials prior to submission to the publisher. The field test teachers overall ranking of all guides (data from individual lesson feedback forms) was 431 on a one low to five high scale; 85% found the content appropriate to course and grade level and 75% indicated they had no reservations about using the materials again or recommending them to colleagues. The ratio of liked to disliked student responses (from 1305 student letters) was 70:30. Most recommendations from the teachers, students, and science reviewers were incorporated in the final versions for the guides, published by Libraries Unlimited/Teacher Ideas Press, 1995.

  19. Search For Evidence Of Extraterrestrial Life: Societal Issues And Concerns A Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M.; Schwehm, G.; Horneck, G.

    2003-04-01

    The search for evidence of extraterrestrial life is an important scientific theme that fascinates the public and encourages interest in space exploration, both within the solar system and beyond. The rapid pace of mass media communication allows the public to share mission results and new discoveries almost simultaneously with the scientific community. As the science community continues its multi-pronged efforts to detect evidence of extraterrestrial life, it must be mindful of more than just science and technology. It is important to understand public perceptions, misperceptions, beliefs, concerns, and potential legal complications associated with the search for life beyond our home planet. This session with invited panelists is designed to provide brief overviews of some important non-scientific areas with the potential to impact future missions and astrobiological exploration. The brief presentations will be followed by open discussion and audience participation.

  20. The game of active search for extra-terrestrial intelligence: breaking the `Great Silence'

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vladar, Harold P.

    2013-01-01

    The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been performed principally as a one-way survey, listening of radio frequencies across the Milky Way and other galaxies. However, scientists have engaged in an active messaging only rarely. This suggests the simple rationale that if other civilizations exist and take a similar approach to ours, namely listening but not broadcasting, the result is a silent universe. A simple game theoretical model, the prisoner's dilemma, explains this situation: each player (civilization) can passively search (defect), or actively search and broadcast (cooperate). In order to maximize the payoff (or, equivalently, minimize the risks) the best strategy is not to broadcast. In fact, the active search has been opposed on the basis that it might be dangerous to expose ourselves. However, most of these ideas have not been based on objective arguments, and ignore accounting of the possible gains and losses. Thus, the question stands: should we perform an active search? I develop a game-theoretical framework where civilizations can be of different types, and explicitly apply it to a situation where societies are either interested in establishing a two-way communication or belligerent and in urge to exploit ours. The framework gives a quantitative solution (a mixed-strategy), which is how frequent we should perform the active SETI. This frequency is roughly proportional to the inverse of the risk, and can be extremely small. However, given the immense amount of stars being scanned, it supports active SETI. The model is compared with simulations, and the possible actions are evaluated through the San Marino scale, measuring the risks of messaging.

  1. Synthetic Biology and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Fujishima, K.

    2014-03-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are reevolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids. This should lead to a more universal theory of the origin of life based on materials found commonly in meteorites and other pre-biotic settings.

  2. Extraterrestrial Organic Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Extraterrestrially delivered organics in the origin of cellular life. Various processes leading to the emergence of cellular life from organics delivered from space to earth or other planetary bodies in the solar system will be reviewed. The focus will be on: (1) self-assembly of amphiphilic material to vesicles and other structures, such as micelles and multilayers, and its role in creating environments suitable for chemical catalysis, (2) a possible role of extraterrestrial delivery of organics in the formation of the simplest bioenergetics (3) mechanisms leading from amino acids or their precursors to simple peptides and, subsequently, to the evolution of metabolism. These issues will be discussed from two opposite points of view: (1) Which molecules could have been particularly useful in the protobiological evolution; this may provide focus for searching for these molecules in interstellar media. (2) Assuming that a considerable part of the inventory of organic matter on the early earth was delivered extraterrestrially, what does relative abundance of different organics in space tell us about the scenario leading to the origin of life.

  3. Synthetic Biology and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  4. The probability of extraterrestrial life; La probabilidad de vida extraterrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A

    1991-06-15

    Since beginning of times, human beings need to live in the company of other humans, beings developing what we now know as human societies. According to this idea there has been speculation, specially in the present century, about the possibility that human society has company of the other thinking creatures living in other planets somewhere in our galaxy. In this talk we will only use reliable data from scientific observers in order to establish a probability. We will explain the analysis on the physico-chemical principles which allow the evolution of organic molecules in our planet and establish these as the forerunners of life in our planet. On the other hand, the physical process governing stars, their characteristics and their effects on planets will also be explained as well as the amount of energy that a planet receives, its mass, atmosphere and kind of orbit. Finally, considering all this information, a probability of life from outer space will be given. (Author)

  5. Finding extraterrestrial life using ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Snellen, Ignas; Poole, Rudolf Le; Brogi, Matteo; Birkby, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanet observations promise one day to unveil the presence of extraterrestrial life. Atmospheric compounds in strong chemical disequilibrium would point to large-scale biological activity just as oxygen and methane do in the Earth's atmosphere. The cancellation of both the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin missions means that it is unlikely that a dedicated space telescope to search for biomarker gases in exoplanet atmospheres will be launched within the next 25 years. Here we show that ground-based telescopes provide a strong alternative for finding biomarkers in exoplanet atmospheres through transit observations. Recent results on hot Jupiters show the enormous potential of high-dispersion spectroscopy to separate the extraterrestrial and telluric signals making use of the Doppler shift of the planet. The transmission signal of oxygen from an Earth-twin orbiting a small red dwarf star is only a factor 3 smaller than that of carbon monoxide recently detected in the hot Jupiter tau Bootis b, albeit such...

  6. Carl Sagan and Joseph Shklovsky: Intelligent Life in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Vladimir

    J. S. Shklovsky and Carl Sagan played an outstanding role in modern astronomy. Their names are well known not only to professional astronomers, but also to millions of educated people in many countries, which are interested in modern state of science research. Among these trends of modern science, which are difficult to define, are such problems, as the creation of Solar system, the origin of life on Earth, the evolution of living organisms on Earth from the simplest viruses to Homo Sapiens, the evolution of intelligence and technology. Finally, both outstanding scientists were deeply interested in the problem of SETI (Search Extraterrestrial Intelligence), i.e. search of extraterrestrial civilizations and methods of making contacts with them. And both scientists were high professionals in their fields. Joseph Shklovsky was a theoretical astronomer in all fields of modern astronomy (geophysics and physics of the upper atmosphere of the Earth, Sun and Solar Corona, Interplanetary Medium and Solar Wind, Interstellar Medium, Supernova and their remnants, the Galaxy and galaxies, Quasars and Cosmology). There is hardly a field in modern astrophysics (except perhaps the theory of the interior structure of stars), where Joseph Shklovsky has not l a bright stamp of his talent…

  7. On the abundance of extraterrestrial life after the Kepler mission

    CERN Document Server

    Wandel, Amri

    2014-01-01

    The data recently accumulated by the Kepler mission have demonstrated that small planets are quite common and that a significant fraction of all stars may have an Earth-like planet within their Habitable Zone. These results are combined with a Drake-equation formalism to derive the space density of biotic planets as a function of the relatively modest uncertainty in the astronomical data and of the (yet unknown) probability for the evolution of biotic life, Fb. I suggest that Fb may be estimated by future spectral observations of exoplanet biomarkers. If Fb is in the range 0.001 -- 1 then a biotic planet may be expected within 10 -- 100 light years from Earth. Extending the biotic results to advanced life I derive expressions for the distance to putative civilizations in terms of two additional Drake parameters - the probability for evolution of a civilization, Fc, and its average longevity. For instance, assuming optimistic probability values (Fb Fc 1) and a broadcasting longevity of a few thousand years, th...

  8. The detection of extra-terrestrial life and the consequences for science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Martin; Zarnecki, John C

    2011-02-13

    Astronomers are now able to detect planets orbiting stars other than the Sun where life may exist, and living generations could see the signatures of extra-terrestrial life being detected. Should it turn out that we are not alone in the Universe, it will fundamentally affect how humanity understands itself--and we need to be prepared for the consequences. A Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society in London, 6-9 Carlton House Terrace, on 25-26 January 2010, addressed not only the scientific but also the societal agenda, with presentations covering a large diversity of topics.

  9. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  10. [Extrasolar terrestrial planets and possibility of extraterrestrial life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Shigeru

    2003-12-01

    Recent development of research on extrasolar planets are reviewed. About 120 extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets have been discovered through the observation of Doppler shift in the light of their host stars that is caused by acceleration due to planet orbital motions. Although the extrasolar planets so far observed may be limited to gas giant planets and their orbits differ from those of giant planets in our Solar system (Jupiter and Saturn), the theoretically predicted probability of existence of extrasolar terrestrial planets that can have liquid water ocean on their surface is comparable to that of detectable gas giant planets. Based on the number of extrasolar gas giants detected so far, about 100 life-sustainable planets may exist within a range of 200 light years. Indirect observation of extrasolar terrestrial planets would be done with space telescopes within several years and direct one may be done within 20 years. The latter can detect biomarkers on these planets as well.

  11. "Nano" Scale Biosignatures and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Robert, F.; Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Selo, M.; Walter, M. R.; Sugitani, K.; Allwood, A.; Mimura, K.; Gibson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    A critical step in the search for remnants of potential life forms on other planets lies in our ability to recognize indigenous fragments of ancient microbes preserved in some of Earth's oldest rocks. To this end, we are building a database of nano-scale chemical and morphological characteristics of some of Earth's oldest organic microfossils. We are primarily using the new technology of Nano-Secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) which provides in-situ, nano-scale elemental analysis of trace quantities of organic residues. The initial step was to characterize element composition of well-preserved, organic microfossils from the late Proterozoic (0.8 Ga) Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. Results from that work provide morphologic detail and nitrogen/carbon ratios that appear to reflect the well-established biological origin of these 0.8 Ga fossils.

  12. Viable Bacteria in Antarctic Soils and - Two Models for Extraterrestrial Search of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soina, Vera; Vorobyova, Elena; Lysak, Ludmila; Mergelov, Nikita

    Antarctic soils and permafrost are the most convenient models for search life preservation in extraterrestrial cryogenic environment. Study of life activity and preservation of prokaryotes in such extreme environment allow assuming, that those habitats must be viewed as two models for astrobiology extrapolations. Antarctic permafrost due to long term freezing can be regarded as the most stable environment for life preservation and expanding of potential physiological cell activity due to stabilization of cell structures and biomolecules. Antarctic soils seem to be not less attractive as a model for study of life on the surface of Antarctic rocks, but in contrast to permafrost are characterized by less stable external factors. Presumably, it is due to changing cycles of freezing and thawing and high doses of UV radiation, that make such biotopes more extreme for microbial survival. A combination of culture- depended and - independent techniques, including SEM and TEM methods were used to characterize bacteria community in earlier not investigated Antarctic soils in the oases of Larsemann Hills (East Antarctic Coast). Several important characteristics of Antarctic soil and permafrost bacteria as models for possible signs of life in extraterrestrial habitats are discussed (cytomorphological and physiological characteristics of bacteria both in situ, and cells isolated from permafrost and exposed to various external stress factors). Our data indicate that significant discrepancy between indexes of total and viable number of cells and irregularity of such indexes in horizons of developing soils and permafrost sediments can be explained by specification of physical and chemical processes in those habitats. Also, in Antarctic and extraterrestrial investigations is important to take into account the leading role of microbial biofilms, where microorganisms are intimately associated with each other and mineral particles through binding and inclusion within exopolymer matrix

  13. Cathodoluminescence : an imaging technique for the search of extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramboz, C.; Rubert, Y.; Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Lerouge, C.

    2012-04-01

    Solids irradiated by a 10-20 keV electron beam emit ligth in the UV-visible range, which is called cathodoluminescence (CL). CL imagery is a powerful tool for visualizing minerals and their internal structures (lattice defects, zoning). For example, terrestrial calcite, either of sedimentary or biogenic origin, often display a bright orange CL, as a result of the incorporation of trace Mn2+ in its lattice. Aragonite can also be discriminated from calcite by its green CL. Carbonates are a major target for the search of life on Mars, and CL imagery could contribute to reveal carbonates in situ. Thomas et al. [1] have validated the concept of an electron lamp to make CL imagery of a rock surface placed in a martian CO2 atmosphere. We present 2 examples of terrestrial bacterial microstructures that are revealed by CL. (1) In Sinemurian sediments from the Montmiral borehole (Valence Basin, France), banded wavy calcite in contact with pyrite represents fossilized biofilms of sulfato-reducing bacteria, as confirmed by the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite ~+36 %0 PDB. (2) At l'Ile Crémieux, north of the Valence basin, a dense filamentous microbial/fungal community with a bright orange CL signature is embedded in vuggy calcite from a tectonic vein. The mat is anchored 1-2 mm deep in the oolitic veinwall and emerges at right angle in the 'open' fracture space. Finally, carbonate vesicles and exhalite crusts from the Svalbard basalt in Groendland, with orange CL, are shown as analogues to carbonates from the martian ALH84001 igneous meteorite. [1]Thomas et al. (2009) in A. Gucsik (Ed.) "Cathodoluminescence and Its Application in the Planetary Sciences"

  14. Intelligent life in the universe principles and requirements behind its emergence

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmschneider, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses all scientists and others interested in the origins, development and fate of intelligent species in the observable part of our universe. In particular, the author scrutinizes what kind of information about extraterrestrial intelligent life can be inferred from our own biological, cultural and scientific evolution and the likely future of mankind. The first part of the book provides the necessary background information from space and life sciences, thus making the book also accessible to students and the scientifically educated public. In this second edition of Peter Ulmschn

  15. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  16. Mainstream Media and Social Media Reactions to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morris

    The rise of online social media (such as Facebook and Twitter) has overturned traditional top-down and stovepiped channels for mass communications. As social media have risen, traditional media sources have been steadily crippled by economic problems, resulting in a loss of capabilities and credibility. Information can propagate rapidly without the inclusion of traditional editorial checks and controls. Mass communications strategies for any type of major announcement must account for this new media landscape. Scientists announcing the discovery of extraterrestrial life will trigger a multifaceted and unpredictable percolation of the story through the public sphere. They will also potentially struggle with misinformation, rumours and hoaxes. The interplay of official announcements with the discussions of an extraterrestrial discovery on social media has parallels with traditional theories of mass communications. A wide spectrum of different messages is likely to be received by different segments of the community, based on their usage patterns of various media and online communications. The presentation and interpretation of a discovery will be hotly debated and contested within online media environments. In extreme cases, this could lead to "editorial wars" on collaborative media projects as well as cyber-attacks on certain online services and individuals. It is unlikely that a clear and coherent message can be propagated to a near-universal level. This has the potential to contribute to inappropriate reactions in some sectors of the community. Preventing unnecessary panic will be a priority. In turn, the monitoring of online and social media will provide a useful tool for assessing public reactions to a discovery of extraterrestrial life. This will help to calibrate public communications strategies following in the wake of an initial announcement.

  17. FINDING EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE USING GROUND-BASED HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snellen, I. A. G.; Le Poole, R.; Brogi, M.; Birkby, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); De Kok, R. J. [SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584-CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-02-20

    Exoplanet observations promise one day to unveil the presence of extraterrestrial life. Atmospheric compounds in strong chemical disequilibrium would point to large-scale biological activity just as oxygen and methane do in the Earth's atmosphere. The cancellation of both the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin missions means that it is unlikely that a dedicated space telescope to search for biomarker gases in exoplanet atmospheres will be launched within the next 25 years. Here we show that ground-based telescopes provide a strong alternative for finding biomarkers in exoplanet atmospheres through transit observations. Recent results on hot Jupiters show the enormous potential of high-dispersion spectroscopy to separate the extraterrestrial and telluric signals, making use of the Doppler shift of the planet. The transmission signal of oxygen from an Earth-twin orbiting a small red dwarf star is only a factor of three smaller than that of carbon monoxide recently detected in the hot Jupiter {tau} Booetis b, albeit such a star will be orders of magnitude fainter. We show that if Earth-like planets are common, the planned extremely large telescopes can detect oxygen within a few dozen transits. Ultimately, large arrays of dedicated flux-collector telescopes equipped with high-dispersion spectrographs can provide the large collecting area needed to perform a statistical study of life-bearing planets in the solar neighborhood.

  18. The introduction of an additional probability coefficient in evaluating the possibility of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, H.

    An hypothesis is presented concerning the crucial influence of tides on the evolutionary transition from aquatic to land animal forms. The hypothesis suggests that the evolution of higher forms of life on a planet also depends on the existence of a planet-moon system in which the mass ratio of both constituents must be approximately equal to that of the earth-moon system, which is 81:1. The hypothesis is taken into account in the form of the probability factor fb in Drake's formula for estimating the presumed extraterrestrial civilizations in Milky Way which may conceivably make contact.

  19. From Fossils to Astrobiology Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    CERN Document Server

    Seckbach, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    From Fossils to Astrobiology reviews developments in paleontology and geobiology that relate to the rapidly-developing field of Astrobiology, the study of life in the Universe. Many traditional areas of scientific study, including astronomy, chemistry and planetary science, contribute to Astrobiology, but the study of the record of life on planet Earth is critical in guiding investigations in the rest of the cosmos. In this varied book, expert scientists from 15 countries present peer-reviewed, stimulating reviews of paleontological and astrobiological studies. The overviews of established and emerging techniques for studying modern and ancient microorganisms on Earth and beyond, will be valuable guides to evaluating biosignatures which could be found in the extraterrestrial surface or subsurface within the Solar System and beyond. This volume also provides discussion on the controversial reports of "nanobacteria" in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. It is a unique volume among Astrobiology monographs in focusi...

  20. The nature of fossil bacteria: A guide to the search for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances

    1999-07-01

    In an attempt to establish reliable criteria for the identification of potential fossil life in extraterrestrial materials, the fossilizable characteristics of bacteria, namely, size, shape, cell wall texture, association, and colony formation, are described, and an overview is given of the ways in which fossil bacteria are preserved (as compressions in fine-grained sediments; preservation in amber; permineralized by silica; replacement by minerals such as silica, pyrite, Fe/Mn oxides, calcite, phosphate, and siderite; or as molds in minerals). The problem of confounding minerally replaced bacteria with non biological structures having a bacterial morphology is addressed. Examples of fossilized bacteria from the Early Archaean through to the Recent are used to illustrate the various modes of preservation and the morphology of fossil bacteria.

  1. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  2. Microbial fuel cells applied to the metabolically based detection of extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Mauas, Pablo J D; Cortón, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    Since the 1970s, when the Viking spacecrafts carried out experiments to detect microbial metabolism on the surface of Mars, the search for nonspecific methods to detect life in situ has been one of the goals of astrobiology. It is usually required that a methodology detect life independently from its composition or form and that the chosen biological signature point to a feature common to all living systems, such as the presence of metabolism. In this paper, we evaluate the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the detection of microbial life in situ. MFCs are electrochemical devices originally developed as power electrical sources and can be described as fuel cells in which the anode is submerged in a medium that contains microorganisms. These microorganisms, as part of their metabolic process, oxidize organic material, releasing electrons that contribute to the electric current, which is therefore proportional to metabolic and other redox processes. We show that power and current density values measured in MFCs that use microorganism cultures or soil samples in the anode are much larger than those obtained with a medium free of microorganisms or sterilized soil samples, respectively. In particular, we found that this is true for extremophiles, which have been proposed as potential inhabitants of extraterrestrial environments. Therefore, our results show that MFCs have the potential to be used for in situ detection of microbial life.

  3. The longevity of habitable planets and the development of intelligent life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Fergus

    2017-07-01

    Why did the emergence of our species require a timescale similar to the entire habitable period of our planet? Our late appearance has previously been interpreted by Carter (2008) as evidence that observers typically require a very long development time, implying that intelligent life is a rare occurrence. Here we present an alternative explanation, which simply asserts that many planets possess brief periods of habitability. We also propose that the rate-limiting step for the formation of observers is the enlargement of species from an initially microbial state. In this scenario, the development of intelligent life is a slow but almost inevitable process, greatly enhancing the prospects of future search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) experiments such as the Breakthrough Listen project.

  4. Surface biosignatures of exo-earths: remote detection of extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Siddharth; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G; Kent, Ryan; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Rothschild, Lynn

    2015-03-31

    Exoplanet discovery has made remarkable progress, with the first rocky planets having been detected in the central star's liquid water habitable zone. The remote sensing techniques used to characterize such planets for potential habitability and life rely solely on our understanding of life on Earth. The vegetation red edge from terrestrial land plants is often used as a direct signature of life, but it occupies only a small niche in the environmental parameter space that binds life on present-day Earth and has been widespread for only about 460 My. To more fully exploit the diversity of the one example of life known, we measured the spectral characteristics of 137 microorganisms containing a range of pigments, including ones isolated from Earth's most extreme environments. Our database covers the visible and near-infrared to the short-wavelength infrared (0.35-2.5 µm) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and is made freely available from biosignatures.astro.cornell.edu. Our results show how the reflectance properties are dominated by the absorption of light by pigments in the visible portion and by strong absorptions by the cellular water of hydration in the infrared (up to 2.5 µm) portion of the spectrum. Our spectral library provides a broader and more realistic guide based on Earth life for the search for surface features of extraterrestrial life. The library, when used as inputs for modeling disk-integrated spectra of exoplanets, in preparation for the next generation of space- and ground-based instruments, will increase the chances of detecting life.

  5. The limits of extremophilic life expanded under extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, C.; Dalmaso, G.; Teixeira, L.; Bendia, A.; Rosado, A.

    2012-09-01

    Astrobiology is a brand new area of science that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the universe. Several hypotheses to explain life in the cosmic context have been developed throughout human history, but only now technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are found universally. As these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still a challenge to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years-old solar system was born within a 10-billion years-old universe. Thus, simple cells like microorganisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or other suitable molecular places in the universe. One hypothesis to explain the origin of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the universe billions of years ago, traveling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets like ours. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile microorganisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is ongoing at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics to test whether microbial life could withstand those inhospitable environments. Ultra-resistant (known or novel ones) microorganisms collected from terrestrial extreme environments, extremophiles, have been exposed to intense radiation sources simulating solar radiation (at synchrotron accelerators), capable of emitting in a few hours radiation equivalent of million years accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal the interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  6. Mini-Review: Probing the limits of extremophilic life in extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Claudia A. S.; Dalmaso, Gabriel Z. L.; Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Bendia, Amanda G.; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Galante, Douglas; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Azúa-Bustos, Armando; Pelizzari, Vivian H.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2012-10-01

    Astrobiology is a relatively recent scientific field that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the Universe. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain life in the cosmic context throughout human history, but only now, technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are ubiquitous. How these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years old Solar system appeared in a 10 billion years old Universe. Thus, simple cells such as micro-organisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or in other suitable places in the Universe. One hypothesis related to the appearance of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the Universe billions of years ago, travelling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets such as Earth. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile micro-organisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is in progress at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics (UFRJ, Brazil) to test whether microbial life could withstand inhospitable environments. Radiation-resistant (known or novel ones) micro-organisms collected from extreme terrestrial environments have been exposed (at synchrotron accelerators) to intense radiation sources simulating Solar radiation, capable of emitting radiation in a few hours equivalent to many years of accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal an interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  7. Widening Perspectives: The Intellectual and Social Benefits of Astrobiology (Regardless of Whether Extraterrestrial Life is Discovered or Not)

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is usually defined as the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. As such it is inherently interdisciplinary and cannot help but engender a worldview infused by cosmic and evolutionary perspectives. Both these attributes of the study of astrobiology are, and will increasingly prove to be, beneficial to society regardless of whether extraterrestrial life is discovered or not.

  8. Unknown caller: can we effectively manage the announcement of discovery of extraterrestrial life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrelle, Gordon M.

    2015-10-01

    The definitive discovery of another form of life from beyond Earth will answer one of our most fundamental questions: Are we alone in the Universe? This announcement will be the most significant in history. It will have impact on every facet of our lives and affect everyone on Earth. Ensuring the announcement is handled properly represents an opportunity to unify government, industrial, and scientific resources to work together on a global scale issue. The purpose of the present paper is to understand whether we have the overall strategy, management structures and process disciplines in place on a global scale to handle an announcement of this magnitude. The research methodology included review and analysis of peer-reviewed work on the topic, publications from appropriate scientific and policy organizations, and public statements from several acknowledged experts in the field of astrobiology and extraterrestrial communications. The 1996 case of the announcement of possible life from Martian meteorite ALH84001 was also analysed. The findings of the paper are multiple deficiencies exist in the ability to manage this problem globally in an integrated fashion across borders, institutional boundaries, and through the media. High-level recommendations are offered to address major identified gaps.

  9. Extraterrestrial intelligence and doomsday: A critical assessment of the no-outsider requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Milan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Doomsday Argument has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. One of the suggested ways to make this argument ineffective is the so-called No-Outsider requirement, indicating that the presence of other intelligent observers (’aliens’ beside humans invalidates the reasoning leading to the apocalyptic conclusion. Obviously, this argumentation bears relevance not only to the effectiveness of the Doomsday Argument, but also to the issues like the relativization of the reference class in anthropic reasoning, transhumanism and the SETI theory. Hereby we critically investigate the No-Outsider Requirement and conclude that it is either fallacious or irrelevant.

  10. Extraterrestrial intelligence and doomsday: a critical assessment of the no-outsider requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirkovic, M. M.; Milosevic-Zdjelar, V.

    The so-called Doomsday Argument has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. One of the suggested ways to make this argument ineffective is the so-called No-Outsider requirement, indicating that the presence of other intelligent observers ('aliens') beside humans invalidates the reasoning leading to the apocalyptic conclusion. Obviously, this argumentation bears relevance not only to the effectiveness of the Doomsday Argument, but also to the issues like the relativization of the reference class in anthropic reasoning, transhumanism and the SETI theory. Hereby we criticically investigate the No-Outsider Requirement and conclude that it is either fallacious or irrelevant.

  11. Coping Intelligence: Efficient Life Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Coping Intelligence is defined as efficient individual ways of managing life stress. This paper presents a new assessment instrument named Coping IQ (CIQ; Coping Intelligence Questionnaire). A measure is based on the Multidimensional Positive Coping Model, which includes three cross-cutting parameters that characterize coping strategy as efficient or inefficient, emotional, cognitive or behavioral, and active or passive. Results of the factor analysis verified a basic two-factor structure of the Coping Intelligence with the alternative solutions for efficient and inefficient coping strategies characterized via three basic modalities. The validity of the Coping IQ instrument showed an internal consistency ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. The unified methodology that underlies the new concept of Coping Intelligence, as well as Coping IQ assessment, is applicable for studying both clinical and general populations. CIQ parameters might serve as useful feedback while assessing changes in individual coping repertoire, for CIQ measures strategies that can be modified as a result of life experiences or educational training. Based on the study findings, Coping Intelligence is further defined by a broad repertoire of life skills required to solve successfully everyday stress and life adversities in order to achieve desired goals and maintain physical, mental, and social well-being.

  12. Inhabited or Uninhabited? Pitfalls in the Interpretation of Possible Chemical Signatures of Extraterrestrial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Fox

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The “Rare Earth” hypothesis—put forward by Ward and Brownlee in their 2000 book of the same title—states that prokaryote-type organisms may be common in the universe but animals and higher plants are exceedingly rare. If this idea is correct, the search for extraterrestrial life is essentially the search for microorganisms. Various indicators may be used to detect extant or extinct microbial life beyond Earth. Among them are chemical biosignatures, such as biomolecules and stable isotope ratios. The present minireview focuses on the major problems associated with the identification of chemical biosignatures. Two main types of misinterpretation are distinguished, namely false positive and false negative results. The former can be caused by terrestrial biogenic contaminants or by abiotic products. Terrestrial contamination is a common problem in space missions that search for biosignatures on other planets and moons. Abiotic organics can lead to false positive results if erroneously interpreted as biomolecules, but also to false negatives, for example when an abiotic source obscures a less productive biological one. In principle, all types of putative chemical biosignatures are prone to misinterpretation. Some, however, are more reliable (“stronger” than others. These include: (i homochiral polymers of defined length and sequence, comparable to proteins and polynucleotides; (ii enantiopure compounds; (iii the existence of only a subset of molecules when abiotic syntheses would produce a continuous range of molecules; the proteinogenic amino acids constitute such a subset. These considerations are particularly important for life detection missions to solar system bodies such as Mars, Europa, and Enceladus.

  13. Extremophilic iron-reducing bacteria: Their implications for possible life in extraterrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Liu, S.V.; Zhang, C.; Palumbo, A.V.; Phelps, T.J.

    1998-06-01

    Iron reduction is believed to be an early form of respiration and iron-reducing bacteria might have evolved very early on Earth. To support this hypothesis, the authors began to search for both thermophilic and psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria because iron-reducing capacity may be a widely distributed trait if ancestral microorganisms include extremophilic iron-reducing bacteria. To date, they have obtained thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing and magnetite-forming enrichment cultures from geologically and hydrologically isolated, millions of years-old deep terrestrial subsurface samples. Three dominant bacteria were identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Phylogenetical analysis indicated that these bacteria were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanoliticus. Two pure thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria have been isolated and characterized from these enrichments, they also are able to degrade cellulose and xylan. Geological evidence indicated that these bacteria were separated from modern organisms for about 200 million years, and they are the oldest isolated bacteria available now. Evolutionary sequence analysis showed that the 16S rRNA genes evolved extremely slowly in these bacteria. In addition, the authors have obtained about 30 psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria in samples from Siberia and Alaska permafrost soils, Pacific marine sediments and Hawaii deep sea water. These bacteria were also able to reduce other heavy metals. The isolation of both thermophilic and psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria from surface and subsurface environments has significant implications for microbial evolution and for studying the origin of life in extraterrestrial environments.

  14. Until the sun dies. [Book on origin of universe, life and intelligence on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, R.

    1977-01-01

    This book gives a popular account of the forces that have shaped human beings into their present form and created the power of human intelligence, and considers the prospects for intelligent life on other planets in the solar system and elsewhere in the universe. The chain of events leading from the big bang to the origin of life on earth is reviewed together with the observations that established the expansion of the universe. Philosophical difficulties with the concept of a universe that has both a beginning and an end are pondered, steady-state cosmology is briefly explained, and the discovery of the relict microwave background is discussed. The formation of the solar system is recounted along with the scientific view of the origin of terrestrial life. Attention is given to the origin of cells and the evolution of oxygen-breathing life, multicelled creatures, armored animals, fishes, amphibians, early reptiles, dinosaurs, and mammals. The development of mammalian intelligence is traced from the early tree dwellers through monkeys, apes, ape men, humanoid tool makers, and primitive members of the genus Homo, to Homo sapiens. Possible evidence for the existence of life on Mars is evaluated together with prospects for communication or other contact with extraterrestrial intelligence.

  15. Microbial Contamination of Allende and Murchison Carbonaceous Chondrites; Developing a Protocol for Life Detection in Extraterrestrial Materials Using Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A.; Whitby, C.; Griffin, C.; Toporski, J. K. W.; Westall, F.; Saunders, J. R.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The arguments used to refute the McKay et al., (1996) hypothesis of possible Martian life in ALH84001 failed to use contamination of the meteorite as a source. This has worrying implications for our ability to detect terrestrial microbiota in meteorites and therefore any potential extraterrestrial biosignatures in both meteorites and possible returned samples. We report on imaging and microbial culturing of both Allende and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites and on the use of molecular biology techniques on a sample of Allende. Contaminating fungi and bacteria were observed (in the case of Murchison) and cultured from both meteorites. DNA was successfully extracted and subsequent PCR showed the presence of both bacterial and fungal DNA although no Archaea were detected. These results show that it is possible to use molecular biological techniques on very small quantities (300 mg) of extraterrestrial material.

  16. Enantioselective separation of amino acids as biomarkers indicating life in extraterrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara

    2013-10-01

    Traces of prebiotic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins, are excellent biomarkers that could provide evidence of extinct or extant life in extra-terrestrial environments. In particular, characterization of the enantiomeric excess of amino acids gives relevant information about the biotic or abiotic origin of molecules, because it is generally assumed that life elsewhere could be based on either L or D amino acids, but not both. The analytical procedures used in in-situ space missions for chiral discrimination of amino acids must meet severe requirements imposed by flight conditions: short analysis time, low energy consumption, robustness, storage for long periods under extreme conditions, high efficiency and sensitivity, automation, and remote-control operation. Such methods are based on gas chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis, usually coupled with mass spectrometry; of these, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the only such combination yet used in space missions. Preliminary in-situ sample derivatization is required before GC-MS analysis to convert amino acids into volatile and thermally stable compounds. The silylation reagent most commonly used, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide, is unsuitable for detection of homochirality, and alternative derivatization techniques have been developed that preserve the stereochemical configuration of the original compounds and are compatible with spaceflight conditions. These include the reagent N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal, which has already been used in the Rosetta mission, a mixture of alkyl chloroformate, ethanol, and pyridine, a mixture of perfluorinated anhydrides and perfluoro alcohols, and hexafluoroacetone, the first gaseous derivatizing agent. In all the space instruments, solvent extraction of organic matter and chemical derivatization have been combined in a single automatic and remote-controlled procedure in a

  17. Are Life, Consciousness, and Intelligence Cosmic Phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    2013-09-01

    First of all the scientific reasons of astrophysics, astronomy and modern astrobiology in favor of the existence of life, consciousness and intelligence in the Universe will be presented and estimated (e.g. the Nobel Laureate Christian de Duve's arguments). The part played in this kind of scientific debate by the Copernicus principle will be stressed from the scientific and philosophical point of view. Since there are also philosophers and theologians who argue in favor of the existence of life in the Universe, their arguments will be shortly presented and estimated as well.

  18. Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy in capillary electrophoresis as an possible instrument for extraterrestrial life signs detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Gorlenko; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Anton, Maydykovskiy; Eugeniy, Vasilev

    The one of a significant aims in extraterrestrial exploration is a seeking for a life traces in a open space and planetary objects. Complex composition and unknown origin of suspected signs of life required у new analytical approaches and technical solutions. The promising assai here can be Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy methods. The combined instrument developed by our team reveal the advantage of capillary electrophoresis assays in a junction with laser induced fluorescence detection technology. We optimized excitation configuration of fluorescence in capillary electrophoresis to reduce pumping laser power up to 1 mW and decrease background scattering. The improvement of the device sensitivity at poor sample concentration we achieved by incorporating fluorescence flow-through cuvette into spectrometer. That allows to simplify setup, to minimize weight and increase reproducibility of measurements. The device has been tasted in complex organic chemical mixes and microbial strains differentiation tasks. 3d multinational spectra allow us to increase the spectra information loads in comparison with ordinary capillary electrophoresis approaches. Possible updating the device with Raman approach can even furthermore multiple the differentiation power of the instrument. The analytical module developed using this approach can be potentially effectively used in extraterrestrial researches as a payload of the future spacecraft.

  19. Signal coverage approach to the detection probability of hypothetical extraterrestrial emitters in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The lack of evidence for the existence of extraterrestrial life, even the simplest forms of animal life, makes it is difficult to decide whether the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is more a high-risk, high-payoff endeavor than a futile attempt. Here we insist that even if extraterrestrial civilizations do exist and communicate, the likelihood of detecting their signals crucially depends on whether the Earth lies within a region of the galaxy covered by such signals. By considering possible populations of independent emitters in the galaxy, we build a statistical model of the domain covered by hypothetical extraterrestrial signals to derive the detection probability that the Earth is within such a domain. We show that for general distributions of the signal longevity and directionality, the mean number of detectable emitters is less than one even for detection probabilities as large as 50%, regardless of the number of emitters in the galaxy.

  20. Niche Habitats for Extra-Terrestrial Life: The Potential for Astrobiology on the Moons of Saturn and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battison, Leila

    2011-03-01

    Astrobiology today has a strong anticipatory focus, and efforts are concentrated on determining the factors behind the potential presence, type, and distribution of life in our solar system and beyond. The critical requirements for life: a liquid solvent, and electron acceptors and donors for metabolism, guide the search, and is a central concept to the location and extent of circumstellar habitable zones. For our own solar system, however, the search can be widened beyond this narrow band of 'earth-like' conditions, and our increasing knowledge of the capabilities of life, as well as higher resolution imaging and analysis of solar system bodies, warrants the application of a more expansive habitable niche approach. The Saturnian and Jovian satellite systems are ideal for the application of this concept, and are here used to demonstrate how a collection of system characteristics may be used to assess the potential for individual bodies to harbour life. Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede in the Jovian system, and Enceladus, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, and Hyperion in the Saturnian system all possess characters that could make them conducive to the origin or maintenance of life upon or within them. The possibility of some of these bodies containing extraterrestrial life is reflected in future explorative missions.

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Life Adjustment: A Validation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2001-01-01

    Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be a factor in successful life adjustment, among them the successful achievement of a well-balanced life with little interference between work and family and leisure. Data from a sample of 153 respondents who were roughly representative of the population were obtained, including measurement of emotional intelligence, life/work balance and other indices of adjustment and social/psychological skills, and salary. EI was measured by both questionnaire it...

  2. The Breakthrough Listen Initiative and the Future of the Search for Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Danny; DeBoer, David; Werthimer, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Unprecedented recent results in the fields of exoplanets and astrobiology have dramatically increased the interest in the potential existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the galaxy. Additionally, the capabilities of modern Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have increased tremendously. Much of this improvement is due to the ongoing development of wide bandwidth radio instruments and the Moore's Law increase in computing power over the previous decades. Together, these instrumentation improvements allow for narrow band signal searches of billions of frequency channels at once.The Breakthrough Listen Initiative (BL) was launched on July 20, 2015 at the Royal Society in London, UK with the goal to conduct the most comprehensive and sensitive search for advanced life in humanity's history. Here we detail important milestones achieved during the first year and a half of the program. We describe the key BL SETI surveys and briefly describe current facilities, including the Green Bank Telescope, the Automated Planet Finder and the Parkes Observatory. We also mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused on complementary sciences, these include pulse searches of pulsars and FRBs, as well as astrophysically powered radio emission from stars targeted by our program.We conclude with a brief view towards future SETI searches with upcoming next-generation radio facilities such as SKA and ngVLA.

  3. Stress, Emotional Intelligence, and Life Satisfaction in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinka, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have examined stress, life satisfaction, and emotional intelligence in college students. Research on stress in college students has focused on the sources of stress, coping styles, and relevant outcomes. Research on life satisfaction has focused on specific relationships between life satisfaction and concepts like worry,…

  4. Stress, Emotional Intelligence, and Life Satisfaction in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinka, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have examined stress, life satisfaction, and emotional intelligence in college students. Research on stress in college students has focused on the sources of stress, coping styles, and relevant outcomes. Research on life satisfaction has focused on specific relationships between life satisfaction and concepts like worry,…

  5. Is Your Gut Conscious? Is an Extraterrestrial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos Post, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    This paper speculates on questions intending to be taken scientifically rather than metaphysically: "Can the human gut (enteric nervous system) be conscious?"; "Can your immune system think?"; "Could consciousness be coded in DNA?"; "What do we mean when asserting that an Extraterrestrial is Thinking, or is Conscious? We explore through reference to theory, experiment, and computational models by Christof Koch (Caltech), Barbara Wold (Caltech), and Stuart Kauffman (University of Calgary, Tampere University of Technology, Santa Fe Institute). We use a tentative new definition of thinking, designed to be applicable for humans, cetecea, corvids, artificial intelligences, and extraterrestrial intelligences of any substrate (i.e. Life as We Do Not Know It): "Thinking is the occurrence, transformation, and storage in a mind or brain (or simulation thereof) of information-bearing structures (representations) of one kind or another, such as thoughts, concept, percepts, ideas, impressions, notions, rules, schemas, images, phantasms, or subpersonal representations." We use the framework for Consciousness developed by Francis Crick and Christof Koch. We try to describe scientific goals, but discuss Philosophy sufficient to avoid naïve philosophical category errors (thus are careful not to conflate thought, consciousness, and language) Penrose, Hameroff, and Kauffman speculate (differently) that CNS consciousness is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Might intestinal, immune system, or genetic regulatory network dynamics exhibit emergent cooperative quantum effects? The speculations are in the context of Evolution by Natural Selection, presumed to operate throughout the Cosmos, and recent work in the foundations of Computational Biology and Quantum Mechanics.

  6. Microbial Fuel Cells Applied to the Metabolically-Based Detection of Extraterrestrial Life

    CERN Document Server

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Cortón, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970's, when the Viking spacecrafts carried out experiments aimed to the detection of microbial metabolism on the surface of Mars, the search for nonspecific methods to detect life in situ has been one of the goals of astrobiology. It is usually required that the methodology can detect life independently from its composition or form, and that the chosen biological signature points to a feature common to all living systems, as the presence of metabolism. In this paper we evaluate the use of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) for the detection of microbial life in situ. MFCs are electrochemical devices originally developed as power electrical sources, and can be described as fuel cells in which the anode is submerged in a medium that contains microorganisms. These microorganisms, as part of their metabolic process, oxidize organic material releasing electrons that contribute to the electric current, which is therefore proportional to metabolic and other redox processes. We show that power and current density...

  7. "Probing the limits of extremophilic life in extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments"

    CERN Document Server

    Lage, Claudia; Teixeira, Lia; Bendia, Amanda; Paulino-Lima, Ivan; Galante, Douglas; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Abrevaya, Ximena; Azúa-Bustos, Armando; Pellizari, Vivian; Rosado, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The results obtained in these experiments have revealed a remarkable resistance of extremophilic bacteria and archaea against different radiation sources (VUV, solar wind simulants, X rays) whenever protected by microsized carbonaceus grains. Altogether, the collected data suggest the interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth and its transfer among habitable bodies, which we have called microlithopanspermia.

  8. The Next Generation MOD: A Microchip Amino Acid Analyzer for Detecting Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, R. A.; Hutt, L. D.; Bada, J. L.; Glavin, D.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    The MOD (Mars Organic Detector) instrument which has selected for the definition phase of the BEDS package on the 2005 Mars Explorer Program spacecraft is designed to simply detect the presence of amino acids in Martian surface samples at a sensitivity of a few parts per billion (ppb). An additional important aspect of amino acid analyses of Martian samples is identifying and quantifying which compounds are present, and also distinguishing those produced abiotically from those synthesized by either extinct or extant life. Amino acid homochirality provides an unambiguous way of distinguishing between abiotic vs. biotic origins. Proteins made up of mixed D- and L-amino acids would not likely have been efficient catalysts in early organisms because they could not fold into bioactive configurations such as the a-helix. However, enzymes made up of all D-amino acids function just as well as those made up of only L-amino acids, but the two enzymes use the opposite stereoisomeric substrates. There are no biochemical reasons why L-amino acids would be favored over Damino acids. On Earth, the use of only L-amino acids in proteins by life is probably simply a matter of chance. We assume that if proteins and enzymes were a component of extinct or extant life on Mars, then amino acid homochirality would have been a requirement. However, the possibility that Martian life was (or is) based on D-amino acids would be equal to that based on L-amino acids. The detection of a nonracemic mixture of amino acids in a Martian sample would be strong evidence for the presence of an extinct or extant biota on Mars. The finding of an excess of D-amino acids would provide irrefutable evidence of unique Martian life that could not have been derived from seeding the planet with terrestrial life (or the seeding of the Earth with Martian life). In contrast, the presence of racemic amino acids, along with non-protein amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and isovaline, would be indicative

  9. The Next Generation MOD: A Microchip Amino Acid Analyzer for Detecting Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, R. A.; Hutt, L. D.; Bada, J. L.; Glavin, D.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    The MOD (Mars Organic Detector) instrument which has selected for the definition phase of the BEDS package on the 2005 Mars Explorer Program spacecraft is designed to simply detect the presence of amino acids in Martian surface samples at a sensitivity of a few parts per billion (ppb). An additional important aspect of amino acid analyses of Martian samples is identifying and quantifying which compounds are present, and also distinguishing those produced abiotically from those synthesized by either extinct or extant life. Amino acid homochirality provides an unambiguous way of distinguishing between abiotic vs. biotic origins. Proteins made up of mixed D- and L-amino acids would not likely have been efficient catalysts in early organisms because they could not fold into bioactive configurations such as the a-helix. However, enzymes made up of all D-amino acids function just as well as those made up of only L-amino acids, but the two enzymes use the opposite stereoisomeric substrates. There are no biochemical reasons why L-amino acids would be favored over Damino acids. On Earth, the use of only L-amino acids in proteins by life is probably simply a matter of chance. We assume that if proteins and enzymes were a component of extinct or extant life on Mars, then amino acid homochirality would have been a requirement. However, the possibility that Martian life was (or is) based on D-amino acids would be equal to that based on L-amino acids. The detection of a nonracemic mixture of amino acids in a Martian sample would be strong evidence for the presence of an extinct or extant biota on Mars. The finding of an excess of D-amino acids would provide irrefutable evidence of unique Martian life that could not have been derived from seeding the planet with terrestrial life (or the seeding of the Earth with Martian life). In contrast, the presence of racemic amino acids, along with non-protein amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and isovaline, would be indicative

  10. Stellivore extraterrestrials? Binary stars as living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Clément

    2016-11-01

    We lack signs of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) despite decades of observation in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Could evidence be buried in existing data? To recognize ETI, we first propose criteria discerning life from non-life based on thermodynamics and living systems theory. Then we extrapolate civilizational development to both external and internal growth. Taken together, these two trends lead to an argument that some existing binary stars might actually be ETI. Since these hypothetical beings feed actively on stars, we call them "stellivores". I present an independent thermodynamic argument for their existence, with a metabolic interpretation of interacting binary stars. The jury is still out, but the hypothesis is empirically testable with existing astrophysical data. article>

  11. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and Whether to send 'Messages' (METI): A Case for Conversation, Patience and Due Diligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, D.

    Understanding the controversy over "Messages to Extra Terrestrial Intelligence" or METI requires a grounding in the history and rationale of SETI (Search for ETI). Insights since the turn of the century have changed SETI's scientific basis. Continued null results from the radio search do not invalidate continuing effort, but they do raise questions about long-held assumptions. Modified search strategies are discussed. The Great Silence or Fermi Paradox is appraised, along with the disruptive plausibility of interstellar travel. Psychological motivations for METI are considered. With this underpinning, we consider why a small cadre of SETI-ist radio astronomers have resisted the notion of international consultations before humanity takes a brash and irreversible step into METI, shouting our presence into the cosmos.

  12. On the parallels between cosmology and astrobiology: a transdisciplinary approach to the search for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Charles Morphy D.; Alabi, Leticia P.; Friaça, Amâncio C. S.; Galante, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The establishment of cosmology as a science provides a parallel to the building-up of the scientific status of astrobiology. The rise of astrobiological studies is explicitly based on a transdisciplinary approach that reminds of the Copernican Revolution, which eroded the basis of a closed Aristotelian worldview and reinforced the notion that the frontiers between disciplines are artificial. Given the intrinsic complexity of the astrobiological studies, with its multifactorial evidences and theoretical/experimental approaches, multi- and interdisciplinary perspectives are mandatory. Insulated expertise cannot grasp the vastness of the astrobiological issues. This need for integration among disciplines and research areas is antagonistic to excessive specialization and compartmentalization, allowing astrobiology to be qualified as a truly transdisciplinary enterprise. The present paper discusses the scientific status of astrobiological studies, based on the view that every kind of life, Earth-based or not, should be considered in a cosmic context. A confluence between 'astro' and 'bio' seeks the understanding of life as an emerging phenomenon in the universe. Thus, a new epistemological niche is opened, pointing to the development of a pluralistic vision for the philosophy of astrobiology.

  13. Using antibodies against ATPase and microarray immunoassays for the search for potential extraterrestrial life in saline environments on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Andreas; Gruber, Claudia; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Rivas, Luis A.; Parro, Victor; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2010-05-01

    For the search for extraterrestrial life it is proposed to use receptors such as labelled antibodies for the detection of organic biomarkers. One of these organic molecules to be tested is the universal enzyme ATP synthase which is present in highly conserved forms in all organisms on earth. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate antibodies against ATPase respectively ATP synthase and their subunits. As it is known, that there are halite deposits on Mars the experiments in this study have been carried out with regard to halophile microorganisms and saline environments. Standard F1F0 ATPase from Escherichia coli LE 392 and Bacillus megaterium as well as haloarchaeal A-ATPase from Halorubrum saccharovorum and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 were used. The cultivated cells, except Bacillus, were broken by passage through a French Pressure Cell. Separation of enzyme subunits was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western Blotting with antisera produced in rabbit against A-ATPase subunits A (85 kD) and subunits B (60 kD) from Halorubrrum saccharovorum (1) showed positive reactions with the membrane fraction, which should be enriched with ATPase from Halorubrum saccharovorum, Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 and Escherichia coli LE 392. Particular attention was given to the question if ATPase subunits can be detected in whole cells. Therefore whole cell preparations of all cells and spore suspensions from Geobacillus stearothermophilus were tested against the antiserum as well as against protein-A-purified antibody against A-ATPase subunit A from Halorubrum saccharovorum. A positive immuno reaction of all cell preparations with the antiserum as well as with the purified antibody was detected. The spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus reacted positively with the antiserum against subunit A of the A-ATPase from Hrr. saccharovorum. A commercial antibody Rabbit Anti-V-ATPase subunit A polyclonal antibody from the GenScript Corporation reacted positively with

  14. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2005-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. Except for the hard limits for extreme conditions, engine controllers do not usually take engine component life into consideration during the controller design and operation. The end result is that aircraft pilots regularly operate engines under unnecessarily harsh conditions to strive for optimum performance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward an intelligent control concept that will include engine life as part of the controller design criteria. This research includes the study of the relationship between control action and engine component life as well as the design of an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper tradeoffs between performance and engine life. This approach is expected to maintain operating safety while minimizing overall operating costs. In this study, the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component was selected to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can significantly extend engine life with only a very small sacrifice in performance. An intelligent engine control scheme based on modifying the high-pressure spool speed (NH) was proposed to reduce TMF damage from ground idle to takeoff. The NH acceleration schedule was optimized to minimize the TMF damage for a given rise-time constraint, which represents the performance requirement. The intelligent engine control scheme was used to simulate a commercial short-haul aircraft engine.

  15. Emotional Intelligence in Everyday Life. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John H., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Since the release of the very successful first edition in 2001, the field of emotional intelligence has grown in sophistication and importance. Many new and talented researchers have come into the field and techniques in EI measurement have dramatically increased so that we now know much more about the distinctiveness and utility of the different…

  16. The Problem of Extraterrestrial Civilizations and Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of extraterrestrial intelligence is the best example of multidisciplinary science. Here philosophy and religion, astronomy, radiophysics, spectrography, space flights and astronautics, geology and planetology, astroecology, chemistry and biology, history and archaeology, psychology, sociology, linguistics, diplomacy, UFOs and peculiar phenomena are involved. Among these many-sided studies, astronomers have probably displayed the most progress by discovering thousands of extrasolar planets. At present, a number of search programs are being accomplished, including those with space telescopes, and planets in so-called "habitable zone" are considered as most important ones, for which various orbital and physical parameters are being calculated. As the discovery of extraterrestrial life is the final goal, a special attention is given to Earth-like planets, for the discovery of which most sensitive technical means are necessary.

  17. Is Time a creation of Life in response to Gravity?: This hypothesis suggests new ways for looking at extraterrestrial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    From his personal experience during a space flight (Challenger 1985) onward, the author has been struck repeatedly by the remarkable influence of Earth's environment on life, in particular by its most inevitable elements: time and gravity. Our life might be peculiar to the local Earth conditions,

  18. Is Time a creation of Life in response to Gravity?: This hypothesis suggests new ways for looking at extraterrestrial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    From his personal experience during a space flight (Challenger 1985) onward, the author has been struck repeatedly by the remarkable influence of Earth's environment on life, in particular by its most inevitable elements: time and gravity. Our life might be peculiar to the local Earth conditions, an

  19. The Breakthrough Listen Initiative and the Future of the Search for Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilio Enriquez, J.; Siemion, Andrew; Falcke, Heino; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David R.; Gajjar, Vishal; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard T.; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Danny C.; Tellis, Nate; Werthimer, Dan; ter Veen, Sander; Garrett, Michael A.; Hellbourg, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Unprecedented recent results in the fields of exoplanets and astrobiology have dramatically increased the interest in the potential existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the galaxy. Additionally, the capabilities of modern Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have increased tremendously. Much of this improvement is due to the ongoing development of wide bandwidth radio instruments and the Moore’s Law increase in computational power over the previous decades. Together, these instrumentation improvements allow for narrow band signal searches of billions of frequency channels at once.The Breakthrough Listen Initiative (BL) was launched on July 20, 2015 at the Royal Society in London, UK with a charge to conduct the most comprehensive and sensitive search for advanced life in humanity’s history. Here we detail important milestones achieved during the first year of the program, describe the key BL SETI surveys and briefly describe current facilities, including the Green Bank Telescope, the Automated Planet Finder and the Parkes Observatory.Complementary to the BL initiative (at a smaller scale), pioneering SETI work at low radio frequencies (20-250 MHz) is being undertaken with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR). This program uses simple fixed-stationary antennas and multiple phased-array beams formed in a supercomputer to search many targets at once and will lay the groundwork for future searches with SKA1-low and mid frequency aperture array pathfinders. We will present the results of a volume complete sample of nearby stars (< 5pc) observed with LOFAR, searching for drifting narrow band signals with expected Doppler drifts covering a wide range of potential transmitter host planets.We conclude with a brief view towards future SETI searches with upcoming next-generation radio facilities such as SKA and ngVLA.

  20. From cosmos to intelligent life: the four ages of astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2012-10-01

    The history of life on Earth and in other potential life-bearing planetary platforms is deeply linked to the history of the Universe. Since life, as we know, relies on chemical elements forged in dying heavy stars, the Universe needs to be old enough for stars to form and evolve. The current cosmological theory indicates that the Universe is 13.7 +/- 0.13 billion years old and that the first stars formed hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. At least some stars formed with stable planetary systems wherein a set of biochemical reactions leading to life could have taken place. In this paper, I argue that we can divide cosmological history into four ages, from the Big Bang to intelligent life. The physical age describes the origin of the Universe, of matter, of cosmic nucleosynthesis, as well as the formation of the first stars and Galaxies. The chemical age began when heavy stars provided the raw ingredients for life through stellar nucleosynthesis and describes how heavier chemical elements collected in nascent planets and Moons gave rise to prebiotic biomolecules. The biological age describes the origin of early life, its evolution through Darwinian natural selection and the emergence of complex multicellular life forms. Finally, the cognitive age describes how complex life evolved into intelligent life capable of self-awareness and of developing technology through the directed manipulation of energy and materials. I conclude discussing whether we are the rule or the exception.

  1. Ernst Mayr and Carl Sagan debate about the probability of intelligent life in the universe

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mayr, Ernst; Sagan, Carl

    2010-01-01

    During the Second Iberoamerican Graduate School on Astrobiology interesting debates, between the experts from the biological and physical backgrounds, arose about the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent beings in the universe. For this reason, it is appropriate to reproduce -for the first time in Spanish- the debate on the subject conducted, in 1995, between Carl Sagan and Ernst Mayr. This debate was organized by Guillermo A. Lemarchand and published in the pages of t...

  2. Misconceptions about emotional intelligence: Deploying emotional intelligence in one’s life dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anobé Badenhorst

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI has become a buzz-word over the past ten years, yet misconceptions with regard to the concept abound. This leads to confusion among the general public, the scientific community, as well as to unfounded claims being made as to what the development of EI can accomplish in a person’s life. In this article the aim is to clarify the concept EI by making a sharper demarcation between the Emotional Life Dimension and the other life dimensions. Based on this clarification, the conceptualisation of EI in the literature is reviewed in more depth.

  3. Simulation Study of Swarm Intelligence Based on Life Evolution Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence (SI is a new evolutionary computation technology, and its performance efficacy is usually affected by each individual behavior in the swarm. According to the genetic and sociological theory, the life evolution behavior process is influenced by the external and internal factors, so the mechanisms of external and internal environment change must be analyzed and explored. Therefore, in this paper, we used the thought of the famous American genetic biologist Morgan, “life = DNA + environment + interaction of environment + gene,” to propose the mutation and crossover operation of DNA fragments by the environmental change to improve the performance efficiency of intelligence algorithms. Additionally, PSO is a random swarm intelligence algorithm with the genetic and sociological property, so we embed the improved mutation and crossover operation to particle swarm optimization (PSO and designed DNA-PSO algorithm to optimize single and multiobjective optimization problems. Simulation experiments in single and multiobjective optimization problems show that the proposed strategies can effectively improve the performance of swarm intelligence.

  4. Gaining Cultural Intelligence through Second Life Learning Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ellin Siegel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies’ investment in international assignments remains essential, but is affordable for only relatively few employees. In today’s global economy, many employees must gain cultural intelligence. Encyclopedic web sites and smart game simulations are ill-equipped to offer the live, authentic immersive experience of Virtual World environments; learning from colleagues who are country-natives through interacting with them in a Virtual World like Second Life is the next best thing to being there, and it requires no travel. Virtual world learning sessions with local ambassadors are affordable on a massive scale compared with international assignments. In addition, through Virtual World experiences, international assignees can be more effective with colleagues from their assigned countries prior to boarding planes, even prior to Day 1 of the assignment. This research proposal, including a literature review and a research design, asks, and begins to answer: What can cultural intelligence learning in Second Life achieve or advance that cultural intelligence learning in real-life within the cultures, smart game simulations and encyclopedic, self-service web sites cannot as readily?

  5. Extraterrestrial altruism evolution and ethics in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Altruism examines a basic assumption of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI): that extraterrestrials will be transmitting messages to us for our benefit. This question of whether extraterrestrials will be altruistic has become increasingly important in recent years as SETI scientists have begun contemplating transmissions from Earth to make contact. Should we expect altruism to evolve throughout the cosmos, or is this only wishful thinking? Would this make biological sense? Is it dangerous to send messages to other worlds, as Stephen Hawking has suggested? Would extraterrestrial societies be based on different ethical principles? Extraterrestrial Altruism explores these and related questions about the motivations of civilizations beyond Earth, providing new insights that are critical for SETI. Chapters are authored by leading scholars from diverse disciplines—anthropology, astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, cosmology, engineering, history of science, law, philos...

  6. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system.

  7. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  8. From Cosmos to Intelligent Life: The Four Ages of Astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The history of life on Earth and in other potential life-bearing planetary platforms is deeply linked to the history of the universe. Since life as we know it relies on chemical elements forged in dying heavy stars, the universe needs to be old enough for stars to form and evolve. Current cosmological theory indicates that the universe is 13.7$\\pm 0.13$ billion years old and that the first stars formed hundreds of millions of years after the big bang. At least some stars formed with stable planetary systems wherein a set of biochemical reactions leading to life could have taken place. In this lecture, I argue that we can divide cosmological history into four ages, from the big bang to intelligent life. The Physical Age describes the origin of the universe, of matter, of cosmic nucleosynthesis, as well as the formation of the first stars and galaxies. The Chemical Age begun when heavy stars provided the raw ingredients for life through stellar nucleosynthesis and describes how heavier chemical elements collect...

  9. Ernst Mayr and Carl Sagan debate about the probability of intelligent life in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A; Sagan, Carl

    2010-01-01

    During the Second Iberoamerican Graduate School on Astrobiology interesting debates, between the experts from the biological and physical backgrounds, arose about the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent beings in the universe. For this reason, it is appropriate to reproduce -for the first time in Spanish- the debate on the subject conducted, in 1995, between Carl Sagan and Ernst Mayr. This debate was organized by Guillermo A. Lemarchand and published in the pages of two consecutive numbers of "Bioastronomy News". Here we reproduce the complete debate, including its original introduction.

  10. Progress and Prospection in Searching for Extraterrestrial Life%寻找地外生命的进展与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向世民; 黄定华; 高举; 林鑫波

    2009-01-01

    介绍并探讨了人类运用天文学、深空探测及计算机模拟与统计等多种方法和手段在太阳系内的地外天体及太阳系外的类地行星上寻找地外生命的进展,如:美国航空航天局及欧空局的一系列探测器都发现火星土壤略呈碱性可能适宜生命的存在,火星大气正在不断释放可能由火星地质或生物作用产生的甲烷;表面为巨厚的水冰覆盖的木卫二如果内部炽热,则极有可能存在生命;而土卫六则非常类似现代生命起源理论中生命起源时的原始地球.对彗星的撞击探测结果表明,其内部存在着有机物和黏土矿物,可能给早期原始地球带来了有机物甚至生命;对太阳系外的射电天文观测则发现了仅银河系中就有无数的类地行星.不仅如此,"寻找地外智慧生命"计划还试图通过倾听地外智慧生命的通讯信号和主动发射地球人类的通讯信号以和地外智慧生命取得联系.美国航空航天局发射了带有地球位置及生命信息的太阳系外探测器,也做出了类似的努力.从取得的探测结果和重要发现来看,地外可能存在着适宜生命产生及演化的条件,这使我们看到了寻找地外生命的新曙光.但囿于对地外生命形式认识的缺乏和深空探测技术的限制,目前想要找到它们还是个极其艰巨的任务.%Astrobiology is the study of origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in the universe, with searching for extraterrestrial life as one of its most important content. Searching for extraterrestrial life, the most spectacular area in the international space exploration, may support another breakthrough point for solving origin, evolution and future of life on the Earth, including human beings. Accordingly, this paper integrates and discusses the methods of astronomy, space exploration and numerical simulations used in searching extraterrestrial life on terrestrial planets in and beyond the solar system

  11. The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Luke A

    2011-01-01

    The fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life has received a great deal of attention in recent years, both in the philosophical and scientific literature. The claim is that in the space of possible physical laws, parameters and initial conditions, the set that permits the evolution of intelligent life is very small. I present here a review of the scientific literature, outlining cases of fine-tuning in the classic works of Carter, Carr and Rees, and Barrow and Tipler, as well as more recent work. To sharpen the discussion, the role of the antagonist will be played by Victor Stenger's recent book The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. Stenger claims that all known fine-tuning cases can be explained without the need for a multiverse. Many of Stenger's claims will be found to be highly problematic. We will touch on such issues as the logical necessity of the laws of nature; objectivity, invariance and symmetry; theoretical physics and possible universes; entropy in cosmology;...

  12. Measurement of microbial activity in soil by colorimetric observation of in situ dye reduction: an approach to detection of extraterrestrial life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Bruce

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting microbial life in extraterrestrial locations is a goal of space exploration because of ecological and health concerns about possible contamination of other planets with earthly organisms, and vice versa. Previously we suggested a method for life detection based on the fact that living entities require a continual input of energy accessed through coupled oxidations and reductions (an electron transport chain. We demonstrated using earthly soils that the identification of extracted components of electron transport chains is useful for remote detection of a chemical signature of life. The instrument package developed used supercritical carbon dioxide for soil extraction, followed by chromatography or electrophoresis to separate extracted compounds, with final detection by voltammetry and tandem mass-spectrometry. Results Here we used Earth-derived soils to develop a related life detection system based on direct observation of a biological redox signature. We measured the ability of soil microbial communities to reduce artificial electron acceptors. Living organisms in pure culture and those naturally found in soil were shown to reduce 2,3-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP and the tetrazolium dye 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT. Uninoculated or sterilized controls did not reduce the dyes. A soil from Antarctica that was determined by chemical signature and DNA analysis to be sterile also did not reduce the dyes. Conclusion Observation of dye reduction, supplemented with extraction and identification of only a few specific signature redox-active biochemicals such as porphyrins or quinones, provides a simplified means to detect a signature of life in the soils of other planets or their moons.

  13. Second Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincenzi, D. L. (Editor); model. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Recent findings by NASA Exobiology investigators are reported. Scientific papers are presented in the following areas: cosmic evolution of biogenic compounds, prebiotic evolution (planetary and molecular), early evolution of life (biological and geochemical), evolution of advanced life, solar system exploration, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI).

  14. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  15. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2015-10-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  16. At the frontiers of knowledge: some issues of extraterrestrial research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Jacques

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn demonstrates why scientific development is not an essentially cumulative process and how the major transformations of science are the result of “scientific revolutions”. At the origin of these changes is the discovery of an anomaly that, at a time of history, basically highlights failure science that Kuhn says 'normal', that is built around a “paradigm” that provides methods, standardized, efficient but obtuse scientific tools, as well as socio-economic biases. "The discovery, wrote Kuhn, starts with the consciousness of an anomaly, i.e. the impression that nature, one way or another, contradicts the expected results of the paradigm that governs normal science." Research of a life and an extraterrestrial intelligence has the singular character to include the anomaly as one of its main goals: what are its results in the future, they will contradict or at least jostle the results of scientific works, sometimes too quickly transformed into evidence.

  17. Study of the spiritual intelligence role in predicting university students' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolghan-Abadi, Mustafa; Ghofrani, Fatemeh; Abde-Khodaei, Mohammad Saeed

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the spiritual intelligence role in predicting Quchan University students' quality of life. In order to collect data, a sample of 143 students of Quechan University was selected randomly enrolled for 89-90 academic year. The instruments of the data collecting are World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) and Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire. For analyzing the data, the standard deviation, and Pearson's correlation coefficient in descriptive level, and in inferential level, the regression test was used. The results of the study show that the spiritual intelligence has effective role on predicting quality of life.

  18. Methane as a biomarker in the search for extraterrestrial life: Lessons learned from Mars analog hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, B.; Tazaz, A.; Kelley, C. A.; Poole, J. A.; Davila, A.; Chanton, J.

    2010-12-01

    Methane released from discrete regions on Mars, together with previous reports of methane determined with ground-based telescopes, has revived the possibility of past or even extant life near the surface on Mars, since 90% of the methane on Earth has a biological origin. This intriguing possibility is supported by the abundant evidence of large bodies of liquid water, and therefore of conditions conducive to the origin of life, early in the planet's history. The detection and analysis of methane is at the core of NASA’s strategies to search for life in the solar system, and on extrasolar planets. Because methane is also produced abiotically, it is important to generate criteria to unambiguously assess biogenicity. The stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signature of methane, as well as its ratio to other low molecular weight hydrocarbons (the methane/(ethane + propane) ratio: C1/(C2 + C3)), has been suggested to be diagnostic for biogenic methane. We report measurements of the concentrations and stable isotopic signature of methane from hypersaline environments. We focus on hypersaline environments because spectrometers orbiting Mars have detected widespread chloride bearing deposits resembling salt flats. Other evaporitic minerals, e.g., sulfates, are also abundant in several regions, including those studied by the Mars Exploration Rovers. The presence of evaporitic minerals, together with the known evolution of the Martian climate, from warmer and wetter to cold and hyper-arid, suggest that evaporitic and hypersaline environments were common in the past. Hypersaline environments examined to date include salt ponds located in Baja California, the San Francisco Bay, and the Atacama Desert. Methane was found in gas produced both in the sediments, and in gypsum- and halite-hosted (endolithic) microbial communities. Maximum methane concentrations were as high as 40% by volume. The methane carbon isotopic (δ13C) composition showed a wide range of values, from about

  19. The future of galaxies and the fate of intelligent life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of recent advances in research on the gaseous content of the universe on our knowledge of star formation histories of spiral galaxies. The discovery of low-redshift population of absorbers and first steps made in understanding of the transition between high-redshift intergalactic and low-redshift galactic population of QSO absorption systems significantly reshape our picture of the gaseous content of the universe. It turns out that large quantities of gas which has not been astrated or astrated only weakly are bound to galaxies at later epochs, and present a potential reservoir of gas not only for solution of the gas consumption puzzle in spiral disks, but also a fuel for future star formation. This baryonic transition, although still hard to establish quantitatively, is a result of the simple physical processes. The resulting increase in the star formation timescales of spiral galaxies has some interesting consequences for the long-term future development of life and intelligent observers in the galactic context. Admittedly highly speculative, this qualitative picture may hopefully provide a motivation for detailed numerical modelling of the physical processes involved.

  20. The effect of life skills training on emotional intelligence of the medical sciences students in iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lolaty, Hamideh A; Ghahari, Sharbanoo; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2012-01-01

    .... The present study is aimed at determining the effect of life skills training on the emotional intelligence among the first year students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  1. Emotional intelligence in association with quality of life in patients recently diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bibian M; Borst, Jacoba M; Putter, Hein; Jansen, Jeroen C; van der Mey, Andel G L; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was two-fold. First, to examine the levels of emotional intelligence in patients recently diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma, in comparison to those of healthy individuals and patients with other physical illness. Second, to evaluate the correlation between Emotional Intelligence and quality of life. Cross sectional study in a university tertiary referral center. Consecutive patients (mean age [range], 56.4 [17-85] yr) diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma between April 2011 and October 2012 (N = 254). Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, disease-specific quality of life (PANQOL), and Emotional Intelligence (TEIQue-SF) were assessed by questionnaire before the start of medical treatment. Levels of Emotional Intelligence in patients with vestibular schwannoma (N = 178; response rate 70.1%) were significantly lower compared with healthy individuals and patients with cancer. Emotional Intelligence was highly positively correlated to disease-specific quality of life. Balance disorders and cranial nerve dysfunction made a significant negative contribution to the quality of life. For educational level, a significant positive contribution was found as well. The substantial impact of a vestibular schwannoma-diagnosis on a psychological measure (i.e., Emotional Intelligence) in the affected patients as demonstrated in our study has important clinical and research implications when developing guidelines about counselling of these patients. This also has to be taken into account when making clinical decisions about the proposed treatment. Addressing Emotional Intelligence may be helpful in the development of a self-management program for patients with vestibular schwannoma.

  2. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. I. Background and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review "Dysonian SETI," the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the "monocultural fallacy." We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  3. If the universe is teeming with aliens where is everybody? fifty solutions to the Fermi paradox and the problem of extraterrestrial life

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Given the fact that there are perhaps 400 million stars in our Galaxy alone, and perhaps 400 million galaxies in the Universe, it stands to reason that somewhere out there, in the 14-billion-year-old cosmos, there is or once was a civilization at least as advanced as our own. The sheer enormities of the numbers almost demand that we accept the truth of this hypothesis. Why, then, have we encountered no evidence, no messages, no artifacts of these extraterrestrials? Webb discusses in detail the 50 most cogent and intriguing solutions to Fermi's famous paradox: If the numbers strongly point to the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, why have we found no evidence of them?

  4. If the Universe is teeming with aliens... where is everybody? seventy-five solutions to the Fermi paradox and the problem of extraterrestrial life

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Given the fact that there are perhaps 400 billion stars in our Galaxy alone, and perhaps 400 billion galaxies in the Universe, it stands to reason that somewhere out there, in the 14-billion-year-old cosmos, there is or once was a civilization at least as advanced as our own. The sheer enormity of the numbers almost demands that we accept the truth of this hypothesis. Why, then, have we encountered no evidence, no messages, no artifacts of these extraterrestrials? In this second, significantly revised and expanded edition of his widely popular book, Webb discusses in detail the (for now!) 75 most cogent and intriguing solutions to Fermi's famous paradox: If the numbers strongly point to the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, why have we found no evidence of them?

  5. Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, selfesteem and life satisfaction in a sample of 316 Spanish adolescents (179 females and 137 males, ranging in age from 14 to 18. Demographic information was collected, along with data through the use of three self-report measures: the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As expected, perceived emotional dimensions, particularly mood clarity and repair, showed positive associations with life satisfaction. Self-esteem also correlated significantly and positively with levels of adolescents´ satisfaction with life. More interestingly, results of structural equation modelling indicated that mood clarity and emotional repair had a significant direct and indirect link (via selfesteem with life satisfaction in adolescents. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the underlying process between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Our findings encourage moving beyond the examination of direct association between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction and focusing on the role of potential mechanisms such as self-esteem involved in the link between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in adolescents. Implications of the present findings for future research are discussed, as well as potential interventions for increasing subjective well-being in adolescents.

  6. Engineering Life into Technology: the Application of Complexity Theory to a Potential Phase Transition in Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Information optimization is a centerpiece phenomenon in the universe. It develops from simplicity, then continuously breaks symmetry and cycles through instability to progress to increasingly dense nodes of complexity and diversity. Intelligence has arisen as the information optimization node with the greatest complexity. A contemporary imbalance is presented in that exponentially growing technology could be poised as a potential sole successor to human intelligence. A complex dynamical system is emerging in response, the engineering of life into technology. Numerous network elements are developing which could self-organize into the next node of symmetry, a phase transition in intelligence.

  7. Early life predictors of childhood intelligence: evidence from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study

    OpenAIRE

    Lawlor,D.A.; Batty, G D; Morton, S M B; Deary, I.J.; Macintyre, S.; Ronalds, G.; Leon, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the early life predictors of childhood intelligence. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study of 10 424 children who were born in Aberdeen (Scotland) between 1950 and 1956. \\ud \\ud Results: Social class of father around the time of birth, gravidity, maternal age, maternal physical condition, whether the child was born outside of marriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth, and childhood height were all independently associated with childhood intelligence at ages 7, 9, and 11. The ef...

  8. The relationship between emotional intelligence and quality of life hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Shahnavazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis treatment methods in patients with chronic kidney failure increase the life span of these patients, but hemodialysis affects all life aspects of patients and diminishes the quality of life patients. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and quality of life for hemodialysis patients . This study was a descriptive – correlational research conducted in 2014 on 98 hemodialysis patients Referred to Hospitals of University Medical Sciences in Iran Iranshahr . The tools used in this study included demographic questionnaire, Cyberia Shrink Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form Questionnaire. After obtaining informed consent, patient completed the questionnaire. Finally, raw data were collected through questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS16 Software. To investigate the relationships between predictor and criterion variables, Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis were used . The mean age of patients was 33/36 and the majority of participants were male (58.1 percent. In terms of variable of education level, majority of participants had elementary education, and 54.54% of the mean weight of the patients was 41.06 kg. Mean score of life quality was 41.06 ± 15.95 and the mean score of emotional intelligenc e was 43.99 ± 10.50. Pearson correlation coefficient with 99% p robability confidence showed significant positive correlation between the components of emotional intelligence and quality of life in hemodialysis patients (p<0.001 and emotional intelligence with regression coefficient 0.412 predicts 30% of the variance of quality of life in hemodialysis patients . It is recommended for nurses and nursing directors to improve the quality of life hemodialysis patients by training emotional intelligence skills.

  9. The Effect of Life Skills Training on Emotional Intelligence of the Medical Sciences Students in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh A Lolaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional intelligence has a major role in mental health and life skills training, and could be viewed as a bridge relating to emotional intelligence and mental health. Aim: The present study is aimed at determining the effect of life skills training on the emotional intelligence among the first year students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the subjects were selected by random sampling and allocated into two groups: Case group (n=20 and control group (n=19; they matched for gender, experience of stressful life events in the past six months, level of interest in the field of study, and level of emotional intelligence. The two groups responded to Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory before starting the experiment. Subsequently, the case group underwent life skills training. After the training, Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory was responded by the case and control groups again. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including Chi-square test, paired and independent t-tests, using SPSS software version 15. Results and Conclusion: In the case group, the scores of emotional intelligence after life skills training were significantly improved (t=11.703 df=19 P=0.001, while no significant difference was observed in the control group (t=0.683 df =18 P=0.503. By performing programs such as life skills training, the levels of emotional intelligence of the students could be increased, which itself could lead to academic success, reduced substance abuse, and increased stress tolerance in the students.

  10. Can Collimated Extraterrestrial Signals be Intercepted?

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan H

    2014-01-01

    The Optical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (OSETI) attempts to detect collimated, narrowband pulses of electromagnetic radiation. These pulses may either consist of signals intentionally directed at the Earth, or signals between two star systems with a vector that unintentionally intersects the Solar System, allowing Earth to intercept the communication. But should we expect to be able to intercept these unintentional signals? And what constraints can we place upon the frequency of intelligent civilisations if we do? We carry out Monte Carlo Realisation simulations of interstellar communications between civilisations in the Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) using collimated beams. We measure the frequency with which beams between two stars are intercepted by a third. The interception rate increases linearly with the fraction of communicating civilisations, and as the cube of the beam opening angle, which is somewhat stronger than theoretical expectations, which we argue is due to the geometry of the GHZ...

  11. LINEAR LAYER AND GENERALIZED REGRESSION COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE MODELS FOR PREDICTING SHELF LIFE OF PROCESSED CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goyal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significance of computational intelligence models for predicting shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8 g.C. Linear Layer and Generalized Regression models were developed with input parameters: Soluble nitrogen, pH, Standard plate count, Yeast & mould count, Spores, and sensory score as output parameter. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash - Sutcliffo Coefficient were used in order to compare the prediction ability of the models. The study revealed that Generalized Regression computational intelligence models are quite effective in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8 g.C.

  12. A New Method and Mass-Spectrometric Instrument for Extraterrestrial Microbial Life Detection Using the Elemental Composition Analyses of Martian Regolith and Permafrost/Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managadze, G. G.; Safronova, A. A.; Luchnikov, K. A.; Vorobyova, E. A.; Duxbury, N. S.; Wurz, P.; Managadze, N. G.; Chumikov, A. E.; Khamizov, R. Kh.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a new technique for the detection of microorganisms by elemental composition analyses of a sample extracted from regolith, permafrost, and ice of extraterrestrial bodies. We also describe the design of the ABIMAS instrument, which consists of the onboard time-of-flight laser mass-reflectron (TOF LMR) and the sample preparation unit (SPU) for biomass extraction. This instrument was initially approved to fly on board the ExoMars 2020 lander mission. The instrument can be used to analyze the elemental composition of possible extraterrestrial microbial communities and compare it to that of terrestrial microorganisms. We have conducted numerous laboratory studies to confirm the possibility of biomass identification via the following biomarkers: P/S and Ca/K ratios, and C and N abundances. We underline that only the combination of these factors will allow one to discriminate microbial samples from geological ones. Our technique has been tested experimentally in numerous laboratory trials on cultures of microorganisms and polar permafrost samples as terrestrial analogues for martian polar soils. We discuss various methods of extracting microorganisms and sample preparation. The developed technique can be used to search for and identify microorganisms in different martian samples and in the subsurface of other planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids—in particular, Europa, Ganymede, and Enceladus.

  13. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  14. Messaging to Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Zaitsev, A

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the entire history of terrestrial civilization, only four projects involving transmitting of interstellar radio messages (IRMs) have yet been fully developed and realized. Nevertheless, we should understand a simple thing -- if all civilizations in the Universe are only recipients, and not message-sending civilizations, than no SETI searches make any sense. We present the theory and methodology of composing and transmitting of future IRMs.

  15. Smart information systems computational intelligence for real-life applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hopfgartner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This must-read text/reference presents an overview of smart information systems for both the private and public sector, highlighting the research questions that can be studied by applying computational intelligence. The book demonstrates how to transform raw data into effective smart information services, covering the challenges and potential of this approach. Each chapter describes the algorithms, tools, measures and evaluations used to answer important questions. This is then further illustrated by a diverse selection of case studies reflecting genuine problems faced by SMEs, multinational

  16. Quality of Life and Emotional Intelligence in a Sample of Kuwait University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Huwailah, Amthal

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe of the nature of the relationship between quality of Life and Emotional Intelligence in a sample of Kuwait University students, as well as to identify the differences between males and females in the variables of the study, The study sample consists of 400 students from the University of Kuwait, (200) males…

  17. Intelligibility in microbial complex systems: Wittgenstein and the score of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge in microbiology is reaching an extreme level of diversification and complexity, which paradoxically results in a strong reduction in the intelligibility of microbial life. In our days, the "score of life" metaphor is more accurate to express the complexity of living systems than the classic "book of life." Music and life can be represented at lower hierarchical levels by music scores and genomic sequences, and such representations have a generational influence in the reproduction of music and life. If music can be considered as a representation of life, such representation remains as unthinkable as life itself. The analysis of scores and genomic sequences might provide mechanistic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary insights into music and life, but not about their real dynamics and nature, which is still maintained unthinkable, as was proposed by Wittgenstein. As complex systems, life or music is composed by thinkable and only showable parts, and a strategy of half-thinking, half-seeing is needed to expand knowledge. Complex models for complex systems, based on experiences on trans-hierarchical integrations, should be developed in order to provide a mixture of legibility and imageability of biological processes, which should lead to higher levels of intelligibility of microbial life.

  18. Secret life of plants: from memory to intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Stanislaw; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena

    2010-11-01

    Plants are able to perform photosynthesis and cannot escape from environmental stresses, so they therefore developed sophisticated, highly responsive and dynamic physiology. Others' and our results indicate that plants solve their optimal light acclimation and immune defenses, photosynthesis and transpiration by a computational algorithm of the cellular automation. Our recent results however suggest that plants are capable of processing information encrypted in light intensity and in its energy. With the help of nonphotochemical quenching and photoelectrophysiological signaling (PEPS) plants are able to perform biological quantum computation and memorize light training in order to optimize their Darwinian fitness. Animals have their network of neuron synapses, electrophysiological circuits and memory, but plants have their network of chloroplasts connected by stromules, PEPS circuits transduced by bundle sheath cells and cellular light memory. It is suggested that plants could be intelligent organisms with much higher organism organization levels than it was thought before.

  19. Impact of adoption of yoga way of life on the emotional intelligence of managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh Adhia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The popular perception that a high intelligence quotient (IQ is not necessarily a good predictor of professional and personal success has led to a growing interest in understanding the role of emotional intelligence (EI in improving the performance of business managers. This paper studies the impact of the yoga way of life on EI using data collected from 60 managers in a business enterprise and reports enhanced EI as a result of the practice of yoga. The results indicate the importance of yoga as an integral element in improving managerial performance in organisations and the need to further explore this construct in greater detail.

  20. Extraterrestrial Solar Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope of extraterrestrial solar neutrino physics, i.e. solar neutrino physics that could be carried out outside the Earth. We find that, among others, the reactions induced by the ^8B solar neutrinos, in view of the sole high energy nature (E_nu^max=14.03MeV), are most interesting in the solar environment. Two types of experiments are considered - the chemical compositions of the geology type and the matter-enhanced oscillations when the Sun-Venus-Earth eclipse, or the Sun-Mercury-Earth eclipse, occurs or the Satellite experiments (likely to be different from the "day-night" effect on the Earth). These experiments are not beyond current technology limits. In view of the weak-interaction nature, they are likely to be the precision experiments of the next generation or even beyond.

  1. The distribution of stars most likely to harbor intelligent life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Daniel P; Matese, John J

    2009-09-01

    Simple heuristic models and recent numerical simulations show that the probability of habitable planet formation increases with stellar mass. We combine those results with the distribution of main-sequence stellar masses to obtain the distribution of stars most likely to possess habitable planets as a function of stellar lifetime. We then impose the self-selection condition that intelligent observers can only find themselves around a star with a lifetime greater than the time required for that observer to have evolved, T(i). This allows us to obtain the stellar timescale number distribution for a given value of T(i). Our results show that for habitable planets with a civilization that evolved at time T(i) = 4.5 Gyr the median stellar lifetime is 13 Gyr, corresponding approximately to a stellar type of G5, with two-thirds of the stars having lifetimes between 7 and 30 Gyr, corresponding approximately to spectral types G0-K5. For other values of T(i) the median stellar lifetime changes by less than 50%.

  2. Communication Tasks Using Intelligent Agents in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Hiroki; Kiyoshi, Akama

    2014-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to use Second Life (SL) as a platform for language teaching. As a result, the possibility of SL as a means to promote conversational interactions has been reported. However, research has thus far largely focused on simply using SL without further augmentations for communication between learners or between teachers…

  3. Astrobiology, history, and society life beyond earth and the impact of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses important current and historical topics in astrobiology and the search for life beyond Earth, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The first section covers the plurality of worlds debate from antiquity through the nineteenth century, while section two covers the extraterrestrial life debate from the twentieth century to the present. The final section examines the societal impact of discovering life beyond Earth, including both cultural and religious dimensions. Throughout the book, authors draw links between their own chapters and those of other contributors, emphasizing the interconnections between the various strands of the history and societal impact of the search for extraterrestrial life. The chapters are all written by internationally recognized experts and are carefully edited by Douglas Vakoch, professor of clinical psychology at the California Institute of Integral Studies and Director of Interstellar Message Composition at the SETI Institute. This interd...

  4. Internalizing Null Extraterrestrial "Signals": An Astrobiological App for a Technological Society

    CERN Document Server

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    One of the beneficial outcomes of searching for life in the Universe is that it grants greater awareness of our own problems here on Earth. Lack of contact with alien beings to date might actually comprise a null "signal" pointing humankind toward a viable future. Astrobiology has surprising practical applications to human society; within the larger cosmological context of cosmic evolution, astrobiology clarifies the energetic essence of complex systems throughout the Universe, including technological intelligence that is intimately dependent on energy and likely will be for as long as it endures. The "message" contained within the "signal" with which today's society needs to cope is reasonably this: Only solar energy can power our civilization going forward without soiling the environment with increased heat yet robustly driving the economy with increased per capita energy usage. The null "signals" from extraterrestrials also offer a rational solution to the Fermi paradox as a principle of cosmic selection l...

  5. The Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. I. Background and justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Povich, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review 'Dysonian SETI', the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the 'monocultural fallacy'. We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (<10{sup 9} yr), and that many 'sustainability' counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  6. The longevity of habitable planets and the development of intelligent life

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    Why did the emergence of our species require a timescale similar to the entire habitable period of our planet? Our late appearance has previously been interpreted by Carter (2008) as evidence that observers typically require a very long development time, implying that intelligent life is a rare occurrence. Here we present an alternative explanation, which simply asserts that many planets possess brief periods of habitability. We also propose that the rate-limiting step for the formation of observers is the enlargement of species from an initially microbial state. In this scenario the development of intelligent life is a slow but almost inevitable process, greatly enhancing the prospects of future SETI experiments such as the Breakthrough Listen project.

  7. Astrophysics with Extraterrestrial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R.; Ciesla, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Extraterrestrial materials, including meteorites, interplanetary dust, and spacecraft-returned asteroidal and cometary samples, provide a record of the starting materials and early evolution of the Solar System. We review how laboratory analyses of these materials provide unique information, complementary to astronomical observations, about a wide variety of stellar, interstellar and protoplanetary processes. Presolar stardust grains retain the isotopic compositions of their stellar sources, mainly asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II supernovae. They serve as direct probes of nucleosynthetic and dust formation processes in stars, galactic chemical evolution, and interstellar dust processing. Extinct radioactivities suggest that the Sun's birth environment was decoupled from average galactic nucleosynthesis for some tens to hundreds of Myr but was enriched in short-lived isotopes from massive stellar winds or explosions shortly before or during formation of the Solar System. Radiometric dating of meteorite components tells us about the timing and duration over which solar nebula solids were assembled into the building blocks of the planets. Components of the most primitive meteoritical materials provide further detailed constraints on the formation, processing, and transport of material and associated timescales in the Sun's protoplanetary disk as well as in other forming planetary systems.

  8. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  9. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: Target Selection of Nearby Stars and Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Howard; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Lebofsky, Matt; Price, Danny C.; MacMahon, David; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Hickish, Jack; Werthimer, Dan; Sheikh, Sofia; Hellbourg, Greg; Enriquez, J. Emilio

    2017-05-01

    We present the target selection for the Breakthrough Listen search for extraterrestrial intelligence during the first year of observations at the Green Bank Telescope, Parkes Telescope, and Automated Planet Finder. On the way to observing 1,000,000 nearby stars in search of technological signals, we present three main sets of objects we plan to observe in addition to a smaller sample of exotica. We chose the 60 nearest stars, all within 5.1 pc from the Sun. Such nearby stars offer the potential to observe faint radio signals from transmitters that have a power similar to those on Earth. We add a list of 1649 stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog that span the Hertzprung-Russell diagram, including all spectral types along the main sequence, subgiants, and giant stars. This sample offers diversity and inclusion of all stellar types, but with thoughtful limits and due attention to main sequence stars. Our targets also include 123 nearby galaxies composed of a “morphological-type-complete” sample of the nearest spirals, ellipticals, dwarf spherioidals, and irregulars. While their great distances hamper the detection of technological electromagnetic radiation, galaxies offer the opportunity to observe billions of stars simultaneously and to sample the bright end of the technological luminosity function. We will also use the Green Bank and Parkes telescopes to survey the plane and central bulge of the Milky Way. Finally, the complete target list includes several classes of exotica, including white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, black holes, neutron stars, and asteroids in our solar system.

  10. Intelligent automated control of life support systems using proportional representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Annie S; Garibay, Ivan I

    2004-06-01

    Effective automatic control of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) is a crucial component of space exploration. An ALSS is a coupled dynamical system which can be extremely sensitive and difficult to predict. As a result, such systems can be difficult to control using deliberative and deterministic methods. We investigate the performance of two machine learning algorithms, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a stochastic hill-climber (SH), on the problem of learning how to control an ALSS, and compare the impact of two different types of problem representations on the performance of both algorithms. We perform experiments on three ALSS optimization problems using five strategies with multiple variations of a proportional representation for a total of 120 experiments. Results indicate that although a proportional representation can effectively boost GA performance, it does not necessarily have the same effect on other algorithms such as SH. Results also support previous conclusions that multivector control strategies are an effective method for control of coupled dynamical systems.

  11. Life on Earth and other planetary bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold; Seckbach, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This volume covers aspects of life on Earth with all its diversity and the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. It presents contributions by experts from 20 countries who discuss astrobiology emphasizing life "as we know it" to extraterrestrial places.

  12. Learning patterns of life from intelligence analyst chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael K.; Alford, Mark; Babko-Malaya, Olga; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Lingji; Crespi, Valentino; HandUber, Jason; Haney, Phil; Nagy, Jim; Richman, Mike; Von Pless, Gregory; Zhu, Howie; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2016-05-01

    Our Multi-INT Data Association Tool (MIDAT) learns patterns of life (POL) of a geographical area from video analyst observations called out in textual reporting. Typical approaches to learning POLs from video make use of computer vision algorithms to extract locations in space and time of various activities. Such approaches are subject to the detection and tracking performance of the video processing algorithms. Numerous examples of human analysts monitoring live video streams annotating or "calling out" relevant entities and activities exist, such as security analysis, crime-scene forensics, news reports, and sports commentary. This user description typically corresponds with textual capture, such as chat. Although the purpose of these text products is primarily to describe events as they happen, organizations typically archive the reports for extended periods. This archive provides a basis to build POLs. Such POLs are useful for diagnosis to assess activities in an area based on historical context, and for consumers of products, who gain an understanding of historical patterns. MIDAT combines natural language processing, multi-hypothesis tracking, and Multi-INT Activity Pattern Learning and Exploitation (MAPLE) technologies in an end-to-end lab prototype that processes textual products produced by video analysts, infers POLs, and highlights anomalies relative to those POLs with links to "tracks" of related activities performed by the same entity. MIDAT technologies perform well, achieving, for example, a 90% F1-value on extracting activities from the textual reports.

  13. Can an Eternal Life Start From the Minimal Fine-Tuning for Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Blondé

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since modern physicists made more and more advances in precisely measuring the fundamental constants in nature, cosmologists have been confronted with this problem: how do we declare that nature’s constants are fine-tuned for the emergence of life? Many cosmologists assume nowadays that the big bang universe originates from a multiverse that consists of very many universes. Some of these must be fine-tuned for life. A fascinating question arises: Would there be any chance on a life after our death in this multiverse? In this paper, I show two things about the multiverse. First, universes in the multiverse acquire an unlimited amount of additional fine-tuning for intelligent life over the course of many universe generations. Such additional fine-tuning may consist of travelling between universes and an afterlife on a distant planet. Second, evolutionary conservation in the evolution of universes in the multiverse provides a declaration why we observe a universe that roughly has the minimal fine-tuning to support intelligent life.

  14. E.T. Talk How Will We Communicate with Intelligent Life on Other Worlds?

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Fernando J

    2010-01-01

    Although we have done extensive studies of the Solar System and thus far found over 300 extrasolar planets – planets outside our Solar System – we have not yet found life, even primitive life, on any planet other than Earth. Might there be life on some of these newly discovered extrasolar planets? Not likely, as most are gas giants or are too close or too far from their sun. However, of late we are finding more and more Earthlike planets. It is now estimated that about 15 percent of the planets in the galaxy are Earthlike, and many of these will likely orbit their suns at the right distance to support life as we know it. No one knows yet if radio searches or other means of detection will reveal that we are not alone in the universe. But if we do discover intelligent life elsewhere, how will we communicate with it? Are there some “universal” methods of communication we can use? Is music or mathematics a universal language? Are there alien intelligences right here on Earth we can use to help us figure o...

  15. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2010-02-01

    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  16. Intelligent Human Machine Interface Design for Advanced Product Life Cycle Management Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and implementing an intelligent and user friendly human machine interface for any kind of software or hardware oriented application is always be a challenging task for the designers and developers because it is very difficult to understand the psychology of the user, nature of the work and best suit of the environment. This research paper is basically about to propose an intelligent, flexible and user friendly machine interface for Product Life Cycle Management products or PDM Systems since studies show that usability and human computer interaction issues are a major cause of acceptance problems introducing or using such systems. Going into details of the proposition, we present prototype implementations about theme based on design requirements, designed designs and technologies involved for the development of human machine interface.

  17. Extraterrestrial Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; Fogel, M.; Sephton, M.; Glavin, D.; Watson, J.; Dworkin, J.; Schwartz, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    . Our stable carbon isotope measurements clearly demonstrate that the nucleobases in the Murchison meteorite are indigenous to the meteorite, and clearly differ from the values determined for the terrestrial nucleobases measured in the soil collected at the impact site. These results support the hypothesis that nucleobases were exogenously delivered to the early Earth, and may have been important for the prebiotic chemistry on our young planet. With regard to the detection of traces of life on other planets such as Mars it is essential to characterize organic materials that have been exogenously delivered to the early planets. The analysis of the composition and isotopic fractionation of extraterrestrial material using complementary techniques can provide crucial insights into the formation of our Solar System, extraterrestrial delivery processes and subsequent addition and incorporation into the carbonaceous material available on the young planets. Ultimately, these parameters form an essential reference point for interpreting biosignatures that may be left in the ancient rock record on a planetary body. References: [1] Hayatsu R. et al. 1975. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 39: 471- 488. [2] Folsome C. E. et al. 1971. Nature 232: 108-109. [3] Stoks P. G. & Schwartz A. W. 1979. Nature 282: 709-710. [4] Stoks P.G. & Schwartz A. W. 1981. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45: 563-569. [5] Shimoyama A. et al. 1990. Geochemical Journal 24: 343-348. [6] Martins Z. et al. 2004. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39: A5145. 2

  18. The search for intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E. J.

    1980-12-01

    Implications of current understandings of the nature of human intelligence for the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence are discussed. The perceptual theory of intelligence as the manipulation of perceptual images rather than language is introduced, and conditions leading to the ascendancy of man over other hominids with similar conceptual abilities are discussed, including the liberation of the hands from a locomotive function and the evolution of neoteny. It is argued that the specificity of the environmental, behavioral and physiological conditions which lead to the emergence of technologically oriented, and communicative intelligent creatures suggests that any SETI would most likely be fruitless.

  19. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  20. Long Term Impact of Emotional, Social and Cognitive Intelligence Competencies and GMAT on Career and Life Satisfaction and Career Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAmdurer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others, we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  1. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative. PMID:25566128

  2. Human evolution in the age of the intelligent machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1983-01-01

    A systems analysis of the future evolution of man can be conducted by analyzing the biological material of the galaxy into three subsystems: man, intelligent machines, and intelligent extraterrestrial organisms. A binomial interpretation is applied to this system wherein each of the subsystems is assigned a designation of success or failure. For man the two alternatives are, respectively, 'decline' or 'flourish', for machine they are 'become intelligent' or 'stay dumb', while for extraterrestrial intelligence the dichotomy is that of 'existence' or 'nonexistence'. The choices for each of three subsystems yield a total of eight possible states for the system. The relative lack of integration between brain components makes man a weak evolutionary contestant compared to machines. It is judged that machines should become dominant on earth within 100 years, probably by means of continuing development of existing man-machine systems. Advanced forms of extraterrestrial intelligence may exist but are too difficult to observe. The prospects for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence are reviewed.

  3. Human evolution in the age of the intelligent machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1983-01-01

    A systems analysis of the future evolution of man can be conducted by analyzing the biological material of the galaxy into three subsystems: man, intelligent machines, and intelligent extraterrestrial organisms. A binomial interpretation is applied to this system wherein each of the subsystems is assigned a designation of success or failure. For man the two alternatives are, respectively, 'decline' or 'flourish', for machine they are 'become intelligent' or 'stay dumb', while for extraterrestrial intelligence the dichotomy is that of 'existence' or 'nonexistence'. The choices for each of three subsystems yield a total of eight possible states for the system. The relative lack of integration between brain components makes man a weak evolutionary contestant compared to machines. It is judged that machines should become dominant on earth within 100 years, probably by means of continuing development of existing man-machine systems. Advanced forms of extraterrestrial intelligence may exist but are too difficult to observe. The prospects for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence are reviewed.

  4. Design of intelligent composites with life-cycle health management capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosania, Colleen L.; Larrosa, Cecilia C.; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2015-03-01

    Use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) presents challenges because of their complex manufacturing processes and different damage mechanics in relation to legacy metal materials. New monitoring methods for manufacturing, quality verification, damage estimation, and prognosis are needed to use CFRPs safely and efficiently. This work evaluates the development of intelligent composite materials using integrated piezoelectric sensors to monitor the material during cure and throughout service life. These sensors are used to propagate ultrasonic waves through the structure for health monitoring. During manufacturing, data is collected at different stages during the cure cycle, detecting the changing material properties during cure and verifying quality and degree of cure. The same sensors can then be used with previously developed techniques to perform damage detection, such as impact detection and matrix crack density estimation. Real-time damage estimation can be combined with prognostic models to predict future propagation of damage in the material. In this work experimental results will be presented from composite coupons with embedded piezoelectric sensors. Cure monitoring and damage detection results derived from analysis of the ultrasonic sensor signal will be shown. Sensitive signal parameters to the different stimuli in both the time and frequency domains will be explored for this analysis. From these results, use of the same sensor networks from manufacturing throughout the life of the composite material will demonstrate the full life-cycle monitoring capability of these intelligent materials.

  5. Fourth Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Robert A., Jr. (Editor); Andersen, Dale T. (Editor); Bzik, Sara E. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This symposium was held at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, July 24-27, 1990. The NASA exobiology investigators reported their recent research findings. Scientific papers were presented in the following areas: cosmic evolution of biogenic compounds, prebiotic evolution (planetary and molecular), early evolution of life (biological and geochemical), evolution of advanced life, solar system exploration, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI).

  6. The role of extraterrestrial phenomena in extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D M

    1988-01-01

    In the several years since the Alvarez report of anomalously high iridium concentrations at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, evidence for the involvement of meteorite impacts in biological extinction has increased dramatically. Much more research will be needed, however, before meteorite impact is established as a general causal factor in extinction. Of ever greater long-term interest is the possibility that other extraterrestrial forces have had important influences on the evolution of life. To recognize the effects of such forces, it will be necessary to coordinate the research of astronomy and paleontology so that testable predictions can be formulated. It is possible that known, systematic changes in the Solar System or Galaxy have had effects on global biology and that these effects have been preserved in the paleontological record.

  7. Maintaining life satisfaction in adolescence: Affective mediators of the influence of perceived emotional intelligence on overall life satisfaction judgments in a two-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás eSanchez-Alvarez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in a two-year study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys who completed the self-report Perceived Emotional Intelligence Scale (PEIS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS three times at one-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  8. Kant's wager. Kant's strong belief in extra-terrestrial life, the history of this question and its challenge for theology today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losch, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Kant was not the first in whom the 'starry heavens' above us inspired awe and wonder. For Kant, who was firmly convinced of the existence of inhabitants of other worlds, these heavens were inhabited. He is certain that 'If it were possible to settle by any sort of experience whether there are inhabitants of at least some of the planets that we see, I might well bet everything that I have on it. Hence I say that it is not merely an opinion but a strong belief (on the correctness of which I would wager many advantages in life) that there are also inhabitants of other worlds.' In this statement by Kant in no less a work than the Critique of Pure Reason one can, on the one hand, recognize a reflection of Kant's earlier convictions and expositions, on the other hand, the context of the citation and the contemporary background are, of course, relevant. Following the example of Kant, this paper investigates the meaning of such reflections about inhabitants of alien worlds, which due to advances in planetary astronomy are today again on the agenda. Consideration of this subject also represents a challenge for theology.

  9. Emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in institutionalised Spanish older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Spanish older adults who are institutionalised in long-term care (LTC) facilities. One hundred fifteen institutionalised individuals (47.82% women; 88.3 ± 7.9 years) from southern Spain completed a set of questionnaires that included measures of EI, health and personality. Data were analysed via hierarchical regression. After controlling for personality and sociodemographic variables, the EI dimensions, emotional comprehension and emotional facilitation, accounted for part of the variance in several HRQoL facets. These dimensions could have an important role in the HRQoL of residents in LTC. Moreover, the use of a performance measure addresses the limitations of previous studies that have relied on self-report measures. These aspects underscore the importance of the results of this study.

  10. HYDROGEN-OXYGEN PRIMARY EXTRATERRESTRIAL (HOPE) FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HOPE (Hydrogen-Oxygen Primary Extraterrestrial) Fuel Cell Program is a multi-phase effort to advance the state-of-the-art of fuel cells by...configuration fuel cell module. The HOPE spacecraft, fuel supply tanks, pneumatics, and thermal systems were designed and fabricated to provide...verify water removal, thermal design, and 30-day shelf-life of the fuel cell . The 35-cell module was subjected to a series of performance tests

  11. The Age Distribution of Potential Intelligent Life in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Legassick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the habitability of the Milky Way, making use of recent observational analysis on the prevalence of Earth-sized planets, in order to estimate where and when potentially habitable star systems may have formed over the course of the Galaxy's history. We were then able to estimate the age distribution of potential intelligent life in our Galaxy using our own evolution and the age of the Sun as a proxy. To do this we created a galactic chemical evolution model and applied the following habitability constraints to the Sun-like (G-type) stars formed in our model: an environment free from life-extinguishing supernovae, a high enough metallicity for Earth-sized planet formation and sufficient time for the evolution of complex life. We determined a galactic habitable zone as the region containing all the potentially habitable star systems in our model. Our galactic habitable zone contains stars formed between 11 and 3.8 billion years ago at radial distances of between 7 and 14 kiloparsecs. We found tha...

  12. Astrobiological neurosystems rise and fall of intelligent life forms in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cranford, Jerry L

    2015-01-01

    This book explains why scientists believe that life may be more common in the Universe than previously considered possible. It presents the tools and strategies astronomers and astrobiologists are using in their formal search for habitable exoplanets as well as more advanced forms of life in other parts of our galaxy. The author then summarizes what is currently known about how and where organic molecules critical to our form of carbon-based life are manufactured. The core of the book explains (and presents educated guesses) how nervous systems evolved on Earth, how they work, and how they might work on other worlds. Combining his knowledge of neuroscience, computers, and astrobiology the author jumps into the discussion whether biological nervous systems are just the first step in the rise of intelligence in the Universe. The book ends with a description from both the psychologist’s and the neuroscientist’s viewpoints, exactly what it is about the fields of astrobiology and astronomy that “boggles...

  13. From the Origins of Life to Intelligence: The Emergence of Symbolic Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Intelligence cannot be understood - and cannot be 'artificially recreated' - without also understanding how it fits as a phenomenon in the evolution of matter. I say 'matter' instead of 'life' because my thesis is that the distinction between matter, with its associated interactions, and life, is simply in the complexity of these interactions and in the number of 'symbolic levels' that are defined by these interactions. Most of us think of symbols only in the context of language. This is understandable, since it is at this level where it is easiest to draw a distinction between natural objects and their 'names', i.e., the different sets of 'abstract' objects that can be manipulated to produce models of the 'real' world. Of course sets of abstract objects can also acquire names and be manipulated at higher and higher conceptual levels. When we use the words 'philosophy' or 'the Declaration of Independence' we use abstract constructs that will only make sense in other specific abstract contexts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction and subjective happiness in female student health professionals: the mediating effect of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aranda, D; Extremera, N; Pineda-Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to extend previous findings by examining the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness) in a 12-week follow-up study. In addition, we examined the influence of perceived stress on the relationship between EI and well-being. Female students from the School of Health Sciences (n = 264) completed an ability measure of emotional intelligence. After 12 weeks, participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. Participants with higher EI reported less perceived stress and higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness. The results of this study suggest that perceived stress mediates the relationship between EI and well-being indicators, specifically life satisfaction and happiness. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional intelligence may increase well-being in female students in nursing and allied health sciences by reducing the experience of stress. The implications of these findings for future research and for working with health professions to improve well-being outcomes are discussed.

  15. The Life Cycle Application of Intelligent Software Modeling for the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda; Parris, Frank; Nerren, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been funding development of intelligent software models to benefit payload ground operations for nearly a decade. Experience gained from simulator development and real-time monitoring and control is being applied to engineering design, testing, and operation of the First Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1). MSRR-1 is the first rack in a suite of three racks comprising the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) which will operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF will accommodate advanced microgravity investigations in areas such as the fields of solidification of metals and alloys, thermo-physical properties of polymers, crystal growth studies of semiconductor materials, and research in ceramics and glasses. The MSRR-1 is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the behavior of different materials during high temperature processing in a low gravity environment. The planned MSRR-1 mission duration is five (5) years on-orbit and the total design life is ten (IO) years. The MSRR-1 launch is scheduled on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3) to ISS, currently in February of 2003). The objective of MSRR-1 is to provide an early capability on the ISS to conduct material science, materials technology, and space product research investigations in microgravity. It will provide a modular, multi-user facility for microgravity research in materials crystal growth and solidification. An intelligent software model of MSRR-1 is under development and will serve multiple purposes to support the engineering analysis, testing, training, and operational phases of the MSRR-1 life cycle development. The G2 real-time expert system software environment developed by Gensym Corporation was selected as the intelligent system shell for this development work based on past experience gained and the effectiveness of the programming environment. Our approach of multi- uses of the simulation model and

  16. Our Sky now and then $-$ searches for lost stars and impossible effects as probes of advanced extra-terrestrial civilisations

    OpenAIRE

    Villarroel, Beatriz; Imaz, Iñigo; Bergstedt, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Searches for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) using large survey data often look for possible signatures of astroengineering. We propose to search for physically impossible effects caused by highly advanced technology, by carrying out a search for disappearing galaxies and Milky Way stars. We select $\\sim$ 10 million objects from USNO-B1.0 with low proper motion ($\\mu$ $

  17. The effects of life stress and neural learning signals on fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Eva; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Beck, Anne; Dolan, Raymond J; Huys, Quentin J M; Rapp, Michael A; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Fluid intelligence (fluid IQ), defined as the capacity for rapid problem solving and behavioral adaptation, is known to be modulated by learning and experience. Both stressful life events (SLES) and neural correlates of learning [specifically, a key mediator of adaptive learning in the brain, namely the ventral striatal representation of prediction errors (PE)] have been shown to be associated with individual differences in fluid IQ. Here, we examine the interaction between adaptive learning signals (using a well-characterized probabilistic reversal learning task in combination with fMRI) and SLES on fluid IQ measures. We find that the correlation between ventral striatal BOLD PE and fluid IQ, which we have previously reported, is quantitatively modulated by the amount of reported SLES. Thus, after experiencing adversity, basic neuronal learning signatures appear to align more closely with a general measure of flexible learning (fluid IQ), a finding complementing studies on the effects of acute stress on learning. The results suggest that an understanding of the neurobiological correlates of trait variables like fluid IQ needs to take socioemotional influences such as chronic stress into account.

  18. Planets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary

  19. The effects of an emotional intelligence program on the quality of life and well-being of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Bektas Murat; Karahan, Tevfik Fikret; Ozcelik, Muhittin; Igde, Fusun Artiran

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of an emotional intelligence program on the health-related quality of life and well-being of individuals with type 2 diabetes. The BarOn Emotional Intelligence Scale (EQ-I), WHO Well-Being Questionnaire (WHO-WBQ-22), WHO Quality of Life Measure (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) were administered to 184 patients with type 2 diabetes who volunteered to participate. Thirty-six patients with the lowest test scores on the WHO-WBQ-22, WHOQOL-Bref, and SF-36 were randomized into study and control groups (18 patients each). A 12-week emotional intelligence program was administered to the study group. At the end of the program, scales were readministered to both groups and again at 3 and 6 months. There were no differences between the quality of life, well-being, and emotional intelligence levels of the study and control groups before the commencement of the program (P > .05). At the conclusion of the program, quality of life, well-being, and emotional intelligence levels of study group patients increased in comparison with those in the control group (P emotional intelligence persisted at the 3- and 6-month follow-up. The emotional intelligence program may have positive effects on quality of life and well-being of individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Emotional intelligence and affective intensity as life satisfaction and psychological well-being predictors on nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Augusto-Landa, José-María

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), affective intensity, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being in a sample of nursing professionals. Studies conducted in nursing have shown that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. PEI was measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, which includes the emotional attention, clarity and repair subscales. Affective intensity was measured by Larsen's Affective Intensity Scale. To analyze this relationship, we observed the impact of PEI and affective intensity on life satisfaction and psychological well-being, while controlling the sociodemographic variables. The correlation analyses showed significant relationships between the subscales of these variables. Clarity showed positive relationships with some psychological well-being dimensions. Affective intensity subscales presented relationships with life quality and different subscales of psychological well-being. Regression analyses indicated that repair is the only life satisfaction predictor. Moreover, clarity, some affective intensity dimensions, and sociodemographic variables are the main predictors of psychological well-being. The results confirmed the importance of repair on life quality and psychological well-being. Programs to improve nursing professionals' PEI are needed to increase their psychological well-being and life satisfaction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The intelligence paradox; will ET get the metabolic syndrome? Lessons from and for Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Alistair V W; Guy, Geoffrey W; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-01-01

    Mankind is facing an unprecedented health challenge in the current pandemic of obesity and diabetes. We propose that this is the inevitable (and predictable) consequence of the evolution of intelligence, which itself could be an expression of life being an information system driven by entropy. Because of its ability to make life more adaptable and robust, intelligence evolved as an efficient adaptive response to the stresses arising from an ever-changing environment. These adaptive responses are encapsulated by the epiphenomena of "hormesis", a phenomenon we believe to be central to the evolution of intelligence and essential for the maintenance of optimal physiological function and health. Thus, as intelligence evolved, it would eventually reach a cognitive level with the ability to control its environment through technology and have the ability remove all stressors. In effect, it would act to remove the very hormetic factors that had driven its evolution. Mankind may have reached this point, creating an environmental utopia that has reduced the very stimuli necessary for optimal health and the evolution of intelligence - "the intelligence paradox". One of the hallmarks of this paradox is of course the rising incidence in obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. This leads to the conclusion that wherever life evolves, here on earth or in another part of the galaxy, the "intelligence paradox" would be the inevitable side-effect of the evolution of intelligence. ET may not need to just "phone home" but may also need to "phone the local gym". This suggests another possible reason to explain Fermi's paradox; Enrico Fermi, the famous physicist, suggested in the 1950s that if extra-terrestrial intelligence was so prevalent, which was a common belief at the time, then where was it? Our suggestion is that if advanced life has got going elsewhere in our galaxy, it can't afford to explore the galaxy because it has to pay its healthcare costs.

  2. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  3. Artificial pigs in space: using artificial intelligence and artificial life techniques to design animal housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricklin, W R; de Bourcier, P; Zhou, J Z; Gonyou, H W

    1998-10-01

    Computer simulations have been used by us since the early 1970s to gain an understanding of the spacing and movement patterns of confined animals. The work has progressed from the early stages, in which we used randomly positioned points, to current investigations of animats (computer-simulated animals), which show low levels of learning via artificial neural networks. We have determined that 1) pens of equal floor area but of different shape result in different spatial and movement patterns for randomly positioned and moving animats; 2) when group size increases under constant density, freedom of movement approaches an asymptote at approximately six animats; 3) matching the number of animats with the number of corners results in optimal freedom of movement for small groups of animats; and 4) perimeter positioning occurs in groups of animats that maximize their distance to first- and second-nearest neighbors. Recently, we developed animats that move, compete for social dominance, and are motivated to obtain resources (food, resting sites, etc.). We are currently developing an animat that learns its behavior from the spatial and movement data collected on live pigs. The animat model is then used to pretest pen designs, followed by new pig spatial data fed into the animat model, resulting in a new pen design to be tested, and the steps are repeated. We believe that methodologies from artificial-life and artificial intelligence can contribute to the understanding of basic animal behavior principles, as well as to the solving of problems in production agriculture in areas such as animal housing design.

  4. Religiosity is negatively associated with later-life intelligence, but not with age-related cognitive decline☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Gow, Alan J.; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    A well-replicated finding in the psychological literature is the negative correlation between religiosity and intelligence. However, several studies also conclude that one form of religiosity, church attendance, is protective against later-life cognitive decline. No effects of religious belief per se on cognitive decline have been found, potentially due to the restricted measures of belief used in previous studies. Here, we examined the associations between religiosity, intelligence, and cognitive change in a cohort of individuals (initial n = 550) with high-quality measures of religious belief taken at age 83 and multiple cognitive measures taken in childhood and at four waves between age 79 and 90. We found that religious belief, but not attendance, was negatively related to intelligence. The effect size was smaller than in previous studies of younger participants. Longitudinal analyses showed no effect of either religious belief or attendance on cognitive change either from childhood to old age, or across the ninth decade of life. We discuss differences between our cohort and those in previous studies – including in age and location – that may have led to our non-replication of the association between religious attendance and cognitive decline. PMID:25278639

  5. The Life Cycle Application of Intelligent Software Modeling for the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda; Parris, Frank; Nerren, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been funding development of intelligent software models to benefit payload ground operations for nearly a decade. Experience gained from simulator development and real-time monitoring and control is being applied to engineering design, testing, and operation of the First Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1). MSRR-1 is the first rack in a suite of three racks comprising the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) which will operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF will accommodate advanced microgravity investigations in areas such as the fields of solidification of metals and alloys, thermo-physical properties of polymers, crystal growth studies of semiconductor materials, and research in ceramics and glasses. The MSRR-1 is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the behavior of different materials during high temperature processing in a low gravity environment. The planned MSRR-1 mission duration is five (5) years on-orbit and the total design life is ten (IO) years. The MSRR-1 launch is scheduled on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3) to ISS, currently in February of 2003). The objective of MSRR-1 is to provide an early capability on the ISS to conduct material science, materials technology, and space product research investigations in microgravity. It will provide a modular, multi-user facility for microgravity research in materials crystal growth and solidification. An intelligent software model of MSRR-1 is under development and will serve multiple purposes to support the engineering analysis, testing, training, and operational phases of the MSRR-1 life cycle development. The G2 real-time expert system software environment developed by Gensym Corporation was selected as the intelligent system shell for this development work based on past experience gained and the effectiveness of the programming environment. Our approach of multi- uses of the simulation model and

  6. The Life Cycle Application of Intelligent Software Modeling for the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda; Parris, Frank; Nerren, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been funding development of intelligent software models to benefit payload ground operations for nearly a decade. Experience gained from simulator development and real-time monitoring and control is being applied to engineering design, testing, and operation of the First Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1). MSRR-1 is the first rack in a suite of three racks comprising the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) which will operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF will accommodate advanced microgravity investigations in areas such as the fields of solidification of metals and alloys, thermo-physical properties of polymers, crystal growth studies of semiconductor materials, and research in ceramics and glasses. The MSRR-1 is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the behavior of different materials during high temperature processing in a low gravity environment. The planned MSRR-1 mission duration is five (5) years on-orbit and the total design life is ten (IO) years. The MSRR-1 launch is scheduled on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3) to ISS, currently in February of 2003). The objective of MSRR-1 is to provide an early capability on the ISS to conduct material science, materials technology, and space product research investigations in microgravity. It will provide a modular, multi-user facility for microgravity research in materials crystal growth and solidification. An intelligent software model of MSRR-1 is under development and will serve multiple purposes to support the engineering analysis, testing, training, and operational phases of the MSRR-1 life cycle development. The G2 real-time expert system software environment developed by Gensym Corporation was selected as the intelligent system shell for this development work based on past experience gained and the effectiveness of the programming environment. Our approach of multi- uses of the simulation model and

  7. Raman imaging of extraterrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alian; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Ling, Zongcheng

    2015-07-01

    Laser Raman Spectroscopy has been proposed and is under extensive development for surface exploration missions to planetary bodies of our Solar System. It reveals information on molecular structure and chemistry. The spatial distribution of molecular species in natural geological samples and planetary materials has significance for the geological processes by which they formed. Raman imaging is the best way to combine the molecular identification and characterization of geologic materials with their spatial distribution. This paper reports Raman imaging studies of five types of extraterrestrial materials and three terrestrial samples using a state-of-the-art Raman imaging system. The Raman spectral features of major, minor, and trace species in these samples, together with their spatial correlations revealed by these Raman imaging studies indicate the genetic relationships and the geological processes that these materials have been experienced. For robotic planetary surface exploration mission, a simple yet very useful molecular map of a sample can be generated by using line-scan or grid-scan of an in situ Raman system with tightly focused laser beam.

  8. Emotional intelligence in older adults: psychometric properties of the TMMS-24 and relationship with psychological well-being and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhom, I; Gutierrez, M; Lucas-Molina, B; Meléndez, J C

    2017-08-01

    Aging is a process during which important changes occur in different areas of development and emotional intelligence plays an essential role. The objective of this study was twofold: first, to validate the TMMS-24 in an older population; and second, to examine the mediating role of life satisfaction in the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being. The sample consisted of 215 older adults (60.15% women) with a mean age of 69.56 (SD = 6.42), without cognitive impairment. Data on emotional intelligence, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being were obtained through the TMMS-24, the SWLS, and Ryff's psychological well-being scales, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling were conducted. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-dimensional structure of the TMMS-24. The total scale showed an internal consistency of 0.90, ranging from 0.84 to 0.85 for the subscales. Structural equation modeling indicated that emotional intelligence exerted an influence on psychological well-being both directly and indirectly through life satisfaction. These findings show that the TMMS-24 has adequate psychometric properties for assessing emotional intelligence in elderly participants, and they indicate that emotional intelligence influences cognitive and affective judgments of life satisfaction, with these judgments of life satisfaction predicting psychological well-being.

  9. The Essential Turing Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life Plus the Secrets of Enigma

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The ideas that gave birth to the computer age. Alan Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, was one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich. in philosophical and logical insight. An introduction

  10. Business Intelligence in College: A Teaching Case with Real Life Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presthus, Wanda; Bygstad, Bendik

    2012-01-01

    Modern Business Intelligence (BI) is about the process of turning data into actionable information, using an assortment of tools, techniques, and applications. Although BI, or its predecessor Decision Support Systems (DSS), has been applied in the industry for about half a century, it has only recently been taught in business schools. In the…

  11. A New Lease of Life for Thomson's Bonds Model of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, David J.; Deary, Ian J.; Lawn, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Modern factor analysis is the outgrowth of Spearman's original "2-factor" model of intelligence, according to which a mental test score is regarded as the sum of a general factor and a specific factor. As early as 1914, Godfrey Thomson realized that the data did not require this interpretation and he demonstrated this by proposing what became…

  12. Intelligence Support to the Life Science Community: Mitigating Threats from Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    in Intelligence Vol. 48, No. 3 a variety of highly knowledge- able sources. Mitchel Wallerstein , former deputy assistant secre- tary of defense for...that are immediately 35 M. B. Wallerstein , “Science in an Age of Terrorism.” Science 297 (27 September 2002): 2169. applicable to the development of

  13. Business Intelligence in College: A Teaching Case with Real Life Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presthus, Wanda; Bygstad, Bendik

    2012-01-01

    Modern Business Intelligence (BI) is about the process of turning data into actionable information, using an assortment of tools, techniques, and applications. Although BI, or its predecessor Decision Support Systems (DSS), has been applied in the industry for about half a century, it has only recently been taught in business schools. In the…

  14. Investigation of Supercritical Water Phenomena for Space and Extraterrestrial Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.; Fisher, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The cost of carrying or resupplying life support resources for long duration manned space exploration missions such as a mission to Mars is prohibitive and requires the development of suitable recycling technologies. Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) has been identified as an attractive candidate for these extended missions because (i) pre-drying of wet waste streams is not required, (ii) product streams are relatively benign, microbially inert, and easily reclaimed, (iii) waste conversion is complete and relatively fast, and (iv) with proper design and operation, reactions can be self-sustaining. Initial work in this area at NASA was carried out at the Ames Research Center in the 1990 s with a focus on understanding the linkages between feed stock preparation (i.e., particle size and distribution) of cellulosic based waste streams and destruction rates under a range of operating temperatures and pressures. More recently, work in SCWO research for space and extra-terrestrial application has been performed at NASA s Glenn Research Center where various investigations, with a particular focus in the gravitational effects on the thermo-physical processes occurring in the bulk medium, have been pursued. In 2010 a collaborative NASA/CNES (the French Space Agency) experiment on the critical transition of pure water was conducted in the long duration microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). A follow-on experiment, to study the precipitation of salt in sub-critical, trans-critical and supercritical water is scheduled to be conducted on the ISS in 2013. This paper provides a brief history of NASA s earlier work in SCWO, discusses the potential for application of SCWO technology in extended space and extraterrestrial missions, describes related research conducted on the ISS, and provides a list of future research activities to advance this technology in both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial applications.

  15. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mars?; Titan Versus Europa - Potential for Astrobiology; Habitability Potential of Mars; Biosignatures: Tools and Development I; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite Systems; Ancient Life and Synthetic Biology: Crossroad of the Past and Future; Biosignatures: Tools and Development II; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Causes, and Consequences; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Where Should We Go on Mars to Seek Signs of Life?; Search for Intelligent Life I. Innovative SETI Observing Programs and Future Directions; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Search for Intelligent Life II. Global Engagement and Interstellar Message Construction; Poster sessions included: Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life; RNA World; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Virology and Astrobiology; Horizontal Genetic Transfer and Properties of Ancestral Organisms; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Impact Events and Evolution; Evolution of Advanced Life; Evolution of Intelligent Life; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Policy and Societal Issues: Dealing with Potential Bumps in the Astrobiology Road Ahead; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite

  16. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mars?; Titan Versus Europa - Potential for Astrobiology; Habitability Potential of Mars; Biosignatures: Tools and Development I; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite Systems; Ancient Life and Synthetic Biology: Crossroad of the Past and Future; Biosignatures: Tools and Development II; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Causes, and Consequences; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Where Should We Go on Mars to Seek Signs of Life?; Search for Intelligent Life I. Innovative SETI Observing Programs and Future Directions; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Search for Intelligent Life II. Global Engagement and Interstellar Message Construction; Poster sessions included: Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life; RNA World; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Virology and Astrobiology; Horizontal Genetic Transfer and Properties of Ancestral Organisms; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Impact Events and Evolution; Evolution of Advanced Life; Evolution of Intelligent Life; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Policy and Societal Issues: Dealing with Potential Bumps in the Astrobiology Road Ahead; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite

  17. Arsenic in the evolution of earth and extraterrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Saltikov, C.W.; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    If you were asked to speculate about the form extra-terrestrial life on Mars might take, which geomicrobial phenomenon might you select as a model system, assuming that life on Mars would be 'primitive'? Give your reasons. At the end of my senior year at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1968, I took Professor Ehrlich's final for his Geomicrobiology course. The above question beckoned to me like the Sirens to Odysseus, for if I answered, it would take so much time and thought that I would never get around to the exam's other essay questions and consequently, would be "shipwrecked" by flunking the course. So, I passed it up. With this 41-year perspective in mind, this manuscript is now submitted to Professor Ehrlich for (belated) "extra-credit." R.S. Oremland ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Emerging Tensions at the Interface of Artificial Intelligence, IPRs & Competition Law in the Health & Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    This presentation: • describes the interface between Big Data, IPRs & competition law in the life sciences. • highlights selected life-science areas, where tensions and potential clashes are crystallizing. • discusses how these tensions could be addressed...

  19. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Fire Suppression in Extraterrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F.; Linteris, G. T.; Katta, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    A fire, whether in a spacecraft or in occupied spaces on extraterrestrial bases, can lead to mission termination or loss of life. While the fire-safety record of US space missions has been excellent, the advent of longer duration missions to Mars, the moon, or aboard the International Space Station (ISS) increases the likelihood of fire events, with more limited mission termination options. The fire safety program of NASA's manned space flight program is based largely upon the principles of controlling the flammability of on-board materials and greatly eliminating sources of ignition. As a result, very little research has been conducted on fire suppression in the microgravity or reduced-gravity environment. The objectives of this study are: to obtain fundamental knowledge of physical and chemical processes of fire suppression, using gravity and oxygen concentration as independent variables to simulate various extraterrestrial environments, including spacecraft and surface bases in Mars and moon missions; to provide rigorous testing of analytical models, which include comprehensive descriptions of combustion and suppression chemistry; and to provide basic research results useful for technological advances in fire safety, including the development of new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches, in the microgravity environment associated with ISS and in the partial-gravity Martian and lunar environments.

  20. Would contact with extraterrestrials benefit or harm humanity? A scenario analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, Seth D; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; 10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.10.012

    2011-01-01

    While humanity has not yet observed any extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), contact with ETI remains possible. Contact could occur through a broad range of scenarios could occur that have varying consequences for humanity. However, many discussions of this question assume that contact will follow a particular scenario that derives from the hopes and fears of the author. In this paper, we analyze a broad range of contact scenarios in terms of whether contact with ETI would benefit or harm humanity. This type of broad analysis can help us prepare for actual contact with ETI even if the details of contact do not fully resemble any specific scenario.

  1. [Relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and professional quality of life with the achievement of occupational objectives in the costa del sol primary health care district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías Fernández, Antonio José; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, Carlos; Carmona González, Francisco Jesús; Crespillo Vílchez, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between "Quality of Professional Life" and "Perceived Emotional Intelligence" and the relationship of both of these with the level of achievement of occupational objectives in the Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District. Multicentre descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District in the province of Málaga. Sample of Employees of all categories in fixed and contracted employment in the Management Units of the Costa del Sol District. (N=303). Respondents 247 (81.5%) The data collected was that of the percentage of achievement of objectives in 2010 and the socio-demographic data of the participants, using ad hoc designed self-report questionnaires. The TMMS -24 questionnaire was used to measure the "Perceived Emotional Intelligence", with the following dimensions: Perception, comprehension, and emotional control, and the CVP-35 measuring: management support, work demands, and intrinsic motivation. Significant correlationas were observed between Quality of Professional Life and Emotional Intelligence in the Regulation (p<.01) and Comprehension categories (p<0.05). There were also significant correlations between the profession and the type of contract in the achievement of objectives (p<.005), and quality of professional life and type of contract (p<.05). The perceived quality of professional life is related to perception and regulation dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. Knowledge of emotion management methods should be promoted by management organisations for all employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Obesity Associated With a Decline in Intelligence Quotient During the First Half of the Life Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Meier, Madeline H.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found that obesity is associated with low intellectual ability and neuroimaging abnormalities in adolescence and adulthood. Some have interpreted these associations to suggest that obesity causes intellectual decline in the first half of the life course. We analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study to test whether becoming obese was associated with intellectual decline from childhood to midlife. We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972–1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured in childhood and adulthood. Anthropometric measurements were taken at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person assessments. As expected, cohort members who became obese had lower adulthood IQ scores. However, obese cohort members exhibited no excess decline in IQ. Instead, these cohort members had lower IQ scores since childhood. This pattern remained consistent when we accounted for children's birth weights and growth during the first years of life, as well as for childhood-onset obesity. Lower IQ scores among children who later developed obesity were present as early as 3 years of age. We observed no evidence that obesity contributed to a decline in IQ, even among obese individuals who displayed evidence of the metabolic syndrome and/or elevated systemic inflammation. PMID:24029684

  3. Comparisons of thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and quality of life in children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Wei; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xue-Mei; Fan, Xian-Liang; Tian, Yu-Dong; Jia, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and quality of life (QoL) of children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy. Method. A total of 35 OSAHS children (21 males and 14 females with a mean age of 6.81 ± 1.08 years) were included in this study for analyzing the levels of thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and QoL. There were 22 children underwent endoscopic adenoidectomy with bilateral tonsillectomy (BT), while the other 13 children who underwent endoscopic adenoidectomy without bilateral tonsillectomy without BT. Results. Our results revealed no significant difference in serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in OSAHS children before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy (all P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) (92.45 ± 5.88 versus 106.23 ± 7.39, P intelligence quotient (VIQ) (94.17 ± 15.01 versus 103.91 ± 9.74, P = 0.006), and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) (94.12 ± 11.04 versus 104.31 ± 10.05, P = 0.001), attention (98.48 ± 8.74 versus 106.87 ± 8.58, P children. Conclusion. Our findings provided evidence that the intelligence, attention, and QoL of OSAHS children may be significantly improved after endoscopic adenoidectomy.

  4. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    .... While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined...

  5. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria for the Development of Extraterrestrial Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    In-situ production of consumables (mainly oxygen) using local resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human exploration and settlement of the solar system, starting with the Moon. With few exceptions, nearly all technologies developed to date have employed an approach based on inorganic chemistry. None of these technologies include concepts for integrating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production system. Therefore, a new concept based on the cultivation of cyanobacteria (CB) in semi-closed biogeoreactor, linking ISRU, a biological life support system, and food production, has been proposed. The key feature of the biogeoreactor is to use lithotrophic CB to extract many needed elements such as Fe directly from the dissolved regolith and direct them to any technological loop at an extraterrestrial outpost. Our studies showed that siderophilic (Fe-loving) CB are capable to corrode lunar regolith stimulants because they secrete chelating agents and can tolerate [Fe] up to 1 mM. However, lunar and Martian environments are very hostile (very high UV and gamma-radiation, extreme temperatures, deficit of water). Thus, the selection of CB species with high potential for extraterrestrial biotechnologies that may be utilized in 15 years must be sponsored by NASA as soon as possible. The study of the genomes of candidate CB species and the metagenomes of the terrestrial environments which they inhabit is critical to make this decision. Here we provide preliminary results about peculiarities of the genomes of siderophilic CB revealed by analyzing the genome of siderophilic cyanobacterium JSC-1 and the metagenome of iron depositing hot spring (IDHS) Chocolate Pots (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). It has been found that IDHS are richer with ferrous iron than the majority of hot springs around the world. Fe2+ is known to increase the magnitude of oxidative stress in prokaryotes

  6. The Convergence of Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim

    Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.

  7. Yoga therapy for developing emotional intelligence in mid-life managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Nagendra, H R

    2011-01-01

    Business executives' lives have become a never-ending race against time, technology, and targets. This race creates tension, which leads to dissatisfaction and frustration and eventually manifests itself as psychological and physiological stress with mental and emotional drain. This modern lifestyle intensifies the stress leading to "excessive tension" and consequent deterioration in "executive efficiency". To assess emotional intelligent quotient (EQ) in managers undergoing yoga-based Self Management of Excessive Tension (SMET) program. 72 managers participated in this study which is of "single group pre-post design." The EQ test developed by Prof N. K. Chadha from University of Delhi was administered as pre and post the 5 days of SMET program. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data. The data analysis showed 72.02% significant increase (PEQ. The results suggest that participation in a SMET program was associated with improvement in EQ and may have implications for "executive efficiency."

  8. Creatures in the Classroom: Preservice Teacher Beliefs About Fantastic Beasts, Magic, Extraterrestrials, Evolution and Creationism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Susan Carol; Nzekwe, Brandon

    2011-05-01

    Faculty have long expressed concern about pseudoscience belief among students. Most US research on such beliefs examines evolution-creation issues among liberal arts students, the general public, and occasionally science educators. Because of their future influence on youth, we examined basic science knowledge and several pseudoscience beliefs among 540 female and 123 male upperclass preservice teachers, comparing them with representative samples of comparably educated American adults. Future teachers resembled national adults on basic science knowledge. Their scores on evolution; creationism; intelligent design; fantastic beasts; magic; and extraterrestrials indices depended on the topic. Exempting science education, preservice teachers rejected evolution, accepting Biblical creation and intelligent design accounts. Sizable minorities "awaited more evidence" about fantastic beasts, magic, or extraterrestrials. Although gender, disciplinary major, grade point average, science knowledge, and two religiosity measures related to beliefs about evolution-creation, these factors were generally unassociated with the other indices. The findings suggest more training is needed for preservice educators in the critical evaluation of material evidence. We also discuss the judicious use of pseudoscience beliefs in such training.

  9. Life In The Universe!

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    An alien invasion of CERN? Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 30 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists and astronomers have worked tirelessly to answer these questions. Yet just this past week at CERN students from all over Europe came to present their ideas on the subject and listen to the latest on extraterrestrial life from some of the world's most prestigious researchers. Students participating in the programme were encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively and boy did they! The team from Portugal ran performances of Greek Theatre, the team from Hungary created a board game, while the team from Belgium recited poetry questioning the existence of extraterrestrials. But all was not light hearted, there were touching presentations of violin and piano by the French team and a very thought provoking theatre performance by the German team contrasting the search for extraterrestrial...

  10. Musical Structures and Search for Extraterrestrials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Vladimir A.

    Recent findings in cognitive phsychology indicate connections between human feelings and musical scales, on the one hand, and the laws of thermodynamics, on the other. The existence of such a deep correlations allows us to suggest the hypothesis that music is inherent not only to the human beings but to other sapient creatures as well. It is worth, thus, in our search for extraterrestrial civilizations to conduct a "musical" analysis of the spectra of "suspicious" objects. The results of such analysis of the Doppler spectrum of SS 433 will be presented in this paper.

  11. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  12. Extraterrestrial Radiation Chemistry and Molecular Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations of both solar system and interstellar regions have revealed a rich chemical inventory that includes most classes of organic molecules and selected inorganics. For example, gas-phase ethylene glycol and SOz have been observed by astronomers, while solidphase detections include OCS, H2O2 , and the cyanate anion.' All of these are found in environments that are, by earthly standards, exceedingly hostile: temperatures of 10 - 100 K, miniscule densities, and near-ubiquitous ionizing-radiation fields. Beyond the simplest chemical species, these conditions have made it difficult-to-impassible to account for the observed molecular abundances using gas-phase chemistry, suggesting solid-phase reactions play an important role. In extraterrestrial environments, cosmic rays, UV photons, and magnetospheric radiation all drive chemical reactions, even at cryogenic temperatures. To study this chemistry, radiation astrochemists conduct experiments on icy materials, frozen under vacuum and exposed to sources such as keV electrons and MeV protons. Compositional changes usually are followed with IR spectroscopy and, in selected cases, more-sensitive mass-spectral techniques. This talk will review some recent results on known and suspected extraterrestrial molecules and ions. Spectra and reaction pathways will be presented, and predictions made for interstellar chemistry and the chemistry of selected solar system objects. Some past radiation-chemical contributions, and future needs, will be explored.

  13. Extraterrestrial Radiation Chemistry and Molecular Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations of both solar system and interstellar regions have revealed a rich chemical inventory that includes most classes of organic molecules and selected inorganics. For example, gas-phase ethylene glycol and SOz have been observed by astronomers, while solidphase detections include OCS, H2O2 , and the cyanate anion.' All of these are found in environments that are, by earthly standards, exceedingly hostile: temperatures of 10 - 100 K, miniscule densities, and near-ubiquitous ionizing-radiation fields. Beyond the simplest chemical species, these conditions have made it difficult-to-impassible to account for the observed molecular abundances using gas-phase chemistry, suggesting solid-phase reactions play an important role. In extraterrestrial environments, cosmic rays, UV photons, and magnetospheric radiation all drive chemical reactions, even at cryogenic temperatures. To study this chemistry, radiation astrochemists conduct experiments on icy materials, frozen under vacuum and exposed to sources such as keV electrons and MeV protons. Compositional changes usually are followed with IR spectroscopy and, in selected cases, more-sensitive mass-spectral techniques. This talk will review some recent results on known and suspected extraterrestrial molecules and ions. Spectra and reaction pathways will be presented, and predictions made for interstellar chemistry and the chemistry of selected solar system objects. Some past radiation-chemical contributions, and future needs, will be explored.

  14. Understanding prebiotic chemistry through the analysis of extraterrestrial amino acids and nucleobases in meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S; Stern, Jennifer C; Elsila, Jamie E; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P

    2012-08-21

    The discoveries of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in many meteorites over the last 50 years have revolutionized the Astrobiology field. A variety of non-terrestrial amino acids similar to those found in life on Earth have been detected in meteorites. A few amino acids have even been found with chiral excesses, suggesting that meteorites could have contributed to the origin of homochirality in life on Earth. In addition to amino acids, which have been productively studied for years, sugar-like molecules, activated phosphates, and nucleobases have also been determined to be indigenous to numerous meteorites. Because these molecules are essential for life as we know it, and meteorites have been delivering them to the Earth since accretion, it is plausible that the origin(s) of life on Earth were aided by extraterrestrially-synthesized molecules. Understanding the origins of life on Earth guides our search for life elsewhere, helping to answer the question of whether biology is unique to Earth. This tutorial review focuses on meteoritic amino acids and nucleobases, exploring modern analytical methods and possible formation mechanisms. We will also discuss the unique window that meteorites provide into the chemistry that preceded life on Earth, a chemical record we do not have access to on Earth due to geologic recycling of rocks and the pervasiveness of biology across the planet. Finally, we will address the future of meteorite research, including asteroid sample return missions.

  15. Design of intelligent detection system to individual life signs%单兵生命体征智能检测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连强; 许耀良; 李晓东

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To achieve intelligent access to normal training or individual soldier signs information during the war, establish individual soldier health intelligent interactive regulation and health system platform of IOT, realized digitalization, information management mode. Methods: Using the communication network, intelligent call, vital signs monitoring technology, to design intelligent signs monitoring system. Results:This system is mainly for the automatic sense of individual signs in the training or war, to understand the individual activity, get the sign data, which can send information through a call or intelligent system, based on the identification and location, medical personnel to care and treatment in the shortest time, construction of intelligent information. Conclusion: Through the use of intelligent detection system to Individual life signs in training or in wartime, the system can always grasp of individual soldier signs, and realizing a complete coverage of all of the intelligent health monitoring system, to provide effective guarantee for wartime workers health.%目的:实现平常训练或战时单兵体征智能获取,建立单兵健康智能交互监管和单兵健康管理物联网系统平台,实现数字化、信息化管理模式。方法:针对训练或战时单兵体征的自动感,时时了解单兵活动状态,获取其体征数据。结果:一键呼叫或智能系统发出信息,通过身份识别与定位,医护人员能在最短时间进行护理和救治,实现智能信息化的建设。结论:单兵生命体征智能检测系统在训练或战时的运用中,可做到对单兵体征的时时掌握,实现全方位、全覆盖的智能健康检测系统,为战时的人员健康提供了有效的保障。

  16. Applying Biomimetic Algorithms for Extra-Terrestrial Habitat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to simulate and optimize distributed cooperation among a network of robots tasked with cooperative excavation on an extra-terrestrial surface. Additionally to examine the concept of directed Emergence among a group of limited artificially intelligent agents. Emergence is the concept of achieving complex results from very simple rules or interactions. For example, in a termite mound each individual termite does not carry a blueprint of how to make their home in a global sense, but their interactions based strictly on local desires create a complex superstructure. Leveraging this Emergence concept applied to a simulation of cooperative agents (robots) will allow an examination of the success of non-directed group strategy achieving specific results. Specifically the simulation will be a testbed to evaluate population based robotic exploration and cooperative strategies while leveraging the evolutionary teamwork approach in the face of uncertainty about the environment and partial loss of sensors. Checking against a cost function and 'social' constraints will optimize cooperation when excavating a simulated tunnel. Agents will act locally with non-local results. The rules by which the simulated robots interact will be optimized to the simplest possible for the desired result, leveraging Emergence. Sensor malfunction and line of sight issues will be incorporated into the simulation. This approach falls under Swarm Robotics, a subset of robot control concerned with finding ways to control large groups of robots. Swarm Robotics often contains biologically inspired approaches, research comes from social insect observation but also data from among groups of herding, schooling, and flocking animals. Biomimetic algorithms applied to manned space exploration is the method under consideration for further study.

  17. Search for Signatures of Life in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M.; Schwehm, G.; Arnould, J.; Dawson, S.; Devore, E.; Evans, D.; Ferrazzani, M.; Shostak, S.

    The search for evidence of extraterrestrial life is an important scientific theme that fascinates the public and encourages interest in space exploration, both within the solar system and beyond. The rapid pace of mass media communication allows the public to share mission results and new discoveries almost simultaneously with the scientific community. The public can read about proposed sample return missions to Mars, listen as scientists debate about in situ exploration of the oceans on Europa, learn about the growing number of extrasolar planets, or use their personal computers to participate in searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). As the science community continues its multi-pronged efforts to detect evidence of extraterrestrial life, it must be mindful of more than just science and technology. It is important to understand public perceptions, misperceptions, beliefs, concerns and potential complications associated with the search for life beyond our home planet. This panel is designed to provide brief overviews of some important non-scientific areas with the potential to impact future astrobiological exploration. The presentations will be followed by open discussion and audience participation. Invited panelists and their topical areas include: SCIENCE FICTION AND MISPERCEPTIONS: Seth Shostak, Dylan EvansBattling Pseudo-Science, Hollywood and Alien Abductions LEGAL ISSUES: Marcus FerrazzaniLooming Complications for Future Missions and Exploration RISK COMMUNICATION: Sandra DawsonEngaging the Public, Explaining the Risks, and Encouraging Long-Term Interestin Mission Science EDUCATION: Edna DeVoreUsing the Search for Life as a Motivating Theme in Teaching Basic Science andCritical Thinking. ETHICAL ISSUES AND CONCERNS: Jacques ArnouldWhat Will it Mean if We Find "ET"? PANEL MODERATORS: Margaret Race, Gerhard Schwehm

  18. Humanoid Intelligent Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jun-ping; TU Xu-yan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept and design strategy for the humanoid intelligent management system (HIMS) based on artificial life. Various topics are discussed including the design method and implementation techniques for the dual management scheme (DMS), humanoid intelligent management model (HIMM), central-decentralized management pattern, and multi-grade coordination function.

  19. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    .... This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career...

  20. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    OpenAIRE

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emo...

  1. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    OpenAIRE

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emo...

  2. Long Term Impact of Emotional, Social and Cognitive Intelligence Competencies and GMAT on Career and Life Satisfaction and Career Success

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eAmdurer; Richard Eleftherios Boyatzis; Argun eSaatcioglu; Melvin eSmith; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstr...

  3. The Nomad Explorer assembly assist vehicle: An architecture for rapid global extraterrestrial base infrastructure establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Madhu

    1994-01-01

    Traditional concepts of lunar bases describe scenarios where components of the bases are landed on the lunar surface, one at a time, and then put together to form a complete stationary lunar habitat. Recently, some concepts have described the advantages of operating a mobile or 'roving' lunar base. Such a base vastly improves the exploration range from a primary lunar base. Roving bases would also allow the crew to first deploy, test, operationally certify, and then regularly maintain, service, and evolve long life-cycle facilities like observatories or other science payload platforms that are operated far apart from each other across the extraterrestrial surface. The Nomad Explorer is such a mobile lunar base. This paper describes the architectural program of the Nomad Explorer, its advantages over a stationary lunar base, and some of the embedded system concepts which help the roving base to speedily establish a global extraterrestrial infrastructure. A number of modular autonomous logistics landers will carry deployable or erectable payloads, service, and logistically resupply the Nomad Explorer at regular intercepts along the traverse. Starting with the deployment of science experiments and telecommunication networks, and the manned emplacement of a variety of remote outposts using a unique EVA Bell system that enhances manned EVA, the Nomad Explorer architecture suggests the capability for a rapid global development of the extraterrestrial body. The Moon and Mars are candidates for this 'mission oriented' strategy. The lunar case is emphasized in this paper.

  4. Life Among the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  5. Emergency Operations Intelligence Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    first responder with an internet access to become a sensor and provide additional intelligence to enhance relief efforts. The result is better resource management, faster decision cycles, and more importantly a reduction in loss of life due to delay or

  6. Advanced Curation For Current and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a planned three-year project to develop  extraterrestrial sample curation techniques and equipment to prepare for future human and robotic sample return...

  7. Can Intelligence Explode?

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The technological singularity refers to a hypothetical scenario in which technological advances virtually explode. The most popular scenario is the creation of super-intelligent algorithms that recursively create ever higher intelligences. It took many decades for these ideas to spread from science fiction to popular science magazines and finally to attract the attention of serious philosophers. David Chalmers' (JCS 2010) article is the first comprehensive philosophical analysis of the singularity in a respected philosophy journal. The motivation of my article is to augment Chalmers' and to discuss some issues not addressed by him, in particular what it could mean for intelligence to explode. In this course, I will (have to) provide a more careful treatment of what intelligence actually is, separate speed from intelligence explosion, compare what super-intelligent participants and classical human observers might experience and do, discuss immediate implications for the diversity and value of life, consider po...

  8. Carbonaceous Meteorites Contain a Wide Range of Extraterrestrial Nucleobases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, H. James, II; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    All terrestrial organisms depend on nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), which use pyrimidine and purine nucleobases to encode genetic information. Carbon-rich meteorites may have been important sources of organic compounds required for the emergence of life on the early Earth; however, the origin and formation of nuc1eobases in meteorites has been debated for over 50 y. So far, the few nuc1eobases reported in meteorites are biologically common and lacked the structural diversity typical of other indigenous meteoritic organics. Here, we investigated the abundance and distribution of nucleobases and nucleobase analogs in formic acid extracts of 12 different meteorites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Murchison and Lonewolf Nunataks 94102 meteorites contained a diverse suite of nucleobases, which included three unusual and terrestrially rare nucleobase analogs; purine, 2,6-diminopurine, and 6,8-diaminopurine. In a parallel experiment, we found an identical suite of nucleobases and nucleobase analogs generated in reactions of ammonium cyanide. Additionally, these nucleobase analoge were not detected above our parts-per-billion detection limits in any of the procedural blanks, control samples, a terrestrial soil sample, and an Antarctic ice sample. Our results demonstrate that the purines detected in meteorites are consistent with products of ammonium cyanide chemistry, which provides a plausible mechanism for their synthesis in the asteroid parent bodies, and strongly supports an extraterrestrial origin. The discovery of new nucleobase analogs in meteorites also expands the prebiotic molecular inventory available for constructing the first genetic molecules.

  9. Designing Extraterrestrial Plant Growth Habitats with Low Pressure Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    In-situ resource utilization, provision of human life support requirements by bioregenerative methods, and engineering constraints for construction and deployment of plant growth structures on the surface of Mars all suggest the need for plant growth studies at hypobaric pressures. Past work demonstrated that plants will likely tolerate and grow at pressures at or below 10 kPa. Based upon this premise, concepts are developed for the design of reduced pressure atmospheres in lightweight, inflatable structures for plant growth systems on Mars with the goals of maximizing design simplicity and the use of local resources. A modular pod design is proposed as it could be integrated with large-scale production systems. Atmospheric modification of pod clusters would be based upon a pulse and scrub system using mass flow methods for atmospheric transport. A specific modification and control scenario is developed for a lettuce pod to illustrate the dynamics of carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange within a pod. Considerations of minimal atmospheric crop requirements will aid in the development of engineering designs and strategies for extraterrestrial plant growth structures that employ rarefied atmospheres.

  10. Carbonaceous meteorites contain a wide range of extraterrestrial nucleobases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Cleaves, H James; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C; Glavin, Daniel P; House, Christopher H; Dworkin, Jason P

    2011-08-23

    All terrestrial organisms depend on nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), which use pyrimidine and purine nucleobases to encode genetic information. Carbon-rich meteorites may have been important sources of organic compounds required for the emergence of life on the early Earth; however, the origin and formation of nucleobases in meteorites has been debated for over 50 y. So far, the few nucleobases reported in meteorites are biologically common and lacked the structural diversity typical of other indigenous meteoritic organics. Here, we investigated the abundance and distribution of nucleobases and nucleobase analogs in formic acid extracts of 12 different meteorites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Murchison and Lonewolf Nunataks 94102 meteorites contained a diverse suite of nucleobases, which included three unusual and terrestrially rare nucleobase analogs: purine, 2,6-diaminopurine, and 6,8-diaminopurine. In a parallel experiment, we found an identical suite of nucleobases and nucleobase analogs generated in reactions of ammonium cyanide. Additionally, these nucleobase analogs were not detected above our parts-per-billion detection limits in any of the procedural blanks, control samples, a terrestrial soil sample, and an Antarctic ice sample. Our results demonstrate that the purines detected in meteorites are consistent with products of ammonium cyanide chemistry, which provides a plausible mechanism for their synthesis in the asteroid parent bodies, and strongly supports an extraterrestrial origin. The discovery of new nucleobase analogs in meteorites also expands the prebiotic molecular inventory available for constructing the first genetic molecules.

  11. Self-esteem, Motivation, and Emotional Intelligence: Three Factors that influence the Successful Design of a Life Project of Middle-school Young Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Magdalena Lomelí-Parga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to depict the factors that allow young people to effectively carry out their life projects by planning short, mid, and long term goals. The population sample participating in this study was comprised of middle and high school students. This research was executed using mixed methods in order to identify the determining factors for young people who plan to have success in facing the daily life challenges, as well as today’s society demands, through a solid construction of their private vision of the future. The results of this project determine that the features which allow the conclusion of students’ life projects are closely related with a high self-esteem and motivation, as well as some emotional intelligence that allow students to visualize a successful personal and professional future.

  12. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mars?; Titan Versus Europa - Potential for Astrobiology; Habitability Potential of Mars; Biosignatures: Tools and Development I; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite Systems; Ancient Life and Synthetic Biology: Crossroad of the Past and Future; Biosignatures: Tools and Development II; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Causes, and Consequences; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Where Should We Go on Mars to Seek Signs of Life?; Search for Intelligent Life I. Innovative SETI Observing Programs and Future Directions; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Search for Intelligent Life II. Global Engagement and Interstellar Message Construction; Poster sessions included: Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life; RNA World; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Virology and Astrobiology; Horizontal Genetic Transfer and Properties of Ancestral Organisms; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Impact Events and Evolution; Evolution of Advanced Life; Evolution of Intelligent Life; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Policy and Societal Issues: Dealing with Potential Bumps in the Astrobiology Road Ahead; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite

  13. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mars?; Titan Versus Europa - Potential for Astrobiology; Habitability Potential of Mars; Biosignatures: Tools and Development I; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite Systems; Ancient Life and Synthetic Biology: Crossroad of the Past and Future; Biosignatures: Tools and Development II; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Causes, and Consequences; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Where Should We Go on Mars to Seek Signs of Life?; Search for Intelligent Life I. Innovative SETI Observing Programs and Future Directions; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Search for Intelligent Life II. Global Engagement and Interstellar Message Construction; Poster sessions included: Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life; RNA World; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Virology and Astrobiology; Horizontal Genetic Transfer and Properties of Ancestral Organisms; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Impact Events and Evolution; Evolution of Advanced Life; Evolution of Intelligent Life; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Policy and Societal Issues: Dealing with Potential Bumps in the Astrobiology Road Ahead; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite

  14. The hunt for alien life a wider perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Astronomer Peter Linde takes the reader through the story of the search for extraterrestrial life in a captivating and thought-provoking way, specifically addressing the new research that is currently devoted towards discovering other planets with life. He discusses the methods used to detect possible signals from other civilizations and the ways that the space sciences are changing as a result of this new field. “Are we alone?” is a mystery that has forever fascinated mankind, gaining momentum by scientists since the 1995 discovery of the existence of exoplanets began to inspire new ways of thinking in astronomy. Here, Linde tries to answer many philosophical questions that derive from this area of research: Is humanity facing a change of paradigm, that we are not unique as intelligent beings? Is it possible to communicate with others out there, and even if we can—should we?

  15. The Search for Extraterrestrials Intercepting Alien Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Monte

    2009-01-01

    In The Search for Extraterrestrials, Monte Ross explores in detail the key problems in starting a search, the programs that have failed and those that continue. He includes the fundamental considerations and the physics of the necessary laser, UV, IR and RF technologies, as well as coding and information theory considerations. The author explores future possibilities providing the reader with a comprehensive view of the many ways signals from aliens could be sent and explains why the search using RF leaves more than 99% of the electromagnetic spectrum unexamined. He also demonstrates the many parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, considering the next likely steps in this unique enterprise. Given man’s intrinsic nature to explore, the search will continue in one form or many, until success is achieved, which may be tomorrow or a millennium away. In summary, Monte Ross proposes to get around the failure of a fruitless search at radio frequencies by developing, in a precise way, the argument for searching for...

  16. The Development of Politics in Extraterrestrial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivier, D. J.

    The existence of feudal or totalitarian interplanetary empires has been a favourite theme in Science Fiction. Although the vast distances between the stars make the emergence of an interstellar empire impossible without the creation of a faster than light drive, this is not necessarily true for the other worlds within our solar system. Environmental constraints on the off-world colonies themselves, and repressive, hierarchical and feudalistic social and commercial institutions and customs inherited from the parent cultures on Earth and a tradition of military rule descending from the foundation of these colonies may all work to bring about a new feudal or totalitarian social order on humanity's extraterrestrial colonies. There are encouraging signs that this may not be the case, however. Already the debate over the projected colonisation of Mars is a factor influencing present controversies over repressive institutions and customs. Nevertheless, those wishing for a free, democratic, and politically, socially and technologically innovative and vigorous human society spreading throughout the solar system should not become complacent.

  17. Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardoff, J.; Haisch, B.; Maccabee, B.; Puthoff, H. E.

    It has recently been argued that anthropic reasoning applied to inflation theory reinforces the prediction that we should find ourselves part of a large, galaxy-sized civilisation, thus strengthening Fermi's paradox concerning `Where are they?' Furthermore, superstring and M-brane theory allow for the possibility of parallel universes, some of which in principle could be habitable. In addition, discussion of such exotic transport concepts as `traversable wormholes' now appears in the rigorous physics literature. As a result, the `We are alone' solution to Fermi's paradox, based on the constraints of earlier 20th century viewpoints, appears today to be inconsistent with new developments in our best current physics and astrophysics theories. Therefore we reexamine and reevaluate the present assumption that extraterrestrials or their probes are not in the vicinity of Earth, and argue instead that some evidence of their presence might be found in certain high-quality UFO reports. This study follows up on previous arguments that (1) interstellar travel for advanced civilizations is not a priori ruled out by physical principles and therefore may be practicable, and (2) such advanced civilisations may value the search for knowledge from uncontaminated species more than direct, interspecies communication, thereby accounting for apparent covertness regarding their presence.

  18. Solvent effects on enzymes - Implications for extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    Review of several studies on the alterations taking place in the structure, catalytic activity, specificity, and stability of an enzyme when some or all of the water in the medium is replaced by another solvent. These studies show the utility of solvents as a tool for probing enzyme function. They also suggest that solvents other than water should be investigated as media for controlling and directing enzyme reactions.

  19. Black Holes: Attractors for Intelligence?

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Clement

    2011-01-01

    The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has so far been unsuccessful and needs additional methods. We introduce a two-dimensional metric for civilization development, using the Kardashev scale of energy increase and the Barrow scale of inward manipulation. To support Barrow's scale limit, we contend with energetic, societal, scientific, computational, and philosophical arguments that black holes are attractors for intelligence. An application of the two-dimensional metric leads to a simple, consistent and observable hypothesis to test the existence of very advanced civilizations. We suggest that some already observed X-Ray binaries may be unnoticed advanced civilizations, of type KII-Bomega. The appendix provides an argumentative map of the paper's main thesis. KEYWORDS: SETI, black holes, Kardashev scale, Barrow scale, star lifting, XRB

  20. Drilling Systems for Extraterrestrial Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Brennan, M.; Briggs, G.; Cooper, G.; Davis, K.; Dolgin, B.; Glaser, D.; Glass, B.; Gorevan, S.; Guerrero, J.; McKay, C.; Paulsen, G.; Stanley, S.; Stoker, C.

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  1. Time is Life

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, D S L

    2001-01-01

    The affirmative statement of the existence of extraterrestrial life is tentatively raised to the status of a principle. Accordingly, Fermi's question is answered and the anthropic principle is shown to be falsifiable. The time-scale for the development of life on Earth and the age of the universe are the fundamental quantities upon which the arguments are framed.

  2. Characterizing Amorphous Silicates in Extraterrestrial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, A.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silicates are common in extraterrestrial materials. They are seen in the matrix of carbonaceous chondrites as well as in planetary materials. Tagish Lake is one of the most primitive carbonaceous meteorites in which TEM and XRD analyses found evidence for poorly crystalline phyllosilicate-like species; Raman spectra revealed amorphous silicates with variable degree of polymerization and low crystallinity. On Mars, CheMin discovered amorphous phases in all analyzed samples, and poorly crystalline smectite in mudstone samples. These discoveries pose questions on the crystallinity of phyllosilicates found by remote sensing on Mars, which is directly relevant to aqueous alteration during geologic history of Mars. Our goal is to use spectroscopy to better characterize amorphous silicates. We use three approaches: (1) using silicate glasses synthesized with controlled chemistry to study the effects of silicate polymerization and (2) using phyllosilicates synthesized with controlled hydrothermal treatment to study the effect of crystallinity on vibrational spectroscopy, finally (3) to use the developed correlations in above two steps to study amorphous phases in meteorites, and those found in future missions to Mars. In the 1st step, silicate glasses were synthesized from pure oxides in a range of NBO/T ratios (from 0 to 4). Depending on the targeted NBO/T and composition of mixed oxides, temperatures for each experiment fell in a range from 1260 to 1520 °C, run for ~ 4 hrs. The melt was quenched in liquid N2 or water. Homogeneity of glass was checked under optical microscopy. Raman spectra were taken over 100 spots on small chips free of bubbles and crystals. We have observed that accompanying an increase of NBO/T, there is a strengthening and a position shift of the Raman peak near 1000 cm-1 (Si-Onon-bridging stretching mode), and the weakening of broad Raman peaks near 500 cm-1 (ring breathing mode) and 700cm-1 (Si-Obridging-Si mode). We are building the

  3. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  4. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  5. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  6. Isotopic evidence for extraterrestrial non-racemic amino acids in the Murchison meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M H; Macko, S A

    1997-09-18

    Many amino acids contain an asymmetric centre, occurring as laevorotatory, L, or dextrorotatory, D, compounds. It is generally assumed that abiotic synthesis of amino acids on the early Earth resulted in racemic mixtures (L- and D-enantiomers in equal abundance). But the origin of life required, owing to conformational constraints, the almost exclusive selection of either L- or D-enantiomers, and the question of why living systems on the Earth consist of L-enantiomers rather than D-enantiomers is unresolved. A substantial fraction of the organic compounds on the early Earth may have been derived from comet and meteorite impacts. It has been reported previously that amino acids in the Murchison meteorite exhibit an excess of L-enantiomers, raising the possibility that a similar excess was present in the initial inventory of organic compounds on the Earth. The stable carbon isotope compositions of individual amino acids in Murchison support an extraterrestrial origin -- rather than a terrestrial overprint of biological amino acids-although reservations have persisted. Here we show that individual amino-acid enantiomers from Murchison are enriched in 15N relative to their terrestrial counterparts, so confirming an extraterrestrial source for an L-enantiomer excess in the Solar System that may predate the origin of life on the Earth.

  7. Intelligent mechatronics; Intelligent mechatronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-10-01

    Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.

  8. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  9. EVALUATION OF MICROBIAL SURVIVAL IN EXTRATERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül BULUÇ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the space environments where microbial terrestrial life could form and evolve in, were evaluted with the base of the physical and chemical properties. In addition, Earthial microbial life formation conditions in the interstellar medium and the other planets are investigated and the survival of microorganisms in the space environments are questioned. As a result, considering the aspects of terrestrial microbial life, we suggest that the space environment and other planets could not be a habitat for Earthial microorganisms.

  10. Liberty and the Limits to the Extraterrestrial State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    The physical conditions that inhere in extraterrestrial environments have a tendency to drive society toward collectivist mechanisms of political and economic order to successfully cope with, and prevent possible disaster caused by, the lethal external conditions. Liberty will therefore be eroded by deliberate human action, through extraterrestrial authorities, and through a natural restriction in concepts of liberty that will attend the development and behaviour of people in confined environments. The emergence of extraterrestrial governance that nurtures liberty in outer space will require the formation of many institutions that encourage competition and reduce political and economic monopolies - with the legal system to sustain them. This problem is most clearly manifest in oxygen production. These considerations allow the purpose and limits of the extraterrestrial state and precursor forms of governance to be circumscribed. Far from being a purely speculative enquiry, this discussion allows requirements in physical architecture and social organisation to be identified that can be considered from the earliest stages of space exploration and settlement.

  11. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike

    2014-01-01

    with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body......BACKGROUND: Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty.Methods/design: The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol...... parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk...

  12. Business intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebotarean Elena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence (BI refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analyzing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments, or by associated costs and incomes. BI technologies provide historical, current, and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies are reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, and predictive analytics. Business intelligence aims to support better business decision-making. Thus a BI system can be called a decision support system (DSS. Though the term business intelligence is sometimes used as a synonym for competitive intelligence, because they both support decision making, BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence gathers, analyzes and disseminates information with a topical focus on company competitors. Business intelligence understood broadly can include the subset of competitive intelligence.

  13. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  14. Prebiotic significance of extraterrestrial ice photochemistry: detection of hydantoin in organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Bertrand, Marylène; Nuevo, Michel; Westall, Frances; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2011-11-01

    The delivery of extraterrestrial organic materials to primitive Earth from meteorites or micrometeorites has long been postulated to be one of the origins of the prebiotic molecules involved in the subsequent apparition of life. Here, we report on experiments in which vacuum UV photo-irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogues containing H(2)O, CH(3)OH, and NH(3) led to the production of several molecules of prebiotic interest. These were recovered at room temperature in the semi-refractory, water-soluble residues after evaporation of the ice. In particular, we detected small quantities of hydantoin (2,4-imidazolidinedione), a species suspected to play an important role in the formation of poly- and oligopeptides. In addition, hydantoin is known to form under extraterrestrial, abiotic conditions, since it has been detected, along with various other derivatives, in the soluble part of organic matter of primitive carbonaceous meteorites. This result, together with other related experiments reported recently, points to the potential importance of the photochemistry of interstellar "dirty" ices in the formation of organics in Solar System materials. Such molecules could then have been delivered to the surface of primitive Earth, as well as other telluric (exo-) planets, to help trigger first prebiotic reactions with the capacity to lead to some form of primitive biomolecular activity.

  15. Asteroids and Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of extraterrestrial life (ETL) and extraterrestrial intelligent life (ETI) is extraordinarily complex and mulitidisciplinary, in part because relevant questions involve both the origin/evolution of terrestrial life and the future of human civilization.

  16. Asteroids and Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of extraterrestrial life (ETL) and extraterrestrial intelligent life (ETI) is extraordinarily complex and mulitidisciplinary, in part because relevant questions involve both the origin/evolution of terrestrial life and the future of human civilization.

  17. Nonconscious intelligence in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, David M.

    Animals lacking humanoid intelligence have evolved systems indistinguishable in function, if not in structure, from systems built by humans. Although radio communication has never been verified in animals, it is completely feasible biologically. If such systems are present in non-intelligent organisms on other planets, then our chances of detecting life in the universe by current SETI methods are greatly enhanced.

  18. Understanding Prebiotic Chemistry Through the Analysis of Extraterrestrial Amino Acids and Nucleobases in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    The discoveries of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in many meteorites over the last 50 years have revolutionized the Astrobiology field. A variety of non-terrestrial amino acids similar to those found in life on Earth have been detected in meteorites. A few amino acids have even been found with chiral excesses, suggesting that meteorites could have contributed to the origin of homochirality in life on Earth. In addition to amino acids, which have been productively studied for years, sugar-like molecules, activated phosphates, and nucleobases have also been determined to be indigenous to numerous meteorites. Because these molecules are essential for life as we know it, and meteorites have been delivering them to the Earth since accretion, it is plausible that the origines) of life on Earth were aided by extrataterrestrially-synthesized molecules. Understanding the origins of life on Earth guides our search for life elsewhere, helping to answer the question of whether biology is unique to Earth. This tutorial focuses on meteoritic amino acids and nucleobases, exploring modern analytical methods and possible formation mechanisms. We will also discuss the unique window that meteorites provide into the chemistry that preceded life on Earth, a chemical record we do not have access to on Earth due to geologic recycling of rocks and the pervasiveness of biology across the planet. Finally. we will address the future of meteorite research, including asteroid sample return missions.

  19. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  20. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  1. Alien Life Imagined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  2. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  3. Life sciences on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life. These include the analysis of lunar samples and meteorites in relatively pristine conditions, radioastronomical search for other planetary systems or Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and studies on the role of radiation in evolutionary processes and on the environmental limits for life. For radiation biology, the Moon provides an unique laboratory with built-in sources for optical as well as ionising radiation to investigate the biological importance of the various components of cosmic and solar radiation. Before establishing a lunar base, precursor missions will provide a characterisation of the radiation field, determination of depth dose distributions in different absorbers, the installation of a solar flare alert system, and a qualification of the biological efficiency of the mixed radiation environment. One of the most challenging projects falls into the domain of ecology with the establishment for the first time of an artificial ecosystem on a celestial body beyond the Earth. From this venture, a better understanding of the dynamics regulating our terrestrial biosphere is expected. It will also serve as a precursor of bioregenerative life support systems for a lunar base. The establishment of a lunar base with eventually long-term human presence will raise various problems in the fields of human physiology and health care, psychology and sociology. Protection guidelines for living in this hostile environment have to be established.

  4. Use of Artificial Neural Network for Testing Effectiveness of Intelligent Computing Models for Predicting Shelf Life of Processed Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOYAL Kumar Gyanendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the suitability of artificial neural network (ANN models for predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8ºC. Soluble nitrogen, pH; standard plate count, yeast & mould count, and spore count were input variables, and sensory score was output variable. Mean square error, root mean square error, coefficient of determination and Nash - sutcliffo coefficient were used in order to test the effectiveness of the developed ANN models. Excellent agreement was found between experimental results and these mathematical parameters, thus confirming that ANN models are very effective in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese.

  5. Extraterrestrial nucleobases in the Murchison meteorite

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Zita; Fogel, Marilyn L; Sephton, Mark A; Glavin, Daniel P; Watson, Jonathan S; Dworkin, Jason P; Schwartz, Alan W; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-rich meteorites, carbonaceous chondrites, contain many biologically relevant organic molecules and delivered prebiotic material to the young Earth. We present compound-specific carbon isotope data indicating that measured purine and pyrimidine compounds are indigenous components of the Murchison meteorite. Carbon isotope ratios for uracil and xanthine of delta13C=+44.5per mil and +37.7per mil, respectively, indicate a non-terrestrial origin for these compounds. These new results demonstrate that organic compounds, which are components of the genetic code in modern biochemistry, were already present in the early solar system and may have played a key role in life's origin.

  6. The \\^G Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. I. Background and Justification

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, J T; Sigurðsson, S; Povich, M S

    2014-01-01

    We motivate the \\^G infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of SETI, and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review "Dysonian SETI", the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one, alone, has not. We discuss the argument of Hart (1975) that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we dub the "monocultural fallacy". We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found ($< 10^9$ yr), and that many "sustainability" counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies, and argue th...

  7. Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Sabu M.

    2009-01-01

    Biologically inspired computing is an area of computer science which uses the advantageous properties of biological systems. It is the amalgamation of computational intelligence and collective intelligence. Biologically inspired mechanisms have already proved successful in achieving major advances in a wide range of problems in computing and communication systems. The consortium of bio-inspired computing are artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, artificial i...

  8. Emotional intelligence and coping strategies as determinants of quality of life in depressed patient-caregiver dyads: An actor-partner interdependence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Baumstarck, K; Alessandrini, M; Hamidou, Z; Testart, J; Serres, M; Arquillière, P; Auquier, P; Leroy, T; Zendjidjian, X

    2017-04-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their natural caregivers experience major lifestyle difficulties. Little is known concerning dyadic (i.e., patient and natural caregiver) characteristics' impact on quality of life. In a sample of depressed patient-caregiver dyads, we examined quality of life (QoL) levels compared with the general population and whether QoL is influenced by emotional intelligence (EI) and coping strategies using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). This cross-sectional study involved 79 patient-caregiver dyads. The self-reported data, completed by patients and their primary caregivers, included QoL (SF-36), EI (TEIQue-SF) and coping strategies (BriefCope). The QoL of patients and caregivers was compared with 158 French age-sex-matched healthy controls. The dyadic interactions were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Patients and their caregivers experienced lower QoL levels than French age-sex-matched controls. The EI findings showed actor (degree to which the person's EI was associated with his/her own QoL) and partner (degree to which the person's EI was associated with QoL of the other member of the dyad) effects for patients and caregivers. The coping strategies (i.e., problem solving, positive thinking, avoidance and social support) revealed only actor effects. QoL is seriously impaired in depressed patients and their primary caregivers and is associated with EI and coping strategies. Targeted interventions focusing on EI and coping strategies could be offered to improve QoL in dyads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  10. Life In The Universe!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 30 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists and astronomers have worked tirelessly to answer these questions. Yet just this past week at CERN students from all over Europe came to present their ideas on the subject and listen to the latest on extraterrestrial life from some of the world's most prestigious researchers.

  11. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  12. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  13. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  14. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  15. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  16. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  17. Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, A; Vale, Zita

    2011-01-01

    "Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems" provides an overview and original analysis of new developments and advances in several areas of computational intelligence. Computational Intelligence have become the road-map for engineers to develop and analyze novel techniques to solve problems in basic sciences (such as physics, chemistry and biology) and engineering, environmental, life and social sciences. The contributions are written by international experts, who provide up-to-date aspects of the topics discussed and present recent, original insights into their own experien

  18. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  19. Search for extraterrestrial intelligence/High Resolution Microwave Survey team member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This final report summarizes activities conducted during the three years of the NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS). With primary interest in the Sky Survey activity, the principal investigator attended nine Working Group meetings and traveled independently to conduct experiments or present results at other meetings. The major activity involved evaluating the effects of spaceborne radio frequency interference (RFI) on both the SETI sky survey and targeted search. The development of a database of all unclassified earth or biting and deep space transmitters, along with accompanying search software, was a key accomplishment. The software provides information about potential sources of interference and gives complete information regarding the frequencies, positions and levels of interference generated by the spacecraft. A complete description of this search system (called HRS, or HRMS RFI Search) is provided. Other accomplishments include development of a 32,000 channel Fast-Fourier-Transform Spectrum analyzer for use in studies of interference from satellites and in a 1.4 mm SETI observational study. The latest revision of HRS has now been distributed to the extended radio astronomy and SETI community.

  20. Standards of Proof for the Detection of Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuch, Paul

    The privatization of SETI has resulted in global participation in signal detection and analysis activities by a wide range of non- professionals. The SETI community welcomes this grass-roots support, every bit as much as the optical observing community honors the significant scientific contributions of the world's amateur astronomers. However as SETI observatories spring up on college campuses and in home gardens worldwide, a need emerges for establishing rigorous signal verification protocols and stringent standards of proof. SETI progress can be significantly hampered by both Type I and Type II experimental error. We recognize the possibility that overly rigorous verification standards can result in an unacceptably high incidence of false negatives. This risk must be balanced against the negative impact on SETI activities everywhere, should lax verification procedures result in the reporting of false positives. This paper proposes verification and reporting protocols that seek a middle ground. A related problem is that non-professional involvement in SETI science increases the opportunity for the perpetration of hoaxes. The SETI League, Inc. has already been peripherally involved in three separate false claims of ETI contact. Such claims call for a prompt but measured response, so as not to subject the SETI community to charges of complicity in conspiracy or cover-up activities. We explore here the dilemma of encouraging grass-roots participation while avoiding association with fraudulent and pseudo-scientific claims.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Search for extraterrestrial intelligence (Isaacson+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, H.; Siemion, A. P. V.; Marcy, G. W.; Lebofsky, M.; Price, D. C.; MacMahon, D.; Croft, S.; Deboer, D.; Hickish, J.; Werthimer, D.; Sheikh, S.; Hellbourg, G.; Enriquez, J. E.

    2017-08-01

    The stellar sample is defined by two selection criteria. The first is a volume-limited sample of stars within 5pc of the Sun. The second is a spectral class complete sample consisting of stars across the main sequence and some giant branch stars, all within 50pc. We combined the two sub-samples (5pc and 5-50pc) to produce the final set of 1709 target stars that are listed in Table 1. (1 data file).

  2. Business intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cebotarean Elena

    2011-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analyzing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments, or by associated costs and incomes...

  3. A tale of two analogues: learning at a distance from the ancient greeks and maya and the problem of deciphering extraterrestrial radio transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Ben; Bentley, Jerry

    The transmission of ancient Greek learning and science to medieval western Europe via the translation of Greek and Arab texts is often cited as a terrestrial example of "learning at a distance" that could occur by means of the decipherment of radio messages from advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. However, the translation between such closely related languages as Greek, Latin and Arabic and the decipherment of radio messages from an extraterrestrial civilization to the point where humans could understand them are only nominally analogous tasks. A terrestrial example of such "learning at a distance" from an ancient civilization that perhaps better prepares us for thinking about the immense task inherent in any interstellar knowledge transmission is provided by the lengthy and troubled efforts of western scholars to decipher the inscriptions left by the ancient Maya and to learn from them about this ancient civilization. Only recently, with the rejection of the ideographic fallacy that Maya glyphs symbolized ideas directly without the mediation of language and with the application of linguistic knowledge of Maya languages has it been possible to decipher the Maya inscriptions and learn from them about their science and culture. This experience suggests that without any knowledge of languages in which extraterrestrial messages might be composed, their decipherment could be most problematic. The Maya case is also relevant to the common suggestion that advanced extraterrestrials would deliberately compose messages not in their own natural languages but in artificial ones using logic, numbers, and scientific constants presumably shared among all intelligent civilizations, or at least those in their radio-communicative phases. Numbers and calendrical dating system were the first parts of the Mayan inscriptions to be translated, albeit with the aid of partial "Rosetta stones" left by the Spanish conquerors. This success served, however, to reinforce the ideographic

  4. Procreative Beneficence, Intelligence, and the Optimization Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ben

    2015-12-01

    According to the Principle of Procreative Beneficence, reproducers should choose the child, of those available to them, expected to have the best life. Savulescu argues reproducers are therefore morally obligated to select for nondisease traits, such as intelligence. Carter and Gordon recently challenged this implication, arguing that Savulescu fails to establish that intelligence promotes well-being. This paper develops two responses. First, I argue that higher intelligence is likely to contribute to well-being on most plausible accounts. Second, I argue that, even if it does not, one can only resist the conclusion that reproducers should select on the basis of intelligence if its expected net effect is neutral. If intelligence reduces expected well-being, then reproducers should select offspring of low intelligence. More likely, the effect of increased intelligence on expected well-being varies at different levels, which makes identifying an optimum for well-being more complex than hitherto appreciated.

  5. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings

    OpenAIRE

    Plomin, R.; Deary, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for...

  6. The Origin of Life in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Terrestrial and extraterrestrial theories of the origin of life are discussed in the light of latest observations. The available data suggest a dual mode of origin, some of the ingredients, including possibly sugars, were brought to earth from outer space, which combined with other ingredients, such as proteins, already available on the earth leading to the formation of life.

  7. IR Spectroscopy and Photo-Chemistry of Extraterrestrial Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Mastrapa, Rachel; Elsila, Jamie; Sandford, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Dense molecular clouds from which planetary systems form and the outer Solar System are both cold environments dominated by ices. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to probe these ices, but the IR absorptions of molecules depend on the conditions. As a result appropriate lab data is needed to correctly fit spectra of extraterrestrial ices. Such fits have shown that most of these ices are composed primarily of H2O, but also contain 1-10 percent of other simple molecules such as CO2, CO, CH4, & NH3;. We shall present near IR spectra of ice mixtures of relevance to icy outer Solar System bodies and show that they still hold surprises, such as the Cheshire cat-like CO2 (2v3) overtone near 2.134 micrometers (4685 cm-1) that is absent from spectra of pure CO2 but present in H2O-CO2 mixtures.

  8. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  9. Analytical SuperSTEM for extraterrestrial materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R

    2009-09-08

    Electron-beam studies of extraterrestrial materials with significantly improved spatial resolution, energy resolution and sensitivity are enabled using a 300 keV SuperSTEM scanning transmission electron microscope with a monochromator and two spherical aberration correctors. The improved technical capabilities enable analyses previously not possible. Mineral structures can be directly imaged and analyzed with single-atomic-column resolution, liquids and implanted gases can be detected, and UV-VIS optical properties can be measured. Detection limits for minor/trace elements in thin (<100 nm thick) specimens are improved such that quantitative measurements of some extend to the sub-500 ppm level. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be carried out with 0.10-0.20 eV energy resolution and atomic-scale spatial resolution such that variations in oxidation state from one atomic column to another can be detected. Petrographic mapping is extended down to the atomic scale using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) imaging. Technical capabilities and examples of the applications of SuperSTEM to extraterrestrial materials are presented, including the UV spectral properties and organic carbon K-edge fine structure of carbonaceous matter in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), x-ray elemental maps showing the nanometer-scale distribution of carbon within GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides), the first detection and quantification of trace Ti in GEMS using EDS, and detection of molecular H{sub 2}O in vesicles and implanted H{sub 2} and He in irradiated mineral and glass grains.

  10. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  11. Soft computing in intelligent control

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Jin-Woo; Kubota, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, people have tendency to be fond of smarter machines that are able to collect data, make learning, recognize things, infer meanings, communicate with human and perform behaviors. Thus, we have built advanced intelligent control affecting all around societies; automotive, rail, aerospace, defense, energy, healthcare, telecoms and consumer electronics, finance, urbanization. Consequently, users and consumers can take new experiences through the intelligent control systems. We can reshape the technology world and provide new opportunities for industry and business, by offering cost-effective, sustainable and innovative business models. We will have to know how to create our own digital life. The intelligent control systems enable people to make complex applications, to implement system integration and to meet society’s demand for safety and security. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with intelligent control systems. We propose to researchers ...

  12. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  13. The subsurface origin of microbial life on the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2002-10-01

    Life on Earth can be divided into life on the surface made possible by photosynthesis and subsurface life with chemical energy as the driving force. An understanding of both environments is central to our understanding of the origin of life, the search for novel microbial species in the subsurface and for extraterrestrial life or life signatures. In this manuscript, the surface and subsurface worlds are examined with a focus on the origin or assembly of bacterial life.

  14. Civic Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, David

    1985-01-01

    Social studies must educate students to be socially responsible, civically competent persons. In addition to encouraging civic literacy, civic values, and civic skill, teachers need to help students develop civic-mindedness. The objective of the NCSS' National Issues Forum in the Classroom Project is to develop students' civic intelligence. (RM)

  15. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  16. Ambient intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  17. Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PI has developed a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), which can be op-timized for space and extraterrestrial applications, by using a...

  18. Defining a Need for Assessing the Extraterrestrial Environmental Impacts of Lunar Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, W. R.

    2016-11-01

    Protocols guiding an extraterrestrial environmental impact assessment process are warranted. Industry-developed and -managed standards and an environmental code of conduct based, in part, on best management practices are proposed.

  19. Improving Energy Saving Techniques by Ambient Intelligence Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristani, Matteo; Karafili, Erisa; Tomazzoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most challenging aspects of modern ambient intelligence technologies, for both domestic and business usages. In this paper we show how to combine Ambient Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence techniques to solve the problem of scheduling a set of devices under a given...... for Ambient Intelligence to a specific framework and exhibit a sample usage for a real life system, Elettra, that is in use in an industrial context....

  20. Artificial Intelligence and Robotic From the Past to Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Asgarifar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews the basic principles and recent advances in the Artificial Intelligent robotics and the utilization of robots in nowadays life and the various compass. The aim of the paper is to introduce the basic concepts of artificial intelligent techniques and present a survey about robots. In first section we have a survey on the concept of artificial intelligence and intelligence life; also we introduce two important factors in artificial intelligence. In the next section, we have overview on the basic elements of artificial intelligence. Then, another important section in this paper is intelligent robots and the behavior based robotics. The use of robots in nowadays life is in the various domains. We introduce one of them that are rehabilitation robots.

  1. Team B Intelligence Coups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  3. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-05-05

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  4. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje A. Wolff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  5. Intelligence Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    environment (i.e., culture , class, family, educational 2 Chapter 23 Intelligence Revisited opportunities, gender) shapes our intellect, and there are no...connectivity is going to be rather problematic, to say the least. A single nano-bot cruising this Disneyland of synaptic wonderment is certainly... cultures ). Embodiment – A sense of being anchored to our physical bodies. Agency – A sense of free will, wherein we are in charge of our own

  6. Extraterrestrial microspherules from Bajada del Diablo, Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Orgeira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary infilling of a circular structure located in Bajada del Diablo, Chubut Province, Argentina has been proposed as a crater strewn field in previous studies. Here we report the finding of about 65 microspherules collected in a trench excavated in the center of the structure. The majority of hand-picked specimens are single, but some of them exhibit compound forms. The single specimens are spherical with a mean size of 137 μm, whereas the more complex samples show peduncles and drop shapes. Dendritic crystal growth is recognized in the internal structure of some broken microspherules. Preliminary chemical composition from the surface and center of microspherules was determined by energy dispersive spectrometry employing EDS. Quantitative EMPA and XRD analysis indicate that the microspherules are mainly composed of Fe and O with magnetite, Fe0 with subordinate wüstite. Following consideration of possible anthropogenic and volcanic origins, these spherulites are ascribed to an extraterrestrial input. An accumulation rate of 47 microspherules per m2/yr is estimated for the studied sediments. This value is two orders of magnitude higher than the reference flux for cosmic dust estimated for the last 1 Ma in the Transantarctic Mountains. The microspherules might have been generated as a byproduct of asteroid entry in the atmosphere.

  7. Extraterrestrial materials examined by mean of nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodja, H., E-mail: hicham.khodja@cea.fr [CEA/IRAMIS/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS/UMR 3299/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Smith, T. [CEA/IRAMIS/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS/UMR 3299/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Engrand, C. [CSNSM, Bat 104, F-91405, Orsay Campus (France); Herzog, G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8087 (United States); Raepsaet, C. [CEA/IRAMIS/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS/UMR 3299/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01

    Comet fragments, micrometeorites, and Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small objects (<1 mm) of high scientific interest in cosmochemistry. More particularly, the determination of light element concentrations, such as C and N, in cometary samples is of interest since it gives information on the regions where such materials formed. Analyses of such objects should be performed so as to extract as much information as possible while preserving sample integrity. For this purpose, we need instruments and methods that provide both microanalysis and detailed imaging. In these respects, the nuclear microprobe offers many potential advantages: (i) the spatial resolution, ∼1 μm is well-matched to the typical object dimensions, (ii) with some reservations, it is non-destructive when carefully conducted, (iii) it is quantitative, and especially sensitive for light elements. At the Saclay nuclear microprobe, we have been performing analyses of extraterrestrial objects for many years. We review some of these studies, emphasizing the specific requirements for successful analyses. We also discuss the potential pitfalls that may be encountered.

  8. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C., E-mail: reedy@psi.edu

    2015-10-15

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object’s size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object’s bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  9. What Makes Nations Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Earl

    2012-05-01

    Modern society is driven by the use of cognitive artifacts: physical instruments or styles of reasoning that amplify our ability to think. The artifacts range from writing systems to computers. In everyday life, a person demonstrates intelligence by showing skill in using these artifacts. Intelligence tests and their surrogates force examinees to exhibit some of these skills but not others. This is why test scores correlate substantially but not perfectly with a variety of measures of socioeconomic success. The same thing is true at the international level. Nations can be evaluated by the extent to which their citizens score well on cognitive tests, including both avowed intelligence tests and a variety of tests of academic achievement. The resulting scores are substantially correlated with various indices of national wealth, health, environmental quality, and schooling and with a vaguer variable, social commitment to innovation. These environmental variables are suggested as causes of the differences in general cognitive skills between national populations. It is conceivable that differences in gene pools also contribute to international and, within nations, group differences in cognitive skills, but at present it is impossible to evaluate the extent of genetic influences.

  10. Our Sky Now and Then: Searches for Lost Stars and Impossible Effects as Probes of Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Beatriz; Imaz, Inigo; Bergstedt, Josefine

    2016-09-01

    Searches for extraterrestrial intelligence using large survey data often look for possible signatures of astroengineering. We propose searching for physically impossible effects caused by highly advanced technology by carrying out a search for disappearing galaxies and Milky Way stars. We select ˜10 million objects from USNO-B1.0 with low proper motions (μ search for objects not found at the expected positions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by visually examining images of ˜290,000 USNO-B1.0 objects with no counterpart in the SDSS. We identify some spurious targets in the USNO-B1.0. We find one candidate of interest for follow-up photometry, although it is very uncertain. If the candidate eventually is found, it defines the probability of observing a disappearing-object event in the last decade to less than one in one million in the given samples. Nevertheless, because the complete USNO-B1.0 data set is 100 times larger than any of our samples, we propose an easily accessible citizen science project in search of USNO-B1.0 objects that have disappeared from the SDSS.

  11. Our Sky now and then $-$ searches for lost stars and impossible effects as probes of advanced extra-terrestrial civilisations

    CERN Document Server

    Villarroel, Beatriz; Bergstedt, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Searches for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) using large survey data often look for possible signatures of astroengineering. We propose to search for physically impossible effects caused by highly advanced technology, by carrying out a search for disappearing galaxies and Milky Way stars. We select $\\sim$ 10 million objects from USNO-B1.0 with low proper motion ($\\mu$ $<$ 20 milli arcseconds / year) imaged on the sky in two epochs. We search for objects not found at the expected positions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by visually examining images of $\\sim$ 290 000 USNO-B1.0 objects with no counterpart in the SDSS. We identify some spurious targets in the USNO-B1.0. We find one candidate of interest for follow-up photometry, although it is very uncertain. If the candidate eventually is found, it defines the probability of observing a disappearing-object event the last decade to less than one in one million in the given samples. Nevertheless, since the complete USNO-B1.0 dataset is 100 times l...

  12. X-ray biosignature of bacteria in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelle, L.; Simionovici, A.; Susini, J.; Oger, P.; Chukalina, M.; Rau, Ch.; Golosio, B.; Gillet, P.

    2003-04-01

    X-ray imaging techniques at the best spatial resolution and using synchrotron facilities are put forth as powerful techniques for the search of small life forms in extraterrestrial rocks under quarantine conditions (Lemelle et al. 2003). Samples, which may be collected in situ on the martian surface or on a cometary surface, will be brought back and finally stored in a container. We tested on the ID22 beamline, the possibilities of the X-ray absorption and fluorescence tomographies on sub-mm grains of NWA817 (Lemelle et al. submitted) and Tatahouine (Simionovici et al. 2001) meteorites stored in a 10 micrometer silica capillary, full of air, mimicking such containers. Studies of the X-ray microtomographies carried on reveal the positions, the 3D textures and mineralogies of the microenvironments where traces of life should be looked for in priority (with a submicrometer spatial resolution). Limitations with respect to bacterial detection are due to the difficulties to obtain information about light elements (Z techniques (Golosio et al. submitted). We tested on the ID21 beamline, the possibilities of the X-ray imaging techniques on bacteria/silicate assemblages prepared in the laboratory and directly placed in the beam. The X-ray signature of a "present" bacteria on a silicate surface was defined by X-ray mapping, out of a container, as coincident micrometer and oval zones having strong P and S fluorescence lines (S-fluorescence being slightly lower than P-fluorescence) and an amino-linked sulfur redox speciation. The X-ray signature of a single bacteria can now be applied to test the bacterial origin of nanostructures observed on some meteorite surfaces. Lemelle et al. (2003a) accepted to Journal de Physique, b submitted to Am. Min., Simionovici et al. (2001) Proc. SPIE, vol 4503, ed. U. BONSE, San Diego, August. Golosio et al. submitted to Phys. Rev. B

  13. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  14. Training Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    nearifest tLer,sclvCs in ELO r operatii.L costs in the life C’VclE Of the ef’uijjteft. E F re\\ lously rcntione6 ey~ arrle of usingF the 1lirefineer...Ibid., p. 35. 4. Avron Barr and Edward Feigenbaum, The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 1, p. 2. 5. Wissam W. Ahmed, "Theories of Artificial...Barr, Avron and Geigenbaum, Edward A. ed. The Handbook of Arti- ficial Intelligence. Vol. 1. Stanford: heuristech Press. 1981. Gevartner, William B

  15. 情感智能干预对帕金森患者心理及生活质量的影响%Inlfuence of Emotional Intelligence Intervention on Psychological and Life Quality of Patients With Parkinson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志霞; 周士华

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究情感智能干预对帕金森患者心理及生活质量的影响。方法我院将2014年10月~2015年12月收治的60例帕金森患者进行随机分组为对照组与观察组,两组患者各30例,对照组给予传统护理,观察组在传统护理的基础上进行情感智能干预,观察两组帕金森患者的SDS评分、SAS评分及生活质量各项评分。结果观察组帕金森患者的SDS评分、SAS评分均低于对照组,P<0.05,其生活质量各项评分均高于对照组,P<0.05。结论给予帕金森患者在护理的过程中采取情感智能干预的效果较好。%Objective To study the influence of emotional intelligence intervention on psychological and life quality of patients with Parkinson's disease.Methods 60 cases of Parkinson's disease patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group from October 2014 to December 2015, 30 cases in each group, the control group was given conventional nursing, the observation group on the basis of the traditional nursing emotional intelligence intervention, observed two groups of patients with Parkinson's SDS score, SAS score and life quality score.ResultsThe SDS score and SAS score in the observation group were lower than those in the control group,P<0.05, and their quality of life scores were higher than those in the control group,P<0.05.Conclusion To give Parkinson patients in the process of care to take the effect of emotional intelligence intervention is better.

  16. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations. Specifically, we completed a meta-analysis of random-assignment experiments testing the effects of material incentives on intelligence-test performance on a collective 2,008 participants. Incentives increased IQ scores by an average of 0.64 SD, with larger effects for individuals with lower baseline IQ scores. Second, we tested whether individual differences in motivation during IQ testing can spuriously inflate the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. Trained observers rated test motivation among 251 adolescent boys completing intelligence tests using a 15-min “thin-slice” video sample. IQ score predicted life outcomes, including academic performance in adolescence and criminal convictions, employment, and years of education in early adulthood. After adjusting for the influence of test motivation, however, the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes was significantly diminished, particularly for nonacademic outcomes. Collectively, our findings suggest that, under low-stakes research conditions, some individuals try harder than others, and, in this context, test motivation can act as a third-variable confound that inflates estimates of the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. PMID:21518867

  17. Social Media for Intelligence: Practical Examples of Analysis for Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    2016-01-01

    be uncovered in order to fully exploit social media for intelligence purposes. This paper will present Project Avatar, an experiment in obtaining effective intelligence from social media sources, and several emerging analytic techniques to expand the intelligence gathered from these sources.......Social media has become a dominating feature in modern life. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Google have users all over the world. People from all walks of life use social media. For the intelligence services, social media is an element that cannot be ignored. It holds immense amount...... of information, and the potential to extract useful intelligence cannot be ignored. Social media has been around for sufficient time that most intelligence services recognize the fact that social media needs some form of attention. However, for the intelligence collector and analyst several aspects must...

  18. Social media for intelligence: practical examples of analysis for understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhlin, Jonas A.; Richardson, John

    2016-05-01

    Social media has become a dominating feature in modern life. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Google have users all over the world. People from all walks of life use social media. For the intelligence services, social media is an element that cannot be ignored. It holds immense amount of information, and the potential to extract useful intelligence cannot be ignored. Social media has been around for sufficient time that most intelligence services recognize the fact that social media needs some form of attention. However, for the intelligence collector and analyst several aspects must be uncovered in order to fully exploit social media for intelligence purposes. This paper will present Project Avatar, an experiment in obtaining effective intelligence from social media sources, and several emerging analytic techniques to expand the intelligence gathered from these sources.

  19. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Patnaik, Srikanta; Ichalkaranje, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    In the history of mankind, three revolutions which impact the human life are the tool-making revolution, agricultural revolution and industrial revolution. They have transformed not only the economy and civilization but the overall development of the society. Probably, intelligence revolution is the next revolution, which the society will perceive in the next 10 years. ICCD-2014 covers all dimensions of intelligent sciences, i.e. Intelligent Computing, Intelligent Communication and Intelligent Devices. This volume covers contributions from Intelligent Communication which are from the areas such as Communications and Wireless Ad Hoc & Sensor Networks, Speech & Natural Language Processing, including Signal, Image and Video Processing and Mobile broadband and Optical networks, which are the key to the ground-breaking inventions to intelligent communication technologies. Secondly, Intelligent Device is any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its own computing capability. Contributions from ...

  20. Search for Extraterrestrial Osmium at the Allerod - Younger Dryas Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, C.; Sharma, M.; Kasse, K.; Bohncke, S.

    2008-12-01

    Ir and Os are excellent markers of extraterrestrial impact events, due to their high abundance in ET objects (Alvarez et al., 1980 Science; Turekian, 1982 Geol. Bull. Am. Spec. Pap.). Os has the advantage over Ir, in that the 187Os/188Os ratio also greatly differs between meteorites and upper continental crust (UCC). The combination of [Os] and 187Os/188Os analyses would be superior in detecting any ET contribution. Firestone et al (2007 PNAS) attributed a widespread 12.9 ka Ir containing black carbon layer to a potential extraterrestrial impact at the Allerød-Younger Dryas (A-YD) boundary. In order to test this inference, we measured [Os] and 187Os/188Os on a radiocarbon dated A-YD record (13.210 to 12.788 cal years BP) from the Netherlands. This location is close to Lommel, a Belgian site studied by Firestone et al.(2007). The organic-rich sequence was sampled continuously over a 12 cm interval at 2 cm resolution (~70 years). About 10 g samples were freeze-dried, ground and homogenized in a zirconia ball-mill. The samples mixed with 190Os tracer solutions were dissolved in carius tubes and Os extracted in liquid bromine. Os was further purified using micro-distillation. Os isotopes were measured using N-TIMS on Dartmouth Triton. The procedural blank was 7 fg/g Os with an isotopic composition of 0.41±0.01 The Allerød samples have an order of magnitude higher abundance than UCC (200 vs. 30 pg/g), but similar 187Os/188Os ratios, >1.1. The sample at the base of the YD (12.893±75 cal years BP) contains a similar amount of Os, but has a distinctly lower isotopic signature, 0.53±0.002. The high [Os] in the A-YD section possibly reflects enrichment by preferential partitioning into organic matter. The Os isotope composition of 0.53, sandwiched between values >1.1, implies contribution of a significant amount of non-radiogenic Os. Since the pollen spectra show no reworking, the non-radiogenic Os could only have been delivered as a discrete pulse at 12.893 cal yr BP

  1. The forthcoming EISCAT 3D as an extraterrestrial matter monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Kero, J.; Mann, I.; Tjulin, A.

    2014-07-01

    High Power Large Aperture (HPLA) radars such as the tristatic EISCAT UHF combined with the EISCAT VHF have been versatile instruments for studying many properties of the meteoroid population even though not designed for the purpose. The future EISCAT 3D facility can become in many aspects orders of magnitude better for observing the extra-terrestrial matter. Whereas the overall science theme with atmospheric radars is to study how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space, meeting the requirements for meteor studies is one of the design goals phrased from the user community. The radar will comprise a phased-array transmitter and several phased-array receivers around Northern Scandinavia. It will work at 233 MHz centre frequency with a power of up to 10 MW and run an advanced signal-processing system. Its measurement techniques have never been combined in one radar system: volumetric-, aperture synthesis- and multistatic imaging and adaptive experiments. The volumetric imaging will increase the observing volumes, the interferometry improve the spatial resolution and orbit determinations. These are important issues for studying filaments in the meteor showers, to compute the dust flux in the Earth's vicinity and to estimate the ejection time of meteoroids accurately for theoretical evolution modelling. Investigations using the 233 MHz VHF frequency will provide higher rates than for example the earlier EISCAT UHF. In addition, the new system will observe a larger volume in space and offers the opportunity for longer observation runs up to continuous monitoring. We give a review of how all these new functions will improve the HPLA radar meteor observations.

  2. Design of an L-Band Dual Feedhorn for the Purposes of Microwave Search for ExtraTerrensial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gimersky

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Logic behind the design of a dual feedhorn for the 26-meter Cassegrainian antennaof the Agassiz Station-Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory is presented in the paper. Theoretically predicted arid measured results in the "waterhole" band (1.4-1.7 GHz are presented. The antenna has been utilized in the Harvard Wide-Bandwidth HighResolution Microwave Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI Program, with the Observatory as a SETI-dedicated facility.

  3. Emotional Intelligence in School Administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine BABAOĞLAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that affects success in business life is emotional intelligence of working people. The purpose of this research is to identify whether the school administrators’ emotional intelligence scores differ meaningfully according to their gender, marital status, branch, being a principal or assistant principal, being elementary school administrator or high school administrator, having manegerial education course or not, educational background, period of occupational service, age, length of administration service, number of children. 180 administrators working as a principals and vise principals who worked in 2005 in Düzce elementary schools and high schools were surveyed in line with this aim. Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test and ANOVA were used in order to find out groups that differ from others. It has been found that school administrators’ emotional intelligence scores differ meaningfully in terms of administrators’ branch and being elementary school administrator or high school.

  4. The role of extraterrestrial particles in the formation of the ozone hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, J. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Kerrigan, T.C. [Intel Corporation, EY2-E3, Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The object of Part I of this paper is to estimate the concentration of extraterrestrial particles in the ozone layer over South Pole, Antarctica, during zone hole formation. This estimate is based on an analysis of microscopic magnetic spherules collected in an extended program of atmospheric sampling. Spherules are shown to be of extraterrestrial origin and serve as markers for the larger class of less distinguished extraterrestrial particles. These particles settle to ground level as aggregates formed in a stratospheric ice crystal coalescence process. Specific spherules arrivals at ground level are strongly associated with apparent ozone depletion episodes during formation of the ozone hole. The origin of these spherules is a major stream of extraterrestrial particles independent of known meteor showers. The variability in its intensity from year to year corresponds to the variability in ozone depletion in the ozone hole itself. A quantitative theory based on these spherules arrivals and this coalescence process implies that the concentration of extraterrestrial particles at ozone hole formation lies between 500 and 2000/m{sup 3}. A mechanism is proposed in Part II of this paper by which particle concentrations in this range are sufficient to produce the ozone hole.

  5. No evidence of extraterrestrial noble metal and helium anomalies at Marinoan glacial termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Waters, Christine A.; Kurz, Mark D.; Hoffman, Paul F.

    2016-03-01

    High concentrations of extraterrestrial iridium have been reported in terminal Sturtian and Marinoan glacial marine sediments and are used to argue for long (likely 3-12 Myr) durations of these Cryogenian glaciations. Reanalysis of the Marinoan sedimentary rocks used in the original study, supplemented by sedimentary rocks from additional terminal Marinoan sections, however, does not confirm the initial report. New platinum group element concentrations, and 187Os/188Os and 3He/4He signatures are consistent with crustal origin and minimal extraterrestrial contributions. The discrepancy is likely caused by different sample masses used in the two studies, with this study being based on much larger samples that better capture the stochastic distribution of extraterrestrial particles in marine sediments. Strong enrichment of redox-sensitive elements, particularly rhenium, up-section in the basal postglacial cap carbonates, may indicate a return to more fully oxygenated seawater in the aftermath of the Marinoan snowball earth. Sections dominated by hydrogenous osmium indicate increasing submarine hydrothermal sources and/or continental inputs that are increasingly dominated by young mantle-derived rocks after deglaciation. Sedimentation rate estimates for the basal cap carbonates yield surprisingly slow rates of a few centimeters per thousand years. This study highlights the importance of using sedimentary rock samples that represent sufficiently large area-time products to properly sample extraterrestrial particles representatively, and demonstrates the value of using multiple tracers of extraterrestrial matter.

  6. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  7. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  8. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Strejčková, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  9. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Strejčková, Lucie

    2001-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  10. Survival of akinetes (resting-state cells of cyanobacteria) in low earth orbit and simulated extraterrestrial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Towner, Martin C; Cockell, Charles S

    2009-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms that have been considered for space applications, such as oxygen production in bioregenerative life support systems, and can be used as a model organism for understanding microbial survival in space. Akinetes are resting-state cells of cyanobacteria that are produced by certain genera of heterocystous cyanobacteria to survive extreme environmental conditions. Although they are similar in nature to endospores, there have been no investigations into the survival of akinetes in extraterrestrial environments. The aim of this work was to examine the survival of akinetes from Anabaena cylindrica in simulated extraterrestrial conditions and in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Akinetes were dried onto limestone rocks and sent into LEO for 10 days on the ESA Biopan VI. In ground-based experiments, the rocks were exposed to periods of desiccation, vacuum (0.7×10(-3) kPa), temperature extremes (-80 to 80°C), Mars conditions (-27°C, 0.8 kPa, CO(2)) and UV radiation (325-400 nm). A proportion of the akinete population was able to survive a period of 10 days in LEO and 28 days in Mars simulated conditions, when the rocks were not subjected to UV radiation. Furthermore, the akinetes were able to survive 28 days of exposure to desiccation and low temperature with high viability remaining. Yet long periods of vacuum and high temperature were lethal to the akinetes. This work shows that akinetes are extreme-tolerating states of cyanobacteria that have a practical use in space applications and yield new insight into the survival of microbial resting-state cells in space conditions.

  11. Intelligent computing systems emerging application areas

    CERN Document Server

    Virvou, Maria; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This book at hand explores emerging scientific and technological areas in which Intelligent Computing Systems provide efficient solutions and, thus, may play a role in the years to come. It demonstrates how Intelligent Computing Systems make use of computational methodologies that mimic nature-inspired processes to address real world problems of high complexity for which exact mathematical solutions, based on physical and statistical modelling, are intractable. Common intelligent computational methodologies are presented including artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation, genetic algorithms, artificial immune systems, fuzzy logic, swarm intelligence, artificial life, virtual worlds and hybrid methodologies based on combinations of the previous. The book will be useful to researchers, practitioners and graduate students dealing with mathematically-intractable problems. It is intended for both the expert/researcher in the field of Intelligent Computing Systems, as well as for the general reader in t...

  12. Deep Space Detectives: Searching for Planets Suitable for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Damelin, Daniel; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the High-Adventure Science curriculum unit "Is There Life in Space?" This free online investigation, developed by The Concord Consortium, helps students see how scientists use modern tools to locate planets around distant stars and explore the probability of finding extraterrestrial life. This innovative curriculum…

  13. Astrobiology and the Possibility of Life on Earth and Elsewhere…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Bartik, Kristin; Cleaves, H. James; Cockell, Charles S.; de Vera, Jean Pierre P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Leuko, Stefan; Ten Kate, Inge Loes; Martins, Zita; Pascal, Robert; Quinn, Richard; Rettberg, Petra; Westall, Frances

    Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary scientific field not only focused on the search of extraterrestrial life, but also on deciphering the key environmental parameters that have enabled the emergence of life on Earth. Understanding these physical and chemical parameters is fundamental knowledge

  14. Deep Space Detectives: Searching for Planets Suitable for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Damelin, Daniel; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the High-Adventure Science curriculum unit "Is There Life in Space?" This free online investigation, developed by The Concord Consortium, helps students see how scientists use modern tools to locate planets around distant stars and explore the probability of finding extraterrestrial life. This innovative curriculum…

  15. Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyamin, B.; St Pourcain, B.; Davis, O. S.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being highly herita...

  16. Accretion rate of extraterrestrial {sup 41}Ca in Antarctic snow samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J.M., E-mail: jose.gomez@ph.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Physik, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bishop, S.; Faestermann, T.; Famulok, N.; Fimiani, L.; Hain, K.; Jahn, S.; Korschinek, G.; Ludwig, P. [Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Physik, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rodrigues, D. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small grains, generally less than a few hundred micrometers in size. Their main source is the Asteroid Belt, located at 3 AU from the Sun, between Mars and Jupiter. During their flight from the Asteroid Belt to the Earth they are irradiated by galactic and solar cosmic rays (GCR and SCR), thus radionuclides are formed, like {sup 41}Ca and {sup 53}Mn. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca (T{sub 1/2} = 1.03 × 10{sup 5} yr) can be used as a key tracer to determine the accretion rate of IDPs onto the Earth because there are no significant terrestrial sources for this radionuclide. The first step of this study consisted to calculate the production rate of {sup 41}Ca in IDPs accreted by the Earth during their travel from the Asteroid Belt. This production rate, used in accordance with the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratios that will be measured in snow samples from the Antarctica will be used to calculate the amount of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth per year. There challenges for this project are, at first, the much longer time for the flight needed by the IDPs to travel from the Asteroid Belt to the Earth in comparison with the {sup 41}Ca half-life yields an early saturation for the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratio, and second, the importance of selecting the correct sampling site to avoid a high influx of natural {sup 40}Ca, preventing dilution of the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratio, the quantity measured by AMS.

  17. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  18. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of In

  19. Astroecology, cosmo-ecology, and the future of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Mautner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Astroecology concerns the relations between life and space resources, and cosmo-ecology extrapolates these relations to cosmological scales. Experimental astroecology can quantify the amounts of life that can be derived from space resources. For this purpose, soluble carbon and electrolyte nutrients were measured in asteroid/meteorite materials. Microorganisms and plant cultures were observed to grow on these materials, whose fertilities are similar to productive agricultural soils. Based on measured nutrient contents, the 1022 kg carbonaceous asteroids can yield 1018 kg biomass with N and P as limiting nutrients (compared with the estimated 1015 kg biomass on Earth. These data quantify the amounts of life that can be derived from asteroids in terms of time-integrated biomass [BIOTAint = biomass (kg × lifetime (years], as 1027 kg-years during the next billion years of the Solar System (a thousand times the 1024 kg-years to date. The 1026 kg cometary materials can yield biota 10 000 times still larger. In the galaxy, potential future life can be estimated based on stellar luminosities. For example, the Sun will develop into a white dwarf star whose 1015 W luminosity can sustain a BIOTAint of 1034 kg-years over 1020 years. The 1012 main sequence and white and red dwarf stars can sustain 1046 kg-years of BIOTAint in the galaxy and 1057 kg-years in the universe. Life has great potentials in space, but the probability of present extraterrestrial life may be incomputable because of biological and ecological complexities. However, we can establish and expand life in space with present technology, by seeding new young solar systems. Microbial representatives of our life-form can be launched by solar sails to new planetary systems, including extremophiles suited to diverse new environments, autotrophs and heterotrophs to continually form and recycle biomolecules, and simple multicellulars to jump-start higher evolution. These programs can be motivated

  20. Developing Emotional Intelligence Competence among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Niva; Leshem, Shosh

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research has linked emotional intelligence (EI) to different life aspects, including personal well-being, quality of social relationships and professional effectiveness. In the field of education, EI has been linked to different aspects of school life, such as learning, academic achievements and pro-social behaviours among…

  1. Developing Emotional Intelligence Competence among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Niva; Leshem, Shosh

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research has linked emotional intelligence (EI) to different life aspects, including personal well-being, quality of social relationships and professional effectiveness. In the field of education, EI has been linked to different aspects of school life, such as learning, academic achievements and pro-social behaviours among…

  2. GEOLOGICAL MARKS OF A POSSIBLE EXTRATERRESTRIAL IMPACT EVENT ON THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN SINIAN/CAMBRIAN IN TIANMENSHAN IN WESTERN HUNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huaiyong; WANG Daojing; CHEN Guanghao; YIN Hanhui

    2004-01-01

    Geologic marks related to extraterrestrial impact events, such as impact split gravels, impact brecciate layers, impact dikes, microirghizites, microtektites, especially meteoritic residues, were discovered on the boundary between Sinian/Cambrian at Tianmenshan of Western Hunan, which may possibly demonstrate that an extraterrestrial impact event has ever occurred there on the S/C boundary.

  3. Optimum conditions for prebiotic evolution in extraterrestrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ousama H.

    The overall goal of the dissertation was to devise synthetic pathways leading to the production of peptides and amino acids from smaller organic precursors. To this end, eight different zeolites were tested in order to determine their catalytic potential in the conversion of amino acids to peptides. The zeolites tested were either synthetic or naturally occurring. Acidic solutions of amino acids were prepared with or without zeolites and their reactivity was monitored over a four-week time interval. The kinetics and feasibility of peptide synthesis from selected amino acid combinations was investigated via the paper chromatography technique. Nine different amino acids were tested. The nature and extent of product were measured at constant time intervals. It was found that two ZSM-5 synthetic zeolites as well as the Fisher Scientific zeolite mix without alumina salts may have a catalytic potential in the conversion of amino acids to peptides. The conversion was verified by matching the paper chromatogram of the experimental product with that of a known peptide. The experimental results demonstrate that the optimum solvent system for paper chromatographic analysis of the zeolite-catalyzed self-assembly of the amino acids L-aspartic acid, L- asparagine, L-histidine, and L-serine is a 50:50 mixture of 1-butanol and acetone by volume. For the amino acids L-alanine, L-glycine, and L-valine, the optimum solvent was found to be a 30:70 mixture of ammonia and propanol by volume. A mathematical model describing the distance traveled (spot position) versus reaction time was constructed for the zeolite-catalyzed conversion of L- leucine and L-tyrosine and was found to approximately follow the function f(t) = 25 ln t. Two case studies for prebiotic synthesis leading to the production of amino acids or peptides in extraterrestrial environments were discussed: one involving Saturn's moon Titan, and the other involving Jupiter's moon Europa. In the Titan study, it was determined

  4. Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Jason; Mueller, Robert; Smith, Drew; Nick, Andrew; Lippitt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    reduction of as much as 72%. This paper will examine the effects of impact energy, frequency, scaling and their effect on excavation forces in a dry granular material such as lunar regolith. The past several years have shown an increasing interest in mining space resources both for exploration and commercial enterprises. This work studied the benefits and risks of percussive excavation and preliminry results indicate that this technique may become an enabling technology for extra-terrestrial excavation of regolith and ice.

  5. Intelligent Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online http://www.sagemath.org/. Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  6. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  7. Intelligent Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Lint

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, within liberal democracies, the post-Westphalian consolidation of security and intelligence has ushered in the normalization not only of security in ‘securitization’ but also of intelligence in what is proposed here as ‘intelligencification.’ In outlining the features of intelligencified governance, my aim is to interrogate the view that effects or traces, and productivity rather than negation is as persuasive as commonly thought by the constructivists. After all, counter-intelligence is both about purging and reconstructing the archive for undisclosed values. In practice, what is being normalized is the authorized and legalized use of release and retention protocols of politically actionable information. The intelligencification of governmentality affords a sovereignty shell-game or the instrumentalization of sovereign power by interests that are dependent on, yet often inimical to, the power of state, national, and popular sovereignty. On voit le politique et le social comme dépendant de contingences exclusives. Récemment, au sein des démocraties libérales, la consolidation de la sécurité et des services de renseignements de sécurité qui a suivi les traités de la Westphalie a donné lieu à la normalisation non seulement de la sécurité en «sécurisation» mais aussi des services de renseignements de sécurité en ce qui est proposé ici comme «intelligencification» [terme anglais créé par l’auteur, dérivé du mot anglais «intelligence» dans le sens de renseignements des écurité]. En particulier, ce que l’on normalise dans le but de contourner des contingences exclusives est l’utilisation autorisée et légalisée de protocoles de communication et de rétention d’information qui, politiquement, pourrait mener à des poursuites. En esquissant les traits de la gouvernance «intelligencifiée», mon but est d’interroger le point de vue que les effets ou les traces, et la productivité plutôt que la

  8. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy applied to extraterrestrial particles returned from the asteroid Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, U.; Maiwald, M.; Hanke, F.; Braune, M.; Pavlov, S. G.; Schröder, S.; Weber, I.; Busemann, H.; Sumpf, B.; Tränkle, G.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2017-09-01

    Two extraterrestrial particles from the asteroid Itokawa are investigated applying Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS). These particles were returned by the Hayabusa mission of the Japanese Space Agency JAXA. For SERDS a diode laser based microsystem light source at 488 nm is used for excitation. It has been found that fluorescence signals masking the Raman spectral features of interest can be substantially separated by applying SERDS. Therefore, SERDS improves the information obtained from the Raman spectra and enables a reliable analysis for investigations on extraterrestrial samples.

  9. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  10. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  11. Technology and System of Service Robots for Smart Home and Intelligent Life%面向智能家居/智慧生活的服务机器人技术与系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景泰; 张森; 孙月

    2016-01-01

    随着机器人技术的发展以及服务机器人形态的日益丰富,智能家居/智慧生活逐渐成为一种未来的生活方式。文章探索了智能家居和智慧生活的服务机器人技术与系统,在其众多的关键技术中,重点探讨了面向服务机器人的云端融合技术以及高用户体验度的人-机器人交互技术。并以家庭服务机器人为例,实现了基于微信和语音云的人-机器人交互方式,验证了基于云架构的家庭服务机器人体系结构的可行性。文章所提出的服务机器人技术与系统是智能家居、智慧生活的一种实现方式,为未来形形色色的服务机器人技术方案提供了一些思路。%With the development of robot technology and the ever-increasing diversity in shapes of service robots, smart home and intelligent life gradually become a future way of life. The technology and system of service robots for smart home and intelligent life was proposed in this paper. Among many key technologies of the system, the cloud fusion technology for service robots and human-robot interaction technology with high degree of user experience were investigated in this paper. Take the home service robot as an example, the feasibility of the cloud-based architecture for the home service robotic system was veriifed with human-robot interaction experiments which are respectively based on WeChat and voice cloud. The proposed architecture for service robots is an implementation of smart home and smart living, and provides some valuable ideas for technical solutions of future service robots.

  12. Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

  13. Computational Intelligence and Decision Making Trends and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Ana; Marques, Viriato

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a general overview and original analysis of new developments and applications in several areas of Computational Intelligence and Information Systems. Computational Intelligence has become an important tool for engineers to develop and analyze novel techniques to solve problems in basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, environment and social sciences.   The material contained in this book addresses the foundations and applications of Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support Systems, Complex and Biological Inspired Systems, Simulation and Evolution of Real and Artificial Life Forms, Intelligent Models and Control Systems, Knowledge and Learning Technologies, Web Semantics and Ontologies, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Power Systems, Self-Organized and Distributed Systems, Intelligent Manufacturing Systems and Affective Computing. The contributions have all been written by international experts, who provide current views on the topics discussed and pr...

  14. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  15. Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards for an Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Results of 2 studies involving 503 adults and 229 adolescents show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, a new ability test of emotional intelligence, meets 3 classical criteria of a standard intelligence. (SLD)

  16. Abundances of lanthanoids, Th and U in extraterrestrial matters and their cosmochemical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Lanthanoid and actinoid abundances in the extraterrestrial materials are highly informative in discussing differentiation of planetary materials and cosmochronology at the early solar system. After briefly explaining analytical methods applicable to their determination, three research themes, two of which have been already in progress, are introduced and the significance of lanthanoids and actinoids in cosmochemical materials is emphasized. (author)

  17. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  18. Search for extraterrestrial antineutrino sources with the KamLAND detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, S.; et al., [Unknown; Decowski, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a search for extraterrestrial electron antineutrinos ( 's) in the energy range 8.3 MeV < Eve < 31.8 MeV using the KamLAND detector. In an exposure of 4.53 kton-year, we identify 25 candidate events. All of the candidate events can be attributed to background, most important

  19. Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Acquisition: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    vehicle that does not carry a human operation, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle life, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be...that the Army is even considering the development of intelligence- gathering airships .43 In comparison to the complex acquisition history of UAS, the...43 Walter Pincus, “Military Seeks an Intelligence-Gathering Airship ,” Washington Post, February 16, 2010, p. A11. Intelligence, Surveillance, and

  20. Competitive Intelligence in Malaysia Pharmaceutical Industry : Effectiveness of Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Hooi Min

    2004-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence is increasingly being considered an important, if not mandatory, piece of every business’ overall strategy and functioning, including tactical and strategic planning. The level of Competitive Intelligence activities differ by industries, and at different stage of product life cycle. It is closely linked to Knowledge Management – another major field on the way company handling information. Competitive Intelligence has often been related to industrial espionage where so...

  1. ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL INTELLIGENCE IN ANTHROPOGENIC EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we show the link between both artificial and natural intelligence and the system’s complexity during the life-cycle. Autopoetic’s type of living systems determines the differences between natural and artificial intelligence; artificial environments have an influence to the intelligence abilities development. We present the «diffusion intellect» concept where the diffusion intellect is considered as a synergistic unity of natural and artificial intellect in organized environments. 

  2. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; Deary, I J

    2015-02-01

    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (i) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (ii) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (iii) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (iv) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for 'positive genetics'. (v) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century-Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)-which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic architecture

  3. Watershed based intelligent scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieclawek, W; Pietka, E

    2015-07-01

    Watershed based modification of intelligent scissors has been developed. This approach requires a preprocessing phase with anisotropic diffusion to reduce subtle edges. Then, the watershed transform enhances the corridors. Finally, a roaming procedure, developed in this study, delineates the edge selected by a user. Due to a very restrictive set of pixels, subjected to the analysis, this approach significantly reduces the computational complexity. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm performance makes often one click point to be sufficient for one edge delineation. The method has been evaluated on structures as different in shape and appearance as the retina layers in OCT exams, chest and abdomen in CT and knee in MR studies. The accuracy is comparable with the traditional Life-Wire approach, whereas the analysis time decreases due to the reduction of the user interaction and number of pixels processed by the method.

  4. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  5. Inverting the Army Intelligence Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Counterinsurgency, Company Intelligence Support Team, COIST, HUMINT, SIGINT, MASINT, OSINT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: (U) 17. LIMITATION OF...intelligence ( OSINT ), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and technical intelligence (TECHINT).14 11

  6. 大学生的压力知觉、情绪智力、心理弹性对生活满意度的影响%The Influence of Perceived Stress,Emotional Intelligence and Resilience on Life Satisfaction of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢阳熙; 范小庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of life satisfaction with emotional intelligence ,resilience and perceived stress in college students .Methods A total of 485 normal college students were tested with Perceived Stress Scale ,Emotional Intelligence Ques-tionnaire(WLEIS-C),Resilience Scale for Adults and Satisfaction With Life Scale .Results ①There was negative correlation between perceived stress and emotional intelligence ,resilience and life satisfaction(r=-0.60-0.50,-0.40;P<0.01).And there was positive cor-relation between emotional intelligence ,resilience and life satisfaction(r=0.33,0.38;P<0.01).②Perceived stress could not only pre-dict life satisfaction directly ,but also by the mediating role of emotional intelligence and resilience indirectly .Conclusion Emotional in-telligence and resilience partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction .%目的:探讨大学生的压力知觉、情绪智力、心理弹性对生活满意度的关系和作用机制。方法采用压力知觉量表、情绪智力量表、成人心理弹性量表和生活满意度量表对485名大学生进行施测。结果①大学生压力知觉与情绪智力、心理弹性、生活满意度均呈显著负相关(r=-0.60,-0.50,-0.40;P<0.01);情绪智力、心理弹性与生活满意度呈显著正相关(r=0.33,0.38;P<0.01);②压力知觉不仅可以直接预测生活满意度,还可以通过情绪智力、心理弹性起间接预测作用。结论情绪智力、心理弹性分别在压力知觉与主观幸福感之间起部分中介作用。压力知觉→情绪智力→心理弹性→生活满意度的路径也显著。

  7. The Chirality Of Life: From Phase Transitions To Astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The search for life elsewhere in the universe is a pivotal question in modern science. However, to address whether life is common in the universe we must first understand the likelihood of abiogenesis by studying the origin of life on Earth. A key missing piece is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: permeating almost every life-form on Earth is the presence of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. In this work we discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events in a mechanism referred to as punctuated chirality. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has significant implications for the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic on average.

  8. Tracers of the Extraterrestrial Component in Sediments and Inferences for Earth's Accretion History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    The study of extraterrestrial matter in sediments began with the discovery of cosmic spherules during the HMS Challenger Expedition (1873-1876), but has evolved into a multidisciplinary study of the chemical, physical, and isotopic study of sediments. Extraterrestrial matter in sediments comes mainly from dust and large impactors from the asteroid belt and comets. What we know of the nature of these source materials comes from the study of stratospheric dust particles, cosmic spherules, micrometeorites, meteorites, and astronomical observations. The most common chemical tracers of extraterrestrial matter in sediments are the siderophile elements, most commonly iridium and other platinum group elements. Physical tracers include cosmic and impact spherules, Ni-rich spinels, meteorites, fossil meteorites, and ocean-impact melt debris. Three types of isotopic systems have been used to trace extraterrestrial matter. Osmium isotopes cannot distinguish chondritic from mantle sources, but provide a useful tool in modeling long-term accretion rates. Helium isotopes can be used to trace the long-term flux of the fine fraction of the interplanetary dust complex. Chromium isotopes can provide unequivocal evidence of an extraterrestrial source for sediments with high concentrations of meteoritic Cr. The terrestrial history of impacts, as recorded in sediments, is still poorly understood. Helium isotopes, multiple Ir anomalies, spherule beds, and craters all indicate a comet shower in the late Eocene. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact event appears to have been caused by a single carbonaceous chondrite projectile, most likely of asteroid origin. Little is known of the impact record in sediments from the rest of the Phanerozoic. Several impact deposits are known in the Precambrian, including several possible mega-impacts in the Early Archean.

  9. On the detectability of intelligent civilizations in the galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue for the possibility that even in the event of a Galaxy teeming with extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI the probability of receiving recognizable signals from the ETIs may be very low. There are two majors factors that may limit our ability to detect other civilizations. (i Evolutionary mismatches may cause difficulties analogous to humans attempting to communicate with lower primates. (ii Independent evolutionary paths resulting from differing planetary/stellar environments may result in life whose cognitive processes and consequent perceptions of the universe are very different from ours. Interpreting signals from such civilizations may prove a very difficult or even futile task. Even on Earth, an example of a cognitive mismatch is that between humans and dolphins, where evolution in very different environments has led to difficulty in establishing communication between these two species. The main effect of the second factor is to limit communication while the effect of the first is to constrain what communication is possible to a "window of opportunity", a finite period of time, τω, when communication may be possible before diverging evolution makes it impossible. For example, if the number of ETIs in the Galaxy is one million and if τω 5 × 10 3 light years so that one star in 10 10 harbors such a civilization. If the above arguments are correct we reach the following conclusions. The absence of detected signals does not translate into an absence of ETI’s. Targeting individual stars in the search for ETI has a low probability of success. The use of radio signals is of limited value because with such large separations between "contactable" civilizations interstellar scintillation strongly limits the propagation of radio signals. Similarly, optical communication would be hindered by interstellar extinction. Possible alternatives to current searches for narrow band signals include listening for modulated broadband

  10. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  11. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  12. How to Improve Artificial Intelligence through Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent agents, intelligent software applications and artificial intelligent applications from artificial intelligence service providers maymake their way onto the Web in greater number as adaptive software, dynamic programming languages and Learning Algorithms are introduced intoWeb Services. The evolution of Web architecture may allow intelligent applications to run directly on the Web by introducing XML, RDF and logiclayer. The Intelligent Wireless Web’s significant potential for rapidly completing information transactions may take an important contribution toglobal worker productivity. Artificial intelligence can be defined as the study of the ways in which computers can be made to perform cognitivetasks. Examples of such tasks include understanding natural language statements, recognizing visual patterns or scenes, diagnosing diseases orillnesses, solving mathematical problems, performing financial analyses, learning new procedures for solving problems. The term expert system canbe considered to be a particular type of knowledge-based system. An expert system is a system in which the knowledge is deliberately represented“as it is”. Expert systems are applications that make decisions in real-life situations that would otherwise be performed by a human expert. They areprograms designed to mimic human performance at specialized, constrained problem-solving tasks. They are constructed as a collection of IF-THENproduction rules combined with a reasoning engine that applies those rules, either in a forward or backward direction, to specific problems.

  13. Applying Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kordon, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Offers guidelines on creating value from the application of computational intelligence methods. This work introduces a methodology for effective real-world application of computational intelligence while minimizing development cost, and outlines the critical, underestimated technology marketing efforts required

  14. Intelligence Operations Manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This Manual was an important document for the development of intelligence units in El Salvador´s police. It is a guiding document for intelligence operations where relevant aspects on overall information management are detailed.

  15. Intelligent route surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, R.M.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.; Voorthuijsen, G.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent

  16. Intelligent Computer Graphics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Miaoulis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    In Computer Graphics, the use of intelligent techniques started more recently than in other research areas. However, during these last two decades, the use of intelligent Computer Graphics techniques is growing up year after year and more and more interesting techniques are presented in this area.   The purpose of this volume is to present current work of the Intelligent Computer Graphics community, a community growing up year after year. This volume is a kind of continuation of the previously published Springer volumes “Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Computer Graphics” (2008), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2009” (2009), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2010” (2010) and “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2011” (2011).   Usually, this kind of volume contains, every year, selected extended papers from the corresponding 3IA Conference of the year. However, the current volume is made from directly reviewed and selected papers, submitted for publication in the volume “Intelligent Computer Gr...

  17. Advanced intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ryoo, Young; Jang, Moon-soo; Bae, Young-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been initiated with the attempt to imitate the human brain. People wish to let machines perform intelligent works. Many techniques of intelligent systems are based on artificial intelligence. According to changing and novel requirements, the advanced intelligent systems cover a wide spectrum: big data processing, intelligent control, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence and machine learning. This book focuses on coordinating intelligent systems with highly integrated and foundationally functional components. The book consists of 19 contributions that features social network-based recommender systems, application of fuzzy enforcement, energy visualization, ultrasonic muscular thickness measurement, regional analysis and predictive modeling, analysis of 3D polygon data, blood pressure estimation system, fuzzy human model, fuzzy ultrasonic imaging method, ultrasonic mobile smart technology, pseudo-normal image synthesis, subspace classifier, mobile object tracking, standing-up moti...

  18. AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Özyer, Kubilay; İsmail ALICI

    2015-01-01

    In this study it has been investigated is there any relationship between emotional intelligence, organisational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. In daily life these factors (emotinal intelligence, organisational commtiment and organizational citizenship behavior) are very effective in Professional life and also social life, thats why intraction between these variables are very important. To measure variables different scales are used. For emotinal intelligence Schutte et al...

  19. Innovation in Extraterrestrial Service Systems - A Challenge for Service Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, David

    2010-01-01

    This presentation was prepared at the invitation of Professor Yukio Ohsawa, Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, for delivery at the International Workshop on Innovating Service Systems, sponsored by the Japanese Society of Artificial Intelligence (JSAI) as part of the JSAI Internation Symposium on AI, 2010. It offers several challenges for Service Science and Service Innovation. the goal of the presentation is to stimulate thinking about how service systems viII evolve in the future, as human society advances from its terrestrial base toward a permanent presence in space. First we will consider the complexity of the International Space Station (ISS) as it is today, with particular emphasis of its research facilities, and focus on a current challenge - to maximize the utilization of ISS research facilities for the benefit of society. After briefly reviewing the basic principles of Service Science, we will discuss the potential application of Service Innovation methodology to this challenge. Then we viII consider how game-changing technologies - in particular Synthetic Biology - could accelerate the pace of sociocultural evolution and consequently, the progression of human society into space. We will use this provocative vision to advance thinking about how the emerging field of Service Science, Management, and Engineering (SSME) might help us anticipate and better handle the challenges of this inevitable evolutionary process.

  20. The Frontiers of Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The generally accepted theory of intelligence is developed mainly in the framework of the pragmatic critical philosophy. The discussed issues are psychometric and system theory of intelligence. However, the subject of this article are some of the more promising theories which, while remaining within the traditional scientific concepts, describe, in particular, emotional, creative, intrapersonal intelligence and wisdom. Of course, there are other ideas about intelligence. Among them, for examp...

  1. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  2. Construct of emotional intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-01-01

    The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (1997) we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality) traits.

  3. Construct of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995 and Bar-On (1997 we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality traits.

  4. Computational intelligence in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Tenne, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of recent studies covering the spectrum of computational intelligence applications with emphasis on their application to challenging real-world problems. Topics covered include: Intelligent agent-based algorithms, Hybrid intelligent systems, Cognitive and evolutionary robotics, Knowledge-Based Engineering, fuzzy sets and systems, Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Computational finance and Computational economics, Data mining, Machine learning, and Expert systems. ""Computational Intelligence in Optimization"" is a comprehensive reference for researchers, prac

  5. SET-E: The Search for Extraterrestrial Environmentalism

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no evidence for life on any known exoplanet. Here, we propose a form of "galactic anthropology" to detect not only the existence of life on transiting exoplanets, but also the existence of environmentalism movements. By observing the planet's atmosphere over long time baselines, the destruction and recovery of a hole in an exoplanet's ozone layer may be observable. While not readily detectable for any one system with JWST, by binning together observations of hundreds of systems we can finally determine the occurrence rate of environmental movements on Earthlike planets in the galaxy, a number we term eta-Green-Earth.

  6. Novel solvent systems for in situ extraterrestrial sample analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The life marker chip (LMC) is being designed to test for the chemical signature of life in the soil and rocks of Mars. It will use an antibody array as part of its detection and characterisation system and aims to detect both polar and non-polar molecules at the sub-ppm to tens of ppb level. It is necessary to use a solvent to transfer organic compounds from the Martian samples to the LMC itself, but organic solvents such as dichloromethane or hexane, commonly used to dissolve non-polar molec...

  7. Does Implementing an Emotional Intelligence Program Guarantee Student Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Coral L.; Wilmore, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Being a 21st century learner may require a shift in the education paradigm. To be successful students may need to possess a different type of intelligence. Cherniss (2001), Goleman (1995), and O'Neil (1996), suggest that the key to positive life outcomes might consider emotional intelligence as more important than intellectual quotient (IQ).…

  8. Computational intelligence, medicine and biology selected links

    CERN Document Server

    Zaitseva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of chapters presenting several examples of attempts to developing modern tools utilizing computational intelligence in different real life problems encountered by humans. Reasoning, prediction, modeling, optimization, decision making, etc. need modern, soft and intelligent algorithms, methods and methodologies to solve, in the efficient ways, problems appearing in human activity. The contents of the book is divided into two parts. Part I, consisting of four chapters, is devoted to selected links of computational intelligence, medicine, health care and biomechanics. Several problems are considered: estimation of healthcare system reliability, classification of ultrasound thyroid images, application of fuzzy logic to measure weight status and central fatness, and deriving kinematics directly from video records. Part II, also consisting of four chapters, is devoted to selected links of computational intelligence and biology. The common denominato...

  9. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  10. Designing with computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Heitor; Mourelle, Luiza

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses a number of real-world applications of computational intelligence approaches. Using various examples, it demonstrates that computational intelligence has become a consolidated methodology for automatically creating new competitive solutions to complex real-world problems. It also presents a concise and efficient synthesis of different systems using computationally intelligent techniques.

  11. Distributive justice and cognitive enhancement in lower, normal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mikael; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    There exists a significant disparity within society between individuals in terms of intelligence. While intelligence varies naturally throughout society, the extent to which this impacts on the life opportunities it affords to each individual is greatly undervalued. Intelligence appears to have a prominent effect over a broad range of social and economic life outcomes. Many key determinants of well-being correlate highly with the results of IQ tests, and other measures of intelligence, and an IQ of 75 is generally accepted as the most important threshold in modern life. The ability to enhance our cognitive capacities offers an exciting opportunity to correct disabling natural variation and inequality in intelligence. Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, such as modafinil and methylphenidate, have been shown to have the capacity to enhance cognition in normal, healthy individuals. Perhaps of most relevance is the presence of an 'inverted U effect' for most pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, whereby the degree of enhancement increases as intelligence levels deviate further below the mean. Although enhancement, including cognitive enhancement, has been much debated recently, we argue that there are egalitarian reasons to enhance individuals with low but normal intelligence. Under egalitarianism, cognitive enhancement has the potential to reduce opportunity inequality and contribute to relative income and welfare equality in the lower, normal intelligence subgroup. Cognitive enhancement use is justifiable under prioritarianism through various means of distribution; selective access to the lower, normal intelligence subgroup, universal access, or paradoxically through access primarily to the average and above average intelligence subgroups. Similarly, an aggregate increase in social well-being is achieved through similar means of distribution under utilitarianism. In addition, the use of cognitive enhancement within the lower, normal intelligence subgroup negates, or at

  12. Situational Judgment Test Research: Informing the Debate on Practical Intelligence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Michael A.; Whetzel, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    [Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). Dissecting practical intelligence theory: Its claims and evidence. Intelligence, 31, 343-397.] provided a detailed critique of Sternberg's [Sternberg, R. J., Fotsythe, G. B., Hedlund, J., Horvath, J. A., Wagner, R. K., Williams, W. M., Snook, S. A., Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Practical intelligence in everyday life. New…

  13. A Pilot Study of Urinary Peptides as Biomarkers for Intelligence in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lorna M.; Mullen, William; Zurbig, Petra; Harris, Sarah E.; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David J.; Mischak, Harald; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence is an important indicator of physical, mental and social well-being. In old age, intelligence is also associated with a higher quality of life and better health. Heritability studies have shown that there are strong genetic influences, yet unknown, on intelligence, including in old age. Other approaches may be useful to investigate…

  14. Instrumentation and vehicle platform of a miniaturized submersible for exploration of terrestrial and extraterrestrial aqueous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jonas; Sundqvist, Johan; Nguyen, Hugo; Berglund, Martin; Ogden, Sam; Palmer, Kristoffer; Smedfors, Katarina; Johansson, Linda; Hjort, Klas; Thornell, Greger

    2012-10-01

    An example of an extraterrestrial environment likely to support life is the vast liquid body believed to hide underneath the frozen crust of Jupiter's moon Europa. The hypothetical exploration of this, as well as the more accessible subglacial lakes on Earth, has been used as model applications for the development of a heavily miniaturized, yet qualified, submersible with the potential to be deployable either in itself through a long and narrow borehole or as the daughter craft of an ice-penetrating cryobot. Onboard the submersible, which is only 20 cm in length and 5 cm in diameter, accommodation of a versatile set of sensors and instruments capable of characterizing and imaging the surroundings, and even collecting water samples with microorganisms for return, is facilitated through the use of miniaturization technologies. For instance, together with a small camera, a laser-based, microoptic device enables the 3-D reconstruction of imaged objects for topographical measurements. As a complement, when the water is turbid or a longer range is wanted, the world's smallest side-scanning sonar, exhibiting centimeter resolution and a range of over 30 m, has been developed. The work on miniaturizing a CTD, which is a widely employed oceanographic instrument used to measure and correlate conductivity, temperature, and depth, has commenced. Furthermore, a device employing acoustics to trap microscopic particles and organisms, and, by this, enrich water samples, is under development. To ensure that the gathered samples are pristine until analyzed at the end of a mission, the device is equipped with high-pressure, latchable valves. Remote operation and transfer of measurement data and images, or even live streaming of video, is made possible through a kilometer-long fiber optic cable being reeled out from the vehicle underway and tethering it to a terminal. To extend the missions, the same fiber shall also be capable of charging the onboard batteries. In this paper, the

  15. Ion exchange substrates for plant cultivation in extraterrestrial stations and space crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange substrates Biona were specially designed at the Belarus Academy of Sciences for plants cultivation in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial stations. The first versions of such substrates have been successfully used in several space experiments and in a long-term experiment in which three soviet test-spacemen spent a full year in hermetic cabin imitating a lunar station cabin (1067-1968). In this experiment the life support system included a section with about one ton of the ion exchange substrate, which was used to grow ten vegetations of different green cultures used in the food of the test persons. Due to failure of a number of Soviet space experiments, decay of the Soviet Union and the following economic crisis the research in this field carried out in Belarus were re-directed to the needs of usual agriculture, such as adaptation of cell cultures, growing seedlings, rootage of cuttings etc. At present ion exchange substrate Biona are produced in limited amounts at the experimental production plant of the Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry and used in a number of agricultural enterprises. New advanced substrates and technologies for their production have been developed during that time. In the presentation scientific principles of preparation and functioning of ion exchange substrates as well as results of their application for cultivation different plants are described. The ion exchange substrate is a mixture of cation and anion exchangers saturated in a certain proportions with all ions of macro and micro elements. These chemically bound ions are not released to water and become available for plants in exchange to their root metabolites. The substrates contain about 5% mass of nutrient elements far exceeding any other nutrient media for plants. They allow generating 3-5 kg of green biomass per kilogram of substrate without adding any fertilizers; they are sterile by the way of production and can be sterilized by usual methods; allow regeneration

  16. E 社区 APP 设计与开发:体验智能现代社区生活%The APP Design and Development of E Community--Intelligent Modern Community Life Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建迪; 黄岚

    2015-01-01

    When the smartphone applications hit among industry, mobile phone APP has entered people's lives every corner. Message clear and concise, convenient interactive way and let the community property APP also ushered in a new growth point. Today, people can never leave home to understand the surrounding commercial information, enjoy the phone APP brings the intelligent way of life. Based on the practical experience in the development community APP process to the function of community type of APP, advantages and disadvantages, and elaborates the development and analysis.%当智能手机应用风靡各个行业时,手机 APP 也随之走进了人们生活的每一个角落。信息传递简洁明了,互动方式灵活方便,让物业社区 APP 也迎来了一个新的增长点。如今,居民可以足不出户了解周边的商业信息,享受手机 APP 带来的智能化生活方式。本文通过在开发社区 APP 过程中的实际经历对社区类 APP 的功能、优缺点及发展状况进行阐述和分析。

  17. Macromolecular networks and intelligence in microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans V Westerhoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms persist by virtue of complex interactions among many components organized into dynamic, environment-responsive networks that span multiple scales and dimensions. Biological networks constitute a type of Information and Communication Technology (ICT: they receive information from the outside and inside of cells, integrate and interpret this information, and then activate a response. Biological networks enable molecules within cells, and even cells themselves, to communicate with each other and their environment. We have become accustomed to associating brain activity – particularly activity of the human brain – with a phenomenon we call intelligence. Yet, four billion years of evolution could have selected networks with topologies and dynamics that confer traits analogous to this intelligence, even though they were outside the intercellular networks of the brain. Here, we explore how macromolecular networks in microbes confer intelligent characteristics, such as memory, anticipation, adaptation and reflection and we review current understanding of how network organization reflects the type of intelligence required for the environments in which they were selected. We propose that, if we were to leave terms such as human and brain out of the defining features of intelligence, all forms of life – from microbes to humans – exhibit some or all characteristics consistent with intelligence. We then review advances in genome-wide data production and analysis, especially in microbes, that provide a lens into microbial intelligence and propose how the insights derived from quantitatively characterizing biomolecular networks may enable synthetic biologists to create intelligent molecular networks for biotechnology, possibly generating new forms of intelligence, first in silico and then in vivo.

  18. Macromolecular networks and intelligence in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Brooks, Aaron N.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; He, Fei; Boogerd, Fred C.; Jackson, Victoria J.; Goncharuk, Valeri; Kolodkin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms persist by virtue of complex interactions among many components organized into dynamic, environment-responsive networks that span multiple scales and dimensions. Biological networks constitute a type of information and communication technology (ICT): they receive information from the outside and inside of cells, integrate and interpret this information, and then activate a response. Biological networks enable molecules within cells, and even cells themselves, to communicate with each other and their environment. We have become accustomed to associating brain activity – particularly activity of the human brain – with a phenomenon we call “intelligence.” Yet, four billion years of evolution could have selected networks with topologies and dynamics that confer traits analogous to this intelligence, even though they were outside the intercellular networks of the brain. Here, we explore how macromolecular networks in microbes confer intelligent characteristics, such as memory, anticipation, adaptation and reflection and we review current understanding of how network organization reflects the type of intelligence required for the environments in which they were selected. We propose that, if we were to leave terms such as “human” and “brain” out of the defining features of “intelligence,” all forms of life – from microbes to humans – exhibit some or all characteristics consistent with “intelligence.” We then review advances in genome-wide data production and analysis, especially in microbes, that provide a lens into microbial intelligence and propose how the insights derived from quantitatively characterizing biomolecular networks may enable synthetic biologists to create intelligent molecular networks for biotechnology, possibly generating new forms of intelligence, first in silico and then in vivo. PMID:25101076

  19. Challenges for Research on Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Hunt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After 100 years of research, the definition of the field is still inadequate. The biggest challenge we see is moving away from a de-factor definition of intelligence in terms of test scores, but at the same time making clear what the boundaries of the field are. We then present four challenges for the field, two within a biological and two within a social context. These revolve around the issues of the malleability of intelligence and its display in everyday life, outside of a formal testing context. We conclude that developments in cognitive neuroscience and increases in the feasibility of monitoring behavior outside of the context of a testing session offer considerable hope for expansion of our both the biological and social aspects of individual differences in cognition.

  20. Measuring Intelligence through Games

    CERN Document Server

    Schaul, Tom; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence (AGI) refers to research aimed at tackling the full problem of artificial intelligence, that is, create truly intelligent agents. This sets it apart from most AI research which aims at solving relatively narrow domains, such as character recognition, motion planning, or increasing player satisfaction in games. But how do we know when an agent is truly intelligent? A common point of reference in the AGI community is Legg and Hutter's formal definition of universal intelligence, which has the appeal of simplicity and generality but is unfortunately incomputable. Games of various kinds are commonly used as benchmarks for "narrow" AI research, as they are considered to have many important properties. We argue that many of these properties carry over to the testing of general intelligence as well. We then sketch how such testing could practically be carried out. The central part of this sketch is an extension of universal intelligence to deal with finite time, and the use of samplin...

  1. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  2. 212 Emotional Intelligence and Self Efficacy as Correlates of Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Emotional Intelligence, Self Efficacy; Career Commitment. Introduction. Career ... There is no doubt that the choice of career is very crucial in the life of an individual. ..... Personality Development Needs and Counsellors Role.

  3. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  4. Physical Invariants of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    A program of research is dedicated to development of a mathematical formalism that could provide, among other things, means by which living systems could be distinguished from non-living ones. A major issue that arises in this research is the following question: What invariants of mathematical models of the physics of systems are (1) characteristic of the behaviors of intelligent living systems and (2) do not depend on specific features of material compositions heretofore considered to be characteristic of life? This research at earlier stages has been reported, albeit from different perspectives, in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: One of the main underlying ideas is to extend the application of physical first principles to the behaviors of living systems. Mathematical models of motor dynamics are used to simulate the observable physical behaviors of systems or objects of interest, and models of mental dynamics are used to represent the evolution of the corresponding knowledge bases. For a given system, the knowledge base is modeled in the form of probability distributions and the mental dynamics is represented by models of the evolution of the probability densities or, equivalently, models of flows of information. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the focus of this research was upon the following aspects of the formalism: Intelligence is considered to be a means by which a living system preserves itself and improves its ability to survive and is further considered to manifest itself in feedback from the mental dynamics to the motor dynamics. Because of the feedback from the mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: The trajectory of the physical aspect of the system in the space of dynamical variables splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with a probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. From a slightly different perspective

  5. Multiple intelligences in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castro Solano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During many years has prevailed the idea of intelligence as a single problem solving ability (factor g considered the best predictor of student’s academic achievement. Recently, researches have begun to take an alternative view of the problem, understanding it is a multidimensional construct. Multiple intelligences (MI theory proposed by Gardner (1983 takes into account seven talents or skills individuals appear to have in certain amount. These latent bio-psychological potentials are stable and they are mantained through life. Theory of MI proposes that every person learns in relation to them. MI theory has many educational applications, however, very few efforts have been made to verify such statements. The main goal of this study is to analyze the IM differential individual profile of high school and university students studying the relation between IM, academic achievement and self efficacy competence on course performance. Two studies were carried out , the first was done with high school students (N=500 and the second with military students (N=362. Based on Armstrong’s proposals to assess IM, an inventory was designed. Main results point out that there is a correspondence between academic attainment, self interest and self perception of competence in different courses students take. MI are good predictors of academic achievement considering specific areas but they don’t provide a better estimation compared to traditional assessment instruments. Students who have failed in school were those with more spatial and corporal abilities, usually relegated by traditional instruction. High achievers were those with more logical and intrapersonal skills. Different relations were found for military students. For these latter students IM theory was not a valuable predictor of successful academic attainment. 

  6. First search for extraterrestrial neutrino-induced cascades with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryluk, J

    2009-01-01

    We report on the first search for extra-terrestrial neutrino-induced cascades in IceCube. The analyzed data were collected in the year 2007 when 22 detector strings were installed and operated. We will discuss the analysis methods used to reconstruct cascades and to suppress backgrounds. Simulated neutrino signal events with a E-2 energy spectrum, which pass the background rejection criteria, are reconstructed with a resolution dlogE ~ 0.27 in the energy range from ~20 TeV to a few PeV. We present the range of the diffuse flux of extra-terrestrial neutrinos in the cascade channel in IceCube within which we expect to be able to put a limit.

  7. Limits on diffuse fluxes of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos with the AMANDA-B10 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganugapati, R.; Gaug, M.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hughey, B.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kuehn, K.; Kim, J.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Mandli, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, P.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schinarakis, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2003-03-11

    Data from the AMANDA-B10 detector taken during the austral winter of 1997 have been searched for a diffuse flux of high energy extraterrestrial muon-neutrinos, as predicted from, e.g., the sum of all active galaxies in the universe. This search yielded no excess events above those expected from the background atmospheric neutrinos, leading to upper limits on the extraterrestrial neutrino flux. For an assumed E{sup -2} spectrum, a 90 percent classical confidence level upper limit has been placed at a level E{sup 2} Phi(E) = 8.4 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}1 sr{sup -1} (for a predominant neutrino energy range 6-1000 TeV) which is the most restrictive bound placed by any neutrino detector. When specific predicted spectral forms are considered, it is found that some are excluded.

  8. First search for extraterrestrial neutrino-induced cascades with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Kiryluk, Joanna

    2009-05-22

    We report on the first search for extraterrestrial neutrino-induced cascades in IceCube.The analyzed data were collected in the year 2007 when 22 detector strings were installed and operated. We will discuss the analysis methods used to reconstruct cascades and to suppress backgrounds. Simulated neutrino signal events with a E-2 energy spectrum, which pass the background rejection criteria, are reconstructed with a resolution Delta(log E) ~;; 0.27 in the energy range from ~;; 20 TeV to a few PeV. We present the range of the diffuse flux of extra-terrestrial neutrinos in the cascade channel in IceCube within which we expect to be able to put a limit.

  9. The Use of Extraterrestrial Resources to Facilitate Space Science and Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A; Carpenter, James

    2016-01-01

    To-date, all human economic activity has depended on the resources of a single planet, and it has long been recognized that developments in space exploration could in principle open our closed planetary economy to external resources of energy and raw materials. Recently, there has been renewed interest in these possibilities, with several private companies established with the stated aim of exploiting extraterrestrial resources. Space science and exploration are among the potential beneficiaries of space resources because their use may permit the construction and operation of scientific facilities in space that will be unaffordable if all the required material and energy resources have to be lifted out of Earth's gravity. Examples may include the next generation of large space telescopes, sample return missions to the outer Solar System, and human research stations on the Moon and Mars. These potential scientific benefits of extraterrestrial resource utilisation were the topic of a Royal Astronomical Society ...

  10. Origin of spherule samples recovered from antarctic ice sheet-Terrestrial or extraterrestrial?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, Shun; Takamiya, Koichi; Shibata, Seiichi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kobayashi, Takayuki [College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, Mitsuru [Dept. of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Thirty-eight spherules from the Antarctic ice sheet were analyzed using neutron activation analysis under two different conditions to investigate their origin. In almost all of these spherules, the contents of iron, cobalt, and manganese were determined to be 31% to 88%, 17 mg/kg to 810 mg/kg, and 0.017% to 7%, respectively. A detectable iridium content of 0.84 mg/kg was found in only one spherule, which was judged to be extraterrestrial in origin. A comparison of elemental compositions of the Antarctic spherules analyzed in this study with those of deep-sea sediment spherules and those of terrestrial materials revealed that most of the Antarctic spherules except for the sample in which iridium was detected could not be identified as extraterrestrial in origin.

  11. The limits of the adaptation of life to extreme conditions (in connection with problems of exobiology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Accommodation is discussed as a universal evolutionary principle which essentially will apply to all life forms, regardless of chemical base (carbon, silicon, etc.). Life forms must either adapt to extreme conditions or perish, and for any life form an extremum factor is any significant deviation in environmental parameters. The possibility of life forms existing in specific extraterrestrial environments is discussed, and a conclusion is drawn which unequivocally states that through many forms of accommodation life is possible in many different environments.

  12. Optimizing managerial effectiveness through emotional intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hur, YoungHee (Sylvia)

    2009-01-01

    The idea that emotional competence is crucial for adaptation in various realms of life has fuelled numerous studies and social learning programs. Nonetheless, leadership research on emotional intelligence contexts is still limited and the construct is controversial on several grounds and includes a

  13. Creating ubiquitous intelligent sensing environments (CRUISE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    The recent developments in the research and the technology have brought attention to the wireless sensor networks as one of the key enabling technologies in the next 10 years. Ubiquitous Intelligent Sensing Environments have promising future in supporting the everyday life of the European citizens...... term vision. This paper gives an overview of different research topics in WSN and its open issues....

  14. Computational Intelligence. Mortality Models for the Actuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis applies computational intelligence to the field of actuarial (insurance) science. In particular, this thesis deals with life insurance where mortality modelling is important. Actuaries use ancient models (mortality laws) from the nineteenth century, for example Gompertz' and Makeham's la

  15. The Emotional Foundations of High Moral Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia

    2010-01-01

    Moral intelligence is grounded in emotion and reason. Neuroscientific and clinical research illustrate how early life co-regulation with caregivers influences emotion, cognition, and moral character. Triune ethics theory (Narvaez, 2008) integrates neuroscientific, evolutionary, and developmental findings to explain differences in moral…

  16. Optimizing managerial effectiveness through emotional intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hur, Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    The idea that emotional competence is crucial for adaptation in various realms of life has fuelled numerous studies and social learning programs. Nonetheless, leadership research on emotional intelligence contexts is still limited and the construct is controversial on several grounds and includes a

  17. Molecular asymmetry in extraterrestrial chemistry: Insights from a pristine meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2008-03-11

    The nonracemic amino acids of meteorites provide the only natural example of molecular asymmetry measured so far outside the biosphere. Because extant life depends on chiral homogeneity for the structure and function of biopolymers, the study of these meteoritic compounds may offer insights into the establishment of prebiotic attributes in chemical evolution as well as the origin of terrestrial homochirality. However, all efforts to understand the origin, distribution, and scope of these amino acids' enantiomeric excesses (ee) have been frustrated by the ready exposure of meteorites to terrestrial contaminants and the ubiquitous homochirality of such contamination. We have analyzed the soluble organic composition of a carbonaceous meteorite from Antarctica that was collected and stored under controlled conditions, largely escaped terrestrial contamination and offers an exceptionally pristine sample of prebiotic material. Analyses of the meteorite diastereomeric amino acids alloisoleucine and isoleucine allowed us to show that their likely precursor molecules, the aldehydes, also carried a sizable molecular asymmetry of up to 14% in the asteroidal parent body. Aldehydes are widespread and abundant interstellar molecules; that they came to be present, survived, and evolved in the solar system carrying ee gives support to the idea that biomolecular traits such as chiral asymmetry could have been seeded in abiotic chemistry ahead of life.

  18. Molecular asymmetry in extraterrestrial chemistry: Insights from a pristine meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R.

    2008-01-01

    The nonracemic amino acids of meteorites provide the only natural example of molecular asymmetry measured so far outside the biosphere. Because extant life depends on chiral homogeneity for the structure and function of biopolymers, the study of these meteoritic compounds may offer insights into the establishment of prebiotic attributes in chemical evolution as well as the origin of terrestrial homochirality. However, all efforts to understand the origin, distribution, and scope of these amino acids' enantiomeric excesses (ee) have been frustrated by the ready exposure of meteorites to terrestrial contaminants and the ubiquitous homochirality of such contamination. We have analyzed the soluble organic composition of a carbonaceous meteorite from Antarctica that was collected and stored under controlled conditions, largely escaped terrestrial contamination and offers an exceptionally pristine sample of prebiotic material. Analyses of the meteorite diastereomeric amino acids alloisoleucine and isoleucine allowed us to show that their likely precursor molecules, the aldehydes, also carried a sizable molecular asymmetry of up to 14% in the asteroidal parent body. Aldehydes are widespread and abundant interstellar molecules; that they came to be present, survived, and evolved in the solar system carrying ee gives support to the idea that biomolecular traits such as chiral asymmetry could have been seeded in abiotic chemistry ahead of life. PMID:18310323

  19. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  20. Homochirality as the signature of life: the SETH Cigar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermott, A J; Barron, L D; Brack, A; Buhse, T; Drake, A F; Emery, R; Gottarelli, G; Greenberg, J M; Haberle, R; Hegstrom, R A; Hobbs, K; Kondepudi, D K; McKay, C; Moorbath, S; Raulin, F; Sandford, M; Schwartzman, D W; Thiemann, W H; Tranter, G E; Zarnecki, J C

    1996-11-01

    A characteristic hallmark of life is its homochirality: all biomolecules are usually of one hand, e.g. on Earth life uses only L-amino acids for protein synthesis and not their D mirror images. It is therefore suggested that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality (SETH). A novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, is described which could he used to detect optical rotation as the homochiral signature of life on other planets. Moving parts are avoided by replacing the normal rotating polarizer by multiple fixed polarizers at different angles as in the eye of the bee. It is believed that homochirality will be found in the subsurface layers on Mars as a relic of extinct life.

  1. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  2. The Anatomy of Moral Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Judith A.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that moral intelligence is one of the separate, autonomous multiple intelligences. The essay discusses moral development as a function of cognitive/analytical development, the relationship between moral reasoning and moral conduct, the biological basis of moral intelligence, moral intelligence as a function of social intelligence, and…

  3. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartes, František

    ... cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed...

  4. Fractionating human intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; Highfield, Roger R; Parkin, Beth L; Owen, Adrian M

    2012-12-20

    What makes one person more intellectually able than another? Can the entire distribution of human intelligence be accounted for by just one general factor? Is intelligence supported by a single neural system? Here, we provide a perspective on human intelligence that takes into account how general abilities or "factors" reflect the functional organization of the brain. By comparing factor models of individual differences in performance with factor models of brain functional organization, we demonstrate that different components of intelligence have their analogs in distinct brain networks. Using simulations based on neuroimaging data, we show that the higher-order factor "g" is accounted for by cognitive tasks corecruiting multiple networks. Finally, we confirm the independence of these components of intelligence by dissociating them using questionnaire variables. We propose that intelligence is an emergent property of anatomically distinct cognitive systems, each of which has its own capacity.

  5. Business Intelligence in Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopčeková, Alena; Kopček, Michal; Tanuška, Pavol

    2013-12-01

    The Business Intelligence technology, which represents a strong tool not only for decision making support, but also has a big potential in other fields of application, is discussed in this paper. Necessary fundamental definitions are offered and explained to better understand the basic principles and the role of this technology for company management. Article is logically divided into five main parts. In the first part, there is the definition of the technology and the list of main advantages. In the second part, an overview of the system architecture with the brief description of separate building blocks is presented. Also, the hierarchical nature of the system architecture is shown. The technology life cycle consisting of four steps, which are mutually interconnected into a ring, is described in the third part. In the fourth part, analytical methods incorporated in the online analytical processing and data mining used within the business intelligence as well as the related data mining methodologies are summarised. Also, some typical applications of the above-mentioned particular methods are introduced. In the final part, a proposal of the knowledge discovery system for hierarchical process control is outlined. The focus of this paper is to provide a comprehensive view and to familiarize the reader with the Business Intelligence technology and its utilisation.

  6. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    František Bartes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose work methodology for Competitive Intelligence teams in one of the intelligence cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed. The main result of the effort is the creation of added value for the information collected. Company Competiitve Intelligence, correctly understood and implemented in busines...

  7. Knowledge Intelligence: A New Field in Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Guangli; Li, Xiuting; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Yuejin; Shi, Yong

    This paper discussed the development of business intelligence considering the development of data mining. Business intelligence plays an important role in producing up-to-data information for operative and strategic decision-making. We proposed a new kind of knowledge named intelligent knowledge gotten from data. We illustrated a way to combine the business intelligence and intelligent knowledge and proposed a way of the management of intelligent knowledge which is more structural than the traditional knowledge.

  8. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  9. Intelligence Essentials for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Larry Kahaner, Competitive Intelligence : From Black Ops to Boardrooms — How Businesses Gather, Analyze and Use Infor- mation to Succeed in the Global...32744.fm Page 2 Tuesday, June 22, 1999 9:42 AMauthorities. The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals...SCIP, Competitive Intelligence Review, 8, No. 3 (Fall 1997), unnumbered 8th page. 5 SCIP, 1995 SCIP Membership Directory (Alexandria, VA: SCIP, 1995

  10. Intelligence Analysis: Once Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    least touch on the subject of intelligence analysis. However, while still a large body of work, it is a considerably smaller set that specifically...meaning is influenced by the analyst’s mindset, mental model, or frame of mind . Kent (1949, p. 199) indicated “…an intelligence staff which must...or a top-down process are not unique to the intelligence literature. In the scientific literature, arguments date back to Descartes (1596- 1650

  11. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  12. Intelligence and childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations.

  13. Routledge companion to intelligence studies

    CERN Document Server

    Dover, Robert; Hillebrand, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies provides a broad overview of the growing field of intelligence studies. The recent growth of interest in intelligence and security studies has led to an increased demand for popular depictions of intelligence and reference works to explain the architecture and underpinnings of intelligence activity. Divided into five comprehensive sections, this Companion provides a strong survey of the cutting-edge research in the field of intelligence studies: Part I: The evolution of intelligence studies; Part II: Abstract approaches to intelligence; Part III: Historical approaches to intelligence; Part IV: Systems of intelligence; Part V: Contemporary challenges. With a broad focus on the origins, practices and nature of intelligence, the book not only addresses classical issues, but also examines topics of recent interest in security studies. The overarching aim is to reveal the rich tapestry of intelligence studies in both a sophisticated and accessible way. This Companion...

  14. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board...

  15. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  16. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  17. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  18. Spiritual Intelligence: The Tenth Intelligence that Integrates All Other Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses seven ways to develop spiritual intelligence, including: think about goals and identify values; access inner processes and use visualization to see goals fulfilled; integrate personal and universal vision; take responsibility for goals; develop a sense of community; focus on love and compassion; and take advantages of…

  19. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  20. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  1. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  2. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  3. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-27

    and Prosecution Act of 2006, both by Elizabeth B. Bazan . authorization and defense appropriations acts, they include a substantial portion of the...Expands Rumsfeld’s Domain,” Washington Post, Jan . 23, 2005, p. A1. strategically analyze intelligence, and for failing to share intelligence with other

  4. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  5. Intelligent design som videnskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2007-01-01

    Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises.......Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises....

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; Perkins, Donna M.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Emotional intelligence and social behavior were explored in a study with 11 adolescents. Results found that those with higher emotional intelligence were better able to identify their own and others' emotions in situations, use that information to guide their actions, and resist peer pressure than others. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  7. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  8. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  9. Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J D; Salovey, P; Caruso, D R; Sitarenios, G

    2001-09-01

    The authors have claimed that emotional intelligence (EI) meets traditional standards for an intelligence (J. D. Mayer, D. R. Caruso, & P. Salovey, 1999). R. D. Roberts, M. Zeidner, and G. Matthews (2001) questioned whether that claim was warranted. The central issue raised by Roberts et al. concerning Mayer et al. (1999) is whether there are correct answers to questions on tests purporting to measure EI as a set of abilities. To address this issue (and others), the present authors briefly restate their view of intelligence, emotion, and EI. They then present arguments for the reasonableness of measuring EI as an ability, indicate that correct answers exist, and summarize recent data suggesting that such measures are, indeed, reliable.

  10. Computational Intelligence in Intelligent Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nürnberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems and their phenomena are ubiquitous as they can be found in biology, finance, the humanities, management sciences, medicine, physics and similar fields. For many problems in these fields, there are no conventional ways to mathematically or analytically solve them completely at low cost. On the other hand, nature already solved many optimization problems efficiently. Computational intelligence attempts to mimic nature-inspired problem-solving strategies and methods. These strategies can be used to study, model and analyze complex systems such that it becomes feasible to handle them. Key areas of computational intelligence are artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation and fuzzy systems. As only a few researchers in that field, Rudolf Kruse has contributed in many important ways to the understanding, modeling and application of computational intelligence methods. On occasion of his 60th birthday, a collection of original papers of leading researchers in the field of computational intell...

  11. Pendidikan Islam dalam Konsep Prophetic Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence has connectivity to the educational process as a concrete step in the development of human character as caliph in the world to think of all God ‘s creation. Islamic education teaches a life of meaning to the concept of “amar ma’ruf nahi mungkar”. It is really clear that various concepts in Islamic education are not adjusted enough with the development period that is increasingly sophisticated and globalized. Islamic civilization has been built since the Prophet Muhammad SAW, and other thinkers in teaching a sense of knowledge that is based on Al- Quran and Al - Hadits as the main guideline. Prophetic Intelligence provides illustration that in transforming education through the concrete steps for being “insan Kamil” that is “rahmatan lil alamin”. Intelligence Prophetic provides illustration that in transforming education through the concrete steps for being ‘Insan Kamil’ that is ‘rahmatan lil alamin’.

  12. Intelligent Complex Evolutionary Agent-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iantovics, Barna; Enǎchescu, Cǎlin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility to develop intelligent agent-based complex systems that use evolutionary learning techniques in order to adapt for the efficient solving of the problems by reorganizing their structure. For this investigation is proposed a complex multiagent system called EAMS (Evolutionary Adaptive Multiagent System), which using an evolutionary learning technique can learn different patterns of reorganization. The realized study proves that evolutionary techniques successfully can be used to create complex multiagent systems capable to intelligently reorganize their structure during their life cycle. The practical establishment of the intelligence of a computational system in generally, an agent-based system in particularly consists in how efficiently and flexibly the system can solve difficult problems.

  13. Efficiency of Health Investment: Education or Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, Govert E; Van Kippersluis, Hans

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a certain hospital diagnosis and estimate a multistate structural equation model with three states: (i) healthy, (ii) hospitalized, and (iii) death. We use data from a Dutch cohort born around 1940 that links intelligence tests at age 12 years to later-life hospitalization and mortality records. The results indicate that intelligent individuals have a clear survival advantage for most hospital diagnoses, while the remaining disparities across education groups are small and not statistically significant. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  15. Understanding US National Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In July 2010, the Washington Post (WP) published the results of a project on “Top Secret America” on which twenty investigative journalists had been working for two years. The project drew attention to the change and growth in National Intelligence following 9/11 (Washington Post 2010a). The init......In July 2010, the Washington Post (WP) published the results of a project on “Top Secret America” on which twenty investigative journalists had been working for two years. The project drew attention to the change and growth in National Intelligence following 9/11 (Washington Post 2010a......). The initial idea had been to work on intelligence generally, but given that this proved overwhelming, the team narrowed down to focus only on intelligence qualified as “top secret.” Even so, the growth in this intelligence activity is remarkable. This public is returning, or in this case expanding...

  16. Intelligence and homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The origin of preferences and values is an unresolved theoretical problem in behavioural sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals are more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel preferences and values than less intelligent individuals, but general intelligence has no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar preferences and values. Ethnographies of traditional societies suggest that exclusively homosexual behaviour was probably rare in the ancestral environment, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to identify themselves as homosexual and engage in homosexual behaviour. Analyses of three large, nationally representative samples (two of which are prospectively longitudinal) from two different nations confirm the prediction.

  17. Intelligence and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ru; Shi, Jiannong; Yong, W.

    2012-01-01

    One and Two, we reexamined the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence by employ ing a costly signaling theory with f our games. The results rev ealed that the prosocial lev el of smarter children is higher than that of other children in more complicated tasks but not so in simple......Results of prev ious studies of the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence hav e been inconsistent. This study attempts to distinguish the dif f erences between sev eral prosocial tasks, and explores the way s in which cognitiv e ability inf luences prosocial behav ior. In Study...... tasks. In Study Three, we tested the moderation ef f ect of the av erage intelligence across classes, and the results did not show any group intelligence ef f ect on the relationship between intelligence and prosocial behav ior....

  18. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Individuals’ Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ2 (75) =194.21, p Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB. PMID:27199490

  19. An Intelligibility Assessment of Toddlers with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Received and Did Not Receive Presurgical Infant Orthopedic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konst, Emmy M.; Weersink-Braks, Hanny; Rietveld, Toni; Peters, Herman

    2000-01-01

    The influence of presurgical infant orthopedic treatment (PIO) on speech intelligibility was evaluated with 10 toddlers who used PIO during the first year of life and 10 who did not. Treated children were rated as exhibiting greater intelligibility, however, transcription data indicated there were not group differences in actual intelligibility.…

  20. An Intelligibility Assessment of Toddlers with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Received and Did Not Receive Presurgical Infant Orthopedic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konst, Emmy M.; Weersink-Braks, Hanny; Rietveld, Toni; Peters, Herman

    2000-01-01

    The influence of presurgical infant orthopedic treatment (PIO) on speech intelligibility was evaluated with 10 toddlers who used PIO during the first year of life and 10 who did not. Treated children were rated as exhibiting greater intelligibility, however, transcription data indicated there were not group differences in actual intelligibility.…