WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraterrestrial intelligence eti

  1. Discovery of ETI: Terrestrial and extraterrestrial legal implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasan, Ernst

    TheLegalSituationonEarth: The following international legal regulations seem to apply to the search for and the eventual detection of ETI: a) The "Space Treaty" of Oct. 10, 1967; b) The Liability Convention of Oct. 9, 1973; c) The Moon Agreement of Dec. 5, 1979; d) The International Telecommunication Convention. LegalRelationswithExtraterrestrials: We may expect the following characteristics of ETI: 1. life in the sense of influencing the environment by selection from more than one possibility; 2. intelligence in the sense of self-realization of free will; 3. existence in three dimensional space and a will to live. With this we can expect that each race in the universe may have the following interests regarding its own race: a) to preserve and continue its own life; b) to protect this life from damage and intrusion; c) possibly to expand the realms of its living space. Therefore, if we decide to "answer" ETI, we may want to transmit such legal-philosophical principles: 1. the principle of nonviolation; 2. the principle of equality; 3. the principle to recognize the will to live and the living space of any intelligent race.

  2. Search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.; Billingham, J.; Wolfe, J.

    1977-01-01

    Findings are presented of a series of workshops on the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent life and ways in which extraterrestrial intelligence might be detected. The coverage includes the cosmic and cultural evolutions, search strategies, detection of other planetary systems, alternate methods of communication, and radio frequency interference. 17 references

  3. [An encounter with extraterrestrial intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisabayashi, Hisashi

    2003-12-01

    It is much easier to find extraterrestrial intelligence than to detect simple organisms living on other planets. However, it is hard to communicate with such intelligence without the mutual understanding of inter-stellar communication protocol. The radio SETI (The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) was initiated with the pioneering work of F. Drake in 1960, one year after the historical SETI paper by Cocconi and Morrison. This talk explains that SETI evolves with two bases of science; the understanding of our universe and the development of technology. Since SETI has had strong connection with radio astronomy from its early beginning, the impacts of radio astronomical findings and technological breakthrough can be seen in many aspects of the SETI history. Topics of this talk include the detection of microwave 3 K background radiation in the universe. Interstellar atomic and molecular lines found in radio-wave spectra provide the evidence of pre-biotic chemical evolution in such region. Radio telescope imaging and spectral technique are closely associated with methodology of SETI. Topics of the talk extend to new Allen Telescope Array and projected Square Kilometer Array. Recent optical SETI and the discoveries of extra solar planets are also explained. In the end, the recent understanding of our universe is briefly introduced in terms of matter, dark matter and dark energy. Even our understanding of the universe has been evolutionarily revolved and accumulated after 1960, we must recognize that our universe is still poorly understood and that astronomy and SETI are required to proceed hand in hand.

  4. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    The search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence is placed in the broader astronomical context of the search for extrasolar planets and biomarkers of primitive life elsewhere in the universe. A decision tree of possible search strategies is presented as well as a brief history of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) projects since 1960. The characteristics of 14 SETI projects currently operating on telescopes are discussed and compared using one of many possible figures of merit. Plans for SETI searches in the immediate and more distant future are outlined. Plans for success, the significance of null results, and some opinions on deliberate transmission of signals (as well as listening) are also included. SETI results to date are negative, but in reality, not much searching has yet been done.

  5. Psycholinguistics and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Krotenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article reveals the possibilities of psycholinguistics in the identifi cation and interpretation of languages and texts of Alien Civilizations. The author combines modern interdisciplinary research in psycholinguistics with the theory “Evolving Matter” proposed by Oleg Bazaluk and concludes that the identifi cation of languages and texts of Alien Civilizations, as well as the communication of terrestrial civilization with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is in principle possible. To that end, it is necessary to achieve the required level of the modeling of neurophilosophy and to include these achievements of modern psycholinguistics studies: а language acquisition; b language comprehension; c language production; d second language acquisition. On the one hand, the possibilities of neurophilosophy to accumulate and model advanced neuroscience research; on the other hand, highly specialized psycholinguistic studies in language evolution are able to provide the communication of terrestrial civilization with Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

  6. Extraterrestrial Intelligence: What Would it Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Results from NASA's Kepler mission imply a hundred million Earth-like habitable worlds in the Milky Way galaxy, many of which formed billions of years before the Earth. Each of these worlds is likely to have all of the ingredients needed for biology. The real estate of time and space for the evolution of intelligent life is formidable, begging the question of whether or not we are alone in the universe. The implications of making contact have been explored extensively in science fiction and the popular culture, but less frequently in the serious scientific literature. Astronomers have carried out searches for extraterrestrial intelligence for over half a century, with no success so far. In practice, it is easier to search for alien technology than to discern intelligence of unknown function and form. In this talk, the modes of technology that can currently be detected are summarized, along with the implications of a timing argument than any detected civilization is likely to be much more advanced than ours. Fermi's famous question ``Where Are They?'' is as well posed now as it was sixty years ago. The existence of extraterrestrial intelligence would have profound practical, cultural, and religious implications for humanity.

  7. Development of extraterrestrial intelligence and physical laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskij, V. S.

    This paper considers the restrictions imposed by physical laws on the development of life and intelligence in the form of extraterrestrial civilizations. For this purpose intelligence is defined as the community of intelligent beings, joined by the exchange of mass, energy and information both between themselves and with the external medium. Due to the limitation of the velocity of exchange of information and, in particular, mass and energy exchange, the dimensions of the intelligence cannot exceed some light days, i.e. they are limited by the habitable zone about their star. It is shown that the energy consumption should not exceed the energy output of their star for the sake of preserving the cosmic near-star zone of life from energetic pollution. With the above restrictions of the energy product it takes millions of years to create an omnidirectional beacon-transmitter signals from which would be received by the contemporary antennas in all our Galaxy. It is realistic to create an omnidirectional beacon operating in the range of no more than 100-1000 light years.

  8. Would the Discovery of ETI Provoke a Religious Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ted

    Noting how some prophets of crisis forecast that traditional religious traditions are vulnerable to challenge if not collapse upon confirmation of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent beings, this chapter subjects this claim to examination. Citing findings from the Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey, we find evidence that those who affirm religious belief have no difficulty affirming the existence of ETI and incorporating ETI into their respective worldviews. This applies to Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, mainline Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, Jews, Mormons, Buddhists, and to those who self-identify as non-religious. Surprisingly, the self-identified non-religious respondents are the only ones who fear a religious crisis precipitated by contact with extraterrestrials, a crisis expected to happen to others but not to themselves. Turning to the new field of Astrotheology, the question of de-centering both geocentrism and anthropocentrism is raised in light of the prospect of discovering intelligent celestial neighbors.

  9. Funding the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence with a Lottery Bond

    OpenAIRE

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    I propose the establishment of a SETI Lottery Bond to provide a continued source of funding for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The SETI Lottery Bond is a fixed rate perpetual bond with a lottery at maturity, where maturity occurs only upon discovery and confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligent life. Investors in the SETI Lottery Bond purchase shares that yield a fixed rate of interest that continues indefinitely until SETI succeeds---at which point a random subset of...

  10. SETI pioneers scientists talk about their search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Why did some scientists decide to conduct a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI)? What factors in their personal development predisposed them to such a quest? What obstacles did they encounter along the way? David Swift interviewed the first scientists involved in the search & offers a fascinating overview of the emergence of this modern scientific endeavor. He allows some of the most imaginative scientific thinkers of our time to hold forth on their views regarding SETI & extraterrestrial life & on how the field has developed. Readers will react with a range of opinions as broad as those concerning the likelihood of success in SETI itself. ''A goldmine of original information.''

  11. Information theory, animal communication, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Johnston, Simon; Hanser, Sean F.

    2011-02-01

    We present ongoing research in the application of information theory to animal communication systems with the goal of developing additional detectors and estimators for possible extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Regardless of the species, for intelligence (i.e., complex knowledge) to be transmitted certain rules of information theory must still be obeyed. We demonstrate some preliminary results of applying information theory to socially complex marine mammal species (bottlenose dolphins and humpback whales) as well as arboreal squirrel monkeys, because they almost exclusively rely on vocal signals for their communications, producing signals which can be readily characterized by signal analysis. Metrics such as Zipf's Law and higher-order information-entropic structure are emerging as indicators of the communicative complexity characteristic of an "intelligent message" content within these animals' signals, perhaps not surprising given these species' social complexity. In addition to human languages, for comparison we also apply these metrics to pulsar signals—perhaps (arguably) the most "organized" of stellar systems—as an example of astrophysical systems that would have to be distinguished from an extraterrestrial intelligence message by such information theoretic filters. We also look at a message transmitted from Earth (Arecibo Observatory) that contains a lot of meaning but little information in the mathematical sense we define it here. We conclude that the study of non-human communication systems on our own planet can make a valuable contribution to the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence by providing quantitative general measures of communicative complexity. Studying the complex communication systems of other intelligent species on our own planet may also be one of the best ways to deprovincialize our thinking about extraterrestrial communication systems in general.

  12. Science, religion, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, David

    2013-01-01

    If the discovery of life elsewhere in the universe is just around the corner, what would be the consequences for religion? Would it represent another major conflict between science and religion, even leading to the death of faith? Some would suggest that the discovery of any suggestion of extraterrestrial life would have a greater impact than even the Copernican and Darwinian revolutions. It is now over 50 years since the first modern scientific papers were published on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Yet the religious implications of this search and possible discovery have never been systematically addressed in the scientific or theological arena. SETI is now entering its most important era of scientific development. New observation techniques are leading to the discovery of extra-solar planets daily, and the Kepler mission has already collected over 1000 planetary candidates. This deluge of data is transforming the scientific and popular view of the existence of extraterrestrial intel...

  13. A failure of serendipity: the Square Kilometre Array will struggle to eavesdrop on human-like extraterrestrial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Nichol, R. C.

    2011-04-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will operate in frequency ranges often used by military radar and other communications technology. It has been shown that if extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) communicate using similar technology, then the SKA should be able to detect such transmissions up to distances of ~100 pc (~300 light years) from Earth. However, Mankind has greatly improved its communications technology over the last century, dramatically reducing signal leakage and making the Earth ‘radio quiet’. If ETIs follow the same pattern as the human race, will we be able to detect their signal leakage before they become radio quiet? We investigate this question using Monte Carlo realization techniques to simulate the growth and evolution of intelligent life in the Galaxy. We show that if civilizations are ‘human’ in nature (i.e. they are only ‘radio loud’ for ~100 years, and can only detect each other with an SKA-like instrument out to 100 pc, within a maximum communication time of 100 years), then the probability for such civilizations accidentally detecting each other is low (~10-7), much lower than if other, dedicated communication techniques are permissible (e.g. optical SETI or neutrino communication).

  14. The 2P1/2 → 2P3/2 laser transition in atomic iodine and the problem of search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P

    2007-01-01

    It is proposed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) at a wavelength of 1.315 μm of the laser 2 P 1/2 → 2 P 3/2 transition in the atomic iodine, which can be used for this purpose as the natural frequency reference. The search at this wavelength is promising because active quantum filters (AQFs) with the quantum sensitivity limit have been developed for this wavelength, which are capable of receiving laser signals, consisting of only a few photons, against the background of emission from a star under study. In addition, high-power iodine lasers emitting diffraction-limited radiation at 1.315 μm have been created, which highly developed ETI also can have. If a ETI sends in our direction a diffraction-limited 10-ns, 1-kJ laser pulse with the beam diameter of 10 m, a receiver with an AQF mounted on a ten-meter extra-atmospheric optical telescope can detect this signal at a distance of up to 300 light years, irrespective of the ETI position on the celestial sphere. The realisation of the projects for manufacturing optical telescopes of diameter 30 m will increase the research range up to 2700 light years. A weak absorption of the 1.315-μm radiation in the Earth atmosphere (the signal is attenuated by less than 20%) allows the search for ETI signals by using ground telescopes equipped with adaptive optical systems. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence SETI Past, Present, and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Shuch, H Paul

    2011-01-01

    This book is a collection of essays written by the very scientists and engineers who have led, and continue to lead, the scientific quest known as SETI, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Divided into three parts, the first section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Past’, written by the surviving pioneers of this then emerging discipline, reviews the major projects undertaken during the first 50 years of SETI science and the results of that research. In the second section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Present’, the present-day science and technology is discussed in detail, providing the technical background to contemporary SETI instruments, experiments, and analytical techniques, including the processing of the received signals to extract potential alien communications. In the third and final section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Future’, the book looks ahead to the possible directions that SETI will take in the next 50 years, addressing such important topics as interstellar message construction, the risks and assump...

  16. International law implications of the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopal, Vladimir

    This paper first considers whether the present law of outer space, as it has been enshrined in five United Nations treaties and other legal documents concerning outer space, provides a satisfactory basis for SETI/CETI activities. In the author's opinion, these activities may serve "the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes," as recognized in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. The use of the radio frequency spectrum for SETI/CETI purposes should be in conformity with the legal principles governing this valuable natural resource, as expressed in the International Telecommunication Convention and related documents, and with allocations of the relevant segments of the spectrum by the competent bodies of the International Telecommunication Union. In the second part the author examines the impact that the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals may have on the present body of space law. A possible role for the United Nations in this respect is also explored and a timely interest of the world body in discussing questions relating to this subject is recommended. Consideration of these questions could become a tool helping to concentrate the attention of the world community on problems of common concern and thus to strengthen international cooperation. However, the author believes that a law-making process that would aim at elaborating a special regulation of activities in this field would be premature at this stage. It should be initiated only when the boundary between possibilities and realities is crossed. Finally, the paper outlines some likely transformation in our space law thinking that would be the consequence of the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Elaboration of the principles and norms to govern relations between the international community of our own planet and other intelligent communities in the universe would add a new dimension to the present body of outer space

  17. ETI: Our first impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Johnson, Joel T.

    2000-06-01

    Despite scant or ambiguous information, people are capable of developing comprehensive and detailed impressions. Consequently, if the detection of an electromagnetically-active civilization is announced, many people will rapidly form impressions of what the extraterrestrials and their civilization are "like". First impressions are crucial, not only because of their immediate psychological, social, and political consequences on Earth, but because they can influence the future of interstellar communication. Initial impressions will rest less on hard data than on the nature and tone of the "evidence" that is gleaned from the transmission; the interpretation and dissemination of this evidence; and the hard wiring, psychological programming, cultural conditioning, and social influence processes that shape human perception. We consider how dispositional inferences, implicit theories of personality, negatively toned or adverse information, physical appearance, prior expectations, the confirmation bias, and thinking and unthinking approaches to attitude formation are likely to affect human impressions of ETI.

  18. Anthropomorphism in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence - The limits of cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Ulrike M.; Bürger, Moritz J. F.

    2018-02-01

    The question "Are we alone?" lingers in the human mind since ancient times. Early human civilisations populated the heavens above with a multitude of Gods endowed with some all too human characteristics - from their outer appearance to their innermost motivations. En passant they created thereby their own cultural founding myths on which they built their understanding of the world and its phenomena and deduced as well rules for the functioning of their own society. Advancing technology has enabled us to conduct this human quest for knowledge with more scientific means: optical and radio-wavelengths are being monitored for messages by an extra-terrestrial intelligence and active messaging attempts have also been undertaken. Scenarios have been developed for a possible detection of extra-terrestrial intelligence and post-detection guidelines and protocols have been elaborated. The human responses to the whole array of questions concerning the potential existence, discovery of and communication/interaction with an extra-terrestrial intelligence share as one clear thread a profound anthropomorphism, which ascribes classical human behavioural patterns also to an extra-terrestrial intelligence in much the same way as our ancestors attributed comparable conducts to mythological figures. This paper aims at pinpointing this thread in a number of classical reactions to basic questions related to the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. Many of these reactions are based on human motives such as curiosity and fear, rationalised by experience and historical analogy and modelled in the Science Fiction Culture by literature and movies. Scrutinising the classical hypothetical explanations of the Fermi paradox under the angle of a potentially undue anthropomorphism, this paper intends to assist in understanding our human epistemological limitations in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. This attempt is structured into a series of questions: I. Can we be alone? II

  19. L factor: hope and fear in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Charles T.

    2001-08-01

    The L factor in the Drake equation is widely understood to account for most of the variance in estimates of the number of extraterrestrial intelligences that might be contacted by the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). It is also among the hardest to quantify. An examination of discussions of the L factor in the popular and technical SETI literature suggests that attempts to estimate L involve a variety of potentially conflicting assumptions about civilizational lifespan that reflect hopes and fears about the human future.

  20. The Implications of the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life for Religion and Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ted

    2012-05-01

    This paper asks about the future of religion: (1) Will confirmation of ETI cause terrestrial religion to collapse? "No" is the answer based upon a summary of the "Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey." Then three questions are posed to the astrotheologian: (2) What is the scope of God's creation? (3) What can we expect when we encounter ETI? (4) Will contact with more advanced ETI diminish human dignity? The paper's thesis is that contact with extraterrestrial intelligence will expand the existing Christian vision that all of creation — including the 13.7 billion year history of the universe replete with all of God's creatures — is the gift of a loving and gracious God.

  1. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence in the 1960s: Science in Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the advancement of technology during the Second World War and the important scientific discoveries which have been made about the structure and components of the universe, scientists, especially in radio astronomy and physics, began seriously addressing the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence in the 1960s. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) quickly became one of the most controversial scientific issues in the post Second World War period. The controversy played out, not only in scientific and technical journals, but in newspapers and in popular literature. Proponents for SETI, including Frank Drake, Carl Sagan, and Philip Morrison, actively used a strategy of engagement with the public by using popular media to lobby for exposure and funding. This paper will examine the use of popular media by scientists interested in SETI to popularize and heighten public awareness and also to examine the effects of popularization on SETI's early development. My research has been generously supported by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  2. Project Cyclops: a Design Study of a System for Detecting Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The requirements in hardware, manpower, time and funding to conduct a realistic effort aimed at detecting the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent life are examined. The methods used are limited to present or near term future state-of-the-art techniques. Subjects discussed include: (1) possible methods of contact, (2) communication by electromagnetic waves, (3) antenna array and system facilities, (4) antenna elements, (5) signal processing, (6) search strategy, and (7) radio and radar astronomy.

  3. How far are extraterrestrial life and intelligence after Kepler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Amri

    2017-08-01

    The Kepler mission has shown that a significant fraction of all stars may have an Earth-size habitable planet. A dramatic support was the recent detection of Proxima Centauri b. Using a Drake-equation like formalism I derive an equation for the abundance of biotic planets as a function of the relatively modest uncertainty in the astronomical data and of the (yet unknown) probability for the evolution of biotic life, Fb. I suggest that Fb may be estimated by future spectral observations of exoplanet biomarkers. It follows that if Fb is not very small, then a biotic planet may be expected within about 10 light years from Earth. Extending this analyses to advanced life, I derive expressions for the distance to putative civilizations in terms of two additional Drake parameters - the probability for evolution of a civilization, Fc, and its average longevity. Assuming "optimistic" values for the Drake parameters, (Fb Fc 1), and a broadcasting duration of a few thousand years, the likely distance to the nearest civilizations detectable by SETI is of the order of a few thousand light years. Finally I calculate the distance and probability of detecting intelligent signals with present and future radio telescopes such as Arecibo and SKA and how it could constrain the Drake parameters.

  4. Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

  5. Beyond the Drake Equation: On the Probability of the Nature of Extraterrestrial Life Forms in Our Galaxy Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss my research into the issues associated with the nature of any extraterrestrials that may be encountered in the future in our galaxy. This research was sparked by statements made by Stephen Hawking in 2010 regarding his fear of emitting radiation from our Earth so that an extraterrestrial intelligent civilization may be alerted to our existence in the galaxy today. While addressing issues of extraterrestrial altruism, a probabilistic equation was developed which addresses the number of extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that may exist in our galaxy today, who could use our bodies for nourishment or reproductive purposes. The equation begins with the results from a Drake Equation calculation, and proceeds by addressing such biochemical parameters as the fraction of ETIs with: dextro sugar stereo-isomers; levo amino acid stereo-isomers; similar codon interpretation; chromosomal length and, similar cell membrane structure to allow egg penetration.

  6. Extraterrestrial intelligence and human imagination SETI at the intersection of science, religion, and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Traphagan, John

    2015-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) represents one of the most significant crossroads at which the assumptions and methods of scientific inquiry come into direct contact with—and in many cases conflict with—those of religion. Indeed, at the core of SETI is the same question that motivates many interested in religion: What is the place of humanity in the universe? Both scientists involved with SETI (and in other areas) and those interested in and dedicated to some religious traditions are engaged in contemplating these types of questions, even if their respective approaches and answers differ significantly. This book explores this intersection with a focus on three core points: 1) the relationship between science and religion as it is expressed within the framework of SETI research, 2) the underlying assumptions, many of which are tacitly based upon cultural values common in American society, that have shaped the ways in which SETI researchers have conceptualized the nature of their endeavo...

  7. Polyphase-discrete Fourier transform spectrum analysis for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, G. A.; Gulkis, S.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of a matched filter-detection system to a finite-duration continuous wave (CW) tone is compared with the sensitivities of a windowed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) system and an ideal bandpass filter-bank system. These comparisons are made in the context of the NASA Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) microwave observing project (MOP) sky survey. A review of the theory of polyphase-DFT filter banks and its relationship to the well-known windowed-DFT process is presented. The polyphase-DFT system approximates the ideal bandpass filter bank by using as few as eight filter taps per polyphase branch. An improvement in sensitivity of approx. 3 dB over a windowed-DFT system can be obtained by using the polyphase-DFT approach. Sidelobe rejection of the polyphase-DFT system is vastly superior to the windowed-DFT system, thereby improving its performance in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI).

  8. Modeling an Optical and Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Survey with Exoplanet Direct Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vides, Christina; Macintosh, Bruce; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Nielsen, Eric; Povich, Matthew Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a direct high contrast imaging instrument coupled to the Gemini South Telescope. Its purpose is to image extrasolar planets around young (~Intelligence), we modeled GPI’s capabilities to detect an extraterrestrial continuous wave (CW) laser broadcasted within the H-band have been modeled. By using sensitivity evaluated for actual GPI observations of young target stars, we produced models of the CW laser power as a function of distance from the star that could be detected if GPI were to observe nearby (~ 3-5 pc) planet-hosting G-type stars. We took a variety of transmitters into consideration in producing these modeled values. GPI is known to be sensitive to both pulsed and CW coherent electromagnetic radiation. The results were compared to similar studies and it was found that these values are competitive to other optical and infrared observations.

  9. STUDI PERILAKU ETIS WIRANIAGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Hidayat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis research aims to test 1 the influence of rewards and control to sales force ethical behavior, 2 the influence of sales force ethical behavior to role conflict, performance and job satisfaction. Respondents of the research represent the automotive sales force at central java. This research adopts the instruments that are developed by Roman and Munuera (2005. Sample selection is performed based on purposive sampling. 212 respondents have fulfilled questionaires completely. The analysed use the path analysis. Result of research indicate that there are influence of rewards and control toward sales force ethical behavior. Findings also show that there are influence of ethical behavior toward role conflict and performance. However, there are no significance influence of ethical behavior toward job satisfaction as well as there are no significance influence of role conflict to job satisfaction.Keywords: Reward, Control, Ethical behavior, Role conflict, Performance, Satisfaction, Sales forceAbstraksiPenelitian ini bertujuan menguji 1 pengaruh kompensasi dan pengawasan terhadap perilaku etis wiraniaga, 2 pengaruh perilaku etis wiraniaga terhadap konflik peran, kinerja dan kepuasan kerja, dan 3 pengauh konflik peran terhadap kepuasan kerja. Responden dalam penelitian ini wiraniaga perusahaan otomotif di Jawa Tengah. Metode pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode purposive sampling, 212 responden berhasil dikumpulkan dalam penelitian ini. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan kuesioner. Penelitian ini mengadopsi instrumen yang dikembangkan oleh Roman dan Munuera (2005. Analisis data menggunakan analisis jalur. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh yang signifikan kompensasi dan pengawasan terhadap perilaku etis wiraniaga. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan adanya pengaruh yang signifikan perilaku etis wiraniaga terhadap konflik peran dan kinerja. Tidak terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan perilaku etis wiarniaga terhadap kepuasan kerja

  10. The need for operating guidelines and a decision making framework applicable to the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; Randolph, Richard O.

    While formal principles have been adopted for the eventuality of detecting intelligent life in our galaxy (SETI Principles), no such guidelines exist for the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life within the solar system. Current scientifically based planetary protection policies for solar system exploration address how to undertake exploration, but do not provide clear guidance on what to do if and when life is detected. Considering that martian life could be detected under several different robotic and human exploration scenarios in the coming decades, it is appropriate to anticipate how detection of non-intelligent, microbial life could impact future exploration missions and activities, especially on Mars. This paper discusses a proposed set of interim guidelines based loosely on the SETI Principles and addresses issues extending from the time of discovery through future handling and treatment of extraterrestrial life on Mars or elsewhere. Based on an analysis of both scientific and ethical considerations, there is a clear need for developing operating protocols applicable at the time of discovery and a decision making framework that anticipates future missions and activities, both robotic and human. There is growing scientific confidence that the discovery of extraterrestrial life in some form is nearly inevitable. If and when life is discovered beyond Earth, non-scientific dimensions may strongly influence decisions about the nature and scope of future missions and activities. It is appropriate to encourage international discussion and consideration of the issues prior to an event of such historical significance.

  11. Teaching Planetary Science as Part of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Greenberg, Adam H.

    2017-10-01

    In Spring 2016 and 2017, UCLA offered a course titled "EPSS C179/279 - Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Theory and Applications". The course is designed for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students in the science, technical, engineering, and mathematical fields. Each year, students designed an observing sequence for the Green Bank telescope, observed known planetary systems remotely, wrote a sophisticated and modular data processing pipeline, analyzed the data, and presented their results. In 2016, 15 students participated in the course (9U, 5G; 11M, 3F) and observed 14 planetary systems in the Kepler field. In 2017, 17 students participated (15U, 2G; 10M, 7F) and observed 10 planetary systems in the Kepler field, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. In order to select suitable targets, students learned about planetary systems, planetary habitability, and planetary dynamics. In addition to planetary science fundamentals, students learned radio astronomy fundamentals, collaborative software development, signal processing techniques, and statistics. Evaluations indicate that the course is challenging but that students are eager to learn because of the engrossing nature of SETI. Students particularly value the teamwork approach, the observing experience, and working with their own data. The next offering of the course will be in Spring 2018. Additional information about our SETI work is available at seti.ucla.edu.

  12. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and Whether to send 'Messages' (METI): A Case for Conversation, Patience and Due Diligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, D.

    Understanding the controversy over "Messages to Extra Terrestrial Intelligence" or METI requires a grounding in the history and rationale of SETI (Search for ETI). Insights since the turn of the century have changed SETI's scientific basis. Continued null results from the radio search do not invalidate continuing effort, but they do raise questions about long-held assumptions. Modified search strategies are discussed. The Great Silence or Fermi Paradox is appraised, along with the disruptive plausibility of interstellar travel. Psychological motivations for METI are considered. With this underpinning, we consider why a small cadre of SETI-ist radio astronomers have resisted the notion of international consultations before humanity takes a brash and irreversible step into METI, shouting our presence into the cosmos.

  13. AN OPPORTUNISTIC SEARCH FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE (SETI) WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingay, S. J.; Tremblay, C.; Walsh, A.; Urquhart, R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia)

    2016-08-20

    A spectral line image cube generated from 115 minutes of MWA data that covers a field of view of 400 sq, deg. around the Galactic Center is used to perform the first Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Our work constitutes the first modern SETI experiment at low radio frequencies, here between 103 and 133 MHz, paving the way for large-scale searches with the MWA and, in the future, the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array. Limits of a few hundred mJy beam{sup −1} for narrowband emission (10 kHz) are derived from our data, across our 400 sq. deg. field of view. Within this field, 45 exoplanets in 38 planetary systems are known. We extract spectra at the locations of these systems from our image cube to place limits on the presence of narrow line emission from these systems. We then derive minimum isotropic transmitter powers for these exoplanets; a small handful of the closest objects (10 s of pc) yield our best limits of order 10{sup 14} W (Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power). These limits lie above the highest power directional transmitters near these frequencies currently operational on Earth. A SETI experiment with the MWA covering the full accessible sky and its full frequency range would require approximately one month of observing time. The MWA frequency range, its southern hemisphere location on an extraordinarily radio quiet site, its very large field of view, and its high sensitivity make it a unique facility for SETI.

  14. Sampling the Radio Transient Universe: Studies of Pulsars and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennamangalam, Jayanth

    The transient radio universe is a relatively unexplored area of astronomy, offering a variety of phenomena, from solar and Jovian bursts, to flare stars, pulsars, and bursts of Galactic and potentially even cosmological origin. Among these, perhaps the most widely studied radio transients, pulsars are fast-spinning neutron stars that emit radio beams from their magnetic poles. In spite of over 40 years of research on pulsars, we have more questions than answers on these exotic compact objects, chief among them the nature of their emission mechanism. Nevertheless, the wealth of phenomena exhibited by pulsars make them one of the most useful astrophysical tools. With their high densities, pulsars are probes of the nature of ultra-dense matter. Characterized by their high timing stability, pulsars can be used to verify the predictions of general relativity, discover planets around them, study bodies in the solar system, and even serve as an interplanetary (and possibly some day, interstellar) navigation aid. Pulsars are also used to study the nature of the interstellar medium, much like a flashlight illuminating airborne dust in a dark room. Studies of pulsars in the Galactic center can help answer questions about the massive black hole in the region and the star formation history in its vicinity. Millisecond pulsars in globular clusters are long-lived tracers of their progenitors, low-mass X-ray binaries, and can be used to study the dynamical history of those clusters. Another source of interest in radio transient astronomy is the hitherto undetected engineered signal from extraterrestrial intelligence. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is an ongoing attempt at discovering the presence of technological life elsewhere in the Galaxy. In this work, I present my forays into two aspects of the study of the radio transient universe---pulsars and SETI. Firstly, I describe my work on the luminosity function and population size of pulsars in the globular

  15. Christianity's Response to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life: Insights from Science and Religion and the Sociology of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    The question of whether or not extraterrestrial life exists and its potential impact for religions, especially Christianity, is an ancient one addressed in numerous historical publications. The contemporary discussion has been dominated by a few notable scientists from the SETI and astrobiology communities, and by a few Christian theologians active in the science and religion field. This discussion amounts to scientists outside of the faith tradition predicting the demise of Christianity if extraterrestrial intelligent life is discovered and theologians within the tradition predicting the enrichment and reformulation of Christian doctrine. Missing from this discussion is insight drawn more broadly from the science and religion field and from the sociology of religion. A consideration of how possibilities for relating science and religion are reflected in the US public's varied acceptance of the theory of evolution; the growth of Christianity in the Global South; and a revised theory of secularization which inversely correlates religiosity to existential security, gives credence to the proposal that the response from those outside of academia would be much more varied and uncertain.

  16. If technological intelligent extraterrestrials exist, what biological traits are de rigueur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. R.

    2018-05-01

    If extraterrestrials exist in the depths of cosmic space, and are capable of interstellar communications, even space flight, there is no requirement that they be humanoid in form. However, certain humanoid capabilities would be advantageous for tool fashioning and critical to operating space craft as well as functioning under the disparate extreme conditions under which they may be forced to operate. They would have to be "gas breathing". The reasonable assumption that life based upon the same elements as Earth life requiring water stems from the unique properties of water that no other similar low molecular weight nonmetal hydride offers. Only water offers the diversity of chemical properties and reactivity, including the existence of the three common physical states within a limited temperature range of service to life, avoiding the issues presented by any alternatives. They must, like us, possess a large, abstract-thinking brain, and probably possess at least all the fundamental senses that humankind possess. They would also be carbon-based life, using oxygen as the electron sink of their biochemistry for the reasons considered. They most likely are homeothermic as us, though they may not necessarily be mammalian as we are. Their biochemistry could differ some from ours, perhaps presenting contact hazards for both species as discussed.

  17. Ideologi Etis Penyingkap Korupsi Birokrasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Awaludin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Birokrasi dan korupsi ibarat dua sisi mata uang. Dimana ada birokrasi disitu ada korupsi. Menyingkap korupsi di lingkungan birokrasi bukanlah perkara mudah, hal itu butuh orang dalam untuk menyingkap korupsi tersebut, mereka adalah aparatur sipil negara. Oleh sebab itu, tindakan whistleblowing sangat dibutuhkan untuk menyingkap kasus korupsi birokrasi. Keputusan seorang aparatur sipil Negara untuk menyingkap korupsi adalah keputusan yang didasarkan ideologi etis. Keputusan ideologi etis menjadi modal utama bagi seorang penyingkap korupsi (whistleblower. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengungkap alasan para aparatur sipil Negara tersebut dalam menyingkap korupsi yang terjadi di lingkungan kerja mereka, serta mendeskripsikan tindakan mereka dalam menyingkap korupsi birokkrasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pendekatan socio legal research, informan penelitian ini adalah para aparatur sipil negara yang menyingkap korupsi birokrasi di Jawa Tengah. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa alasan pribadi dan lingkungan merupakan alasan para aparatur sipil negara dalam menyingkap korupsi. Ideologi etis sangat berperan dalam mengungkap terjadinya penyimpangan di tempat kerja, termasuk korupsi birokrasi. Idealisme menjadi pertimbangan etis bagi para penyinngkap korupsi birokrasi. Tipologi ideologi etis yang dimiliki para penyingkap korupsi birokrasi ini adalah Idealisme Absolutists. Idealism absolutis yang dimiliki para whistleblower menjadikan mereka sebagai pihak yang dimusuhi dan disingkirkan di lingkungan birokrasi. Sangat disayangkan, tindakan mereka menyingkap korupsi birokrasi belum mendapat perlindungan hukum. Bureaucracy and corruption are like two sides of a coin. Where no bureaucracy there is no corruption. Exposing corruption within the bureaucracy is not easy. Need an insider to expose corruption, they are civilian state apparatus. Whistleblowing action is needed to expose the corruption of the bureaucracy. The decision of a civilian state apparatus

  18. PHILOSOPHICAL-ANTROPOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF A PROBLEM OF SEARCH EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL OF CIVILIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Tshedrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The fears express, that «METI-projects», which testify to existence of mankind as technicalgeneous of a civilization for highly advanced ETC of a Galaxy, can have the extremely negative consequences, and «SETI-projects» and received radiosignals can become the information weapon aggressive ETC. The analysis of these fears as complete sociocultural of a phenomenon, them philosophical-anthropological of measurement, sociocultural of the basis, the forms of their display are the purpose of clause. Methodology. Author used the social-communicative approach, methods of system and cluster analyses. Scientific innovation. Are opened philosophical-anthropological of measurement of a problem of life extra-terrestrial intelligents (ETI, the factors of statement of a problem of contacts with ETC in the modern form connected with spacing of scientific and technical activity of mankind, influence of processes globalization on philosophical-anthropological aspects of a problem ETC, connected with changes in the fundamental relation «the Man - World» are investigated. These processes conduct to growth of fears concerning unpredictable intervention in terrestrial sociocultural system of alien reason. The persuasive fears, connected with possible consequences of contacts with ETC, take the form of hypotheses rather extra-terrestrial of artificial intelligence (ETAI as potential subject of space contact. The positive and negative scripts of dialogue with ETAI, problem «of high quality of a signal» and «SETI-hacker», connected with ETAI as by the subject of space dialogue are considered. Conclusions. The further development of a problem of search ETC and establishment of contacts with it will be connected, on the one hand to success in overcoming civilization of impasse, in which there was a mankind on a boundary ХХ – ХХI of centuries, and with another - deepening of revolution in cosmology, progress of observant astronomy, philosophical

  19. Extraterrestrial seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Vincent C H

    2015-01-01

    Seismology is a highly effective tool for investigating the internal structure of the Earth. Similar techniques have also successfully been used to study other planetary bodies (planetary seismology), the Sun (helioseismology), and other stars (asteroseismology). Despite obvious differences between stars and planetary bodies, these disciplines share many similarities and together form a coherent field of scientific research. This unique book takes a transdisciplinary approach to seismology and seismic imaging, reviewing the most recent developments in these extraterrestrial contexts. With contributions from leading scientists, this timely volume systematically outlines the techniques used in observation, data processing, and modelling for asteroseismology, helioseismology, and planetary seismology, drawing comparisons with seismic methods used in geophysics. Important recent discoveries in each discipline are presented. With an emphasis on transcending the traditional boundaries of astronomy, solar, planetary...

  20. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 2: Theme summary. 3: Search for extraterrestrial intelligence (no. 9). A: Theme statement. B. 26 April 1976 presentation. C. Summary. D. Newer initiatives (form 4). E. Initiative actions (form 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary (1977-1983), intermediate (1982-1988), and long term (1989+) phases of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) program are examined as well as the benefits to be derived in radioastronomy and the problems to be surmounted in radio frequency interference. The priorities, intrinsic value, criteria, and strategy for the search are discussed for both terrestrial and lunar-based CYCLOPS and for a space SETI system located at lunar liberation point L4. New initiatives related to antenna independent technology, multichannel analyzers, and radio frequency interference shielding are listed. Projected SETI program costs are included.

  1. Extraterrestrial altruism evolution and ethics in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Altruism examines a basic assumption of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI): that extraterrestrials will be transmitting messages to us for our benefit. This question of whether extraterrestrials will be altruistic has become increasingly important in recent years as SETI scientists have begun contemplating transmissions from Earth to make contact. Should we expect altruism to evolve throughout the cosmos, or is this only wishful thinking? Would this make biological sense? Is it dangerous to send messages to other worlds, as Stephen Hawking has suggested? Would extraterrestrial societies be based on different ethical principles? Extraterrestrial Altruism explores these and related questions about the motivations of civilizations beyond Earth, providing new insights that are critical for SETI. Chapters are authored by leading scholars from diverse disciplines—anthropology, astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, cosmology, engineering, history of science, law, philos...

  2. On the detectability of intelligent civilizations in the galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue for the possibility that even in the event of a Galaxy teeming with extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI the probability of receiving recognizable signals from the ETIs may be very low. There are two majors factors that may limit our ability to detect other civilizations. (i Evolutionary mismatches may cause difficulties analogous to humans attempting to communicate with lower primates. (ii Independent evolutionary paths resulting from differing planetary/stellar environments may result in life whose cognitive processes and consequent perceptions of the universe are very different from ours. Interpreting signals from such civilizations may prove a very difficult or even futile task. Even on Earth, an example of a cognitive mismatch is that between humans and dolphins, where evolution in very different environments has led to difficulty in establishing communication between these two species. The main effect of the second factor is to limit communication while the effect of the first is to constrain what communication is possible to a "window of opportunity", a finite period of time, τω, when communication may be possible before diverging evolution makes it impossible. For example, if the number of ETIs in the Galaxy is one million and if τω 5 × 10 3 light years so that one star in 10 10 harbors such a civilization. If the above arguments are correct we reach the following conclusions. The absence of detected signals does not translate into an absence of ETI’s. Targeting individual stars in the search for ETI has a low probability of success. The use of radio signals is of limited value because with such large separations between "contactable" civilizations interstellar scintillation strongly limits the propagation of radio signals. Similarly, optical communication would be hindered by interstellar extinction. Possible alternatives to current searches for narrow band signals include listening for modulated broadband

  3. Čimbenici utjecaja na etičnost poslovnog sustava

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Rad se bavi eksplikacijom i raspravom temeljnih etičkih pristupa menadžerskom izboru i odlučivanju u poslovnom sustavu (etike individualizma, etike utilitarizma, etike ljudskim pravima i etike pravednosti); nudi integralni etički protokol, eksplicira i raspravlja utjecajne čimbenike etičnosti poslovnog sustava (individualne, strukturne i kulturološko-klimatske) te menadžerskom primjenom istog. Rezimira se da je etička organizacija u izravnoj funkcij i znalačkog i etičkog menadžementa....

  4. Asteroids and Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of extraterrestrial life (ETL) and extraterrestrial intelligent life (ETI) is extraordinarily complex and mulitidisciplinary, in part because relevant questions involve both the origin/evolution of terrestrial life and the future of human civilization.

  5. Extraterrestrial Metals Processing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Extraterrestrial Metals Processing (EMP) system produces ferrosilicon, silicon monoxide, a glassy mixed oxide slag, and smaller amounts of alkali earth...

  6. The Ethical Implications for Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jill

    2012-05-01

    Ethical frameworks seek to normatively structure our behaviour and preconstitute expectations with regards to moral activity towards each other as well as other creatures and even non-sentient objects such as the environment. This paper considers how ongoing ethical discussions relating to earth-based interactions can be used as analogies to inform nascent conversations about potential future encounters with extraterrestrial life—while also highlighting where these geocentric conversations may fail to capture the unique dynamics of potential extraterrestrial encounters. The paper specifically considers the spectrum of ethical frameworks currently used in earth-based interactions and how they might apply outside the geocentric referent; from ethics towards non- sentient life on earth such as plants and the environment; to ethics towards sentient but ‘unintelligent' life; to intelligent life nonetheless deemed less intelligent than humans. Next the paper considers interactions that we have yet to (knowingly) have encountered here on earth: the ethics of interactions with life more intelligent than ourselves; and finally the ethics of interaction with robotic ‘post-biological' forms, which some specialists in extraterrestrial communications have speculated will likely be the form of ‘creatures' to be encountered should contact with extraterrestrials ever be made. Finally the paper will address deeper philosophical-ethical questions about the significance of such an exercise in shifting ethical frameworks from an anthropocentric perspective.

  7. Is Your Gut Conscious? Is an Extraterrestrial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos Post, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    This paper speculates on questions intending to be taken scientifically rather than metaphysically: "Can the human gut (enteric nervous system) be conscious?"; "Can your immune system think?"; "Could consciousness be coded in DNA?"; "What do we mean when asserting that an Extraterrestrial is Thinking, or is Conscious? We explore through reference to theory, experiment, and computational models by Christof Koch (Caltech), Barbara Wold (Caltech), and Stuart Kauffman (University of Calgary, Tampere University of Technology, Santa Fe Institute). We use a tentative new definition of thinking, designed to be applicable for humans, cetecea, corvids, artificial intelligences, and extraterrestrial intelligences of any substrate (i.e. Life as We Do Not Know It): "Thinking is the occurrence, transformation, and storage in a mind or brain (or simulation thereof) of information-bearing structures (representations) of one kind or another, such as thoughts, concept, percepts, ideas, impressions, notions, rules, schemas, images, phantasms, or subpersonal representations." We use the framework for Consciousness developed by Francis Crick and Christof Koch. We try to describe scientific goals, but discuss Philosophy sufficient to avoid naïve philosophical category errors (thus are careful not to conflate thought, consciousness, and language) Penrose, Hameroff, and Kauffman speculate (differently) that CNS consciousness is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Might intestinal, immune system, or genetic regulatory network dynamics exhibit emergent cooperative quantum effects? The speculations are in the context of Evolution by Natural Selection, presumed to operate throughout the Cosmos, and recent work in the foundations of Computational Biology and Quantum Mechanics.

  8. The Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Antiquity to 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Michael J.; Dowd, Matthew F.

    This chapter provides an overview of the Western historical debate regarding extraterrestrial life from antiquity to the beginning of the twentieth century. Though schools of thought in antiquity differed on whether extraterrestrial life existed, by the Middle Ages, the Aristotelian worldview of a unified, finite cosmos without extraterrestrials was most influential, though there were such dissenters as Nicholas of Cusa. That would change as the Copernican revolution progressed. Scholars such as Bruno, Kepler, Galileo, and Descartes would argue for a Copernican system of a moving Earth. Cartesian and Newtonian physics would eventually lead to a view of the universe in which the Earth was one of many planets in one of many solar systems extended in space. As this cosmological model was developing, so too were notions of extraterrestrial life. Popular and scientific writings, such as those by Fontenelle and Huygens, led to a reversal of fortunes for extraterrestrials, who by the end of the century were gaining recognition. From 1700 to 1800, many leading thinkers discussed extraterrestrial intelligent beings. In doing so, they relied heavily on arguments from analogy and such broad principles and ideas as the Copernican Principle, the Principle of Plenitude, and the Great Chain of Being. Physical evidence for the existence of extraterrestrials was minimal, and was always indirect, such as the sighting of polar caps on Mars, suggesting similarities between Earth and other places in the universe. Nonetheless, the eighteenth century saw writers from a wide variety of genres—science, philosophy, theology, literature—speculate widely on extraterrestrials. In the latter half of the century, increasing research in stellar astronomy would be carried out, heavily overlapping with an interest in extraterrestrial life. By the end of the eighteenth century, belief in intelligent beings on solar system planets was nearly universal and certainly more common than it would be by

  9. Bio-jETI: a service integration, design, and provisioning platform for orchestrated bioinformatics processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaria, Tiziana; Kubczak, Christian; Steffen, Bernhard

    2008-04-25

    With Bio-jETI, we introduce a service platform for interdisciplinary work on biological application domains and illustrate its use in a concrete application concerning statistical data processing in R and xcms for an LC/MS analysis of FAAH gene knockout. Bio-jETI uses the jABC environment for service-oriented modeling and design as a graphical process modeling tool and the jETI service integration technology for remote tool execution. As a service definition and provisioning platform, Bio-jETI has the potential to become a core technology in interdisciplinary service orchestration and technology transfer. Domain experts, like biologists not trained in computer science, directly define complex service orchestrations as process models and use efficient and complex bioinformatics tools in a simple and intuitive way.

  10. Extraterrestrial Metals Processing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Extraterrestrial Metals Processing (EMP) system produces iron, silicon, and light metals from Mars, Moon, or asteroid resources in support of advanced human...

  11. Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  12. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  13. Toward a new cosmic consciousness: Psychoeducational aspects of contact with extraterrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2014-02-01

    This study presents a new approach to the concept of cosmic consciousness integrated in current neuroscience knowledge and discusses implications for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. It also examines different aspects related to consciousness and how it may play a key role in the understanding of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and life in the Universe and its implications. Subjects (n=116) were college students from Spain, the United States, and Italy. Subjects responded to a questionnaire comprising five different sections: (A) religious beliefs, (B) environment and general opinion, (C) astronomy, (D) contact, and (E) attention and perception. The results showed the importance of several modular aspects that affect Space awareness in humans. Preliminary results are discussed with regard to current neuroscience, factor analysis, and possible implications for the understanding of contact with extraterrestrial intelligence. The roles of education, new search strategies, and possible contact scenarios are also discussed.

  14. Adaptação transcultural e consistência interna do Early Trauma Inventory (ETI Early Trauma Inventory (ETI: cross-cultural adaptation and internal consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Feijó de Mello

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As experiências traumáticas precoces são um fator de risco preditivo de problemas psicopatológicos futuros. O Early Trauma Inventory (ETI é um instrumento que avalia em indivíduos adultos experiências traumáticas ocorridas antes dos 18 anos de idade. Tal instrumento foi traduzido, transculturalmente adaptado e sua consistência interna foi avaliada. Vítimas de violência que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram submetidas a uma entrevista diagnóstica (SCID-I e ao ETI. Foram incluídos 91 pacientes com o transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT. O alfa de Cronbach nos diferentes domínios variou de 0,595-0,793, e o escore total foi de 0,878. A maior parte dos itens nos vários domínios, com exceção do abuso emocional, apresentou índices de correlação interitem entre 0,51-0,99. A versão adaptada foi útil tanto na clínica quanto na pesquisa. Apresentou boa consistência interna e na correlação interitem. O ETI é um instrumento válido, com boa consistência para se avaliar a presença de história de traumas precoces em indivíduos adultos.Early life stress is a strong predictor of future psychopathology during adulthood. The Early Trauma Inventory (ETI was developed to detect the presence and impact of traumatic experiences that occurred up to 18 years of age. The ETI was translated and cross-culturally adapted and had its consistency evaluated. Victims of violence that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were submitted to SCID-I and ETI. Ninety-one patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD were included. Cronbach's alpha in the different domains varied from 0.595 to 0.793, and the total score was 0.878. Except for emotional abuse, most of the various domains displayed inter-item correlation rates of 0.51 to 0.99. The adapted version was useful for clinical and research purposes and showed good internal consistency and inter-item correlation. The ETI is a valid instrument with good

  15. Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (LEP) performs experimental and theoretical research on the heliosphere, the interstellar medium, and the magnetospheres and upper atmospheres of the planets, including Earth. LEP space scientists investigate the structure and dynamics of the magnetospheres of the planets including Earth. Their research programs encompass the magnetic fields intrinsic to many planetary bodies as well as their charged-particle environments and plasma-wave emissions. The LEP also conducts research into the nature of planetary ionospheres and their coupling to both the upper atmospheres and their magnetospheres. Finally, the LEP carries out a broad-based research program in heliospheric physics covering the origins of the solar wind, its propagation outward through the solar system all the way to its termination where it encounters the local interstellar medium. Special emphasis is placed on the study of solar coronal mass ejections (CME's), shock waves, and the structure and properties of the fast and slow solar wind. LEP planetary scientists study the chemistry and physics of planetary stratospheres and tropospheres and of solar system bodies including meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets. The LEP conducts a focused program in astronomy, particularly in the infrared and in short as well as very long radio wavelengths. We also perform an extensive program of laboratory research, including spectroscopy and physical chemistry related to astronomical objects. The Laboratory proposes, develops, fabricates, and integrates experiments on Earth-orbiting, planetary, and heliospheric spacecraft to measure the characteristics of planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields and plasmas in space. We design and develop spectrometric instrumentation for continuum and spectral line observations in the x-ray, gamma-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; these are flown on spacecraft to study

  16. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2010-02-01

    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  17. How likely is extraterrestrial life?

    CERN Document Server

    Halley, J Woods

    2012-01-01

    What does existing scientific knowledge about physics, chemistry, meteorology and biology tell us about the likelihood of extraterrestrial life and civilizations? And what does the fact that there is currently no credible scientific evidence for the existence of extraterrestrial biospheres or civilizations teach  us? This book reviews the various scientific issues that arise in considering the question of how common extraterrestrial life is likely to be in our galaxy and whether humans are likely to detect it. The book stands out because of its very systematic organization and relatively unbiased treatment of the main open question. It covers all relevant aspects of many disciplines required to present the different   possible answers. It has and will provide undergraduates with a stimulating introduction to many of these fields at an early stage in their university careers, when they are still choosing a specialty. The difficulties and the range of possible answers to the title question are carefully addr...

  18. The Problem of Extraterrestrial Civilizations and Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of extraterrestrial intelligence is the best example of multidisciplinary science. Here philosophy and religion, astronomy, radiophysics, spectrography, space flights and astronautics, geology and planetology, astroecology, chemistry and biology, history and archaeology, psychology, sociology, linguistics, diplomacy, UFOs and peculiar phenomena are involved. Among these many-sided studies, astronomers have probably displayed the most progress by discovering thousands of extrasolar planets. At present, a number of search programs are being accomplished, including those with space telescopes, and planets in so-called "habitable zone" are considered as most important ones, for which various orbital and physical parameters are being calculated. As the discovery of extraterrestrial life is the final goal, a special attention is given to Earth-like planets, for the discovery of which most sensitive technical means are necessary.

  19. Univerzalne vrednote multikulturnega sveta kot osnova za globalni novinarski etični kodeks

    OpenAIRE

    Belužić, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Hitre tehnološke spremembe so povzročile, da naš svet postaja vedno manjši. V preteklosti je novinarski etični kodeks segal do mej države v kateri je bil sprejet, danes teh mej ni več, zato se je pojavila potreba po globalni novinarski etiki, ki bi lahko pomenila rešitev za uspešno medkulturno novinarsko poročanje. Na osnovah idej kozmopolitizma in univerzalizma poskušajo nekateri strokovnjaki opredeliti globalno novinarsko etiko. Rezultat te diplome je primerjava novinarskih etičnih kodeksov...

  20. Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Formulating a normative axiology for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms, should they ever be found, requires an extension of environmental ethics to beyond the Earth. Using an ethical framework for the treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms, this paper elaborates a similar ethic for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms. An ethic of `teloempathy' allows for the moral considerability of any organism that has `interests', based on rudimentary qualities of conativism, and therefore allows for an identical treatment of all life, related or not related to life on Earth. Although, according to this ethic, individual extraterrestrial microscopic organisms have a good of their own and even `rights', at this level the ethic can only be theoretical, allowing for the inevitable destruction of many individual organisms during the course of human exploratory missions, similarly to the daily destruction of microbes by humans on Earth. A holistic teloempathy, an operative ethic, not only provides a framework for human exploration, but it also has important implications for planetary protection and proposals to implement planetary-scale atmospheric alterations on other bodies. Even prior to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, or the discovery of a complete absence of such life, this exercise yields important insights into the moral philosophy that guides our treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms.

  1. Are we alone: The possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, R. T.; Trefil, J. S.

    The book explores the possibility of extraterrestrial (ET) intelligence. The formation of stars and planetary systems, the evolution of planetary atmospheres and the evolution of life are reviewed. The possibilities of interstellar communication, ET colonization of other star systems, in addition to earth's colonization of near-earth space are discussed. The state of the earth's depleting energy sources and current technology are used to show why some scientists believe that earth will be colonizing in space within the next century. Current methods of searching for ET intelligence are reviewed, and preliminary designs for various space habitats, including the torus, and discussed, taking into consideration problems that would be encountered. The importance of space colonies for the existence and expansion of the human race is emphasized.

  2. Aikido cīņas mākslas etiķete un filozofija

    OpenAIRE

    Suhova, Jeļena

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs veltīts Japānas cīņu mākslas aikido filozofijas un etiķetes izpētei, kas nosaka pareizos veidus, kā apgūt aikido. Aikido cīņas māksla ar savu nosaukumu kļuva pazīstama salīdzinoši nesen, tomēr tās filozofijas un tehniku pirmsākumi parādījās jau daudz agrāk.Darba mērķis ir izpētīt aikido filozofiju, tās izpaušanos caur etiķeti un izprast tās nozīmi šajā cīņas mākslā. Līdz ar to darbā tiks apskatīta arī aikido rašanās un attīstīšanās vēsture, lai saprastu, kā šī filozofija un et...

  3. The School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy): An Observational Measure of the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-12-01

    School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools.

  4. Dapatkah Love Of Money Sebagai Variabel Intervening Pengaruh Variabel Kecerdasan Terhadap Persepsi Etis Mahasiswa Akuntansi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Hermawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to test the love of money as an intervening variable for the influence of intellectual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence on the ethical perceptions of accounting students. This study also tested partially and simultaneously the influence of intellectual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence on the ethical perceptions of accounting students. This research is in the field of associative quantitative research and testing five hypotheses. The sample of this research is 141 accounting students. The analysis is done by multiple regression analysis. The results suggest that love of money could not be an intervening variable for the influence of intellectual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence on the ethical perceptions of accounting students. There are both partial and simultaneous influence for intellectual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence on the ethical perceptions of accounting students   Keywords: love of money,  intellectual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence, ethical perceptions

  5. A Novel Artificial Intelligence System for Endotracheal Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jestin N; Das, Samarjit; De la Torre, Fernando; Frisch, Adam; Guyette, Francis X; Hodgins, Jessica K; Yealy, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    Adequate visualization of the glottic opening is a key factor to successful endotracheal intubation (ETI); however, few objective tools exist to help guide providers' ETI attempts toward the glottic opening in real-time. Machine learning/artificial intelligence has helped to automate the detection of other visual structures but its utility with ETI is unknown. We sought to test the accuracy of various computer algorithms in identifying the glottic opening, creating a tool that could aid successful intubation. We collected a convenience sample of providers who each performed ETI 10 times on a mannequin using a video laryngoscope (C-MAC, Karl Storz Corp, Tuttlingen, Germany). We recorded each attempt and reviewed one-second time intervals for the presence or absence of the glottic opening. Four different machine learning/artificial intelligence algorithms analyzed each attempt and time point: k-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), decision trees, and neural networks (NN). We used half of the videos to train the algorithms and the second half to test the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of each algorithm. We enrolled seven providers, three Emergency Medicine attendings, and four paramedic students. From the 70 total recorded laryngoscopic video attempts, we created 2,465 time intervals. The algorithms had the following sensitivity and specificity for detecting the glottic opening: KNN (70%, 90%), SVM (70%, 90%), decision trees (68%, 80%), and NN (72%, 78%). Initial efforts at computer algorithms using artificial intelligence are able to identify the glottic opening with over 80% accuracy. With further refinements, video laryngoscopy has the potential to provide real-time, direction feedback to the provider to help guide successful ETI.

  6. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  7. The Intellectual Structure of Research on Educational Technology in Science Education (ETiSE): A Co-Citation Network Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals (2008-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai-Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the intellectual structure of the research on educational technology in science education (ETiSE) within the most recent years (2008-2013). Based on the criteria for educational technology research and the citation threshold for educational co-citation analysis, a total of 137 relevant ETiSE papers…

  8. Dapatkah Love Of Money Sebagai Variabel Intervening Pengaruh Variabel Kecerdasan Terhadap Persepsi Etis Mahasiswa Akuntansi?

    OpenAIRE

    Sigit Hermawan; Wika Nurlia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to test the love of money as an intervening variable for the influence of intellectual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence on the ethical perceptions of accounting students. This study also tested partially and simultaneously the influence of intellectual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence on the ethical perceptions of accounting students. This research is in the field of associative quantita...

  9. Extraterrestrial Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; Fogel, M.; Sephton, M.; Glavin, D.; Watson, J.; Dworkin, J.; Schwartz, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    . Our stable carbon isotope measurements clearly demonstrate that the nucleobases in the Murchison meteorite are indigenous to the meteorite, and clearly differ from the values determined for the terrestrial nucleobases measured in the soil collected at the impact site. These results support the hypothesis that nucleobases were exogenously delivered to the early Earth, and may have been important for the prebiotic chemistry on our young planet. With regard to the detection of traces of life on other planets such as Mars it is essential to characterize organic materials that have been exogenously delivered to the early planets. The analysis of the composition and isotopic fractionation of extraterrestrial material using complementary techniques can provide crucial insights into the formation of our Solar System, extraterrestrial delivery processes and subsequent addition and incorporation into the carbonaceous material available on the young planets. Ultimately, these parameters form an essential reference point for interpreting biosignatures that may be left in the ancient rock record on a planetary body. References: [1] Hayatsu R. et al. 1975. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 39: 471- 488. [2] Folsome C. E. et al. 1971. Nature 232: 108-109. [3] Stoks P. G. & Schwartz A. W. 1979. Nature 282: 709-710. [4] Stoks P.G. & Schwartz A. W. 1981. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45: 563-569. [5] Shimoyama A. et al. 1990. Geochemical Journal 24: 343-348. [6] Martins Z. et al. 2004. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39: A5145. 2

  10. Cosmocentrism and the Active Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2010-04-01

    Applies cosmocentric perspectives to the question of Active SETI, with a focus on "bootstrapped cosmocultural evolution", which has aspects of both pragmatism and cosmocentrism. Active SETI is supported along with international consultation.

  11. Bio-jETI: a framework for semantics-based service composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaria Tiziana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of bioinformatics databases, algorithms, and tools throughout the last years has lead to a highly distributed world of bioinformatics services. Without adequate management and development support, in silico researchers are hardly able to exploit the potential of building complex, specialized analysis processes from these services. The Semantic Web aims at thoroughly equipping individual data and services with machine-processable meta-information, while workflow systems support the construction of service compositions. However, even in this combination, in silico researchers currently would have to deal manually with the service interfaces, the adequacy of the semantic annotations, type incompatibilities, and the consistency of service compositions. Results In this paper, we demonstrate by means of two examples how Semantic Web technology together with an adequate domain modelling frees in silico researchers from dealing with interfaces, types, and inconsistencies. In Bio-jETI, bioinformatics services can be graphically combined to complex services without worrying about details of their interfaces or about type mismatches of the composition. These issues are taken care of at the semantic level by Bio-jETI's model checking and synthesis features. Whenever possible, they automatically resolve type mismatches in the considered service setting. Otherwise, they graphically indicate impossible/incorrect service combinations. In the latter case, the workflow developer may either modify his service composition using semantically similar services, or ask for help in developing the missing mediator that correctly bridges the detected type gap. Newly developed mediators should then be adequately annotated semantically, and added to the service library for later reuse in similar situations. Conclusion We show the power of semantic annotations in an adequately modelled and semantically enabled domain setting. Using model

  12. INTERVENING DEONTOLOGI MORAL EVALUATION AUDITOR DALAM PENGARUHNYA PEMBUATAN KEPUTUSAN BERBASIS ETIS DENGAN PERKEMBANGAN MORAL COGNITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrinaldi Nur DP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh time pressure, risiko audit, perkembangan moral kognitif dan deontologi evaluasi moral yang menjadi tanda dini prosedur audit off dari karakteristik individu sisi dalam membuat keputusan etis. Penelitian ini menggunakan sikap berhenti prematur prosedur audit ketergantungan . Baru-baru ini sikap tidak etis ini tampaknya menjadi hal yang berisiko karena menunjukkan bahwa auditor tidak konsisten tentang bertanggung jawab dan etika mereka. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah seluruh auditor independen yang bekerja di KAP di Pekanbaru, Padang dan Batam. Sedangkan sampel adalah mereka yang bekerja di KAP kotaPekanbaru, Padang dan Batam. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel yang digunakan adalah 69 responden. Data dianalisis dengan teknik analisis PLS (Partial Least Square dengan menggunakan software SmartPLS. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa tekanan waktu berpengaruh signifikan untuk mengaudit tanda dini prosedur off, pembangunan dan tata susila moral yang evaluasi moral yang kognitif berpengaruh negatif tidak signifikan untuk mengaudit tanda dini prosedur off. Selain itu, ada juga hubungan yang signifikan antara perkembangan moral kognitif seseorang dan deontologi evaluasi moral. Kelima T-Statistic tes secara bersamaan tidak berpengaruh untuk mengaudit tanda dini prosedur off. Hanya 23,8 % variabilitas membangun berhenti prematur sikap prosedur audit, dan sisanya 76,2 % explaine oleh variabel lain di luar penelitian ini. The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of time pressure, audit risk, cognitive moral development and deontology moral evaluation into audit procedure’s premature sign off from individual characteristic’ side in making ethical decision. This research used premature stopping attitude of audit procedure as the dependence. Recently, this unethical attitude seems to be risky thing because it indicates that auditors are not

  13. SEA LEVEL RISE AND ITS POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON COASTAL URBAN AREA: A CASE OF ETI-OSA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Michael AGBOOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial extent of coastal urban development and its potential sensitivity to sea-level rise. The main aim of the study is to critically examine the extent of growth in Eti-Osa over time, and the potential impacts of sea leve rise. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imageries of years 2000 and 2015 were used to evaluate the different land use type identified. Post-classification change detection method was used to evaluate the output of the maximum likelihood supervised classification analysis done. This was also used to estimate the changes induces through urban development on the environment which accounts for the biodiversity loss. ASTER GDEM 2 imagery of 2011 was used to generate the elevation data used for the inundation analysis. Thus, both Land use map of Eti-Osa in 2015 and the down scaled Sea-level rise scenarios (at 0.5 to 15 meters were used for the inundation mapping. Results obtained from this research affirms that indeed EtiOsa has been subjected to gross urban expansion giving room for diverse forms of environmental degradation among which are huge replacement of natural land cover with built-up, reclamation of wetlands and sand filling of water bodies. This basically illustrates growth but also the risk that accompanies the advent of excessive alteration of natural ecosystem as Sea-level rise projections imply in this research.

  14. Which colors would extraterrestrial civilizations use to transmit signals?: The ;magic wavelengths; for optical SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusawa, Shin-ya; Aota, Tatusya; Kishimoto, Ryo

    2018-04-01

    In the case of radio SETI, there are predicted frequencies which extraterrestrial beings select to send messages to other civilizations. Those are called ;magic frequencies. Considering the optical region, terrestrial technologies can not transmit arbitrary wavelengths of high-power optical lasers, easily. In this article, we discuss communications among civilizations with the same level of technology as us to enhance the persuasive power. It might be possible to make a reasonable assumption about the laser wavelengths transmitted by extraterrestrial intelligences to benefit optical SETI (OSETI) methods. Therefore, we propose some ;magic wavelengths; for spectroscopic OSETI observations in this article. From the senders point of view, we argue that the most favorable wavelength used for interstellar communication would be the one of YAG lasers, at 1.064 μm or its Second Harmonic Generation (532.1 nm). On the contrary, there are basic absorption lines in the optical spectra, which are frequently observed by astrophysicists on Earth. It is possible that the extraterrestrials used lasers, which wavelengths are tuned to such absorption lines for sending messages. In that case, there is a possibility that SHG and/or Sum Frequency Generation of YAG and YLF lasers are used. We propose three lines at, 393.8 nm (near the Ca K line), 656.5 nm (near the Hα line) and 589.1 nm (Na D2 line) as the magic wavelengths.

  15. Astrobiology in culture: the search for extraterrestrial life as "science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Linda

    2012-10-01

    This analysis examines the social construction of authority, credibility, and legitimacy for exobiology/astrobiology and, in comparison, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), considering English-language conceptions of these endeavors in scientific culture and popular culture primarily in the United States. The questions that define astrobiology as a scientific endeavor are multidisciplinary in nature, and this endeavor is broadly appealing to public audiences as well as to the scientific community. Thus, it is useful to examine astrobiology in culture-in scientific culture, official culture, and popular culture. A researcher may explore science in culture, science as culture, by analyzing its rhetoric, the primary means that people use to construct their social realities-their cultural environment, as it were. This analysis follows this path, considering scientific and public interest in astrobiology and SETI and focusing on scientific and official constructions of the two endeavors. This analysis will also consider whether and how scientific and public conceptions of astrobiology and SETI, which are related but at the same time separate endeavors, converge or diverge and whether and how these convergences or divergences affect the scientific authority, credibility, and legitimacy of these endeavors.

  16. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. I. Background and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review "Dysonian SETI," the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the "monocultural fallacy." We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  17. [Extraterrestrial influences on health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar, J

    1994-02-14

    As to extraterrestrial influences on man in health and disease so far only the effect of the sun and moon are known. This concerns the effect of solar radiation of different wavelengths and the effect of corpuscular solar radiation which has an impact on the condition of the terrestrial magnetic field and electric conditions in the atmosphere. Moreover there is also a question of important influences of gravitation (tides). Here the influence of the position of the moon in relation to the connecting line between sun and earth is involved. In the course of the synodic month (from new moon to the next new moon) a semilunar periodicity of different medical and geomagnetic indicators as well as meteorological ones plays a part. Based on his own research and that of others the author reaches the conclusion that extraterrestrial and terrestrial influences are interrelated and exert a mutual influence on each other and that it is not sensible to separate them strictly. Investigation of all the mentioned influences is important not only for biomedical prognosis but also for basic geophysical and meteorological research. Perspectively it would be useful to plan model experiments. The author feels it is his duty to refuse publication of different horoscopes in the mass media, whatever the intention. In the lay public this may lead to popularization of astrology which has nothing in common with serious research.

  18. Extraterrestrial Radiation Chemistry and Molecular Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations of both solar system and interstellar regions have revealed a rich chemical inventory that includes most classes of organic molecules and selected inorganics. For example, gas-phase ethylene glycol and SOz have been observed by astronomers, while solidphase detections include OCS, H2O2 , and the cyanate anion.' All of these are found in environments that are, by earthly standards, exceedingly hostile: temperatures of 10 - 100 K, miniscule densities, and near-ubiquitous ionizing-radiation fields. Beyond the simplest chemical species, these conditions have made it difficult-to-impassible to account for the observed molecular abundances using gas-phase chemistry, suggesting solid-phase reactions play an important role. In extraterrestrial environments, cosmic rays, UV photons, and magnetospheric radiation all drive chemical reactions, even at cryogenic temperatures. To study this chemistry, radiation astrochemists conduct experiments on icy materials, frozen under vacuum and exposed to sources such as keV electrons and MeV protons. Compositional changes usually are followed with IR spectroscopy and, in selected cases, more-sensitive mass-spectral techniques. This talk will review some recent results on known and suspected extraterrestrial molecules and ions. Spectra and reaction pathways will be presented, and predictions made for interstellar chemistry and the chemistry of selected solar system objects. Some past radiation-chemical contributions, and future needs, will be explored.

  19. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  20. Etički prijepori i javna televizija. Studija slučaja: emisija Otvoreno emitirana 21. siječnja 2010. godine

    OpenAIRE

    Škaljac Narančić, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Kriterij gledanosti i pripadajuće komercijaliziranosti sve su češće odlučujuća mjerila ‘uspješnosti’ medija i novinara koja zanemaruju minimalne etičke standarde. Logika težnje za profitom i pukim preživljavanjem u vremenima ekonomske krize dodatno ugrožava mogućnost profesionalnog obavljanja novinarskog posla, što uključuje i održavanje krhkih etičkih standarda. Televizija kao najutjecajniji medij u tom pogledu ima i najveću odgovornost, osobito javna televizija. Kršenje etičkih normi na ...

  1. The Intellectual Structure of Research on Educational Technology in Science Education (ETiSE): A Co-citation Network Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals (2008-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai-Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the intellectual structure of the research on educational technology in science education (ETiSE) within the most recent years (2008-2013). Based on the criteria for educational technology research and the citation threshold for educational co-citation analysis, a total of 137 relevant ETiSE papers were identified from the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, and the Journal of Science Education and Technology. Then, a series of methodologies were performed to analyze all 137 source documents, including document co-citation analysis, social network analysis, and exploratory factor analysis. As a result, 454 co-citation ties were obtained and then graphically visualized with an undirected network, presenting a global structure of the current ETiSE research network. In addition, four major underlying intellectual subfields within the main component of the ETiSE network were extracted and named as: (1) technology-enhanced science inquiry, (2) simulation and visualization for understanding, (3) technology-enhanced chemistry learning, and (4) game-based science learning. The most influential co-citation pairs and cross-boundary phenomena were then analyzed and visualized in a co-citation network. This is the very first attempt to illuminate the core ideas underlying ETiSE research by integrating the co-citation method, factor analysis, and the networking visualization technique. The findings of this study provide a platform for scholarly discussion of the dissemination and research trends within the current ETiSE literature.

  2. MAD with Aliens? Interstellar deterrence and its implications

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Janne M.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) could be hostile to humanity has been raised as a reason to avoid even trying to contact ETIs. However, there is a distinct shortage of analytical discussion about the risks of an attack, perhaps because of an implicit premise that we cannot analyze the decision making of an alien civilization. This paper argues that we can draw some inferences from the history of the Cold War and nuclear deterrence in order to show that at least some...

  3. Applying Biomimetic Algorithms for Extra-Terrestrial Habitat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to simulate and optimize distributed cooperation among a network of robots tasked with cooperative excavation on an extra-terrestrial surface. Additionally to examine the concept of directed Emergence among a group of limited artificially intelligent agents. Emergence is the concept of achieving complex results from very simple rules or interactions. For example, in a termite mound each individual termite does not carry a blueprint of how to make their home in a global sense, but their interactions based strictly on local desires create a complex superstructure. Leveraging this Emergence concept applied to a simulation of cooperative agents (robots) will allow an examination of the success of non-directed group strategy achieving specific results. Specifically the simulation will be a testbed to evaluate population based robotic exploration and cooperative strategies while leveraging the evolutionary teamwork approach in the face of uncertainty about the environment and partial loss of sensors. Checking against a cost function and 'social' constraints will optimize cooperation when excavating a simulated tunnel. Agents will act locally with non-local results. The rules by which the simulated robots interact will be optimized to the simplest possible for the desired result, leveraging Emergence. Sensor malfunction and line of sight issues will be incorporated into the simulation. This approach falls under Swarm Robotics, a subset of robot control concerned with finding ways to control large groups of robots. Swarm Robotics often contains biologically inspired approaches, research comes from social insect observation but also data from among groups of herding, schooling, and flocking animals. Biomimetic algorithms applied to manned space exploration is the method under consideration for further study.

  4. Search for extraterrestrial life: recent developments. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papagiannis, M D [ed.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy experts from 20 different countries discuss the many interrelated aspects of the search for extraterrestrial life, including the search for other planetary systems where life may originate and evolve, the widespread presence of complex prebiotic molecules in our Solar System and in interstellar space which could be precursors of life, and the universal aspects of the biological evolution on Earth. They also discuss the nearly 50 radio searches that were undertaken in the last 25 years, the technological progress that has occurred in this period, and the plans for the future including the comprehensive SETI search program that NASA is now preparing for the 1990's. Extensive introductions by the Editor to each of the 8 sections, make this volume friendly even to the non-specialist who has a genuine interest for this new field. 549 refs.; 84 figs.; 21 tabs.

  5. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  6. Implications of extraterrestrial material on the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    Meteoritic organic material may provide the best perspective on prebiotic chemistry. Meteorites have also been invoked as a source of prebiotic material. This study suggests a caveat to extraterrestrial organic delivery: that prebiotic meteoritic organics were too dilute to promote prebiotic reactions. However, meteoritic material provides building material for endogenous synthesis of prebiotic molecules, such as by hydrolysis of extraterrestrial organic tars, and corrosion of phosphide minerals.

  7. Difficulties and Challenges in Applying the European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS for Sustainable Tourist Destinations: The Case of Braşov County in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Marian Tudorache

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destinations are increasingly coming across multiple social, economic, cultural, and environmental challenges corroborated with a great urgency for sustainable development. In this context, the European Commission has launched in 2013 a unitary system of indicators for sustainable management of tourism destinations, called The European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS. More specifically, ETIS was configured initially with a total of 27 core indicators and 40 additional (optional indicators. The purpose of this paper is to present the difficulties and challenges encountered in the application of ETIS, having as a case study, the county of Braşov, located almost entirely in the Romanian Carpathians. In this regard, a testing technique has been designed through an innovative Group Decision Support System (GDSS that is applied to our destination. The results show that the selection of ETIS indicators is a flexible process that must be adequate with the particularities of each destination taking into account both the needs of the stakeholders, the information that is useful to them, and the existence and periodicity of the data available. Also, in some cases, when the available indicators are insufficient, additional indicators have to be introduced, and they must be subsequently adapted to the needs and specifics of the destination.

  8. Veiksmīgu biznesa attiecību veidošana ar Japānu: lietišķā etiķete.

    OpenAIRE

    Korde, Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs veltīts Japānas lietišķās etiķetes nozīmīguma izpētei starptautisku biznesa attiecību ietvaros. Japānas kultūra arī mūsdienās ir spējusi saglabāt savas tradicionālās iezīmes. Japāņi pievērš uzmanību detaļām un pareizai rīcībai, tāpēc lietišķā etiķete ieņem būtisku lomu Japānas biznesa vidē. Šī darba mērķis ir noskaidrot, cik nozīmīga mūsdienās ir Japānas lietišķā etiķete starptautiskās biznesa attiecībās. Tādēļ darbā tiks apskatīti cēloņi, kāpēc Japānas lietišķā etiķete...

  9. Measuring the effect of an astrobiology course on student optimism regarding extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L.

    2017-07-01

    Students in an introductory undergraduate Astrobiology course were given a pre/post-test based on the Drake Equation in an attempt to measure changes in their perceptions regarding the prevalence of life in the Galaxy after taking the course. The results indicated that, after taking the course, the students were considerably more optimistic, by a 2 to 1 margin or more, about the prospect of habitable planets, the origin of life, and the evolution of intelligence in other planetary systems. The results suggest that, while it may not be the explicit goal of an astrobiology course to change student beliefs about the abundance or rarity of extraterrestrial life, such changes in opinion can and do occur.

  10. Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardoff, J.; Haisch, B.; Maccabee, B.; Puthoff, H. E.

    It has recently been argued that anthropic reasoning applied to inflation theory reinforces the prediction that we should find ourselves part of a large, galaxy-sized civilisation, thus strengthening Fermi's paradox concerning `Where are they?' Furthermore, superstring and M-brane theory allow for the possibility of parallel universes, some of which in principle could be habitable. In addition, discussion of such exotic transport concepts as `traversable wormholes' now appears in the rigorous physics literature. As a result, the `We are alone' solution to Fermi's paradox, based on the constraints of earlier 20th century viewpoints, appears today to be inconsistent with new developments in our best current physics and astrophysics theories. Therefore we reexamine and reevaluate the present assumption that extraterrestrials or their probes are not in the vicinity of Earth, and argue instead that some evidence of their presence might be found in certain high-quality UFO reports. This study follows up on previous arguments that (1) interstellar travel for advanced civilizations is not a priori ruled out by physical principles and therefore may be practicable, and (2) such advanced civilisations may value the search for knowledge from uncontaminated species more than direct, interspecies communication, thereby accounting for apparent covertness regarding their presence.

  11. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  12. The Search for Extraterrestrials Intercepting Alien Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Monte

    2009-01-01

    In The Search for Extraterrestrials, Monte Ross explores in detail the key problems in starting a search, the programs that have failed and those that continue. He includes the fundamental considerations and the physics of the necessary laser, UV, IR and RF technologies, as well as coding and information theory considerations. The author explores future possibilities providing the reader with a comprehensive view of the many ways signals from aliens could be sent and explains why the search using RF leaves more than 99% of the electromagnetic spectrum unexamined. He also demonstrates the many parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, considering the next likely steps in this unique enterprise. Given man’s intrinsic nature to explore, the search will continue in one form or many, until success is achieved, which may be tomorrow or a millennium away. In summary, Monte Ross proposes to get around the failure of a fruitless search at radio frequencies by developing, in a precise way, the argument for searching for...

  13. Extraterrestrial Life in the Microbial Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronstal, Aaron L.

    Humankind has long been fascinated with the potential for alien civilizations within the Solar System and beyond (e.g., Crowe and Dowd 2013; Sullivan 2013). Despite the early optimism for life beyond Earth, humankind has yet to make first contact with an alien race. Historical discourse on the topic of alien life can provide some useful input into questions about how the people of Earth today might respond to contact with alien life (e.g., Dick 2013). However, this discourse is primarily devoted to understanding humankind's response to intelligent life. We must recognize that the search for life's potential beyond Earth has dramatically changed since the dawn of the Space Age. We now know that advanced civilizations are not common on planets in our solar system. The search for life on nearby worlds is now limited to non-intelligent, microbial life. Any chance we have of contacting intelligent life lies in receiving transmissions from distant worlds, and contact with such cultures would be greatly limited by the vast expanse of space. This chapter discusses the need for more attention paid to the possible social, economic, and legal ramifications that the discovery of non-intelligent, alien microbial life might bring.

  14. Almanya'da sığır ve dana eti piyasa düzeni ve Türkiye için sığır eti pazarlamasında model oluşturabilme olanakları üzerine bir araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Sevinç

    2006-01-01

    Almanya'da Sığır ve Dana Eti Piyasa Düzeni ve Türkiye İçin Sığır Eti PazarlamasındaModel Oluşturabilme Olanakları Üzerine Bir AraştırmaBu araştırmada Avrupa Birliği Ortak Tarım Politikası kapsamında Sığır ve Dana Eti OrtakPiyasa Düzeni'nde uygulanmış ve uygulanmakta olan politikalar, Almanya'nın kasaplıkhayvan ve et piyasa yapısı ile ilgili düzenlemeleri, Almanya'da kasaplık hayvan ve etpazarlamasının tarihsel gelişimi detaylı olarak incelenmiştir.Türkiye'de 2001-2004 yıl...

  15. The Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. I. Background and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review 'Dysonian SETI', the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the 'monocultural fallacy'. We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (<10 9 yr), and that many 'sustainability' counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  16. Measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Meteorites are rocks and pieces of iron-nickel alloy which fall to earth from time to time. They were formed about 4.6 billion years ago when our solar system was started. Thus it has been said that meteorites are the Rosetta stones of our solar system. We use the long-lived radioactive nuclides produced by cosmic ray bombardment, to study the history of the meteorites and also the history of the cosmic rays. When we have these historical facts in our hads, we hope we will be able to understand better how the solar system works, and how it got started. We can also learn more about the nature and origin of the cosmic rays. The accelerator mass spectrometry method helps not only reduce sample size, in most cases by two or three orders of magnitude, but opens another set of cosmogenic nuclides which have not been measured yet. Already 10 Be (t/sub 1/2 = 1.6 x 10 6 y), 36 Cl (3.0 x 10 5 y) and 129 I (1.6 x 10 7 y) in meteorites have been measured by accelerator mass spectrometry [3, 4, 7, 10]. Possible new candidates for measurement in extraterrestrial materials are 26 Al (7.2 x 10 5 y), 41 Ca (1.3 x 10 5 y), 60 Fe (approx. 10 5 y) and 59 Ni (7.6 x 10 4 y). We hope also to measure 146 Sm (1.0 x 10 8 y) and 92 Nb

  17. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  18. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  19. Intelligent mechatronics; Intelligent mechatronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-10-01

    Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.

  20. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  1. The search for extraterrestrial life: Recent developments; Proceedings of the Symposium, Boston University, MA, June 18-21, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, M. D.

    The conference presents papers on the history of the search for extraterrestrial life, the scientific rationale and methods used in the search for other planetary systems, the detection of distant planets with the Space Telescope, planetary searches using optical astrometric interferometers, and infrared spectral identification of complex organic molecules in interstellar grains. Also considered are universal protein ancestors from hydrogen cyanide and water, astronomical sources of polarized light and their role in determining molecular chirality on earth, the universal diagrams and life in the universe, the precambrian evolution of terrestrial life and a thermodynamic approach to the occurrance and appearance of galactic life forms. Papers are also presented on the Ohio Seti program, lunar reflections of terrestrial radio leakage, the multichannel spectrum analyzer, software implementation of detection algorithms for the MCSA, the Serendip II design, galactic colonization and competition in a young galactic disk, implications of ancient and future migrations, extraterrestrial intelligence, the inevitability and the possible structures of supercivilizations, planetary, interplanetary and interstellar organic matter, and universal aspects of biological evolution.

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  3. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  4. Capacidade de Resiliência Urbana: Estudo de Caso da Cidade Addis Ababa na Etiópia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Criscibene Pantaleão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Com foco no planejamento urbano sustentável, este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para a redução do risco de desastres das cidades por meio do desenvolvimento de estratégias que possibilitem a superação de suas vulnerabilidades. Utilizando uma pesquisa aplicada com abordagem qualitativa, o material analisado nas pesquisas de revisão bibliográfica e análise documental foi obtido em sites das organizações e instituições, de revistas científicas e livros físicos. A estratégia de pesquisa aplicada foi um estudo de caso exploratório da cidade Addis Ababa, capital da Etiópia, considerada a de maior importância política e diplomática de todo o continente e com maior probabilidade de avançar em sua posição global nos próximos anos. Avaliando o material levantado nas pesquisas relacionadas à cidade foco do estudo, é possível constatar um alto índice de vulnerabilidade em todos os temas abordados, mas também a existência de um grande potencial de desenvolvimento da capacidade de resiliência urbana com investimentos a serem feitos nas quatro esferas: política, social, ambiental e econômica. Os resultados deste trabalho podem ter um caráter direcionador aos gestores das cidades que desejam desenvolver as capacidades adaptativas em cada realidade, reduzindo os impactos negativos das vulnerabilidades e as transformando em desafios a serem superados. Este trabalho contribui para a área acadêmica com dados importantes para novos estudos relacionados ao tema, assim como traz elementos importantes para tomadores de decisão, formuladores de políticas públicas e para a sociedade, despertando a consciência e o aprendizado de novas possibilidades para o desenvolvimento sustentável das cidades, sociedades e cidadãos.

  5. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  6. Intelligence Naturelle et Intelligence Artificielle

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cet article présente une approche systémique du concept d’intelligence naturelle en ayant pour objectif de créer une intelligence artificielle. Ainsi, l’intelligence naturelle, humaine et animale non-humaine, est une fonction composée de facultés permettant de connaître et de comprendre. De plus, l'intelligence naturelle reste indissociable de la structure, à savoir les organes du cerveau et du corps. La tentation est grande de doter les systèmes informatiques d’une intelligence artificielle ...

  7. The Role of Extraterrestrial Materials in the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    It has been well established for some time now that C-rich organic materials are relatively common in a number of environments in space. This is known through the telescopic detection of these materials using spectroscopy techniques in the infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges and through the identification of organics in extraterrestrial materials. Extraterrestrial materials in which organics have been found include collected meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, and samples returned by NASA spacecraft from comets. These organics are produced by a variety of astrochemical processes. Despite their abiotic origins, these organic materials of are considerable interest to astrobiology for several reasons. First, organic materials of any composition are important as a means of delivering the elements C, H, O, and N to the surfaces of newly formed planets, and these elements are likely critical to the origin and subsequent evolution of life (certainly for life as we know it). In addition, it is clear that at least a portion of the organics found in space are in the form of molecules that play important roles in modern biology - for example, molecules like amino acids, amphiphiles, quinones, etc. Thus, the delivery of extraterrestrial organics to planetary surfaces brings not only bulk C, H, O, and N, but also molecular complexity in forms that are potentially useful for the origin and early evolution of life. This suggests that the production and delivery of cosmic organic compounds may have played key roles in the origin of life on Earth and, by extension, on other planets in the universe.

  8. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  9. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetesi, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

  10. Extraterrestrial materials examined by mean of nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodja, H.; Smith, T.; Engrand, C.; Herzog, G.; Raepsaet, C.

    2013-07-01

    Comet fragments, micrometeorites, and Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small objects (purpose, we need instruments and methods that provide both microanalysis and detailed imaging. In these respects, the nuclear microprobe offers many potential advantages: (i) the spatial resolution, ∼1 μm is well-matched to the typical object dimensions, (ii) with some reservations, it is non-destructive when carefully conducted, (iii) it is quantitative, and especially sensitive for light elements. At the Saclay nuclear microprobe, we have been performing analyses of extraterrestrial objects for many years. We review some of these studies, emphasizing the specific requirements for successful analyses. We also discuss the potential pitfalls that may be encountered.

  11. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetesi, Zsolt, E-mail: zs.hetesi@astro.elte.h [Eoetvoes University, Department of Astronomy, Budapest, H-1518, PO Box 32 (Hungary)

    2010-03-01

    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

  12. Religions and extraterrestrial life how will we deal with it?

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, David A

    2014-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the debate about life on other worlds is quickly changing from the realm of speculation to the domain of hard science. Within a few years, as a consequence of the rapid discovery by astronomers of planets around other stars, astronomers very likely will have discovered clear evidence of life beyond the Earth. Such a discovery of extraterrestrial life will change everything.  Knowing the answer as to whether humanity has company in the universe will trigger one of the greatest intellectual revolutions in history, not the least of which will be a challenge for at least some terrestrial religions. Which religions will handle the discovery of extraterrestrial life with ease and which will struggle to assimilate this new knowledge about our place in the universe? Some religions as currently practiced appear to only be viable on Earth. Other religions could be practiced on distant worlds but nevertheless identify both Earth as a place and humankind as a species of singular spiritual re...

  13. Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.

    1980-01-01

    Platinum metals are depleted in the earth's crust relative to their cosmic abundance; concentrations of these elements in deep-sea sediments may thus indicate influxes of extraterrestrial material. Deep-sea limestones exposed in Italy, Denmark, and New Zealand show iridium increases of about 30, 160, and 20 times, respectively, above the background level at precisely the time of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions, 65 million years ago. Reasons are given to indicate that this iridium is of extraterrestrial origin, but did not come from a nearby supernova. A hypothesis is suggested which accounts for the extinctions and the iridium observations. Impact of a large earth-crossing asteroid would inject about 60 times the object's mass into the atmosphere as pulverized rock; a fraction of this dust would stay in the stratosphere for several years and be distributed worldwide. The resulting darkness would suppress photosynthesis, and the expected biological consequences match quite closely the extinctions observed in the paleontological record. One prediction of this hypothesis has been verified: the chemical composition of the boundary clay, which is thought to come from the stratospheric dust, is markedly different from that of clay mixed with the Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones, which are chemically similar to each other. Four different independent estimates of the diameter of the asteroid give values that lie in the range 10 +- 4 kilometers

  14. Haber Etiği ve Bir Siyasi Haber İncelemesi / News Ethics and An Analysis of a Political News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buğra KARDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Medyada haber etiği ve habercilik ahlakı tartışmaları, medya tarihi kadar eski bir olgudur. İletişim teknolojisinin sağladığı imkânlarla faaliyet çeşitliliği, etki gücü ve etki alanı hızla artan basın-yayın sektörü, siyasi ve/veya mali hedefler gözeten birer araç olarak artık daha sık kullanılmakta ve ortaya çıkan etik (ve adli sorunlar, medyada haber etiği tartışmalarının güncel kalması sonucunu doğurmaktadır. Bu çalışmada medyada haber etiği konusu, siyasi bir haber (bir siyasi parti genel başkanına dönük şiddet eylemi haberi çerçevesinde ele alınmış; olayın farklı siyasi duruşlardaki bazı medya organları (gazeteler tarafından haberleştirilme biçimi, belirli kıstaslar altında toplanan veriler eşliğinde, haber etiği perspektifiyle ve karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiştir. Yapılan inceleme sonuçlarına göre, özellikle bazı gazetelerde söz konusu haberin sunuş biçimi üzerinde medya organlarının siyasi pozisyonlarının etkili olabildiği gözlemlenmiştir. / Debates on ethics in media and journalism has a long-standing history, just as the history of media. Due to the opportunities provided by communication technologies, power, influence and functions of the press and media increase and so that play an instrumental role in maximization of the political and/or financial ambitions of political or economic actors. Hence, debates on news ethics continue forever to be a major issue. This study focuses on ethical issues in the news and more specifically political news; elaborates on a news about the violence that a political party leader faced in Turkey, and analyzes how media (newspapers from different political views reflected the case. As a result of the study, it has been observed that newspapers presented the event largely according to their political positions and worldviews.

  15. Search for extraterrestrial intelligence/high resolution microwave survey team member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    This semiannual status report describes activities conducted by the Principal Investigator during the first half of this third year of the NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Investigator Working Group (IWG). As a (HRMS) Team Member with primary interest in the Sky Survey activity, this investigator attended IWG meetings at NASA/Ames and U.C.-Santa Cruz in Apr. and Aug. 1992, and has traveled independently to NRAO/Kitt Peak, Arizona (April 1993) and Woodbury, Georgia (July 1993). During the July 1993 visit to the Georgia Tech Research Corporation/Woodbury Research Facility, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of interference from C-band (3.7 - 4.2 GHz) geostationary spacecraft on the Sky Survey operation in that band. At the first IWG meeting in April of this year, results of a SETI observation conducted at the 203 GHz positronium hyperfine resonance using the NRAO facility at Kitt Peak, AZ, were presented, as well as updates on the development of the spaceborne RFI data bases developed for the project. At the second meeting, results of the study of interference from C-band geostationary spacecraft were presented. Likewise, a presentation was made at the accompanying 1993 Bioastronomy Symposium describing the SETI observation at the positronium hyperfine resonance.

  16. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  17. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  18. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria for the Development of Extraterrestrial Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    In-situ production of consumables (mainly oxygen) using local resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human exploration and settlement of the solar system, starting with the Moon. With few exceptions, nearly all technologies developed to date have employed an approach based on inorganic chemistry. None of these technologies include concepts for integrating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production system. Therefore, a new concept based on the cultivation of cyanobacteria (CB) in semi-closed biogeoreactor, linking ISRU, a biological life support system, and food production, has been proposed. The key feature of the biogeoreactor is to use lithotrophic CB to extract many needed elements such as Fe directly from the dissolved regolith and direct them to any technological loop at an extraterrestrial outpost. Our studies showed that siderophilic (Fe-loving) CB are capable to corrode lunar regolith stimulants because they secrete chelating agents and can tolerate [Fe] up to 1 mM. However, lunar and Martian environments are very hostile (very high UV and gamma-radiation, extreme temperatures, deficit of water). Thus, the selection of CB species with high potential for extraterrestrial biotechnologies that may be utilized in 15 years must be sponsored by NASA as soon as possible. The study of the genomes of candidate CB species and the metagenomes of the terrestrial environments which they inhabit is critical to make this decision. Here we provide preliminary results about peculiarities of the genomes of siderophilic CB revealed by analyzing the genome of siderophilic cyanobacterium JSC-1 and the metagenome of iron depositing hot spring (IDHS) Chocolate Pots (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). It has been found that IDHS are richer with ferrous iron than the majority of hot springs around the world. Fe2+ is known to increase the magnitude of oxidative stress in prokaryotes

  19. Extraterrestrial Life: Life on Mars - Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf; Mojzsis, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    The recent claim to have identified possible signs of ancient life on Mars has been widely publicized and discussed. The authors conceded that none of the half-dozen pieces of evidence adduced in their paper individually provided strong support for extraterrestrial life, though they argued that the pieces added up to a case worth considering. Most - perhaps all - of the observed phenomena have counterparts in the inorganic world, so even the combination does not make a compelling case that there was ever life on Mars. Nevertheless, the importance of the problem has justified bringing the results to general attention. The paper has focussed interest on the origin and possible ubiquity of life, and on how we can design techniques capable of giving a more definitive answer to the question of whether there is, or has ever been, life elsewhere in the Universe.

  20. Analytical SuperSTEM for extraterrestrial materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R

    2009-09-08

    Electron-beam studies of extraterrestrial materials with significantly improved spatial resolution, energy resolution and sensitivity are enabled using a 300 keV SuperSTEM scanning transmission electron microscope with a monochromator and two spherical aberration correctors. The improved technical capabilities enable analyses previously not possible. Mineral structures can be directly imaged and analyzed with single-atomic-column resolution, liquids and implanted gases can be detected, and UV-VIS optical properties can be measured. Detection limits for minor/trace elements in thin (<100 nm thick) specimens are improved such that quantitative measurements of some extend to the sub-500 ppm level. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be carried out with 0.10-0.20 eV energy resolution and atomic-scale spatial resolution such that variations in oxidation state from one atomic column to another can be detected. Petrographic mapping is extended down to the atomic scale using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) imaging. Technical capabilities and examples of the applications of SuperSTEM to extraterrestrial materials are presented, including the UV spectral properties and organic carbon K-edge fine structure of carbonaceous matter in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), x-ray elemental maps showing the nanometer-scale distribution of carbon within GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides), the first detection and quantification of trace Ti in GEMS using EDS, and detection of molecular H{sub 2}O in vesicles and implanted H{sub 2} and He in irradiated mineral and glass grains.

  1. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  2. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  3. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  4. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  5. Intelligent Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Pinedo, Edilfredo Eliot

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Advertisement diseña e implementa un sistema de publicidad para dispositivos móviles en un centro comercial, donde los clientes reciben publicidad de forma pasiva en sus dispositivos mientras están dentro.

  6. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Mohor Dumitrita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present business intelligence systems. These systems can be extremely complex and important in modern market competition. Its effectiveness also reflects in price, so we have to exlore their financial potential before investment. The systems have 20 years long history and during that time many of such tools have been developed, but they are rarely still in use. Business intelligence system consists of three main areas: Data Warehouse, ETL tools and tools f...

  7. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  8. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PI has developed a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), which can be op-timized for space and extraterrestrial applications, by using a...

  10. Insights from Cyanobacterial Genomes for the Development of Extraterrestrial Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Bryant, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.; Malley, K.; Sosa, O.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-04-01

    Using genomic and metagenomic analysis, Fe-tolerant cyanobacterial species with a large and diverse set of stress-tolerant genes, were identified as prime candidates for in situ resource utilization in a biogeoreactor at extraterrestrial outposts.

  11. Do Reino de Axum ao Reino da Etiópia (Século I D.C. ao século XVII: A Força e o Isolamento do Cristianismo na África do Norte e Nordeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Manuel Vara Branco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O reino da Etiópia é produto da presença do Cristianismo no Norte e Nordeste de África. Perante o avanço do Islamismo, no século VII depois de Cristo, o Reino da Etiópia isolou-se do mundo exterior, nomeadamente dos Centros Religiosos de Constantinopla e Roma.

  12. Extra-terrestrial construction processes - Advancements, opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Prabhu, Vibha Levin; Anand, Mahesh; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2017-10-01

    Government space agencies, including NASA and ESA, are conducting preliminary studies on building alternative space-habitat systems for deep-space exploration. Such studies include development of advanced technologies for planetary surface exploration, including an in-depth understanding of the use of local resources. Currently, NASA plans to land humans on Mars in the 2030s. Similarly, other space agencies from Europe (ESA), Canada (CSA), Russia (Roscosmos), India (ISRO), Japan (JAXA) and China (CNSA) have already initiated or announced their plans for launching a series of lunar missions over the next decade, ranging from orbiters, landers and rovers for extended stays on the lunar surface. As the Space Odyssey is one of humanity's oldest dreams, there has been a series of research works for establishing temporary or permanent settlement on other planetary bodies, including the Moon and Mars. This paper reviews current projects developing extra-terrestrial construction, broadly categorised as: (i) ISRU-based construction materials; (ii) fabrication methods; and (iii) construction processes. It also discusses four categories of challenges to developing an appropriate construction process: (i) lunar simulants; (ii) material fabrication and curing; (iii) microwave-sintering based fabrication; and (iv) fully autonomous and scaled-up construction processes.

  13. A Review of Extra-Terrestrial Mining Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; van Susante, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Outer space contains a vast amount of resources that offer virtually unlimited wealth to the humans that can access and use them for commercial purposes. One of the key technologies for harvesting these resources is robotic mining of regolith, minerals, ices and metals. The harsh environment and vast distances create challenges that are handled best by robotic machines working in collaboration with human explorers. Humans will benefit from the resources that will be mined by robots. They will visit outposts and mining camps as required for exploration, commerce and scientific research, but a continuous presence is most likely to be provided by robotic mining machines that are remotely controlled by humans. There have been a variety of extra-terrestrial robotic mining concepts proposed over the last 40 years and this paper will attempt to summarize and review concepts in the public domain (government, industry and academia) to serve as an informational resource for future mining robot developers and operators. The challenges associated with these concepts will be discussed and feasibility will be assessed. Future needs associated with commercial efforts will also be investigated.

  14. A Review of Extra-Terrestrial Mining Robot Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Van Susante, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Outer space contains a vast amount of resources that offer virtually unlimited wealth to the humans that can access and use them for commercial purposes. One of the key technologies for harvesting these resources is robotic mining of regolith, minerals, ices and metals. The harsh environment and vast distances create challenges that are handled best by robotic machines working in collaboration with human explorers. Humans will benefit from the resources that will be mined by robots. They will visit outposts and mining camps as required for exploration, commerce and scientific research, but a continuous presence is most likely to be provided by robotic mining machines that are remotely controlled by humans. There have been a variety of extra-terrestrial robotic mining concepts proposed over the last 100 years and this paper will attempt to summarize and review concepts in the public domain (government, industry and academia) to serve as an informational resource for future mining robot developers and operators. The challenges associated with these concepts will be discussed and feasibility will be assessed. Future needs associated with commercial efforts will also be investigated.

  15. The quest for extraterrestrial life: what about the viruses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale Warren

    2013-01-01

    Recently, viruses have been recognized as the most numerous entities and the primary drivers of evolution on Earth. Historically, viruses have been mostly ignored in the field of astrobiology due to the view that they are not alive in the classical sense and if encountered would not present risk due to their host-specific nature. What we currently know of viruses is that we are most likely to encounter them on other life-bearing planets; that while some are exquisitely host-specific, many viruses can utilize hundreds of different host species; that viruses are known to exist in our planet's most extreme environments; and that while many do not survive long outside their hosts, some can survive for extended periods, especially in the cold. In our quest for extraterrestrial life, we should be looking for viruses; and while any encountered may pose no risk, the possibility of an encounter with a virus capable of accessing multiple cell types exists, and any prospective contact with such an organism should be treated accordingly.

  16. Thermal Design for Extra-Terrestrial Regenerative Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, R.; Guzik, M.; Jakupca, I.; Bennett, W.; Smith, P.; Fincannon, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 C versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  17. New Fiber Reinforced Waterless Concrete for Extraterrestrial Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutanji, H.; Tucker, D.; Ethridge, E.

    2005-01-01

    Commercial use of sulfur concrete on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive, e.g., acid and salt, environments. Having found troilite (FeS) on the Moon raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction mate: iii an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water For the purpose of this paper it is assumed that lunar ore is mined, refined, and the raw sulfur processed with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, brick and beam elements. Glass fibers produced from regolith were used as a reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of the sulfur concrete. Glass fibers and glass rebar were produced by melting the lunar regolith simulant. Lunar regolith stimulant was melted in a 25 cc Pt-Rh crucible in a Sybron Thermoline 46100 high temperature MoSi2 furnace at melting temperatures of 1450 to 1600G. The glass melt wets the ceramic rod and long continuous glass fibers were easily hand drawn. The glass fibers were immediately coated with a protective polymer to maintain the mechanical strength. The viability of sulfur concrete as a construction material for extraterrestrial application is presented. The mechanical properties of the glass fiber reinforced sulfur concrete were investigated.

  18. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  19. Intelligent Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: chance and the universe (synthesis of proteins; the primordial soup); the gospel according to Darwin (discussion of Darwin theory of evolution); life did not originate on earth (fossils from space; life in space); the interstellar connection (living dust between the stars; bacteria in space falling to the earth; interplanetary dust); evolution by cosmic control (microorganisms; genetics); why aren't the others here (a cosmic origin of life); after the big bang (big bang and steady state); the information rich universe; what is intelligence up to; the intelligent universe.

  20. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  1. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined, even unpredictable conduct, 2- entities endowed with diverse or even multiple intelligence forms, like moral intelligence, 3- open and, even, free-conduct performing systems (with specific, flexible and heuristic mechanisms and procedures of decision, 4 – systems which are open to education, not just to instruction, 5- entities with “lifegraphy”, not just “stategraphy”, 6- equipped not just with automatisms but with beliefs (cognitive and affective complexes, 7- capable even of reflection (“moral life” is a form of spiritual, not just of conscious activity, 8 – elements/members of some real (corporal or virtual community, 9 – cultural beings: free conduct gives cultural value to the action of a ”natural” or artificial being. Implementation of such characteristics does not necessarily suppose efforts to design, construct and educate machines like human beings. The human moral code is irremediably imperfect: it is a morality of preference, of accountability (not of responsibility and a morality of non-liberty, which cannot be remedied by the invention of ethical systems, by the circulation of ideal values and by ethical (even computing education. But such an imperfect morality needs perfect instruments for its implementation: applications of special logic fields; efficient psychological (theoretical and technical attainments to endow the machine not just with intelligence, but with conscience and even spirit; comprehensive technical

  2. Çevre etiği bağlamında Anadolu sığla ormanları

    OpenAIRE

    ÜRKER, Okan

    2014-01-01

    Doğal kaynak/varlık kullanımı ve yönetiminde toplumsal taleplerin hangi koşullar altında şekillendiğinin ve yönlendirildiğinin tespit edilmesi, buna ilişkin etik talebin ortaya çıkma süreçlerinin izlenmesi, bu bağlamda kamu vicdanının ve kamu yararının oluşmasında ve farklı şekillerde algılanmasında ve içselleştirilmesinde hukuk, politika gibi araçların nasıl kullanıldığının gösterilmesi, tüm bu süreçlerin çevre etiği açısından değerlendirilmesi ve sonucunda toplumsal faydanın ‘doğa ...

  3. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  4. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  5. On the abundance of extraterrestrial life after the Kepler mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Amri

    2015-07-01

    The data recently accumulated by the Kepler mission have demonstrated that small planets are quite common and that a significant fraction of all stars may have an Earth-like planet within their habitable zone. These results are combined with a Drake-equation formalism to derive the space density of biotic planets as a function of the relatively modest uncertainty in the astronomical data and of the (yet unknown) probability for the evolution of biotic life, F b. I suggest that F b may be estimated by future spectral observations of exoplanet biomarkers. If F b is in the range 0.001-1, then a biotic planet may be expected within 10-100 light years from Earth. Extending the biotic results to advanced life I derive expressions for the distance to putative civilizations in terms of two additional Drake parameters - the probability for evolution of a civilization, F c, and its average longevity. For instance, assuming optimistic probability values (F b~F c~1) and a broadcasting longevity of a few thousand years, the likely distance to the nearest civilizations detectable by searching for intelligent electromagnetic signals is of the order of a few thousand light years. The probability of detecting intelligent signals with present and future radio telescopes is calculated as a function of the Drake parameters. Finally, I describe how the detection of intelligent signals would constrain the Drake parameters.

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  7. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  8. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  9. Intelligent Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  10. Carl Sagan and Joseph Shklovsky: Intelligent Life in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Vladimir

    J. S. Shklovsky and Carl Sagan played an outstanding role in modern astronomy. Their names are well known not only to professional astronomers, but also to millions of educated people in many countries, which are interested in modern state of science research. Among these trends of modern science, which are difficult to define, are such problems, as the creation of Solar system, the origin of life on Earth, the evolution of living organisms on Earth from the simplest viruses to Homo Sapiens, the evolution of intelligence and technology. Finally, both outstanding scientists were deeply interested in the problem of SETI (Search Extraterrestrial Intelligence), i.e. search of extraterrestrial civilizations and methods of making contacts with them. And both scientists were high professionals in their fields. Joseph Shklovsky was a theoretical astronomer in all fields of modern astronomy (geophysics and physics of the upper atmosphere of the Earth, Sun and Solar Corona, Interplanetary Medium and Solar Wind, Interstellar Medium, Supernova and their remnants, the Galaxy and galaxies, Quasars and Cosmology). There is hardly a field in modern astrophysics (except perhaps the theory of the interior structure of stars), where Joseph Shklovsky has not l a bright stamp of his talent…

  11. Study of extraterrestrial material by means of a high sensitive mass spectrometer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, O.; Kaneko, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Shimamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    In this report it is described about a high sensitive mass spectrometer for measurement of isotopic abundance of extraterrestrial material. Detecting isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial matter induced by cosmic ray or solar wind irradiation, we can obtain many informations about interplanetary and/or intersteller space. For this purpose we reform the mass spectrometer of Low Energy Physics Division of INS to improve the sensitivity and the resolution. In section I--VI some improvements of the mass spectrometer (vacuum system, ion source, collector etc.) are described. In section VII--X newly developed ion counting system is discussed. (auth.)

  12. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  13. Pengaruh Kecerdasan Emosional, Iklim Organisasi, dan Kepuasan Kerja Terhadap Perilaku Etis Karyawan Pada Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum (PDAM) Tirta Malem Kabanjahe Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Barus, Debora Sriulina

    2015-01-01

    Formulation of the problem this research is whether emotional intelligence, organization climate and job satisfaction individually and together possitive and significant effect on ethical behavior of employees in Local Water Company (PDAM ) Tirta Malem Kabanjahe Kabupaten Karo. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of emotional intelligence, organization climate and job satisfaction individually and together the ethical behavior of employees in Local Water Company (PD...

  14. The cosmic gorilla effect or the problem of undetected non terrestrial intelligent signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. De la Torre, Gabriel; Garcia, Manuel A.

    2018-05-01

    This article points to a long lasting problem in space research and cosmology, the problem of undetected signs of non terrestrial life and civilizations. We intentionally avoid the term extraterrestrial as we consider other possibilities that may arise but not fall strictly within the extraterrestrial scope. We discuss the role of new physics including dark matter and string theory in the search for life and other non terrestrial intelligence. A new classification for non terrestrial civilizations with three types and five dimensions is also provided. We also explain how our own neurophysiology, psychology and consciousness can play a major role in this search of non terrestrial civilizations task and how they have been neglected up to this date. To test this, 137 adults were evaluated using the cognitive reflection test, an attention/awareness questionnaire and a visuospatial searching task with aerial view images to determine the presence of inattentional blindness.

  15. Finding Extraterrestrial Life Using Ground-based High-dispersion Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, I.A.G.; Kok, R.; Poole, le R.S.; Brogi, M.; Birkby, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanet observations promise one day to unveil the presence of extraterrestrial life. Atmospheric compounds in strong chemical disequilibrium would point to large-scale biological activity just as oxygen and methane do in the Earth's atmosphere. The cancellation of both the Terrestrial Planet

  16. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  17. The Younger Dryas climate change: was it caused by an extraterrestrial impact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas is an abrupt cooling event at the end of the last Glacial associated to a change in ocean circulation. According to the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, however, one or more extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts occuring around 12.8 ka caused the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive

  18. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  19. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  20. Tracers of the Extraterrestrial Component in Sediments and Inferences for Earth's Accretion History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    The study of extraterrestrial matter in sediments began with the discovery of cosmic spherules during the HMS Challenger Expedition (1873-1876), but has evolved into a multidisciplinary study of the chemical, physical, and isotopic study of sediments. Extraterrestrial matter in sediments comes mainly from dust and large impactors from the asteroid belt and comets. What we know of the nature of these source materials comes from the study of stratospheric dust particles, cosmic spherules, micrometeorites, meteorites, and astronomical observations. The most common chemical tracers of extraterrestrial matter in sediments are the siderophile elements, most commonly iridium and other platinum group elements. Physical tracers include cosmic and impact spherules, Ni-rich spinels, meteorites, fossil meteorites, and ocean-impact melt debris. Three types of isotopic systems have been used to trace extraterrestrial matter. Osmium isotopes cannot distinguish chondritic from mantle sources, but provide a useful tool in modeling long-term accretion rates. Helium isotopes can be used to trace the long-term flux of the fine fraction of the interplanetary dust complex. Chromium isotopes can provide unequivocal evidence of an extraterrestrial source for sediments with high concentrations of meteoritic Cr. The terrestrial history of impacts, as recorded in sediments, is still poorly understood. Helium isotopes, multiple Ir anomalies, spherule beds, and craters all indicate a comet shower in the late Eocene. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact event appears to have been caused by a single carbonaceous chondrite projectile, most likely of asteroid origin. Little is known of the impact record in sediments from the rest of the Phanerozoic. Several impact deposits are known in the Precambrian, including several possible mega-impacts in the Early Archean.

  1. Perilaku Etis Dan Tidak Etis Oleh Akuntan Dalam Sebuah Organisasi

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyida, Isnaini Anniswati

    2017-01-01

    Issues considering ethics that are faced by organization, employees of an organization isnt easy to resolved. The result of unethical behaviour of professional accountants/auditors, as well as ethical impact on an organization is a significant topic that become concern of a company. This study aims to examines the proper ethics as well as the importance of the company prosperity. Specificially for the affect a person will act ethical and unethical an the result of this paper is help to educat...

  2. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of US intelligence during arms control negotiations between 1982 and 1987. It also covers : the orchestration of intelligence projects; an evaluation of the performance of intelligence activities; the effect intelligence work had on actual arms negotiations; and suggestions for improvements in the future

  3. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  4. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    open source information— osint (newspapers...by user agencies. Section 1052 of the Intelligence Reform Act expressed the sense of Congress that there should be an open source intelligence ...center to coordinate the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of open source intelligence to other intelligence agencies. An Open Source

  5. Intelligent Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Lint

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, within liberal democracies, the post-Westphalian consolidation of security and intelligence has ushered in the normalization not only of security in ‘securitization’ but also of intelligence in what is proposed here as ‘intelligencification.’ In outlining the features of intelligencified governance, my aim is to interrogate the view that effects or traces, and productivity rather than negation is as persuasive as commonly thought by the constructivists. After all, counter-intelligence is both about purging and reconstructing the archive for undisclosed values. In practice, what is being normalized is the authorized and legalized use of release and retention protocols of politically actionable information. The intelligencification of governmentality affords a sovereignty shell-game or the instrumentalization of sovereign power by interests that are dependent on, yet often inimical to, the power of state, national, and popular sovereignty. On voit le politique et le social comme dépendant de contingences exclusives. Récemment, au sein des démocraties libérales, la consolidation de la sécurité et des services de renseignements de sécurité qui a suivi les traités de la Westphalie a donné lieu à la normalisation non seulement de la sécurité en «sécurisation» mais aussi des services de renseignements de sécurité en ce qui est proposé ici comme «intelligencification» [terme anglais créé par l’auteur, dérivé du mot anglais «intelligence» dans le sens de renseignements des écurité]. En particulier, ce que l’on normalise dans le but de contourner des contingences exclusives est l’utilisation autorisée et légalisée de protocoles de communication et de rétention d’information qui, politiquement, pourrait mener à des poursuites. En esquissant les traits de la gouvernance «intelligencifiée», mon but est d’interroger le point de vue que les effets ou les traces, et la productivité plutôt que la

  6. Pathogen intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSteinert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.

  7. Intelligent Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online http://www.sagemath.org/. Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  8. Kayseri’de Satışa Sunulan Kanatlı Eti Ürünlerinde Listeria spp. Varlığının Belirlenmesi*

    OpenAIRE

    YERLİKAYA, Osman Burak; YILDIRIM, Yeliz

    2015-01-01

     Bu çalışma, Kayseri’de satışa sunulan kanatlı eti ürünlerinde Listeria türlerinin varlığını belirlemek ve bu ürünlerinlisteriozis açısından taşıdığı halk sağlığı risklerini değerlendirmek amacıyla planlanmıştır. Beş farklı kanatlı eti ürününe (Taşlık,ciğer, nugget, sosis, salam) ait örneklerden 20’şer adet olmak üzere toplam 100 örnek analiz edilmiştir. Örnekler iki aşamalızenginleştirme prosedürünü takiben iki ayrı selektif besi yerine ekim ve biyokimyasal identifikasyon yapılmak s...

  9. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  10. Komparasi Evaluasi Etis Mahasiswa Akuntansi

    OpenAIRE

    Nikmatuniayah

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to test the difference between ethical evaluation, ethical intentions, and ethical orientation based on gender and discipline-based differences. Multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova) is used as research method. The result shows that there is no difference between different ethical orientation which is relativism, justice, and egoism between two gender and different educational background. Furthermore, there is no difference in ethical intentions and ethical evaluation ...

  11. Integritas Personal dan Kepemimpinan Etis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Atosökhi Gea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrity is very important for a leader. When a leader does not have integrity, then, sooner or later it will destroy the group or organization s/he leads. This occurs because the policies, decisions, attitudes, and actions made by the leader will have wide impact to the organization. A leader will be the center of attention of the members, and whatever they see in her/him will have a huge impact on the organization as a whole. Integrity has been given a lot of meaning; and everything is interconnected, which essentially refers to one's personal qualities, which make a person trustworthy and reliable. In the world of work, integrity appears in the form of good work performance or results. To be able to produce a good performance it is necessary to have competence. With integrity possessed the competence can be directed to produce a good performance. The problem that occurs is a lack of understanding of the relationship between integrity and performance. Generally, they are both understood separately, as stand-alone. But in reality the integrity is manifested through good performance. This applies also to a leader, which results a good performance in implementing ethical leadership. The purpose of this paper is to outline the relationship between integrity and performance, in which competence plays an important role. Integrity is the foundation for leadership, which makes it able to run and produce ethical leadership performance. 

  12. Komparasi Evaluasi Etis Mahasiswa Akuntansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatuniayah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to test the difference between ethical evaluation, ethical intentions, and ethical orientation based on gender and discipline-based differences. Multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova is used as research method. The result shows that there is no difference between different ethical orientation which is relativism, justice, and egoism between two gender and different educational background. Furthermore, there is no difference in ethical intentions and ethical evaluation between men and women, yet there is difference between different academic disciplines. Finally, there is a difference between the respondent that had and had not Ethic subject in college regarding ethical orientation, intentions and evaluation.

  13. Innovation in Extraterrestrial Service Systems - A Challenge for Service Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, David

    2010-01-01

    This presentation was prepared at the invitation of Professor Yukio Ohsawa, Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, for delivery at the International Workshop on Innovating Service Systems, sponsored by the Japanese Society of Artificial Intelligence (JSAI) as part of the JSAI Internation Symposium on AI, 2010. It offers several challenges for Service Science and Service Innovation. the goal of the presentation is to stimulate thinking about how service systems viII evolve in the future, as human society advances from its terrestrial base toward a permanent presence in space. First we will consider the complexity of the International Space Station (ISS) as it is today, with particular emphasis of its research facilities, and focus on a current challenge - to maximize the utilization of ISS research facilities for the benefit of society. After briefly reviewing the basic principles of Service Science, we will discuss the potential application of Service Innovation methodology to this challenge. Then we viII consider how game-changing technologies - in particular Synthetic Biology - could accelerate the pace of sociocultural evolution and consequently, the progression of human society into space. We will use this provocative vision to advance thinking about how the emerging field of Service Science, Management, and Engineering (SSME) might help us anticipate and better handle the challenges of this inevitable evolutionary process.

  14. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 1: Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. [feasibility of using space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Ramler, J. R.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste is reported. This report covers the initial work done on only one part of the NASA study, that evaluates and compares possible space destinations and space transportation systems. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles by about a factor of 2. The space shuttle requires a third stage to perform the waste disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission, this third stage could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur.

  15. MAD with aliens? Interstellar deterrence and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Janne M.

    2013-05-01

    The possibility that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) could be hostile to humanity has been raised as a reason to avoid even trying to contact ETIs. However, there is a distinct shortage of analytical discussion about the risks of an attack, perhaps because of an implicit premise that we cannot analyze the decision making of an alien civilization. This paper argues that we can draw some inferences from the history of the Cold War and nuclear deterrence in order to show that at least some attack scenarios are likely to be exaggerated. In particular, it would seem to be unlikely that the humanity would be attacked simply because it might, sometime in the future, present a threat to the ETI. Even if communication proves to be difficult, rational decision-makers should avoid unprovoked attacks, because their success would be very difficult to assure. In general, it seems believable that interstellar conflicts between civilizations would remain rare. The findings advise caution for proposed interstellar missions, however, as starfaring capability itself might be seen as a threat. On the other hand, attempting to contact ETIs seems to be a relatively low-risk strategy: paranoid ETIs must also consider the possibility that the messages are a deception designed to lure out hostile civilizations and preemptively destroy them.

  16. Origin of spherule samples recovered from antarctic ice sheet-Terrestrial or extraterrestrial?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, Shun; Takamiya, Koichi; Shibata, Seiichi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kobayashi, Takayuki [College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, Mitsuru [Dept. of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Thirty-eight spherules from the Antarctic ice sheet were analyzed using neutron activation analysis under two different conditions to investigate their origin. In almost all of these spherules, the contents of iron, cobalt, and manganese were determined to be 31% to 88%, 17 mg/kg to 810 mg/kg, and 0.017% to 7%, respectively. A detectable iridium content of 0.84 mg/kg was found in only one spherule, which was judged to be extraterrestrial in origin. A comparison of elemental compositions of the Antarctic spherules analyzed in this study with those of deep-sea sediment spherules and those of terrestrial materials revealed that most of the Antarctic spherules except for the sample in which iridium was detected could not be identified as extraterrestrial in origin.

  17. Limits on diffuse fluxes of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos with the AMANDA-B10 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganugapati, R.; Gaug, M.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hughey, B.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kuehn, K.; Kim, J.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Mandli, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, P.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schinarakis, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the AMANDA-B10 detector taken during the austral winter of 1997 have been searched for a diffuse flux of high energy extraterrestrial muon-neutrinos, as predicted from, e.g., the sum of all active galaxies in the universe. This search yielded no excess events above those expected from the background atmospheric neutrinos, leading to upper limits on the extraterrestrial neutrino flux. For an assumed E -2 spectrum, a 90 percent classical confidence level upper limit has been placed at a level E 2 Phi(E) = 8.4 x 10 -7 GeV cm -2 s -1 1 sr -1 (for a predominant neutrino energy range 6-1000 TeV) which is the most restrictive bound placed by any neutrino detector. When specific predicted spectral forms are considered, it is found that some are excluded

  18. Life from the stars?. [extraterrestrial sources contributing to chemical evolution on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1994-01-01

    Scientists are now seriously considering the possibility that organic matter from interstellar space could have influenced, or even spurred, the origin of life on Earth. Various aspects of chemical evolution are discussed along with possible extraterrestrial sources responsible for contributing to Earth's life-producing, chemical composition. Specific topics covered include the following: interstellar matter, molecular clouds, asteroid dust, organic molecules in our solar system, interplanetary dust and comets, meteoritic composition, and organic-rich solar-system bodies.

  19. The weak force and SETH: The search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDermott, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality emdash SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z 0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how the resulting small excess of the more stable enantiomer may be amplified to homochirality. Titan and comets are good places to test for emerging pre-biotic homochirality, while on Mars there may be traces of homochirality as a relic of extinct life. Our calculations of the PVED show that the natural L-amino acids are indeed more stable than their enantiomers, as are several key D-sugars and right-hand helical DNA. Thiosubstituted DNA analogues show particularly large PVEDs. L-quartz is also more stable than D-quartz, and we believe that further crystal counts should be carried out to establish whether reported excesses of L quartz are real. Finding extra-terrestrial molecules of the same hand as on Earth would lend support to the universal chiral influence of the weak force. We describe a novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, which we hope to use to detect optical rotation on other planets. Moving parts are avoided by replacing the normal rotating polarizer by multiple fixed polarizers at different angles as in the eye of the bee. Even if we do not find the same hand as on Earth, finding extra-terrestrial optical rotation would be of enormous importance as it would still be the homochiral signature of life. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. The weak force and SETH: The search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermott, Alexandra J.

    1996-07-01

    We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality-SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how the resulting small excess of the more stable enantiomer may be amplified to homochirality. Titan and comets are good places to test for emerging pre-biotic homochirality, while on Mars there may be traces of homochirality as a relic of extinct life. Our calculations of the PVED show that the natural L-amino acids are indeed more stable than their enantiomers, as are several key D-sugars and right-hand helical DNA. Thiosubstituted DNA analogues show particularly large PVEDs. L-quartz is also more stable than D-quartz, and we believe that further crystal counts should be carried out to establish whether reported excesses of L quartz are real. Finding extra-terrestrial molecules of the same hand as on Earth would lend support to the universal chiral influence of the weak force. We describe a novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, which we hope to use to detect optical rotation on other planets. Moving parts are avoided by replacing the normal rotating polarizer by multiple fixed polarizers at different angles as in the eye of the bee. Even if we do not find the same hand as on Earth, finding extra-terrestrial optical rotation would be of enormous importance as it would still be the homochiral signature of life.

  1. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  2. A New Dimension of Business Intelligence: Location-based Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljko Panian

    2012-01-01

    Through the course of this paper we define Locationbased Intelligence (LBI) which is outgrowing from process of amalgamation of geolocation and Business Intelligence. Amalgamating geolocation with traditional Business Intelligence (BI) results in a new dimension of BI named Location-based Intelligence. LBI is defined as leveraging unified location information for business intelligence. Collectively, enterprises can transform location data into business intelligence applic...

  3. Extraterrestrial Organic Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Extraterrestrially delivered organics in the origin of cellular life. Various processes leading to the emergence of cellular life from organics delivered from space to earth or other planetary bodies in the solar system will be reviewed. The focus will be on: (1) self-assembly of amphiphilic material to vesicles and other structures, such as micelles and multilayers, and its role in creating environments suitable for chemical catalysis, (2) a possible role of extraterrestrial delivery of organics in the formation of the simplest bioenergetics (3) mechanisms leading from amino acids or their precursors to simple peptides and, subsequently, to the evolution of metabolism. These issues will be discussed from two opposite points of view: (1) Which molecules could have been particularly useful in the protobiological evolution; this may provide focus for searching for these molecules in interstellar media. (2) Assuming that a considerable part of the inventory of organic matter on the early earth was delivered extraterrestrially, what does relative abundance of different organics in space tell us about the scenario leading to the origin of life.

  4. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  5. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  6. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the new paradigm for user-centered computing known as ambient intelligence and its relation with methods and techniques from the field of computational intelligence, including problem solving, machine learning, and expert systems.

  7. Advanced intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ryoo, Young; Jang, Moon-soo; Bae, Young-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been initiated with the attempt to imitate the human brain. People wish to let machines perform intelligent works. Many techniques of intelligent systems are based on artificial intelligence. According to changing and novel requirements, the advanced intelligent systems cover a wide spectrum: big data processing, intelligent control, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence and machine learning. This book focuses on coordinating intelligent systems with highly integrated and foundationally functional components. The book consists of 19 contributions that features social network-based recommender systems, application of fuzzy enforcement, energy visualization, ultrasonic muscular thickness measurement, regional analysis and predictive modeling, analysis of 3D polygon data, blood pressure estimation system, fuzzy human model, fuzzy ultrasonic imaging method, ultrasonic mobile smart technology, pseudo-normal image synthesis, subspace classifier, mobile object tracking, standing-up moti...

  8. Communication with extraterrestrial intelligences - Possibilities, chances, and perspectives with special attention given to the leaky-embargo hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebag, Johannes

    1989-12-01

    Present SETI projects are described, emphasizing search methods alternative to investigations in the radio range. The possibility that the human race is being studied by alien presences within the solar system is addressed in the context of the 'zoo hypothesis' and the 'leaky embargo' hypothesis. In the former, the aliens prevent any contact with humans, while in the latter occasional contact is permitted.

  9. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  10. Simulacioni model rešavanja taktičkih situacija i etičkih izazova u toku marševanja jedinice / Simulation model for solving tactical situations and ethical challenges during marching of military units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Kuzmanović

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulacioni modeli imaju veliku perspektivu primene u osposobljavanju pojedinaca, jedinica i komandi Vojske Srbije tokom procesa školovanja i obuke. U članku je ponuđen jedan od mogućih oblika primene simulacionog modela u toku marševanja jedinice, u kojem se rešavaju taktičke situacije i etički izazovi, a koji može biti primenljiv u toku školovanja i obuke oficirskog kadra Vojske Srbije. / Simulation models can be widely applied in training individuals, units and commanding units of the Serbian Army during the process of military education and training. The simulation model offered in the paper can be applied during marching of military units in order to solve tactical situations and ethical challenges. It can be also used for military education and training of the officers of the Serbian Army.

  11. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  12. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Weber, W.; Rabaey, J.M.; Aarts, E.

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the concept of ambient intelligence and discuss its relation with the domain of intelligent algorithms. By means of four examples of ambient intelligent systems, we argue that new computing methods and quantification measures are needed to bridge the gap between the class of

  13. Designing with computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Heitor; Mourelle, Luiza

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses a number of real-world applications of computational intelligence approaches. Using various examples, it demonstrates that computational intelligence has become a consolidated methodology for automatically creating new competitive solutions to complex real-world problems. It also presents a concise and efficient synthesis of different systems using computationally intelligent techniques.

  14. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  15. Social intelligence, human intelligence and niche construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterelny, Kim

    2007-04-29

    This paper is about the evolution of hominin intelligence. I agree with defenders of the social intelligence hypothesis in thinking that externalist models of hominin intelligence are not plausible: such models cannot explain the unique cognition and cooperation explosion in our lineage, for changes in the external environment (e.g. increasing environmental unpredictability) affect many lineages. Both the social intelligence hypothesis and the social intelligence-ecological complexity hybrid I outline here are niche construction models. Hominin evolution is hominin response to selective environments that earlier hominins have made. In contrast to social intelligence models, I argue that hominins have both created and responded to a unique foraging mode; a mode that is both social in itself and which has further effects on hominin social environments. In contrast to some social intelligence models, on this view, hominin encounters with their ecological environments continue to have profound selective effects. However, though the ecological environment selects, it does not select on its own. Accidents and their consequences, differential success and failure, result from the combination of the ecological environment an agent faces and the social features that enhance some opportunities and suppress others and that exacerbate some dangers and lessen others. Individuals do not face the ecological filters on their environment alone, but with others, and with the technology, information and misinformation that their social world provides.

  16. Quality control of intelligence research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian

    2014-01-01

    Quality control of intelligence research is the core issue of intelligence management, is a problem in study of information science This paper focuses on the performance of intelligence to explain the significance of intelligence research quality control. In summing up the results of the study on the basis of the analysis, discusses quality control methods in intelligence research, introduces the experience of foreign intelligence research quality control, proposes some recommendations to improve quality control in intelligence research. (authors)

  17. Mainstream Media and Social Media Reactions to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morris

    The rise of online social media (such as Facebook and Twitter) has overturned traditional top-down and stovepiped channels for mass communications. As social media have risen, traditional media sources have been steadily crippled by economic problems, resulting in a loss of capabilities and credibility. Information can propagate rapidly without the inclusion of traditional editorial checks and controls. Mass communications strategies for any type of major announcement must account for this new media landscape. Scientists announcing the discovery of extraterrestrial life will trigger a multifaceted and unpredictable percolation of the story through the public sphere. They will also potentially struggle with misinformation, rumours and hoaxes. The interplay of official announcements with the discussions of an extraterrestrial discovery on social media has parallels with traditional theories of mass communications. A wide spectrum of different messages is likely to be received by different segments of the community, based on their usage patterns of various media and online communications. The presentation and interpretation of a discovery will be hotly debated and contested within online media environments. In extreme cases, this could lead to "editorial wars" on collaborative media projects as well as cyber-attacks on certain online services and individuals. It is unlikely that a clear and coherent message can be propagated to a near-universal level. This has the potential to contribute to inappropriate reactions in some sectors of the community. Preventing unnecessary panic will be a priority. In turn, the monitoring of online and social media will provide a useful tool for assessing public reactions to a discovery of extraterrestrial life. This will help to calibrate public communications strategies following in the wake of an initial announcement.

  18. Amino Acids from Icy Amines: A Radiation-Chemical Approach to Extraterrestrial Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Detections of amino acids in meteorites go back several decades, with at least 100 such compounds being reported for the Murchison meteorite alone. The presence of these extraterrestrial molecules raises questions as to their formation, abundance, thermal stability, racemization, and possible subsequent reactions. Although all of these topics have been studied in laboratories, such work often involves many variables and unknowns. This has led us to seek out model systems with which to uncover reaction products, test chemical predictions, and sited light on underlying reaction mechanisms. This presentation will describe one such study, focusing on amino-acid formation in ices.

  19. Sediment of a Central European Mountain Lake Implies an Extraterrestrial Impact at the Younger Dryas Onset

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, D.; Kletetschka, G.; Hrubá, J.; Nábělek, L.; Procházka, V.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Bobek, Přemysl; Hořická, Zuzana; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Takáč, M.; Stuchlík, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, S1 (2017), A373-A373, č. článku 6230. ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /80./. 23.07.2017-28.07.2017, Santa Fe] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : Younger Dryas * Extraterrestrial Impact * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DA - Hydrology ; Limnology (BC-A); DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  20. Brain Intelligence: Go Beyond Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yujie; Chen, Min; Kim, Hyoungseop; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is an important technology that supports daily social life and economic activities. It contributes greatly to the sustainable growth of Japan's economy and solves various social problems. In recent years, AI has attracted attention as a key for growth in developed countries such as Europe and the United States and developing countries such as China and India. The attention has been focused mainly on developing new artificial intelligence information communication ...

  1. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  2. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  3. Intelligence of programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, D

    1982-01-01

    A general discussion about the level of artificial intelligence in computer programs is presented. The suitability of various languages for the development of complex, intelligent programs is discussed, considering fourth-generation language as well as the well established structured COBOL language. It is concluded that the success of automation in many administrative fields depends to a large extent on the development of intelligent programs.

  4. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    František Bartes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose work methodology for Competitive Intelligence teams in one of the intelligence cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed. The main result of the effort is the creation of added value for the information collected. Company Competiitve Intelligence, correctly understood and implemented in busines...

  5. Machine listening intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  6. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  7. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  8. Intelligence and childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Routledge companion to intelligence studies

    CERN Document Server

    Dover, Robert; Hillebrand, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies provides a broad overview of the growing field of intelligence studies. The recent growth of interest in intelligence and security studies has led to an increased demand for popular depictions of intelligence and reference works to explain the architecture and underpinnings of intelligence activity. Divided into five comprehensive sections, this Companion provides a strong survey of the cutting-edge research in the field of intelligence studies: Part I: The evolution of intelligence studies; Part II: Abstract approaches to intelligence; Part III: Historical approaches to intelligence; Part IV: Systems of intelligence; Part V: Contemporary challenges. With a broad focus on the origins, practices and nature of intelligence, the book not only addresses classical issues, but also examines topics of recent interest in security studies. The overarching aim is to reveal the rich tapestry of intelligence studies in both a sophisticated and accessible way. This Companion...

  10. The G-HAT Search for Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations: The Reddest Extended WISE Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.; Wright, Jason; Griffith, Roger; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan L.

    2015-01-01

    Freeman Dyson (1960) theorized how to identify possible signatures of advanced extra-terrestrial civilizations by their waste heat, an inevitable byproduct of a civilization using a significant fraction of the luminosity from their host star. If a civilizations could tap the starlight throughout their host galaxy their waste heat would be easily detectable by recent infrared surveys. The Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies (G-HAT) pilot project aims to place limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations at pan-galactic scales. We present results from the G-HAT cleaned catalog of 563 extremely red, extended high Galactic latitude (|b| ≥ 10) sources from the WISE All-Sky Catalog. Our catalog includes sources new to the scientific literature along with well-studied objects (e.g. starburst galaxies, AGN, and planetary nebulae) that exemplify extreme WISE colors. Objects of particular interest include a supergiant Be star (48 Librae) surrounded by a resolved, mid-infrared nebula, possibly indicating dust in the stellar wind ejecta, and a curious cluster of seven extremely red WISE sources (associated with IRAS 04287+6444) that have no optical counterparts.

  11. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  12. Exploring the Human Ecology of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Braje, T. J.; Culleton, B. J.

    2007-05-01

    Several lines of evidence now exist for a major extraterrestrial impact event in North America at 12.9 ka (the YDB). This impact partially destabilized the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, triggered abrupt Younger Dryas cooling and extensive wildfires, and contributed to megafaunal extinction. This event also occurred soon after the well established colonization of the Americas by anatomically modern humans. Confirmation of this event would represent the first near-time extraterrestrial impact with significant effects on human populations. These likely included widespread, abrupt human mortality, population displacement, migration into less effected or newly established habitats, loss of cultural traditions, and resource diversification in the face of the massive megafaunal extinction and population reductions in surviving animal populations. Ultimately, these transformations established the context for the special character of plant and animal domestication and the emergence of agricultural economies in North America. We explore the Late Pleistocene archaeological record in North America within the context of documented major biotic changes associated with the YDB in North America and of the massive ecological affects hypothesized for this event.

  13. Inscribed matter as an energy-efficient means of communication with an extraterrestrial civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Christopher; Wright, Gregory

    2004-09-02

    It is well known that electromagnetic radiation-radio waves-can in principle be used to communicate over interstellar distances. By contrast, sending physical artefacts has seemed extravagantly wasteful of energy, and imagining human travel between the stars even more so. The key consideration in earlier work, however, was the perceived need for haste. If extraterrestrial civilizations existed within a few tens of light years, radio could be used for two-way communication on timescales comparable to human lifetimes (or at least the longevities of human institutions). Here we show that if haste is unimportant, sending messages inscribed on some material can be strikingly more energy efficient than communicating by electromagnetic waves. Because messages require protection from cosmic radiation and small messages could be difficult to find among the material clutter near a recipient, 'inscribed matter' is most effective for long archival messages (as opposed to potentially short "we exist" announcements). The results suggest that our initial contact with extraterrestrial civilizations may be more likely to occur through physical artefacts-essentially messages in a bottle-than via electromagnetic communication.

  14. FINDING EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE USING GROUND-BASED HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellen, I. A. G.; Le Poole, R.; Brogi, M.; Birkby, J.; De Kok, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanet observations promise one day to unveil the presence of extraterrestrial life. Atmospheric compounds in strong chemical disequilibrium would point to large-scale biological activity just as oxygen and methane do in the Earth's atmosphere. The cancellation of both the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin missions means that it is unlikely that a dedicated space telescope to search for biomarker gases in exoplanet atmospheres will be launched within the next 25 years. Here we show that ground-based telescopes provide a strong alternative for finding biomarkers in exoplanet atmospheres through transit observations. Recent results on hot Jupiters show the enormous potential of high-dispersion spectroscopy to separate the extraterrestrial and telluric signals, making use of the Doppler shift of the planet. The transmission signal of oxygen from an Earth-twin orbiting a small red dwarf star is only a factor of three smaller than that of carbon monoxide recently detected in the hot Jupiter τ Boötis b, albeit such a star will be orders of magnitude fainter. We show that if Earth-like planets are common, the planned extremely large telescopes can detect oxygen within a few dozen transits. Ultimately, large arrays of dedicated flux-collector telescopes equipped with high-dispersion spectrographs can provide the large collecting area needed to perform a statistical study of life-bearing planets in the solar neighborhood.

  15. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial superresonators as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.; Vath, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the recirculating power fraction of a laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor which can be reduced by using laser diodes to pump a neodymium solid-state laser. To overcome the high costs of two-dimensional arrays of laser diodes, two types of superresonators are proposed: a terrestrially based one and an extraterrestrially based one on a geostationary orbit. Both are designed in such a way that a sequence of short laser pulses (10 to 20 ns wide), each with an energy of 5 to 10 MJ and a frequency of 10 Hz, are produced to trigger a deuterium-tritium ICF reactor. The terrestrial superresonator needs a much smaller number of two-dimensional laser diode arrays than a conventionally pumped once-through solid-state laser system, and the extraterrestrial resonator is pumped by means of concentrated solar radiation. In practice, at least an order of magnitude fewer laser diodes and crystalline calcium fluoride gain media are needed to meet the requirements of a laser driver for an ICF reactor. If, finally, a liquid neodymium laser system could be used for an ICF reactor, the cooling of the gain slabs would be facilitated substantially

  16. Isotopic evidence for extraterrestrial non- racemic amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M. H.; Macko, S. A.

    1997-09-01

    Many amino acids contain an asymmetric centre, occurring as laevorotatory, L, or dextrorotatory, D, compounds. It is generally assumed that abiotic synthesis of amino acids on the early Earth resulted in racemic mixtures (L- and D-enantiomers in equal abundance). But the origin of life required, owing to conformational constraints, the almost exclusive selection of either L- or D-enantiomers, and the question of why living systems on the Earth consist of L-enantiomers rather than D-enantiomers is unresolved. A substantial fraction of the organic compounds on the early Earth may have been derived from comet and meteorite impacts. It has been reported previously that amino acids in the Murchison meteorite exhibit an excess of L-enantiomers, raising the possibility that a similar excess was present in the initial inventory of organic compounds on the Earth. The stable carbon isotope compositions of individual amino acids in Murchison support an extraterrestrial origin-rather than a terrestrial overprint of biological amino acids-although reservations have persisted (see, for example, ref. 9). Here we show that individual amino-acid enantiomers from Murchison are enriched in 15N relative to their terrestrial counterparts, so confirming an extraterrestrial source for an L-enantiomer excess in the Solar System that may predate the origin of life on the Earth.

  17. Extraterrestrial amino acids in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meixun; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1989-06-01

    SINCE the discovery1 nearly a decade ago that Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary layers are greatly enriched in iridium, a rare element in the Earth's crust, there has been intense controversy on the relationship between this Ir anomaly and the massive extinction of organisms ranging from dinosaurs to marine plankton that characterizes the K/T boundary. Convincing evidence suggests that both the Ir spike and the extinction event were caused by the collision of a large bolide (>10 km in diameter) with the Earth1-11. Alternative explanations claim that extensive, violent volcanism12-14 can account for the Ir, and that other independent causes were responsible for the mass extinctions15,16. We surmise that the collision of a massive extraterrestrial object with the Earth may have produced a unique organic chemical signature because certain meteorites, and probably comets, contain organic compounds which are either rare or non-existent on the Earth17. In contrast, no organic compounds would be expected to be associated with volcanic processes. Here we find that K/T boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark, contain both α-amino-isobutyric acid [AIB, (CH3)2CNH2COOH] and racemic isovaline [ISOVAL, CH3CH2(CH3)CNH2COOH], two amino acids that are exceedingly rare on the Earth but which are major amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites17,18. An extraterrestrial source is the most reasonable explanation for the presence of these amino acids.

  18. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  19. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  20. Extraterrestrial hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.; Dohm, James M.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Ferris, Justin C.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2005-03-01

    Subsurface water processes are common for planetary bodies in the solar system and are highly probable for exoplanets (planets outside the solar system). For many solar system objects, the subsurface water exists as ice. For Earth and Mars, subsurface saturated zones have occurred throughout their planetary histories. Earth is mostly clement with the recharge of most groundwater reservoirs from ample precipitation during transient ice- and hot-house conditions, as recorded through the geologic and fossilized records. On the other hand, Mars is mostly in an ice-house stage, which is interrupted by endogenic-driven activity. This activity catastrophically drives short-lived hydrological cycling and associated climatic perturbations. Regional aquifers in the Martian highlands that developed during past, more Earth-like conditions delivered water to the northern plains. Water was also cycled to the South Polar Region during changes in climate induced by endogenic activity and/or by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. Venus very likely had a warm hydrosphere for hundreds of millions of years, before the development of its current extremely hot atmosphere and surface. Subsequently, Venus lost its hydrosphere as solar luminosity increased and a run-away moist greenhouse took effect. Subsurface oceans of water or ammonia-water composition, induced by tidal forces and radiogenic heating, probably occur on the larger satellites Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, and Triton. Tidal forces operating between some of the small bodies of the outer solar system could also promote the fusion of ice and the stability of inner liquid-water oceans. Les processus de subsurface impliquant l'eau sont communs pour les corps planétaires du système solaire et sont très probables sur les exoplanètes (planètes en dehors du système solaire). Pour plusieurs objets du systèmes solaire, l'eau de subsurface est présente sous forme de glace. Pour la Terre et Mars, les zones saturées de subsurface apparaissent à travers toute leur histoire planétaire. La Terre est particulièrement clémente avec la recharge des réservoirs, avec de amples précipitations, des conditions glaciaires et de fortes chaleurs, comme l'atteste les enregistrements géologiques et paléontologiques. D'un autre côté, Mars se trouve dans une phase essentiellement glaciaire, qui est interrompue par des activités contraintes par les phénomènes endogéniques. Cette activité conduit de manière catastrophique à des cycles hydrologiques et à des perturbations climatiques brutaux. Les aquifères régionaux dans les haute terres martiennes qui se sont formés dans des conditions similaires aux conditions terrestres, alimentent les plaines du Nord. L'eau a également été déplacée vers le Pôle Sud martien durant des changements marqués par une forte activité endogénique et une modification des paramètres de l'orbite de Mars. Venus possèdait vrais emblablement une hydrosphère chaude durant des millions d'année, avant le développement de son atmosphère et sa surface particulièrement chaude. Par après Venus a perdit son hydrosphère alors que la luminosité solaire augmentait et qu'une humidité liée à un effet de serre s'installait. Les océans de subsurface d'eau ou d'eau ammoniacale, induits par les forces de marée et le chauffage radiogénique, apparaissent probablement sur les satellites les plus importants (Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, Triton). Les forces de marée entre les petits corps externes du système solaire peuvent également occasionner la fusion de glace et la stabilité des océans internes d'eau liquide. Los procesos hídricos subsuperficiales son comunes en cuerpos planetarios del sistema solar y son altamente probables para exoplanetas (planetas fuera del sistema solar). Para muchos cuerpos del sistema solar, el agua subsuperficial existe como hielo. Para la Tierra y Marte han ocurrido zonas saturadas subsuperficiales a través de sus historias planetarias. La Tierra es principalmente generosa con la recarga de la mayoría de reservorios de aguas subterráneas a partir de amplia precipitación reconocida en condiciones transitorias calientes y heladas, tal y como aparece en los registros fósiles y geológicos. Por otro lado, Marte se encuentra principalmente en una etapade cámara de hielo la cual es interrumpida por actividad de tipo endogénico. Esta actividad pone en funcionamiento catastróficamente ciclos hidrológicos de vida corta y perturbaciones climáticas asociadas. Acuíferos regionales en las montañas de Marte que se desarrollaron en el pasado en condiciones similares a la Tierra distribuyen agua a las planicies del norte. El agua ha sido transportada hacia el sur de la región polar durante cambios en el clima inducidos por actividad endogénica y/o cambios en los parámetros orbitales de Marte. Venus muy probablemente tuvo una hidrósfera caliente durante cientos de millones de años, antes de que se desarrollara su atmósfera y superficie actual extremadamente caliente. Subsecuentemente, Venus perdió su hidrósfera a medida que la luminosidad solar aumentó y un efecto de invernadero húmedo escapatorio se llevó a cabo. Océanos subsuperficiales de composición agua o amoniaco-agua, inducidos por fuerzas de marea y calentamiento radiogénico, probablemente ocurren en los satélites más grandes como Europa, Ganimeda, Callisto, Titan y Triton. Las fuerzas de marea que operan entre los cuerpos pequeños del sistema solar externo podrían también promover la fusión de hielo y la estabilidad de líquido interno-aguas de los océanos.

  1. Distributed intelligence in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    The CAMAC digital interface standard has served us well since 1969. During this time there have been enormous advances in digital electronics. In particular, low cost microprocessors now make it feasible to consider use of distributed intelligence even in simple data acquisition systems. This paper describes a simple extension of the CAMAC standard which allows distributed intelligence at the crate level

  2. Intelligent design som videnskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2007-01-01

    Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises.......Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises....

  3. Distributed intelligence in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A simple extension of the CAMAC standard is described which allows distributed intelligence at the crate level. By distributed intelligence is meant that there is more than one source of control in a system. This standard is just now emerging from the NIM Dataway Working Group and its European counterpart. 1 figure

  4. Intelligence and treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are two sets of questions applicable to the ratification phase: what is the role of intelligence in the ratification process? What effect did intelligence have on that process. The author attempts to answer these and other questions

  5. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  6. Next generation Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Saveland

    2012-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence has been a hot topic in leadership training since Dan Goleman published his book on the subject in 1995. Emotional intelligence competencies are typically focused on recognition and regulation of emotions in one's self and social situations, yielding four categories: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship...

  7. Intelligence by consent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Adam; Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to the current discussions concerning an adequate framework for intelligence ethics. The first part critically scrutinises the use of Just War Theory in intelligence ethics with specific focus on the just cause criterion. We argue that using self-defence as justifying cau...

  8. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  9. Intelligence and treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftzinger, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the atmosphere leading up to the Senate INF hearings and then surveys the broad issues they raised. After that, the author highlights several aspects of the intelligence community's involvement and discusses the specific intelligence-related issues as the Senate committees saw them, notes their impact on the outcome, and finally draws several conclusions and lessons pertinent to the future

  10. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  11. Multiple Intelligences in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Describes the investigation of the effects of a four-step model program used with third through fifth grade students to implement Gardener's concepts of seven human intelligences--linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal intelligence--into daily learning. (BB)

  12. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  13. Intelligent robot action planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamos, T; Siegler, A

    1982-01-01

    Action planning methods used in intelligent robot control are discussed. Planning is accomplished through environment understanding, environment representation, task understanding and planning, motion analysis and man-machine communication. These fields are analysed in detail. The frames of an intelligent motion planning system are presented. Graphic simulation of the robot's environment and motion is used to support the planning. 14 references.

  14. Computational Intelligence in Intelligent Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nürnberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems and their phenomena are ubiquitous as they can be found in biology, finance, the humanities, management sciences, medicine, physics and similar fields. For many problems in these fields, there are no conventional ways to mathematically or analytically solve them completely at low cost. On the other hand, nature already solved many optimization problems efficiently. Computational intelligence attempts to mimic nature-inspired problem-solving strategies and methods. These strategies can be used to study, model and analyze complex systems such that it becomes feasible to handle them. Key areas of computational intelligence are artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation and fuzzy systems. As only a few researchers in that field, Rudolf Kruse has contributed in many important ways to the understanding, modeling and application of computational intelligence methods. On occasion of his 60th birthday, a collection of original papers of leading researchers in the field of computational intell...

  15. Intelligence and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ru; Shi, Jiannong; Yong, W.

    2012-01-01

    Results of prev ious studies of the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence hav e been inconsistent. This study attempts to distinguish the dif f erences between sev eral prosocial tasks, and explores the way s in which cognitiv e ability inf luences prosocial behav ior. In Study...... One and Two, we reexamined the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence by employ ing a costly signaling theory with f our games. The results rev ealed that the prosocial lev el of smarter children is higher than that of other children in more complicated tasks but not so in simple...... tasks. In Study Three, we tested the moderation ef f ect of the av erage intelligence across classes, and the results did not show any group intelligence ef f ect on the relationship between intelligence and prosocial behav ior....

  16. Business Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan NEDELCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the importance of business intelligence and its growing influence. It also shows when the concept of business intelligence was used for the first time and how it evolved over time. The paper discusses the utility of a business intelligence system in any organization and its contribution to daily activities. Furthermore, we highlight the role and the objectives of business intelligence systems inside an organization and the needs to grow the incomes and reduce the costs, to manage the complexity of the business environment and to cut IT costs so that the organization survives in the current competitive climate. The article contains information about architectural principles of a business intelligence system and how such a system can be achieved.

  17. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity and Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to modify the standard oxygen consumption (cone) calorimeter (described in ASTM E 1354 and NASA STD 6001 Test 2) to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. This apparatus will allow us to conduct normal gravity experiments that accurately and quantitatively evaluate a material's flammability characteristics in the real-use environment of spacecraft or extra-terrestrial gravitational acceleration. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone geometry with the sample burning in a ceiling fire configuration that provides a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by a flame in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. Prototype unit testing results are presented in this paper. Ignition delay times and regression rates for PMMA are presented over a range of radiant heat flux levels and equivalent stretch rates which demonstrate the ability of ELSA to simulate key features of microgravity and extraterrestrial fire behavior.

  18. Extraterrestrial material analysis: loss of amino acids during liquid-phase acid hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Arnaud; Brault, Amaury; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Searching for building blocks of life in extraterrestrial material is a way to learn more about how life could have appeared on Earth. With this aim, liquid-phase acid hydrolysis has been used, since at least 1970 , in order to extract amino acids and other organic molecules from extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, lunar fines) or Earth analogues (e.g. Atacama desert soil). This procedure involves drastic conditions such as heating samples in 6N HCl for 24 h, either under inert atmosphere/vacuum, or air. Analysis of the hydrolyzed part of the sample should give its total (free plus bound) amino acid content. The present work deals with the influence of the 6N HCl hydrolysis on amino acid degradation. Our experiments have been performed on a standard solution of 17 amino acids. After liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (6N HCl) under argon atmosphere (24 h at 100°C), the liquid phase was evaporated and the dry residue was derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. After comparison with derivatized amino acids from the standard solution, a significant reduction of the chromatographic peak areas was observed for most of the amino acids after liquid-phase acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the same loss pattern was observed when the amino acids were exposed to cold 6N HCl for a short amount of time. The least affected amino acid, i.e. glycine, was found to be 73,93% percent less abundant compared to the non-hydrolyzed standard, while the most affected, i.e. histidine, was not found in the chromatograms after hydrolysis. Our experiments thereby indicate that liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, even under inert atmosphere, leads to a partial or total loss of all of the 17 amino acids present in the standard solution, and that a quick cold contact with 6N HCl is sufficient to lead to a loss of amino acids. Therefore, in the literature, the reported increase

  19. GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING EVENTS AS A TARGET FOR THE SETI PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahvar, Sohrab, E-mail: rahvar@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365–9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    The detection of signals from a possible extrasolar technological civilization is one of the most challenging efforts of science. In this work, we propose using natural telescopes made of single or binary gravitational lensing systems to magnify leakage of electromagnetic signals from a remote planet that harbors Extraterrestrial Intelligent (ETI) technology. Currently, gravitational microlensing surveys are monitoring a large area of the Galactic bulge to search for microlensing events, finding more than 2000 events per year. These lenses are capable of playing the role of natural telescopes, and, in some instances, they can magnify radio band signals from planets orbiting around the source stars in gravitational microlensing systems. Assuming that the frequency of electromagnetic waves used for telecommunication in ETIs is similar to ours, we propose follow-up observation of microlensing events with radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), the Low Frequency Demonstrators, and the Mileura Wide-Field Array. Amplifying signals from the leakage of broadcasting by an Earth-like civilization will allow us to detect them as far as the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Our analysis shows that in binary microlensing systems, the probability of amplification of signals from ETIs is more than that in single microlensing events. Finally, we propose the use of the target of opportunity mode for follow-up observations of binary microlensing events with SKA as a new observational program for searching ETIs. Using optimistic values for the factors of the Drake equation provides detection of about one event per year.

  20. The Galactic Club or Galactic Cliques? Exploring the limits of interstellar hegemony and the Zoo Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.

    2017-10-01

    The Zoo solution to Fermi's Paradox proposes that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) have agreed to not contact the Earth. The strength of this solution depends on the ability for ETIs to come to agreement, and establish/police treaties as part of a so-called `Galactic Club'. These activities are principally limited by the causal connectivity of a civilization to its neighbours at its inception, i.e. whether it comes to prominence being aware of other ETIs and any treaties or agreements in place. If even one civilization is not causally connected to the other members of a treaty, then they are free to operate beyond it and contact the Earth if wished, which makes the Zoo solution `soft'. We should therefore consider how likely this scenario is, as this will give us a sense of the Zoo solution's softness, or general validity. We implement a simple toy model of ETIs arising in a Galactic Habitable Zone, and calculate the properties of the groups of culturally connected civilizations established therein. We show that for most choices of civilization parameters, the number of culturally connected groups is >1, meaning that the Galaxy is composed of multiple Galactic Cliques rather than a single Galactic Club. We find in our models for a single Galactic Club to establish interstellar hegemony, the number of civilizations must be relatively large, the mean civilization lifetime must be several millions of years, and the inter-arrival time between civilizations must be a few million years or less.

  1. Alkohols un biznesa lietišķā etiķete starp vīriešiem japāņu kompānijās

    OpenAIRE

    Stepčenko, Agnese

    2011-01-01

    Darbā tiek apskatīta alkohola nozīme un tā funkcijas japāņu biznesa lietišķās etiķetes ietvaros. Lai varētu izprast alkohola nozīmi mūsdienu japāņu biznesa vidē, alkohols tiek aplūkots Japānas ietvaros no vēsturiska skatpunkta, aplūkota kompānijas nozīme indivīda dzīvē un kulturālie uzvedības principi, kas ietekmē indivīda uzvedību, tajā skaitā arī kopīgos dzeršanas pasākumos. Turklāt tiek apskatīti alkoholisma apmēri un veidi kā valstī ar to cīnās, Japānas jaunāko paaudžu attieksmes un vērtī...

  2. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.

  3. Business Intelligence & Analytical Intelligence: hou het zakelijk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, Dries

    2013-01-01

    Technologie democratiseert, de markt consolideert, terwijl de hoeveelheid data explodeert. Het lijkt een ideale voedingsbodem voor projecten rond business intelligence en analytics. “Hoe minder de technologie het verschil zal maken, hoe prominenter de business aanwezig zal zijn.”

  4. Social Intelligence Design in Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, Oliviero; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2009-01-01

    This Special Issue of AI and Society contains a selection of papers presented at the 6th Social Intelligence Design Workshop held at ITC-irst, Povo (Trento, Italy) in July 2007. Being the 6th in a series means that there now is a well-established and also a growing research area. The interest in

  5. Spiritual Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Auditor’s Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafi, Rustam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate empirical evidence about influence audi-tor spiritual intelligence on the performance with emotional intelligence as a mediator variable. Linear regression models are developed to examine the hypothesis and path analysis. The de-pendent variable of each model is auditor performance, whereas the independent variable of model 1 is spiritual intelligence, of model 2 are emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. The parameters were estima...

  6. Naturalist Intelligence Among the Other Multiple Intelligences [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Genkov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of multiple intelligences was presented by Gardner in 1983. The theory was revised later (1999 and among the other intelligences a naturalist intelligence was added. The criteria for distinguishing of the different types of intelligences are considered. While Gardner restricted the analysis of the naturalist intelligence with examples from the living nature only, the present paper considered this problem on wider background including objects and persons of the natural sciences.

  7. Intelligence and treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    What did the intelligence community and the Intelligence Committee di poorly in regard to the treaty ratification process for arms control? We failed to solve the compartmentalization problem/ This is a second-order problem, and, in general, analysts try to be very open; but there are problems nevertheless. There are very few, if any, people within the intelligence community who are cleared for everything relevant to our monitoring capability emdash short of probably the Director of Central Intelligence and the president emdash and this is a major problem. The formal monitoring estimates are drawn up by individuals who do not have access to all the information to make the monitoring judgements. This paper reports that the intelligence community did not present a formal document on either Soviet incentives of disincentives to cheat or on the possibility of cheating scenarios, and that was a mistake. However, the intelligence community was very responsive in producing those types of estimates, and, ultimately, the evidence behind them in response to questions. Nevertheless, the author thinks the intelligence community would do well to address this issue up front before a treaty is submitted to the Senate for advice and consent

  8. An Intelligent Pinger Network for Solid Glacier Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönitz, S.; Reuter, S.; Henke, C.; Jeschke, S.; Ewert, D.; Eliseev, D.; Heinen, D.; Linder, P.; Scholz, F.; Weinstock, L.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Zierke, S.

    2016-12-01

    This talk presents a novel approach for an intelligent, agent-based pinger network in an extraterrestrial glacier environment. Because of recent findings of the Cassini spacecraft, a mission to Saturn's moon Enceladus is planned in order search for extraterrestrial life within the ocean beneath Enceladus' ice crust. Therefore, a maneuverable melting probe, the EnEx probe, was developed to melt into Enceladus' ice and take liquid samples from water-filled crevasses. Hence, the probe collecting the samples has to be able to navigate in ice which is a hard problem, because neither visual nor gravitational methods can be used. To enhance the navigability of the probe, a network of autonomous pinger units (APU) is in development that is able to extract a map of the ice environment via ultrasonic soundwaves. A network of these APUs will be deployed on the surface of Enceladus, melt into the ice and form a network to help guide the probe safely to its destination. The APU network is able to form itself fully autonomously and to compensate system failures of individual APUs. The agents controlling the single APU are realized by rule-based expert systems implemented in CLIPS. The rule-based expert system evaluates available information of the environment, decides for actions to take to achieve the desired goal (e.g. a specific network topology), and executes and monitors such actions. In general, it encodes certain situations that are evaluated whenever an APU is currently idle, and then decides for a next action to take. It bases this decision on its internal world model that is shared with the other APUs. The optimal network topology that defines each agents position is iteratively determined by mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Extensive simulations studies show that the proposed agent design enables the APUs to form a robust network topology that is suited to create a reliable 3D map of the ice environment.

  9. The Epistemic Status of Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist; Høffding, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the majority of intelligence definitions fail to recognize that the normative epistemic status of intelligence is knowledge and not an inferior alternative. We refute the counter-arguments that intelligence ought not to be seen as knowledge because of 1) its action-oriented scope...... and robustness of claims to intelligence-knowledge can be assessed....

  10. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  11. Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. V.; Thompson, R. L.; Lubick, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study is summarized of extraterrestrial (space) disposal of radioactive waste. The initial work on the evaluation and comparison of possible space destinations and launch vehicles is reported. Only current or planned space transportation systems were considered. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles, by about a factor of two. The space shuttle will require a third stage to perform the disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission this could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur. Of the destinations considered, high earth orbits (between geostationary and lunar orbit altitudes), solar orbits (such as a 0.90 AU circular solar orbit) or a direct injection to solar system escape appear to be the best candidates. Both earth orbits and solar orbits have uncertainties regarding orbit stability and waste package integrity for times on the order of a million years.

  12. From Fossils to Astrobiology Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    CERN Document Server

    Seckbach, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    From Fossils to Astrobiology reviews developments in paleontology and geobiology that relate to the rapidly-developing field of Astrobiology, the study of life in the Universe. Many traditional areas of scientific study, including astronomy, chemistry and planetary science, contribute to Astrobiology, but the study of the record of life on planet Earth is critical in guiding investigations in the rest of the cosmos. In this varied book, expert scientists from 15 countries present peer-reviewed, stimulating reviews of paleontological and astrobiological studies. The overviews of established and emerging techniques for studying modern and ancient microorganisms on Earth and beyond, will be valuable guides to evaluating biosignatures which could be found in the extraterrestrial surface or subsurface within the Solar System and beyond. This volume also provides discussion on the controversial reports of "nanobacteria" in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. It is a unique volume among Astrobiology monographs in focusi...

  13. Detection of /sup 4/He in stratospheric particles gives evidence of extraterrestrial origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, R S [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism; Brownlee, D E; Tomandl, D; Hodge, P W; Farrar, H; Britten, R A

    1977-05-12

    The detection of large concentrations of /sup 4/He in some ..mu..m size stratospheric particles collected during the past 2 years is here reported. The final /sup 4/He concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.25 cc/gm. Such high concentrations confirm that the particles were extraterrestrial and that some of them were exposed to solar wind for at least 10 to 100 years; also, since solar wind ions are implanted only to depths of approximately 500 A, the measurements also indicate that the particles existed as small particles in space and were not produced in the atmosphere by fragmentation of larger meteoroids. The possibility that the observed He could have been the product of decaying U appears remote. Since micrometeorites probably have cometary origin, they are potentially a valuable source of primitive Solar System matter.

  14. Accurate computations of monthly average daily extraterrestrial irradiation and the maximum possible sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.C.

    1985-12-01

    The monthly average daily values of the extraterrestrial irradiation on a horizontal plane and the maximum possible sunshine duration are two important parameters that are frequently needed in various solar energy applications. These are generally calculated by solar scientists and engineers each time they are needed and often by using the approximate short-cut methods. Using the accurate analytical expressions developed by Spencer for the declination and the eccentricity correction factor, computations for these parameters have been made for all the latitude values from 90 deg. N to 90 deg. S at intervals of 1 deg. and are presented in a convenient tabular form. Monthly average daily values of the maximum possible sunshine duration as recorded on a Campbell Stoke's sunshine recorder are also computed and presented. These tables would avoid the need for repetitive and approximate calculations and serve as a useful ready reference for providing accurate values to the solar energy scientists and engineers

  15. Table for monthly average daily extraterrestrial irradiation on horizontal surface and the maximum possible sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The monthly average daily values of the extraterrestrial irradiation on a horizontal surface (H 0 ) and the maximum possible sunshine duration are two important parameters that are frequently needed in various solar energy applications. These are generally calculated by scientists each time they are needed and by using the approximate short-cut methods. Computations for these values have been made once and for all for latitude values of 60 deg. N to 60 deg. S at intervals of 1 deg. and are presented in a convenient tabular form. Values of the maximum possible sunshine duration as recorded on a Campbell Stoke's sunshine recorder are also computed and presented. These tables should avoid the need for repetition and approximate calculations and serve as a useful ready reference for solar energy scientists and engineers. (author)

  16. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason Thomas; Povich, Matthew; Griffith, Roger; Maldonado, Jessica; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Star Cartier, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    The WISE and Spitzer large-area surveys of the mid-infrared sky bring a new opportunity to search for evidence of the energy supplies of very large extraterrestrial civilizations. If these energy supplies rival the output of a civilization's parent star (Kardashev Type II), or if a galaxy-spanning supercivilization's use rivals that of the total galactic luminosity (Type III), they would be detectable as anomolously mid-infrared-bright stars and galaxies, respectively. We have already performed the first search for this emission from Type III civilizations using the WISE all-sky survey, and put the first upper limits on them in the local universe, and discuss ways to improve on these limits. We also discuss some detectable forms of and limits on Type II civilizations in the Mliky Way.

  17. Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is 2 -sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of 2 -sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. New insights in the bacterial spore resistance to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda; Reitz, Guenther

    Based on their unique resistance to various space parameters, Bacillus endospores are one of the model systems used for astrobiological studies. The extremely high resistance of bacterial endospores to environmental stress factors has intrigued researchers since long time and many characteristic spore features, especially those involved in the protection of spore DNA, have already been uncovered. The disclosure of the complete genomic sequence of Bacillus subtilis 168, one of the often used astrobiological model system, and the rapid development of tran-scriptional microarray techniques have opened new opportunities of gaining further insights in the enigma of spore resistance. Spores of B. subtilis were exposed to various extreme ter-restrial and extraterrestrial stressors to reach a better understanding of the DNA protection and repair strategies, which them to cope with the induced DNA damage. Following physical stress factors of environmental importance -either on Earth or in space -were selected for this thesis: (i) mono-and polychromatic UV radiation, (ii) ionizing radiation, (iii) exposure to ultrahigh vacuum; and (iv) high shock pressures simulating meteorite impacts. To reach a most comprehensive understanding of spore resistance to those harsh terrestrial or simulated extraterrestrial conditions, a standardized experimental protocol of the preparation and ana-lyzing methods was established including the determination of the following spore responses: (i) survival, (ii) induced mutations, (iii) DNA damage, (iv) role of different repair pathways by use of a set of repair deficient mutants, and (v) transcriptional responses during spore germi-nation by use of genome-wide transcriptome analyses and confirmation by RT-PCR. From this comprehensive set of data on spore resistance to a variety of environmental stress parameters a model of a "built-in" transcriptional program of bacterial spores in response to DNA damaging treatments to ensure DNA restoration

  19. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  20. Comparison of the Raman spectra of ion irradiated soot and collected extraterrestrial carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, R.; Pino, T.; Dartois, E.; Cao, A.-T.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Strazzulla, G.; Bréchignac, Ph.

    2009-03-01

    We use a low pressure flame to produce soot by-products as possible analogues of the carbonaceous dust present in diverse astrophysical environments, such as circumstellar shells, diffuse interstellar medium, planetary disks, as well as in our own Solar System. Several soot samples, displaying an initial chemical diversity from aromatic to aliphatic dominated material, are irradiated with 200-400 keV H +, He +, and Ar ++ ions, with fluences comprised between 10 14 and 10 16 ions/cm 2, to simulate expected radiation induced modification on extraterrestrial carbon. The evolution of the samples is monitored using Raman spectroscopy, before, during, and after irradiation. A detailed analysis of the first- and second-order Raman spectra is performed, using a fitting combination of Lorentzian and/or Gaussian-shaped bands. Upon irradiation, the samples evolve toward an amorphous carbon phase. The results suggest that the observed variations are more related to vacancy formation than ionization processes. A comparison with Raman spectra of extraterrestrial organic matter and other irradiation experiments of astrophysically relevant carbonaceous materials is presented. The results are consistent with previous experiments showing mostly amorphization of various carbonaceous materials. Irradiated soots have Raman spectra similar to those of some meteorites, IDPs, and Comet Wild 2 grains collected by the Stardust mission. Since the early-Sun expected irradiation fluxes sufficient for amorphization are compatible with accretion timescales, our results support the idea that insoluble organic matter (IOM) observed in primitive meteorites has experienced irradiation-induced amorphization prior to the accretion of the parent bodies, emphasizing the important role played by early solar nebula processing.

  1. Advanced intelligence and mechanism approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yixin

    2007-01-01

    Advanced intelligence will feature the intelligence research in next 50 years.An understanding of the concept of advanced intelligence as well as its importance will be provided first,and detailed analysis on an approach,the mechanism approach.suitable to the advanced intelligence research will then be flolowed.And the mutual relationship among mechanism approach,traditional approaches existed in artificial intelligence research,and the cognitive informatics will be discussed.It is interesting to discover that mechanism approach is a good one to the Advanced Intelligence research and a tmified form of the existed approaches to artificial intelligence.

  2. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  3. Is Intelligence Artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of intelligence is directed primarily at the level of human beings. This paper attempts to give a more unifying definition that can be applied to the natural world in general. The definition would be used more to verify a degree of intelligence, not to quantify it and might help when making judgements on the matter. A version of an accepted test for AI is then put forward as the 'acid test' for Artificial Intelligence itself. It might be what a free-thinking program or robot...

  4. Until the sun dies. [Book on origin of universe, life and intelligence on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, R.

    1977-01-01

    This book gives a popular account of the forces that have shaped human beings into their present form and created the power of human intelligence, and considers the prospects for intelligent life on other planets in the solar system and elsewhere in the universe. The chain of events leading from the big bang to the origin of life on earth is reviewed together with the observations that established the expansion of the universe. Philosophical difficulties with the concept of a universe that has both a beginning and an end are pondered, steady-state cosmology is briefly explained, and the discovery of the relict microwave background is discussed. The formation of the solar system is recounted along with the scientific view of the origin of terrestrial life. Attention is given to the origin of cells and the evolution of oxygen-breathing life, multicelled creatures, armored animals, fishes, amphibians, early reptiles, dinosaurs, and mammals. The development of mammalian intelligence is traced from the early tree dwellers through monkeys, apes, ape men, humanoid tool makers, and primitive members of the genus Homo, to Homo sapiens. Possible evidence for the existence of life on Mars is evaluated together with prospects for communication or other contact with extraterrestrial intelligence.

  5. Multiple Intelligences and quotient spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Mike; Quintana, Yamilet

    2006-01-01

    The Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) is one of the models that study and describe the cognitive abilities of an individual. In [7] is presented a referential system which allows to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the students of a course and to classify the level of development of such Intelligences. Following this tendency, the purpose of this paper is to describe the model of Multiple Intelligences as a quotient space, and also to study the Multiple Intelligences of an individual in...

  6. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  7. Engineering general intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a novel conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding Artificial General Intelligence and based on this framework outlines a practical roadmap for the development of AGI with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond.

  8. Understanding US National Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In July 2010, the Washington Post (WP) published the results of a project on “Top Secret America” on which twenty investigative journalists had been working for two years. The project drew attention to the change and growth in National Intelligence following 9/11 (Washington Post 2010a......). The initial idea had been to work on intelligence generally, but given that this proved overwhelming, the team narrowed down to focus only on intelligence qualified as “top secret.” Even so, the growth in this intelligence activity is remarkable. This public is returning, or in this case expanding...... at an impressive speed confirming the general contention of this volume. Between 2001 and 2010 the budget had increased by 250 percent, reaching $75 billion (the GDP of the Czech Republic). Thirty-three building complexes for top secret work had been or were under construction in the Washington area; 1...

  9. Engineering general intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a detailed blueprint for the creation of an Artificial General Intelligence system with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond, according to the Cog Prime AGI design and the Open Cog software architecture.

  10. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Jr, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    To address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis...

  11. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Jr, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    To address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st Century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis...

  12. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Jr, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    To address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis...

  13. Intelligent Information Systems Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomes, Carla

    2004-01-01

    ...) at Cornell during the first three years of operation. IISI's mandate is threefold: To perform and stimulate research in computational and data-intensive methods for intelligent decision making systems...

  14. Quo vadis, Intelligent Machine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Velik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI is a branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. At least this was the original idea. However, it turned out that this is no task easy to be solved. This article aims to give a comprehensible review on the last 60 years of artificial intelligence taking a philosophical viewpoint. It is outlined what happened so far in AI, what is currently going on in this research area, and what can be expected in future. The goal is to mediate an understanding for the developments and changes in thinking in course of time about how to achieve machine intelligence. The clear message is that AI has to join forces with neuroscience and other brain disciplines in order to make a step towards the development of truly intelligent machines.

  15. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  16. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  17. Genes, evolution and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties-intelligence-is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

  18. Modelling intelligent behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. S.; Triffet, T.

    1993-01-01

    An introductory discussion of the related concepts of intelligence and consciousness suggests criteria to be met in the modeling of intelligence and the development of intelligent materials. Methods for the modeling of actual structure and activity of the animal cortex have been found, based on present knowledge of the ionic and cellular constitution of the nervous system. These have led to the development of a realistic neural network model, which has been used to study the formation of memory and the process of learning. An account is given of experiments with simple materials which exhibit almost all properties of biological synapses and suggest the possibility of a new type of computer architecture to implement an advanced type of artificial intelligence.

  19. Emotional Intelligence: Requiring Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tudor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the need for emotional intelligence. Two methods of measurementare presented in this research, in order to better understand the necessity of a correct result. Theresults of research can lead to recommendations for improving levels of emotional intelligence andare useful for obtaining data to better compare past and present result. The papers presented inthis research are significant for future study of this subject. The first paper presents the evolutionof emotional intelligence in the past two years, more specifically its decrease concerning certaincharacteristics. The second one presents a research on the differences between generations. Thethird one shows a difference in emotional intelligence levels of children from rural versus urbanenvironments and the obstacles that they encounter in their own development.

  20. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best. Jr, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    To address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis...

  1. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  2. Business Intelligence Integrated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristescu Marian Pompiliu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how businesses make decisions better and faster in terms of customers, partners and operations by turning data into valuable business information. The paper describes how to bring together people's and business intelligence information to achieve successful business strategies. There is the possibility of developing business intelligence projects in large and medium-sized organizations only with the Microsoft product described in the paper, and possible alternatives can be discussed according to the required features.

  3. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of ...

  4. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  5. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  6. Minimally Naturalistic Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Steven Stenberg

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement of machine learning techniques has re-energized research into general artificial intelligence. While the idea of domain-agnostic meta-learning is appealing, this emerging field must come to terms with its relationship to human cognition and the statistics and structure of the tasks humans perform. The position of this article is that only by aligning our agents' abilities and environments with those of humans do we stand a chance at developing general artificial intellig...

  7. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiol...

  8. Intelligent distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a selection of refereed and revised papers of the Intelligent Distributed Computing Track originally presented at the third International Symposium on Intelligent Informatics (ISI-2014), September 24-27, 2014, Delhi, India.  The papers selected for this Track cover several Distributed Computing and related topics including Peer-to-Peer Networks, Cloud Computing, Mobile Clouds, Wireless Sensor Networks, and their applications.

  9. The intelligent data recorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Mamoru; Hidekuma, Sigeru.

    1985-01-01

    The intelligent data recorder has been developed to data acquisition for a microwave interferometer. The 'RS-232C' which is the standard interface is used for data transmission to the host computer. Then, it's easy to connect with any computer which has general purpose serial port. In this report, the charcteristics of the intelligent data recorder and the way of developing the software are described. (author)

  10. Intelligent Lighting Control System

    OpenAIRE

    García, Elena; Rodríguez González, Sara; de Paz Santana, Juan F.; Bajo Pérez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive architecture that allows centralized control of public lighting and intelligent management, in order to economise on lighting and maintain maximum comfort status of the illuminated areas. To carry out this management, architecture merges various techniques of artificial intelligence (AI) and statistics such as artificial neural networks (ANN), multi-agent systems (MAS), EM algorithm, methods based on ANOVA and a Service Oriented Aproach (SOA). It performs optim...

  11. Professionalizing Intelligence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of professionalism in national security intelligence analysis in the U.S. Government. Since the introduction of major intelligence reforms directed by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA in December, 2004, we have seen notable strides in many aspects of intelligence professionalization, including in analysis. But progress is halting, uneven, and by no means permanent. To consolidate its gains, and if it is to continue improving, the U.S. intelligence community (IC should commit itself to accomplishing a new program of further professionalization of analysis to ensure that it will develop an analytic cadre that is fully prepared to deal with the complexities of an emerging multipolar and highly dynamic world that the IC itself is forecasting. Some recent reforms in intelligence analysis can be assessed against established standards of more fully developed professions; these may well fall short of moving the IC closer to the more fully professionalized analytical capability required for producing the kind of analysis needed now by the United States.

  12. GABA predicts visual intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily; Hammett, Stephen T; Larsson, Jonas

    2016-10-06

    Early psychological researchers proposed a link between intelligence and low-level perceptual performance. It was recently suggested that this link is driven by individual variations in the ability to suppress irrelevant information, evidenced by the observation of strong correlations between perceptual surround suppression and cognitive performance. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a link remain unclear. A candidate mechanism is neural inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but direct experimental support for GABA-mediated inhibition underlying suppression is inconsistent. Here we report evidence consistent with a global suppressive mechanism involving GABA underlying the link between sensory performance and intelligence. We measured visual cortical GABA concentration, visuo-spatial intelligence and visual surround suppression in a group of healthy adults. Levels of GABA were strongly predictive of both intelligence and surround suppression, with higher levels of intelligence associated with higher levels of GABA and stronger surround suppression. These results indicate that GABA-mediated neural inhibition may be a key factor determining cognitive performance and suggests a physiological mechanism linking surround suppression and intelligence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Alzheimer's disease and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, R A; Arden, R; Jung, R E

    2011-06-01

    A significant body of evidence has accumulated suggesting that individual variation in intellectual ability, whether assessed directly by intelligence tests or indirectly through proxy measures, is related to risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in later life. Important questions remain unanswered, however, such as the specificity of risk for AD vs. other forms of dementia, and the specific links between premorbid intelligence and development of the neuropathology characteristic of AD. Lower premorbid intelligence has also emerged as a risk factor for greater mortality across myriad health and mental health diagnoses. Genetic covariance contributes importantly to these associations, and pleiotropic genetic effects may impact diverse organ systems through similar processes, including inefficient design and oxidative stress. Through such processes, the genetic underpinnings of intelligence, specifically, mutation load, may also increase the risk of developing AD. We discuss how specific neurobiologic features of relatively lower premorbid intelligence, including reduced metabolic efficiency, may facilitate the development of AD neuropathology. The cognitive reserve hypothesis, the most widely accepted account of the intelligence-AD association, is reviewed in the context of this larger literature.

  14. 78 FR 90 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence... hereby given that a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been...

  15. New Extraterrestrial Signature of the Insoluble Organic Matter of the Orgueil, Murchison and Tagish Lake Meteorites as Revealed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Derenne, S.; Robert, F.; Ciofini, I.

    2003-03-01

    EPR of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of three chondrites revealed heterogeneously spread radicals including diradicaloids. These features not observed in terrestrial kerogens appear as an extraterrestrial signature of the chondritic IOM.

  16. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  17. Fluid intelligence: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed.

  18. New Perspectives on Intelligence Collection and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    MASINT Measurement and Signature Intelligence NPS Naval Postgraduate School OSINT Open Source Intelligence pdf Probability Density Function SIGINT...MASINT): different types of sensors • Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ): from all open sources • Signals Intelligence (SIGINT): intercepting the

  19. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  20. Investigations in space-related molecular biology. [cryo-electron microscopic and diffraction studies on terrestrial and extraterrestrial specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moran, H.; Pritzker, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Improved instrumentation and preparation techniques for high resolution, high voltage cryo-electron microscopic and diffraction studies on terrestrial and extraterrestrial specimens are reported. Computer correlated ultrastructural and biochemical work on hydrated and dried cell membranes and related biological systems provided information on membrane organization, ice crystal formation and ordered water, RNA virus linked to cancer, lunar rock samples, and organometallic superconducting compounds. Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 specimens were analyzed

  1. Widening Perspectives: The Intellectual and Social Benefits of Astrobiology (Regardless of Whether Extraterrestrial Life is Discovered or Not)

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is usually defined as the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. As such it is inherently interdisciplinary and cannot help but engender a worldview infused by cosmic and evolutionary perspectives. Both these attributes of the study of astrobiology are, and will increasingly prove to be, beneficial to society regardless of whether extraterrestrial life is discovered or not.

  2. Widening perspectives: the intellectual and social benefits of astrobiology (regardless of whether extraterrestrial life is discovered or not)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Astrobiology is usually defined as the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in the Universe. As such it is inherently interdisciplinary and cannot help but engender a worldview infused by cosmic and evolutionary perspectives. Both these attributes of the study of astrobiology are, and will increasingly prove to be, beneficial to society regardless of whether extraterrestrial life is discovered or not.

  3. Detection of Extraterrestrial Civilizations via the Spectral Signature of Advanced Interstellar Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    1994-07-01

    This paper examines the possibility of detecting extraterrestrial civilizations by means of searching for the spectral signature of their interstellar transportation systems. The advantage of such an approach is that the characteristic power levels associated with interstellar transportation systems are many orders of magnitude greater than those required for communication, and so the signal strength may be much greater. Furthermore, unlike communication which is governed by a fairly arbitrary selection of technology and mutually agreed upon conventions, interstellar transportation systems are governed much more stringently by the laws of physics. For purposes of the present analysis we consider 4 methods of interstellar propulsion, the principles of which are fairly well understood. These are anti-matter rockets, fusion rockets, fission rockets, all of which can be used to either accelerate or decelerate a spacecraft, and magnetic sails, which can be used to decelerate a spacecraft by creating drag against the interstellar medium. The types of radiation emitted by each of these propulsion systems is described, and the signal strength for starships of a characteristic mass of 1 million tonnes traveling at speeds and acceleration levels characteristic of the various propulsion systems is estimated. It is shown that for the power level of ships considered, the high energy gamma radiation emitted by the anti-matter, fusion and fission propulsion systems would be undetectable at interstellar distances. Better opportunities for detection would be the bremsstrahlung radiation from the plasma confinement systems of fusion devices, which might be detectable at distances of about 1 light year, and visible light emitted from the radiators of anti-matter driven photon rocket, which might be detectable by the Hubble Space Telescope at a distance of several hundred light years provided the rocket nozzle is oriented towards the Earth. The most detectable form of starship

  4. An alternative origin for extraterrestrial biomolecules from the hot and ionized photosphere of the protosolar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, D. V.; Derenne, S.; Tissandier, L.; Marrocchi, Y.; Anquetil, C.; Marty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Organic matter (OM) synthesized from plasma experiments (so-called Nebulotron) can provide an insight into the processes of organosynthesis within the ionized gas phase of the protosolar nebula (PSN). Organic materials recovered from Nebulotron experiments have a record of success in reproducing key features of chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM), including the aromatic/aliphatic and soluble/insoluble ratios [1], the occurrence of D/H hot and cold spots [2], spectral features as well as elementary and isotopic patterns observed in trapped noble gases [3]. However, up until now little attention has been paid to the soluble fraction of the recovered OM (SOM). In this study, a high-vacuum plasma setting was designed to produce organic condensates from a CO-N2-H2 gas mixture reminiscent of the PSN. The chemical diversity of the synthetized SOM has been investigated by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Our results show that a large range of biomolecules detected in meteorites and comets could have been directly synthetized from the gas phase of the PSN under high ionization rates and temperatures > 800 K. Among other molecules, urea, formamide, glycerol, hydantoin, carboxylic acids, as well as amino acid and nucleobase derivatives are reported. While photochemical processing of interstellar icy grains or asteroidal aqueous alteration are often advocated for the origin of biomolecules in extraterrestrial samples, our results suggest that biomolecule production was also effective in the hot and ionized photosphere of the PSN. Interestingly, solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra of the Nebulotron IOM, indicates that they are very low in aromatics relative to extraterrestrial samples. Given that aromatic units in meteoritic IOM likely result from the cyclization/aromatization of aliphatic chains in the gas [1], Nebulotron-like aliphatic materials could represent the initial precursors of meteoritic OM [4]. These materials would be widespread in the

  5. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  6. Modelling traffic flows with intelligent cars and intelligent roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Arem, Bart; Tampere, Chris M.J.; Malone, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling of traffic flows with intelligent cars and intelligent roads. It will describe the modeling approach MIXIC and review the results for different ADA systems: Adaptive Cruise Control, a special lane for Intelligent Vehicles, cooperative following and external speed

  7. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Bartes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose work methodology for Competitive Intelligence teams in one of the intelligence cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed. The main result of the effort is the creation of added value for the information collected. Company Competiitve Intelligence, correctly understood and implemented in business practice, is the “forecasting of the future”. That is forecasting about the future, which forms the basis for strategic decisions made by the company’s top management. To implement that requirement in corporate practice, the author perceives Competitive Intelligence as a systemic application discipline. This approach allows him to propose a “Work Plan” for Competitive Intelligence as a fundamental standardized document to steer Competitive Intelligence team activities. The author divides the Competitive Intelligence team work plan into five basic parts. Those parts are derived from the five-stage model of the intelligence cycle, which, in the author’s opinion, is more appropriate for complicated cases of Competitive Intelligence.

  8. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  10. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  11. Intelligent environmental data warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, B.

    1998-01-01

    Making quick and effective decisions in environment management are based on multiple and complex parameters, a data warehouse is a powerful tool for the over all management of massive environmental information. Selecting the right data from a warehouse is an important factor consideration for end-users. This paper proposed an intelligent environmental data warehouse system. It consists of data warehouse to feed an environmental researchers and managers with desire environmental information needs to their research studies and decision in form of geometric and attribute data for study area, and a metadata for the other sources of environmental information. In addition, the proposed intelligent search engine works according to a set of rule, which enables the system to be aware of the environmental data wanted by the end-user. The system development process passes through four stages. These are data preparation, warehouse development, intelligent engine development and internet platform system development. (author)

  12. Intelligent control systems 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoureshi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence (Al) has generated many useful ideas and techniques that can be integrated into the design of control systems. It is believed and, for special cases, has been demonstrated, that integration of Al into control systems would provide the necessary tools for solving many of the complex problems that present control techniques and Al algorithms are unable to do, individually. However, this integration requires the development of basic understanding and new fundamentals to provide scientific bases for achievement of its potential. This book presents an overview of some of the latest research studies in the area of intelligent control systems. These papers present techniques for formulation of intelligent control, and development of the rule-based control systems. Papers present applications of control systems in nuclear power plants and HVAC systems

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kipp W; Torres Soto, Jessica; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Shameer, Khader; Miotto, Riccardo; Ali, Mohsin; Ashley, Euan; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-06-12

    Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine, and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  15. Understanding the Globalization of Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "This book provides an introduction to the complexities of contemporary Western Intelligence and its dynamics during an era of globalization. Towards an understanding of the globalization of intelligence process, Svendsen focuses on the secretive phenomenon of international or foreign intelligence...... cooperation ('liaison'), as it occurs in both theory and practice. Reflecting a complex coexistence plurality of several different and overlapping concepts in action, the challenging process of the globalization of intelligence emerges as essential for complex issue management purposes during a globalized era...

  16. Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Marwala, Tshilidzi; Hurwitz, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The advent of artificial intelligence has changed many disciplines such as engineering, social science and economics. Artificial intelligence is a computational technique which is inspired by natural intelligence such as the swarming of birds, the working of the brain and the pathfinding of the ants. These techniques have impact on economic theories. This book studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theories, a subject that has not been extensively studied. The theories that...

  17. Fluid-induced organic synthesis in the solar nebula recorded in extraterrestrial dust from meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christian; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Leitner, Jan; Busemann, Henner; Spring, Nicole H; Ramasse, Quentin M; Hoppe, Peter; Nittler, Larry R

    2014-10-28

    Isotopically anomalous carbonaceous grains in extraterrestrial samples represent the most pristine organics that were delivered to the early Earth. Here we report on gentle aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy investigations of eight (15)N-rich or D-rich organic grains within two carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrites and two interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) originating from comets. Organic matter in the IDP samples is less aromatic than that in the CR chondrites, and its functional group chemistry is mainly characterized by C-O bonding and aliphatic C. Organic grains in CR chondrites are associated with carbonates and elemental Ca, which originate either from aqueous fluids or possibly an indigenous organic source. One distinct grain from the CR chondrite NWA 852 exhibits a rim structure only visible in chemical maps. The outer part is nanoglobular in shape, highly aromatic, and enriched in anomalous nitrogen. Functional group chemistry of the inner part is similar to spectra from IDP organic grains and less aromatic with nitrogen below the detection limit. The boundary between these two areas is very sharp. The direct association of both IDP-like organic matter with dominant C-O bonding environments and nanoglobular organics with dominant aromatic and C-N functionality within one unique grain provides for the first time to our knowledge strong evidence for organic synthesis in the early solar system activated by an anomalous nitrogen-containing parent body fluid.

  18. Nuclear reactor closed Brayton cycle power conversion system optimization trends for extra-terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, T.L.; Baggenstoss, W.G.; Bons, R.

    1990-01-01

    Extra-terrestrial exploration and development missions of the next century will require reliable, low-mass power generation modules of 100 kW e and more. These modules will be required to support both fixed-base and manned rover/explorer power needs. Low insolation levels at and beyond Mars and long periods of darkness on the moon make solar conversion less desirable for surface missions. For these missions, a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled with a reactor heat source is a very attractive approach. The authors conducted parametric studies to assess optimized system design trends for nuclear-Brayton systems as a function of operating environment and user requirements. The inherent design flexibility of the closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system permits ready adaptation of the system to future design constraints. This paper describes a dramatic contrast between system designs requiring man-rated shielding. The paper also considers the ramification of using indigenous materials to provide reactor shielding for a fixed-base power source

  19. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  20. CENTAR code for extended nonlinear transient analysis of extraterrestrial reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassersharif, B.; Peer, J.S.; DeHart, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Current interest in the application of nuclear reactor-driven power systems to space missions has generated a need for a systems simulation code to model and analyze space reactor systems; such a code has been initiated at Texas A and M, and the first version is nearing completion; release was anticipated in the fall of 1987. This code, named CENTAR (Code for Extended Nonlinear Transient Analysis of Extraterrestrial Reactor Systems), is designed specifically for space systems and is highly vectorizable. CENTAR is composed of several specialized modules. A fluids module is used to model fluid behavior throughout the system. A wall heat transfer module models the heat transfer characteristics of all walls, insulation, and structure around the system. A fuel element thermal analysis module is used to predict the temperature behavior and heat transfer characteristics of the reactor fuel rods. A kinetics module uses a six-group point kinetics formulation to model reactivity feedback and control and the ANS 5.1 decay-heat curve to model shutdown decay-heat production. A pump module models the behavior of thermoelectric-electromagnetic pumps, and a heat exchanger module models not only thermal effects in thermoelectric heat exchangers, but also predicts electrical power production for a given configuration. Finally, an accumulator module models coolant expansion/contraction accumulators

  1. Collective Intelligence in Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Liegl, Michael; Thomas, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    New practices of social media use in emergency response seem to enable broader `situation awareness' and new forms of crisis management. The scale and speed of innovation in this field engenders disruptive innovation or a reordering of social, political, economic practices of emergency response....... By examining these dynamics with the concept of social collective intelligence, important opportunities and challenges can be examined. In this chapter we focus on socio-technical aspects of social collective intelligence in crises to discuss positive and negative frictions and avenues for innovation...

  2. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  3. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  4. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  5. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  6. Business Intelligence Integrated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristescu Marian Pompiliu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Business Intelligence solution concerns the simple, real-time access to complete information about the business shown in a relevant format of the report, graphic or dashboard type in order help the taking of strategic decisions regarding the direction in which the company goes. Business Intelligence does not produce data, but uses the data produced by the company’s applications. BI solutions extract their data from ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, CRM (Customer Relationship Management, HCM (Human Capital Management, and Retail, eCommerce or other databases used in the company.

  7. The intelligent Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: chance and the universe (synthesis of proteins; the 'primordial soup'); the gospel according to Darwin (discussion of Darwin theory of evolution); life did not originate on earth (fossils from space; life in space); the interstellar connection (living dust between the stars; bacteria in space falling to the earth; interplanetary dust); evolution by cosmic control (microorganisms; genetics); why aren't the others here (a cosmic origin of life); after the big bang (big bang and steady state); the information rich universe; what is intelligence up to; the intelligent universe. (U.K.)

  8. Harmonizing intelligence terminologies in business: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this article is to do a literature review of different intelligence terminology with the aim of establishing the common attributes and differences, and to propose a universal and comprehensive definition of intelligence for common understanding amongst users. The findings showed that Competitive Intelligence has the broadest scope of intelligence activities covering the whole external operating environment of the company and targeting all levels of decision-making for instance; strategic intelligence, tactical intelligence and operative intelligence. Another terminology was found called Cyber IntelligenceTM which encompasses competitor intelligence, strategic intelligence, market intelligence and counterintelligence. In conclusion although CI has the broadest scope of intelligence and umbrella to many intelligence concepts, still Business Intelligence, and Corporate Intelligence are often used interchangeably as CI

  9. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  10. Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil…

  11. What Is Artificial Intelligence Anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Raymond

    1985-01-01

    Examines the past, present, and future status of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Acknowledges the limitations of AI but proposes possible areas of application and further development. Urges a concentration on the unique strengths of machine intelligence rather than a copying of human intelligence. (ML)

  12. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  13. Intelligent Design, A Young Universe, Astrology, UFO's, and More: Tackling Astronomical Pseudo-science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2008-11-01

    During IYA educators and scientists will interact with the public in many ways. There will likely be public questions at IYA events about pseudo-scientific topics. While the particular pseudo-sciences that are in vogue change with time, these days popular astronomical pseudo-science includes creationism and intelligent design (and their denial of the age of the universe), astrology, UFO's as extra-terrestrial spaceships, selling star names, the ``face'' on Mars, the claim that the moon landings were a hoax, etc. We discuss some of the recent surveys of belief in pseudo-science and some ways to respond to questions about these topics. A separate resource guide to help answer questions about astronomical pseudoscience is also included in this volume.

  14. #%Applications of artificial intelligence in intelligent manufacturing: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    #

    2017-01-01

    #%Based on research into the applications of artificial intelligence (AI) technology in the manufacturing industry in recent years, we analyze the rapid development of core technologies in the new era of 'Internet plus AI', which is triggering a great change in the models, means, and ecosystems of the manufacturing industry, as well as in the development of AI. We then propose new models, means, and forms of intelligent manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing system architecture, and intelligent man-ufacturing technology system, based on the integration of AI technology with information communications, manufacturing, and related product technology. Moreover, from the perspectives of intelligent manufacturing application technology, industry, and application demonstration, the current development in intelligent manufacturing is discussed. Finally, suggestions for the appli-cation of AI in intelligent manufacturing in China are presented.

  15. Comparison of artificial intelligence methods and empirical equations to estimate daily solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, three artificial intelligence methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) as well as, 48 empirical equations (10, 12 and 26 equations were temperature-based, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based, respectively) were used to estimate daily solar radiation in Kerman, Iran in the period of 1992-2009. To develop the GEP, ANN and ANFIS models, depending on the used empirical equations, various combinations of minimum air temperature, maximum air temperature, mean air temperature, extraterrestrial radiation, actual sunshine duration, maximum possible sunshine duration, sunshine duration ratio, relative humidity and precipitation were considered as inputs in the mentioned intelligent methods. To compare the accuracy of empirical equations and intelligent models, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute relative error (MARE) and determination coefficient (R2) indices were used. The results showed that in general, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based scenarios in ANN and ANFIS models presented high accuracy than mentioned empirical equations. Moreover, the most accurate method in the studied region was ANN11 scenario with five inputs. The values of RMSE, MAE, MARE and R2 indices for the mentioned model were 1.850 MJ m-2 day-1, 1.184 MJ m-2 day-1, 9.58% and 0.935, respectively.

  16. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  17. Generality in Artificial Intelligence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy. Classics Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 283-296. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/03/0283-0296. Author Affiliations.

  18. Business process intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos, M.; Alves De Medeiros, A.K.; Mendling, J.; Weber, B.; Weijters, A.J.M.M.; Cardoso, J.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Business Process Intelligence (BPI,) is an emerging area that is getting increasingly popularfor enterprises. The need to improve business process efficiency, to react quickly to changes and to meet regulatory compliance is among the main drivers for BPI. BPI refers to the application of Business

  19. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    .e. local guidelines. From a knowledge management point of view, this externalization of generalized processes, gives the opportunity to learn from, evaluate and optimize the processes. "Clinical Process Intelligence" (CPI), will denote the goal of getting generalized insight into patient centered health...

  20. Splunk operational intelligence cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Diakun, Josh; Mock, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for users of all levels who are looking to leverage the Splunk Enterprise platform as a valuable operational intelligence tool. The recipes provided in this book will appeal to individuals from all facets of a business - IT, Security, Product, Marketing, and many more!

  1. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2018-01-30

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  2. Defense Intelligence Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management Office Management and Infrastructure Security Science and Technology Pre-Employment Forms Intelligence Community Wounded Warrior Internship Program News Articles Videos Contact DIA DIA in the News observed the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in an event Jan. 26, at the DIA headquarters. Story DIA

  3. Toepassen van Business Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.F.M. (Rien) Hamers

    2004-01-01

    Het is niet altijd even duidelijk wat het begrip 'business intelligence' precies inhoudt. BI kent namelijk een diversiteit aan definities en is vanuit verschillende organisatorische en ICT-disciplines te benaderen. Deze checklist wil deze aanpak op pragmatische maar toch intelligente wijze

  4. Artificial Intelligence in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyle, Kim E.

    Expert systems have made remarkable progress in areas where the knowledge of an expert can be codified and represented, and these systems have many potentially useful applications in education. Expert systems seem "intelligent" because they do not simply repeat a set of predetermined questions during a consultation session, but will have…

  5. Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) has been a promising type of advanced driver support system for some decades. From a technical point of view, large scale ISA implementation is possible in the short term. The different types of ISA are expected to have different effects on behaviour and traffic

  6. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    Items 21 - 28 ... Therefore, the present study is aimed to examine the relationship between ... organizational citizenship behavior in critical and emergency nurses in teaching ... Salovey's scientific literature is defined as the ... organizational behavior, which has a critical role ... between emotional intelligence and stress, coping,.

  7. Intelligent outdoor lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özçelebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Cities understand the advantages of branding themselves as unique, beautiful and secure places. Lighting plays a special part in establishing that identity. In 2014, TU/e Intelligent Lighting Institute, Philips Research and ST Microelectronics are collaborating in an EIT ICT Labs project called

  8. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  9. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  10. Distributed intelligence at CELLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, W. de

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the use of distributed intelligence at CELLO, a large 4π detector at PETRA. Besides special purpose hardware processors for online calibration and reformatting of data, several microcomputers are used for monitoring and testing the various detector components. (orig.)

  11. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  12. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  13. Extra-terrestrial igneous granites and related rocks: A review of their occurrence and petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard

    2012-11-01

    The telluric planets and the asteroid belt display the same internal structure with a metallic inner core and a silicate outer shell. Experimental data and petrological evidence in silicate systems show that granite can be produced by extreme igneous differentiation through various types of igneous processes. On Moon, 4.4-3.9 Ga granite clasts display dry mineral assemblages. They correspond to at least 8 discrete intrusive events. Large K/Ca enrichment and low REE abundances in granite relative to KREEP are consistent with silicate liquid immiscibility, a process observed in melt inclusions within olivine of lunar basalts and in lunar meteorites. Steep-sided domes identified by remote sensing can represent intrusive or extrusive felsic formations. On Mars, black-and-white rhythmic layers observed on the Tharsis rise along the flanks of the peripheral scarps of the Tharsis Montes giant volcanoes suggest the possible eruption of felsic pyroclastites. Though no true granites were found so far in the Martian SNC meteorites, felsic glasses and mesostases were identified and a component close to terrestrial continental (granitic) crust is inferred from trace element and isotope systematics. Venus has suffered extensive volcanic resurfacing, whereas folded and faulted areas resemble terrestrial continents. Near large shield volcanoes, with dominant basaltic compositions, steep-sided domes have been interpreted as non-degassed silicic extrusions. The hypothesis of a granitic component is "tantalising". Extra-terrestrial granite is frequently found as clasts and mesostases in asteroidal meteorites. Porphyritic textures, with alkali feldspar crystals up to several centimetres in size, were observed in silicate enclaves within iron meteorites. In the chondrite clan, polymict breccias can contain granitic clasts, whose provenance is debated. One clast from the Adzhi-Bogdo meteorite yields a 4.53 ± 0.03 Ga Pb-Pb age, making it the oldest known granite in the solar system. The

  14. Pieces of Other Worlds - Enhance YSS Education and Public Outreach Events with Extraterrestrial Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Year of the Solar System spacecraft will encounter two comets; orbit the asteroid Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, is available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) curates NASA's extraterrestrial samples to support research, education, and public outreach. At the current time JSC curates five types of extraterrestrial samples: Moon rocks and soils collected by the Apollo astronauts Meteorites collected on US expeditions to Antarctica (including rocks from the Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta) “Cosmic dust” (asteroid and comet particles) collected by high-altitude aircraft Solar wind atoms collected by the Genesis spacecraft Comet and interstellar dust particles collected by the Stardust spacecraft These rocks, soils, dust particles, and atoms continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. He will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: louis.a.parker@nasa.gov Sets

  15. The high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS determined from ground-based solar irradiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gröbner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been determined from ground-based measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance (SSI over the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm using the Langley-plot technique. The measurements were obtained at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre from the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Tenerife, Spain, during the period 12 to 24 September 2016. This solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS was combined from medium-resolution (bandpass of 0.86 nm measurements of the QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe spectroradiometer in the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm and high-resolution measurements (0.025 nm from a Fourier transform spectroradiometer (FTS over the wavelength range from 305 to 380 nm. The Kitt Peak solar flux atlas was used to extend this high-resolution solar spectrum to 500 nm. The expanded uncertainties of this solar spectrum are 2 % between 310 and 500 nm and 4 % at 300 nm. The comparison of this solar spectrum with solar spectra measured in space (top of the atmosphere gave very good agreements in some cases, while in some other cases discrepancies of up to 5 % were observed. The QASUMEFTS solar spectrum represents a benchmark dataset with uncertainties lower than anything previously published. The metrological traceability of the measurements to the International System of Units (SI is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations leading to the primary spectral irradiance standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany.

  16. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  17. The limits of extremophilic life expanded under extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, C.; Dalmaso, G.; Teixeira, L.; Bendia, A.; Rosado, A.

    2012-09-01

    Astrobiology is a brand new area of science that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the universe. Several hypotheses to explain life in the cosmic context have been developed throughout human history, but only now technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are found universally. As these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still a challenge to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years-old solar system was born within a 10-billion years-old universe. Thus, simple cells like microorganisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or other suitable molecular places in the universe. One hypothesis to explain the origin of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the universe billions of years ago, traveling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets like ours. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile microorganisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is ongoing at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics to test whether microbial life could withstand those inhospitable environments. Ultra-resistant (known or novel ones) microorganisms collected from terrestrial extreme environments, extremophiles, have been exposed to intense radiation sources simulating solar radiation (at synchrotron accelerators), capable of emitting in a few hours radiation equivalent of million years accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal the interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  18. Accretion rate of extraterrestrial {sup 41}Ca in Antarctic snow samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J.M., E-mail: jose.gomez@ph.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Physik, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bishop, S.; Faestermann, T.; Famulok, N.; Fimiani, L.; Hain, K.; Jahn, S.; Korschinek, G.; Ludwig, P. [Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Physik, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rodrigues, D. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small grains, generally less than a few hundred micrometers in size. Their main source is the Asteroid Belt, located at 3 AU from the Sun, between Mars and Jupiter. During their flight from the Asteroid Belt to the Earth they are irradiated by galactic and solar cosmic rays (GCR and SCR), thus radionuclides are formed, like {sup 41}Ca and {sup 53}Mn. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca (T{sub 1/2} = 1.03 × 10{sup 5} yr) can be used as a key tracer to determine the accretion rate of IDPs onto the Earth because there are no significant terrestrial sources for this radionuclide. The first step of this study consisted to calculate the production rate of {sup 41}Ca in IDPs accreted by the Earth during their travel from the Asteroid Belt. This production rate, used in accordance with the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratios that will be measured in snow samples from the Antarctica will be used to calculate the amount of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth per year. There challenges for this project are, at first, the much longer time for the flight needed by the IDPs to travel from the Asteroid Belt to the Earth in comparison with the {sup 41}Ca half-life yields an early saturation for the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratio, and second, the importance of selecting the correct sampling site to avoid a high influx of natural {sup 40}Ca, preventing dilution of the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratio, the quantity measured by AMS.

  19. Improving ROLO lunar albedo model using PLEIADES-HR satellites extra-terrestrial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meygret, Aimé; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Colzy, Stéphane; Gross-Colzy, Lydwine

    2017-09-01

    The accurate on orbit radiometric calibration of optical sensors has become a challenge for space agencies which have developed different technics involving on-board calibration systems, ground targets or extra-terrestrial targets. The combination of different approaches and targets is recommended whenever possible and necessary to reach or demonstrate a high accuracy. Among these calibration targets, the moon is widely used through the well-known ROLO (RObotic Lunar Observatory) model developed by USGS. A great and worldwide recognized work was done to characterize the moon albedo which is very stable. However the more and more demanding needs for calibration accuracy have reached the limitations of the model. This paper deals with two mains limitations: the residual error when modelling the phase angle dependency and the absolute accuracy of the model which is no more acceptable for the on orbit calibration of radiometers. Thanks to PLEIADES high resolution satellites agility, a significant data base of moon and stars images was acquired, allowing to show the limitations of ROLO model and to characterize the errors. The phase angle residual dependency is modelled using PLEIADES 1B images acquired for different quasi-complete moon cycles with a phase angle varying by less than 1°. The absolute albedo residual error is modelled using PLEIADES 1A images taken over stars and the moon. The accurate knowledge of the stars spectral irradiance is transferred to the moon spectral albedo using the satellite as a transfer radiometer. This paper describes the data set used, the ROLO model residual errors and their modelling, the quality of the proposed correction and show some calibration results using this improved model.

  20. Surface biosignatures of exo-earths: remote detection of extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Siddharth; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G; Kent, Ryan; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Rothschild, Lynn

    2015-03-31

    Exoplanet discovery has made remarkable progress, with the first rocky planets having been detected in the central star's liquid water habitable zone. The remote sensing techniques used to characterize such planets for potential habitability and life rely solely on our understanding of life on Earth. The vegetation red edge from terrestrial land plants is often used as a direct signature of life, but it occupies only a small niche in the environmental parameter space that binds life on present-day Earth and has been widespread for only about 460 My. To more fully exploit the diversity of the one example of life known, we measured the spectral characteristics of 137 microorganisms containing a range of pigments, including ones isolated from Earth's most extreme environments. Our database covers the visible and near-infrared to the short-wavelength infrared (0.35-2.5 µm) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and is made freely available from biosignatures.astro.cornell.edu. Our results show how the reflectance properties are dominated by the absorption of light by pigments in the visible portion and by strong absorptions by the cellular water of hydration in the infrared (up to 2.5 µm) portion of the spectrum. Our spectral library provides a broader and more realistic guide based on Earth life for the search for surface features of extraterrestrial life. The library, when used as inputs for modeling disk-integrated spectra of exoplanets, in preparation for the next generation of space- and ground-based instruments, will increase the chances of detecting life.

  1. Inhabited or Uninhabited? Pitfalls in the Interpretation of Possible Chemical Signatures of Extraterrestrial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Fox

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The “Rare Earth” hypothesis—put forward by Ward and Brownlee in their 2000 book of the same title—states that prokaryote-type organisms may be common in the universe but animals and higher plants are exceedingly rare. If this idea is correct, the search for extraterrestrial life is essentially the search for microorganisms. Various indicators may be used to detect extant or extinct microbial life beyond Earth. Among them are chemical biosignatures, such as biomolecules and stable isotope ratios. The present minireview focuses on the major problems associated with the identification of chemical biosignatures. Two main types of misinterpretation are distinguished, namely false positive and false negative results. The former can be caused by terrestrial biogenic contaminants or by abiotic products. Terrestrial contamination is a common problem in space missions that search for biosignatures on other planets and moons. Abiotic organics can lead to false positive results if erroneously interpreted as biomolecules, but also to false negatives, for example when an abiotic source obscures a less productive biological one. In principle, all types of putative chemical biosignatures are prone to misinterpretation. Some, however, are more reliable (“stronger” than others. These include: (i homochiral polymers of defined length and sequence, comparable to proteins and polynucleotides; (ii enantiopure compounds; (iii the existence of only a subset of molecules when abiotic syntheses would produce a continuous range of molecules; the proteinogenic amino acids constitute such a subset. These considerations are particularly important for life detection missions to solar system bodies such as Mars, Europa, and Enceladus.

  2. The Case for the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event: Mammoth, Megafauna and Clovis Extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The onset of >1000 years of Younger Dryas cooling, broad-scale extinctions, and the disappearance of the Clovis culture in North America simultaneously occurred 12,900 years ago followed immediately by the appearance of a carbon-rich black layer at many locations. In situ bones of extinct megafauna and Clovis tools occur only beneath this black layer and not within or above it. At the base of the black mat at 9 Clovis-age sites in North America and a site in Belgium numerous extraterrestrial impact markers were found including magnetic grains highly enriched in iridium, magnetic microspherules, vesicular carbon spherules enriched in cubic, hexagonal, and n-type nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon containing Fullerenes and nanodiamonds, charcoal, soot, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The same impact markers were found mixed throughout the sediments of 15 Carolina Bays, elliptical depressions along the Atlantic coast, whose parallel major axes point towards either the Great Lakes or Hudson Bay. The magnetic grains and spherules have an unusual Fe/Ti composition similar to lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane and the organic constituents are enriched in 14C leading to radiocarbon dates often well into the future. These characteristics are inconsistent with known meteorites and suggest that the impact was by a previous unobserved, possibly extrasolar body. The concentration of impact markers peaks near the Great Lakes and their unusually high water content suggests that a 4.6 km-wide comet fragmented and exploded over the Laurentide Ice Sheet creating numerous craters that now persist at the bottom of the Great Lakes. The coincidence of this impact, the onset of Younger Dryas cooling, extinction of the megafauna, and the appearance of a black mat strongly suggests that all these events are directly related. These results have unleashed an avalanche of controversy which I will address in this paper.

  3. The gain of single-axis tracked panel according to extraterrestrial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the gain in extraterrestrial radiation received by a single-axis tracked panel relative to a fixed panel was systematically analyzed over a specific period of time. The dynamic angle that the tracked panel should rotate by in order to follow the sun was derived through a series of spherical trigonometric procedures. The instantaneous incident angle of sunlight upon the panel was then calculated, assuming that the panel would simultaneously follow the sun's position. Thus, instantaneous increments of solar energy received by the tracked panel relative to the fixed panel are originally presented. The results show that the angle the tracked panel has to rotate by is 0 deg. at solar noon, and increases towards dawn or dusk. The incident angle of sunlight upon the tracked panel is always smaller than that upon the fixed panel, except at solar noon. As for panels installed with a yearly optimal tilt angle in Taipei, the gains are between 36.3% and 62.1% for four particular days of year, between 37.8% and 60.8% for the four seasons and 49.3% over the entire year. The amount of radiation collected by the tracked panel is enhanced as the maximum rotation angle is increased. The irradiation ratio of the tracked panel to the fixed panel is close to 1.5 for latitudes below 65 deg. and gradually increases for latitudes above this. The yearly optimal tilt angle of a south-facing fixed panel is approximately equal to 0.9 multiplied by the latitude (i.e. 0.9 x φ) for latitudes below 65 deg. and is about 56 + 0.4 x (φ - 65) otherwise

  4. 78 FR 32241 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  5. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence University. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of...

  6. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  7. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  8. Structural Response of the Earth's Crust to an Extra-Terrestrial Source of Stress by Identifying its Characteristic Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, B.

    2016-12-01

    The earth's crust is a geodynamic realm, which is constantly evolving. Due to its dynamic nature, the crust is constantly being subjected to remodelling. The earth's crustal response to stress is a result of isostatic compensation. The crust is also a living proof of yesteryears' dynamics. Extra-terrestrial agents of deformation refers to meteorites, asteroids etc. These are catastrophic events that influence a larger area (considering larger impact bodies). They effect the crust from outside, hence leave behind very specific structural signatures.Consider an extra-terrestrial object impacting the earth's crust. The problem can be broken down into 3 parts: Pre Impact (kinematics of the object and nature of surface of impact); Syn Impact (dissipation of energy and formation of crater); and Post Impact (structural response, geophysical anomalies and effect on biota)Upon impact, the projectile penetrates the earth's crust to a depth of twice its diameter. Shock waves generated due impact propagate in all possible directions. The reflected waves cause complete melting and vaporization of the impact body. At the same time, increased internal energy of the system melts the target rock. Depending on the thickness and density of crustal matter, its' interaction with the mantle is determined. Data collection from such impact sites is the first step towards its theoretical modeling. Integrating geophysical (seismic, magnetic), paleomagnetic, geochemical and geo-chronological data one can determine the kinematic parameters that governed the event. A working model that illustrates the crustal responses to extraterrestrial stress of extreme magnitude cannot be qualitative. Hence the most fundamental thing at this point is quantification of these parameters. The variables form a `mass-energy equation', a simple theorem in Classical Physics. This project is directed to give the equation its shape. The equation will be the foundation on which the simulation model will rest. Mass

  9. Vidiki etičnega poslovanja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Škedelj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Using the concept of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are necessary and also long-termeconomic profitable. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to define business ethics as a driver of competitive advantage of companies. Method: Analysis of Papers from the Proceedings 22 Forum excellence and mastery, Otočec and magazines for universal excellence. Results: Define business ethics as a factor of competitive advantage of companies. Identify the factors of business ethics, corporate social responsibility and unethical business. Organization: What is the impact of research managers and the organization or practice Society: Better Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility help better business organizations. Originality: Another way to look at the issue and find a solution

  10. THE Ĝ SEARCH FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL CIVILIZATIONS WITH LARGE ENERGY SUPPLIES. IV. THE SIGNATURES AND INFORMATION CONTENT OF TRANSITING MEGASTRUCTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Jason T.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Zhao, Ming; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Arnold, Forgan, and Korpela et al. noted that planet-sized artificial structures could be discovered with Kepler as they transit their host star. We present a general discussion of transiting megastructures, and enumerate 10 potential ways their anomalous silhouettes, orbits, and transmission properties would distinguish them from exoplanets. We also enumerate the natural sources of such signatures. Several anomalous objects, such as KIC 12557548 and CoRoT-29, have variability in depth consistent with Arnold’s prediction and/or an asymmetric shape consistent with Forgan’s model. Since well-motivated physical models have so far provided natural explanations for these signals, the ETI hypothesis is not warranted for these objects, but they still serve as useful examples of how non-standard transit signatures might be identified and interpreted in a SETI context. Boyajian et al. recently announced KIC 8462852, an object with a bizarre light curve consistent with a “swarm” of megastructures. We suggest that this is an outstanding SETI target. We develop the normalized information content statistic M to quantify the information content in a signal embedded in a discrete series of bounded measurements, such as variable transit depths, and show that it can be used to distinguish among constant sources, interstellar beacons, and naturally stochastic or artificial, information-rich signals. We apply this formalism to KIC 12557548 and a specific form of beacon suggested by Arnold to illustrate its utility.

  11. The Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. IV. The Signatures and Information Content of Transiting Megastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Zhao, Ming; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    Arnold, Forgan, and Korpela et al. noted that planet-sized artificial structures could be discovered with Kepler as they transit their host star. We present a general discussion of transiting megastructures, and enumerate 10 potential ways their anomalous silhouettes, orbits, and transmission properties would distinguish them from exoplanets. We also enumerate the natural sources of such signatures. Several anomalous objects, such as KIC 12557548 and CoRoT-29, have variability in depth consistent with Arnold’s prediction and/or an asymmetric shape consistent with Forgan’s model. Since well-motivated physical models have so far provided natural explanations for these signals, the ETI hypothesis is not warranted for these objects, but they still serve as useful examples of how non-standard transit signatures might be identified and interpreted in a SETI context. Boyajian et al. recently announced KIC 8462852, an object with a bizarre light curve consistent with a “swarm” of megastructures. We suggest that this is an outstanding SETI target. We develop the normalized information content statistic M to quantify the information content in a signal embedded in a discrete series of bounded measurements, such as variable transit depths, and show that it can be used to distinguish among constant sources, interstellar beacons, and naturally stochastic or artificial, information-rich signals. We apply this formalism to KIC 12557548 and a specific form of beacon suggested by Arnold to illustrate its utility.

  12. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  13. Intelligent Interactive Multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Toyohide; Takahashi, Naohisa; 5th International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services (KES-IIMSS-12).  The Conference was jointly organised by Nagoya University in Japan and the KES International organisation, and held in the attractive city of Gifu.   The KES-IIMSS conference series, (series chairs Prof. Maria Virvou and Prof. George Tsihrintzis), presents novel research in various areas of intelligent multimedia system relevant to the development of a new generation of interactive, user-centric devices and systems.  The aim of the conference is to provide an internationally respected forum for scientific research in the technologies and applications of this new and dynamic research area.

  14. Introduction to Physical Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    A slight deviation from Newtonian dynamics can lead to new effects associated with the concept of physical intelligence. Non-Newtonian effects such as deviation from classical thermodynamic as well as quantum-like properties have been analyzed. A self-supervised (intelligent) particle that can escape from Brownian motion autonomously is introduced. Such a capability is due to a coupling of the particle governing equation with its own Liouville equation via an appropriate feedback. As a result, the governing equation is self-stabilized, and random oscillations are suppressed, while the Liouville equation takes the form of the Fokker-Planck equation with negative diffusion. Non- Newtonian properties of such a dynamical system as well as thermodynamical implications have been evaluated.

  15. Intelligence in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Nader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children. 

  16. Patterns and Intelligent Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, Gail A.

    2003-01-01

    The recognition and analysis of evolving patterns provides a unifying concept for studying and implementing intelligent information processing for open feedback control systems within the nuclear industry. Control is considered as influence of a large system to achieve the goals of the human (who might or might not be part of an open feedback loop) and is not limited to operation of a component within a nuclear power plant. The intelligent control system includes open logic and can automatically react to new data in an unprogrammed way. This application of evolving patterns integrates current research developments in human cognition and scientific semiotics with traditional feedback control. A preliminary implementation of such a system using existing computational techniques is postulated, and tools that are lacking at this time are identified. Proof-of-concept applications for the nuclear industry are referenced

  17. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  18. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  19. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu AIRINEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

  20. Intelligence and the machinery of government: conceptualizing the intelligence community

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, PHJ

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the failure to address intelligence agencies as public organizations part and parcel with the overt machinery of government constitutes a significant lacuna both in the specialist study of intelligence and the broader discipline of public administration studies. The role and status of intelligence institutions as aspects of the machinery of central government is examined, along with the prospects of certain key paradigms in the field for understanding those institutio...

  1. On the Search for the Amino Acids on the Lunar Surface as it Relates to Other Extraterrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2009-01-01

    The early search for the amino acids on the lunar surface fines indicated such a low amount of the amino acids that it was deemed insignifi cant. While the later studies seemed to depart in some ways from the earlier results, they were not pursued. In this paper we critically ev aluate the results from the Apollo missions from the new perspective with considerations of the sensitivity of the instrumentation availabl e at the time. We discuss the possible relevance of the lunar results to the findings of the amino acids on the surfaces of other extraterrestrial bodies, such as Mars.

  2. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  3. Intelligent Garbage Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rodríguez Novelle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available IGC (Intelligent Garbage Classifier is a system for visual classification and separation of solid waste products. Currently, an important part of the separation effort is based on manual work, from household separation to industrial waste management. Taking advantage of the technologies currently available, a system has been built that can analyze images from a camera and control a robot arm and conveyor belt to automatically separate different kinds of waste.

  4. Artificial intelligence in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Mariella; Grech, Victor E.

    2016-01-01

    Various types of artificial intelligence programs are already available as consultants to physicians, and these help in medical diagnostics and treatment. At the time of writing, extant programs constitute “weak” AI—lacking in consciousness and intentionality. With AI currently making rapid progress in all domains, including those of healthcare, physicians face possible competitors—or worse, claims that doctors may become obsolete. We will explore the development of AI and robotics in medicin...

  5. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  6. Supporting shop floor intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Peter; Schmidt, Kjeld; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    1999-01-01

    Many manufacturing enterprises are now trying to introduce various forms of flexible work organizations on the shop floor. However, existing computer-based production planning and control systems pose severe obstacles for autonomous working groups and other kinds of shop floor control to become r......-to-day production planning by supporting intelligent and responsible workers in their situated coordination activities on the shop floor....

  7. An intelligent CPIB controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikne, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    An intelligent GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) controller is described. It employs an autonomous slave CPU together with a dedicated controller/talker/listener chip to handle the GPIB bus protocol, thus freeing the host computer from this time-consuming task. Distribution of a large part of the necessary software to the slave side, assures that the system can be implemented on virtually any computer with a minimum of effort

  8. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  9. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Celina M. Olszak

    2014-01-01

    . The paper reviews and critiques current research on Business Intelligence (BI) in cloud. This review highlights that organizations face various challenges using BI cloud. The research objectives for this study are a conceptualization of the BI cloud issue, as well as an investigation of some benefits and risks from BI cloud. The study was based mainly on a critical analysis of literature and some reports on BI cloud using. The results of this research can be used by IT and business leaders ...

  10. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  11. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  12. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  13. Automatic intelligent cruise control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Young, MS

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the evaluation of automatic intelligent cruise control (AICC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that AICC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving—namely, make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but might reduce the workload and make driving might less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and automatic inte...

  14. What Makes Nations Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Earl

    2012-05-01

    Modern society is driven by the use of cognitive artifacts: physical instruments or styles of reasoning that amplify our ability to think. The artifacts range from writing systems to computers. In everyday life, a person demonstrates intelligence by showing skill in using these artifacts. Intelligence tests and their surrogates force examinees to exhibit some of these skills but not others. This is why test scores correlate substantially but not perfectly with a variety of measures of socioeconomic success. The same thing is true at the international level. Nations can be evaluated by the extent to which their citizens score well on cognitive tests, including both avowed intelligence tests and a variety of tests of academic achievement. The resulting scores are substantially correlated with various indices of national wealth, health, environmental quality, and schooling and with a vaguer variable, social commitment to innovation. These environmental variables are suggested as causes of the differences in general cognitive skills between national populations. It is conceivable that differences in gene pools also contribute to international and, within nations, group differences in cognitive skills, but at present it is impossible to evaluate the extent of genetic influences. © The Author(s) 2012.

  15. Intelligent systems engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Scott

    1990-01-01

    An added challenge for the designers of large scale systems such as Space Station Freedom is the appropriate incorporation of intelligent system technology (artificial intelligence, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, etc.) into their requirements and design. This presentation will describe a view of systems engineering which successfully addresses several aspects of this complex problem: design of large scale systems, design with requirements that are so complex they only completely unfold during the development of a baseline system and even then continue to evolve throughout the system's life cycle, design that involves the incorporation of new technologies, and design and development that takes place with many players in a distributed manner yet can be easily integrated to meet a single view of the requirements. The first generation of this methodology was developed and evolved jointly by ISX and the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the past five years on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/Air Force Pilot's Associate Program, one of the largest, most complex, and most successful intelligent systems constructed to date. As the methodology has evolved it has also been applied successfully to a number of other projects. Some of the lessons learned from this experience may be applicable to Freedom.

  16. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  17. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  19. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  20. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pengzhen; Chen, Shengyong; Zheng, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applicati...

  1. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  2. Intelligent editor/printer enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfill, M. C.; Pheanis, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Microprocessor support hardware, software, and cross assemblers relating to the Motorola 6800 and 6809 process systems were developed. Pinter controller and intelligent CRT development are discussed. The user's manual, design specifications for the MC6809 version of the intelligent printer controller card, and a 132-character by 64-line intelligent CRT display system using a Motorola 6809 MPU, and a one-line assembler and disassembler are provided.

  3. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  4. Putting Emotional Intelligence To Work

    CERN Document Server

    Ryback, David

    2012-01-01

    Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work offers a new paradigm of communication for the 21st-century workplace. Beginning with the thoughts of communication pioneer Carl Rogers, this book covers the origins and history of emotional intelligence, why it is essential at this point in the changing marketplace, how to delegate and negotiate more effectively, and how to change yourself to become a more effective player. An EQ (Emotional Quotient) survey helps you determine where you are on the scale of executive intelligence. Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work leaves you with a greater understand

  5. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  6. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  7. Ion exchange substrates for plant cultivation in extraterrestrial stations and space crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange substrates Biona were specially designed at the Belarus Academy of Sciences for plants cultivation in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial stations. The first versions of such substrates have been successfully used in several space experiments and in a long-term experiment in which three soviet test-spacemen spent a full year in hermetic cabin imitating a lunar station cabin (1067-1968). In this experiment the life support system included a section with about one ton of the ion exchange substrate, which was used to grow ten vegetations of different green cultures used in the food of the test persons. Due to failure of a number of Soviet space experiments, decay of the Soviet Union and the following economic crisis the research in this field carried out in Belarus were re-directed to the needs of usual agriculture, such as adaptation of cell cultures, growing seedlings, rootage of cuttings etc. At present ion exchange substrate Biona are produced in limited amounts at the experimental production plant of the Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry and used in a number of agricultural enterprises. New advanced substrates and technologies for their production have been developed during that time. In the presentation scientific principles of preparation and functioning of ion exchange substrates as well as results of their application for cultivation different plants are described. The ion exchange substrate is a mixture of cation and anion exchangers saturated in a certain proportions with all ions of macro and micro elements. These chemically bound ions are not released to water and become available for plants in exchange to their root metabolites. The substrates contain about 5% mass of nutrient elements far exceeding any other nutrient media for plants. They allow generating 3-5 kg of green biomass per kilogram of substrate without adding any fertilizers; they are sterile by the way of production and can be sterilized by usual methods; allow regeneration

  8. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

    1994-08-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  9. Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-08

    books, journal papers, conference presentations, working papers, and other electronic and print publications. Intelligence Community Programs... Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues Anne Daugherty Miles Analyst in Intelligence and National Security Policy...

  10. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity & Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the performance goals for NASA's enterprise of Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) is to develop methods, data bases, and validating tests for material flammability characterization, hazard reduction, and fire detection/suppression strategies for spacecraft and extraterrestrial habitats. This work addresses these needs by applying the fundamental knowledge gained from low stretch experiments to the development of a normal gravity low stretch material flammability test method. The concept of the apparatus being developed uses the low stretch geometry to simulate the conditions of the extraterrestrial environment through proper scaling of the sample dimensions to reduce the buoyant stretch in normal gravity. The apparatus uses controlled forced-air flow to augment the low stretch to levels which simulate Lunar or Martian gravity levels. In addition, the effect of imposed radiant heat flux on material flammability can be studied with the cone heater. After breadboard testing, the apparatus will be integrated into NASA's White Sands Test Facility's Atmosphere-Controlled Cone Calorimeter for evaluation as a new materials screening test method.

  11. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Povich, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States); Mullan, B. [Blue Marble Space Institution of Science, P.O. Box 85561, Seattle, WA 98145-1561 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  12. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.; Mullan, B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  13. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. II. Framework, Strategy, and First Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.; Mullan, B.

    2014-09-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited "free" energy generation.

  14. Multiple intelligences: Can they be measured?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsi Tirri; Petri Nokelainen; Erkki Komulainen

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about issues relating to the assessment of multiple intelligences. The first section introduces the authors’ work on building measures of multiple intelligences and moral sensitivities. It also provides a conceptual definition of multiple intelligences based on Multiple Intelligences theory by Howard Gardner (1983). The second section discusses the context specificity of intelligences and alternative approaches to measuring multiple intelligences. The third section analyses the ...

  15. How to Improve Artificial Intelligence through Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Lupasc

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent agents, intelligent software applications and artificial intelligent applications from artificial intelligence service providers may make their way onto the Web in greater number as adaptive software, dynamic programming languages and Learning Algorithms are introduced into Web Services. The evolution of Web architecture may allow intelligent applications to run directly on the Web by introducing XML, RDF and logic layer. The Intelligent Wireless Web’s significant potential for ra...

  16. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  17. Scholastic Success: Fluid Intelligence, Personality, and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A.; Lomas, Justine; Billings, Clare; Hansen, Karen; Stough, Con

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and emotional intelligence (EI) in predicting female Year 9 students' grade point average (GPA) and to determine whether any differences in scholastic performance were related to differences in EI or Personality. Two-hundred and forty-three female…

  18. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: 1.1-1.9 GHz Observations of 692 Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Price, Danny C.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David H. E.; Werthimer, Dan

    2017-11-01

    We report on a search for engineered signals from a sample of 692 nearby stars using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, undertaken as part of the Breakthrough Listen Initiative search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Observations were made over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L band), with three sets of five-minute observations of the 692 primary targets, interspersed with five-minute observations of secondary targets. By comparing the “ON” and “OFF” observations, we are able to identify terrestrial interference and place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. During the analysis, 11 events passed our thresholding algorithm, but a detailed analysis of their properties indicates that they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio-frequency interference. We conclude that, at the time of our observations, none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz with an Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power of ˜1013 W, which is readily achievable by our own civilization. Our results suggest that fewer than ˜0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey.

  19. Benefits of collective intelligence: Swarm intelligent foraging, an ethnographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wisdom of crowds; bees, colonies of ants, schools of fish, flocks of birds, and fireflies flashing synchronously are all examples of highly coordinated behaviors that emerge from collective, decentralized intelligence. This article is an ethnographic study of swarm intelligence foraging of swarms and the benefits derived from collective decision making. The author used using secondary data analysis to look at the benefits of swarm intelligence in decision making to achieve intended goals. Concepts like combined decision making and consensus were discussed and four principles of swarm intelligence were also discussed viz; coordination, cooperation, deliberation and collaboration. The research found out that collective decision making in swarms is the touchstone of achieving their goals. The research further recommended corporate to adopt collective intelligence for business sustainability.

  20. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  1. Architecture for robot intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  2. Business Intelligence Success Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardboe, Rikke; Jonasen, Tanja Svarre

    2018-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) is a strategically important practice in many organizations. Several studies have investigated the factors that contribute to BI success; however, an overview of the critical success factors (CSFs) involved is lacking in the extant literature. We have integrated...... 34 CSFs related to BI success. The distinct CSFs identified in the extant literature relate to project management skills (13 papers), management support (20 papers), and user involvement (11 papers). In the articles with operationalized BI success, we found several distinct factors: system quality...

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Sophia K; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2015-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is an established concept in the business literature with evidence that it is an important factor in determining career achievement. There is increasing interest in the role that EI has in medical training, but it is still a nascent field. This article reviews the EI literature most relevant to surgical training and proposes that simulation offers many benefits to the development of EI. Although there are many unanswered questions, it is expected that future research will demonstrate the effectiveness of using simulation to develop EI within surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, TS; Lemmer, JF; Shachter, RD

    1990-01-01

    Clearly illustrated in this volume is the current relationship between Uncertainty and AI.It has been said that research in AI revolves around five basic questions asked relative to some particular domain: What knowledge is required? How can this knowledge be acquired? How can it be represented in a system? How should this knowledge be manipulated in order to provide intelligent behavior? How can the behavior be explained? In this volume, all of these questions are addressed. From the perspective of the relationship of uncertainty to the basic questions of AI, the book divides naturally i

  5. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishti Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI provides machines with the ability to learn and respond the way humans do and is also referred to as machine learning. The step to building an AI system is to provide the data to learn from so that it can map relations between inputs and outputs and set up parameters such as “weights”/decision boundaries to predict responses for inputs in the future. Then, the model is tested on a second data set. This article outlines the promise this analytic approach has in medicine and cardiology.

  6. Intelligent Electricity Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Væggemose, Poul Erik; Kulik, Tomas

    The Intelligent Electricity Broker (IEB) is a new energy storage and energy broker facility that serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows for storing excessive energy in the Smart Grid [1, 2, 3] it is connected to. Secondly, it runs a broker-algorithm that ensures that energy is purchased and sold...... when feasible to the system owner. This paper describes how the IEB can be used by house owners, in building clusters, and/or by energy providers to take advantage of electricity stock market prices and weather forecasts to control energy surplus storage suffers as well as to lower electricity bills...

  7. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  8. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  9. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  10. Polynomial intelligent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milks, Matthew M; Guise, Hubert de

    2005-01-01

    The construction of su(2) intelligent states is simplified using a polynomial representation of su(2). The cornerstone of the new construction is the diagonalization of a 2 x 2 matrix. The method is sufficiently simple to be easily extended to su(3), where one is required to diagonalize a single 3 x 3 matrix. For two perfectly general su(3) operators, this diagonalization is technically possible but the procedure loses much of its simplicity owing to the algebraic form of the roots of a cubic equation. Simplified expressions can be obtained by specializing the choice of su(3) operators. This simpler construction will be discussed in detail

  11. ''Intelligent'' radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, A.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of three applications of current microprocessor technology which are characterized by the use of the microprocessor to impart a degree of intelligence to conventional radiation detection techniques. In the first application the microcomputer computes the radiation dose from the observed counting rate in a Geiger counter. In the second application the microcomputer provides the pulse height distribution and the radioisotopes used, from the spectrum of pulses from a scintillation counter. The third application is an arrangement for radiation monitor calibration. (H.K.)

  12. Stupid Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Successful Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    Cognitive intelligence is often equated with eventual success in many areas. However, there are many instances where people of high IQ flounder whereas those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. Author and renowned psychologist Daniel Goleman believes that the explanation for this fact lies in abilities called "emotional intelligence,"…

  14. Next generation emotional intelligence (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Saveland

    2012-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been a hot topic in leadership training since Dan Goleman published his book on the subject in 1995. Emotional intelligence competencies are typically focused on recognition and regulation of emotions in one's self and social situations, yielding four categories: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship...

  15. Artificial Intelligence and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron

    1987-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence (AI) in relation to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Provides a brief background of AI work, examples of expert systems, examples of ICAI work, and addresses problems facing AI workers that have implications for science education. Proposes a revised model of the Karplus/Renner…

  16. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  17. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  18. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  19. On Family Size and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques research by Rodgers, et al. (June 2000) on the impact of family size on intelligence, explaining that it applied very simple analytic techniques to a very complex question, leading to unwarranted conclusions about family size and intelligence. Loss of cases, omission of an important ability test, and failure to apply multivariate…

  20. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Howard

    1987-01-01

    The multiple intelligence theory is based on cultural contexts, biological analysis, developmental theories, and a vertical theory of faculties. Seven intelligences are identified: linguistic, logical mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. The theory's educational implications are described,…

  1. Emotional Intelligence and School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is the cornerstone of every decision a principal makes; solving problems and making judgments are part of a leader's system of values and beliefs. Mayer and Salovney (1997) described emotionally intelligent leaders as those who are able to perceive and understand emotions and to regulate emotions to foster emotional and…

  2. Artificial intelligence approaches in statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.I.; Musgrove, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    The role of pattern recognition and knowledge representation methods from Artificial Intelligence within statistics is considered. Two areas of potential use are identified and one, data exploration, is used to illustrate the possibilities. A method is presented to identify and separate overlapping groups within cluster analysis, using an AI approach. The potential of such ''intelligent'' approaches is stressed

  3. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  4. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ awareness of target language pragmatic features is influenced by individual difference variables, the least explored one being emotional intelligence. To investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness, the current study was conducted over 120 Iranian senior undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language at a university in Iran. Pragmatic awareness was measured through a 12-scenario contextualized pragmatic judgment task. Emotional intelligence was also measured through the EQ-i. The results of the Pearson correlation revealed a strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of emotion-driven authentic materials in English language classes to invoke emotional intelligence in language learners.

  5. Computer automation and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid advances in computing, resulting from micro chip revolution has increased its application manifold particularly for computer automation. Yet the level of automation available, has limited its application to more complex and dynamic systems which require an intelligent computer control. In this paper a review of Artificial intelligence techniques used to augment automation is presented. The current sequential processing approach usually adopted in artificial intelligence has succeeded in emulating the symbolic processing part of intelligence, but the processing power required to get more elusive aspects of intelligence leads towards parallel processing. An overview of parallel processing with emphasis on transputer is also provided. A Fuzzy knowledge based controller for amination drug delivery in muscle relaxant anesthesia on transputer is described. 4 figs. (author)

  6. Swarm Intelligence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the characteristics of Swarm Intelligence and discuss systems exhibiting it. The recently developed mathematical description of Swarm behavior is also reviewed and discussed. The self-organization of Swarms is described as the reconfiguring asynchronously and conservatively of a distribution. Swarm reconfigurations are based on producing distributions that are solutions to systems of linear equations. Conservation and asynchronicity are related, respectively, to the global and local nature of the Swarm problem. The conditions for the convergence of the Swarm algorithm are presented. The important point is that, under very general conditions, the Swarm reconfigures in a time which is independent of the size of the Swarm. This fact implies that a centralized controller can never reconfigure as fast as a Swarm provided the size of the Swarm is large enough. This result is related to the unpredictability of the Swarm, a basic property of Swarm Intelligence. Finally, the conditions under which Swarm algorithms become of practical importance are discussed and examples given. (author)

  7. Intelligent nesting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the process for the manufacture of parts from sheet metal plates depends on successful solution of the process of cutting various parts from sheet metal plates. Essentially, the problem is to arrange contours within a defined space so that they take up minimal surface. When taken in this way, the considered problem assumes a more general nature; it refers to the utilization of a flat surface, and it can represent a general principle of arranging 2D contours on a certain surface. The paper presents a conceptual solution and a prototypal intelligent nesting system for optimal cutting. The problem of nesting can generally be divided into two intellectual phases: recognition and classification of shapes, and arrangement of recognized shapes on a given surface. In solving these problems, methods of artificial intelligence are applied. In the paper, trained neural network is used for recognition of shapes; on the basis of raster record of a part's drawing, it recognizes the part's shape and which class it belongs to. By means of the expert system, based on rules defined on the basis of acquisition of knowledge from manufacturing sections, as well as on the basis of certain mathematical algorithms, parts are arranged on the arrangement surface. Both systems can also work independently, having been built on the modular principle. The system uses various product models as elements of integration for the entire system. .

  8. The Breakthrough Listen Initiative and the Future of the Search for Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Danny; DeBoer, David; Werthimer, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Unprecedented recent results in the fields of exoplanets and astrobiology have dramatically increased the interest in the potential existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the galaxy. Additionally, the capabilities of modern Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have increased tremendously. Much of this improvement is due to the ongoing development of wide bandwidth radio instruments and the Moore's Law increase in computing power over the previous decades. Together, these instrumentation improvements allow for narrow band signal searches of billions of frequency channels at once.The Breakthrough Listen Initiative (BL) was launched on July 20, 2015 at the Royal Society in London, UK with the goal to conduct the most comprehensive and sensitive search for advanced life in humanity's history. Here we detail important milestones achieved during the first year and a half of the program. We describe the key BL SETI surveys and briefly describe current facilities, including the Green Bank Telescope, the Automated Planet Finder and the Parkes Observatory. We also mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused on complementary sciences, these include pulse searches of pulsars and FRBs, as well as astrophysically powered radio emission from stars targeted by our program.We conclude with a brief view towards future SETI searches with upcoming next-generation radio facilities such as SKA and ngVLA.

  9. Combined Intelligent Control (CIC an Intelligent Decision Making Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moteaal Asadi Shirzi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is to introduce the concept of combined intelligent control (CIC as an effective architecture for decision-making and control of intelligent agents and multi-robot sets. Basically, the CIC is a combination of various architectures and methods from fields such as artificial intelligence, Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI, control and biological computing. Although any intelligent architecture may be very effective for some specific applications, it could be less for others. Therefore, CIC combines and arranges them in a way that the strengths of any approach cover the weaknesses of others. In this paper first, we introduce some intelligent architectures from a new aspect. Afterward, we offer the CIC by combining them. CIC has been executed in a multi-agent set. In this set, robots must cooperate to perform some various tasks in a complex and nondeterministic environment with a low sensory feedback and relationship. In order to investigate, improve, and correct the combined intelligent control method, simulation software has been designed which will be presented and considered. To show the ability of the CIC algorithm as a distributed architecture, a central algorithm is designed and compared with the CIC.

  10. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-09-01

    Bacteria such as the aerobic Salinibacter ruber and the anaerobic members of the Halanaerobiales) use KCl to provide the necessary osmotic balance. Some of these extreme halophiles possess light-driven proton pumps (bacteriorhodopsin, xanthorhodopsin) and chloride pumps (halorhodopsin) that enable them to use photons to drive energetically expensive reactions (Oren, 2002; Oren, 2008). Extremophiles can serve as models for extraterrestrial microbes that may live in celestial bodies. The most promising among these to contain habitable areas are Mars (where the Phoenix Lander recently discovered water) and the Jovian satellite Europa; also Titan (the moon of Saturn) has some features that resemble those that may have existed on Earth during its earliest stages. From the characteristics of extremophilic microorganisms found on the present-day Earth, we can derive some insights on the question of habitability of other planets, and learn about possible bioindicators that may be suitable when searching for extraterrestrial life (Seckbach and Chela-Flores, 2007). Compounds such as methane on Mars or traces of sulfur on Jupiter's moon Europa may have been of biogenic origin and may possibly have been endogenic (Chela-Flores, 2006; Chela-Flores and Kumar, 2008). Biogeochemical tests have been proposed for missions that are in the planning stages, such as LAPLACE (Blanc et al., 2008), a mission to Europa and the Jupiter system by ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The finding of elemental sulfur on Europa may be of special interest. One possibility is that such traces of sulfur might have originated from the metabolism of extremophilic sulfurreducing microorganisms. Radiation may damage traces of biogenic sulfur deposited on the surface. The stopping depth for ionic radiation in the Jovian magnetosphere is expected not to exceed 1 cm (Greenberg, 2005; Dudeja et al., 2008). Thus, organic molecules would not be destroyed below such a thin layer. Based on to the preliminary results of the

  11. Compound specific stable isotopes as probes for distinguishing the sources of biomolecules in terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M. H.; Macko, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    Life on Earth consists of orderly arrangements of several key types of organic compounds (amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, nucleic bases) that are the building blocks of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleotides. Subsequent to death, macromolecules are commonly broken down to their molecular constituents or other similar scale components. Thus, in ancient terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials, it is far more likely to expect the presence of simple compounds such as amino acids rather than the proteins from which they were possibly derived. Given that amino acids, for example, are common components of all extinct and extant organisms, the challenge has been to develop methods for distinguishing their sources. Stable isotopes are powerful probes for determining the origins of organic matter. Amino acid constituents of all organisms on Earth exhibit characteristic stable isotope compositions owing to fractionations associated with their biosynthesis. These fractionations are distinct from those observed for amino acids formed by abiotic processes. Thus it should be possible to use isotopes as probes for determining whether amino acids in ancient rocks on Earth are biotic or abiotic, based on their relative isotopic compositions. Also, owing to differences in the isotope compositions of precursors, amino acids in extraterrestrial materials such as carbonaceous meteorites are moderately to substantially enriched in the heavy isotopes of C, N and H relative to terrestrial amino acids. Assuming that the isotope compositions of the gaseous components of, for example, the Martian atmosphere were distinct from Earth at such time when organic molecules may have formed, it should be possible to distinguish these components from terrestrial contaminants by determining their isotope compositions and/or those of their respective enantiomers. Also, if life as we know it existed on another planet such as Mars, fractionations characteristic of biosynthesis should be

  12. Open source intelligence, open social intelligence and privacy by design

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Austràlia). Centre for Applied Social Research

    2014-01-01

    Ponència presentada a European Conference on Social Intelligence (ECSI-2014) OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence, (O)SI for (Open) Social Intelligence, PbD for Privacy by Design. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organized crime. How to balance freedom and security? This position paper describes a way to embed the legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe into this kind of surveillance platforms. It f...

  13. Physical Invariants of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    A program of research is dedicated to development of a mathematical formalism that could provide, among other things, means by which living systems could be distinguished from non-living ones. A major issue that arises in this research is the following question: What invariants of mathematical models of the physics of systems are (1) characteristic of the behaviors of intelligent living systems and (2) do not depend on specific features of material compositions heretofore considered to be characteristic of life? This research at earlier stages has been reported, albeit from different perspectives, in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: One of the main underlying ideas is to extend the application of physical first principles to the behaviors of living systems. Mathematical models of motor dynamics are used to simulate the observable physical behaviors of systems or objects of interest, and models of mental dynamics are used to represent the evolution of the corresponding knowledge bases. For a given system, the knowledge base is modeled in the form of probability distributions and the mental dynamics is represented by models of the evolution of the probability densities or, equivalently, models of flows of information. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the focus of this research was upon the following aspects of the formalism: Intelligence is considered to be a means by which a living system preserves itself and improves its ability to survive and is further considered to manifest itself in feedback from the mental dynamics to the motor dynamics. Because of the feedback from the mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: The trajectory of the physical aspect of the system in the space of dynamical variables splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with a probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. From a slightly different perspective

  14. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  15. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  16. Neuronal factors determining high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Ursula; Roth, Gerhard

    2016-01-05

    Many attempts have been made to correlate degrees of both animal and human intelligence with brain properties. With respect to mammals, a much-discussed trait concerns absolute and relative brain size, either uncorrected or corrected for body size. However, the correlation of both with degrees of intelligence yields large inconsistencies, because although they are regarded as the most intelligent mammals, monkeys and apes, including humans, have neither the absolutely nor the relatively largest brains. The best fit between brain traits and degrees of intelligence among mammals is reached by a combination of the number of cortical neurons, neuron packing density, interneuronal distance and axonal conduction velocity--factors that determine general information processing capacity (IPC), as reflected by general intelligence. The highest IPC is found in humans, followed by the great apes, Old World and New World monkeys. The IPC of cetaceans and elephants is much lower because of a thin cortex, low neuron packing density and low axonal conduction velocity. By contrast, corvid and psittacid birds have very small and densely packed pallial neurons and relatively many neurons, which, despite very small brain volumes, might explain their high intelligence. The evolution of a syntactical and grammatical language in humans most probably has served as an additional intelligence amplifier, which may have happened in songbirds and psittacids in a convergent manner. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. The foundations of plant intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2017-06-06

    Intelligence is defined for wild plants and its role in fitness identified. Intelligent behaviour exhibited by single cells and systems similarity between the interactome and connectome indicates neural systems are not necessary for intelligent capabilities. Plants sense and respond to many environmental signals that are assessed to competitively optimize acquisition of patchily distributed resources. Situations of choice engender motivational states in goal-directed plant behaviour; consequent intelligent decisions enable efficient gain of energy over expenditure. Comparison of swarm intelligence and plant behaviour indicates the origins of plant intelligence lie in complex communication and is exemplified by cambial control of branch function. Error correction in behaviours indicates both awareness and intention as does the ability to count to five. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in numerous plant interactions. Being complex in composition and often species and individual specific, they may represent the plant language and account for self and alien recognition between individual plants. Game theory has been used to understand competitive and cooperative interactions between plants and microbes. Some unexpected cooperative behaviour between individuals and potential aliens has emerged. Behaviour profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  18. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  19. Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Penstimulasian Multiple Intelligences Siswa

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Legowo

    2017-01-01

    Tulisan ini membahas mengenai penerapan teori multiple intelligences dalam pembelajaran di sekolah. Pembahasan diawali dengan menguraikan perkembangan konsep inteligensi dan multiple intelligences. Diikuti dengan menjelaskan dampak teori multiple intelligences dalam bidang pendidikan dan pembelajaran di sekolah. Bagian selanjutnya menguraikan tentang implementasi teori multiple intelligences dalam praktik pembelajaran di kelas yaitu bagaimana pemberian pengalaman belajar siswa yang difasilita...

  20. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  1. Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, Martha J.

    Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

  2. Intelligence Community Spending: Trends and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-08

    The Deputy Director CIA manages the CIAP. Funds CIA activities to include HUMINT and OSINT . The CIAP funds everything related to the CIA. It...Human Intelligence (HUMINT); Imagery Intelligence (IMINT); Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT); Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ); and

  3. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  4. Artificial intelligence and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clocksin, William F

    2003-08-15

    We consider some of the ideas influencing current artificial-intelligence research and outline an alternative conceptual framework that gives priority to social relationships as a key component and constructor of intelligent behaviour. The framework starts from Weizenbaum's observation that intelligence manifests itself only relative to specific social and cultural contexts. This is in contrast to a prevailing view, which sees intelligence as an abstract capability of the individual mind based on a mechanism for rational thought. The new approach is not based on the conventional idea that the mind is a rational processor of symbolic information, nor does it require the idea that thought is a kind of abstract problem solving with a semantics that is independent of its embodiment. Instead, priority is given to affective and social responses that serve to engage the whole agent in the life of the communities in which it participates. Intelligence is seen not as the deployment of capabilities for problem solving, but as constructed by the continual, ever-changing and unfinished engagement with the social group within the environment. The construction of the identity of the intelligent agent involves the appropriation or 'taking up' of positions within the conversations and narratives in which it participates. Thus, the new approach argues that the intelligent agent is shaped by the meaning ascribed to experience, by its situation in the social matrix, and by practices of self and of relationship into which intelligent life is recruited. This has implications for the technology of the future, as, for example, classic artificial intelligence models such as goal-directed problem solving are seen as special cases of narrative practices instead of as ontological foundations.

  5. Deep-sea spherules from Pacific clay - Mass distribution and influx rate. [extraterrestrial origins from optical and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, M. T.; Davis, P. A., Jr.; Nishiizumi, K.; Millard, H. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    From 411 kg of Pacific clay, 22 mg of stony spherules and 50 mg of iron spherules larger than 150 microns were concentrated. The extraterrestrial origin of these particles was evaluated with the aid of optical and electron microscopy and atomic absorption elemental analysis. An expression for the integral number of stony particles from this sediment in the mass range 20-300 micrograms was derived. The world-wide influx rate of stony particles in the mass range which survive atmospheric heating and ocean sediment storage is calculated to be 90 tons/yr. The relative contributions of ablation debris vs fused interplanetary dust to the influx of stony spherules is discussed, but no conclusions could be made.

  6. Creationism and intelligent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Robert T

    2003-01-01

    Creationism, the rejection of evolution in favor of supernatural design, comes in many varieties besides the common young-earth Genesis version. Creationist attacks on science education have been evolving in the last few years through the alliance of different varieties. Instead of calls to teach "creation science," one now finds lobbying for "intelligent design" (ID). Guided by the Discovery Institute's "Wedge strategy," the ID movement aims to overturn evolution and what it sees as a pernicious materialist worldview and to renew a theistic foundation to Western culture, in which human beings are recognized as being created in the image of God. Common ID arguments involving scientific naturalism, "irreducible complexity," "complex specified information," and "icons of evolution," have been thoroughly examined and refuted. Nevertheless, from Kansas to Ohio to the U.S. Congress, ID continues lobbying to teach the controversy, and scientists need to be ready to defend good evolution education.

  7. An Intelligent Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M.; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  8. Intelligent robotic tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaguro, W. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, K. C.; Rhoades, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    An intelligent tracker capable of robotic applications requiring guidance and control of platforms, robotic arms, and end effectors has been developed. This packaged system capable of supervised autonomous robotic functions is partitioned into a multiple processor/parallel processing configuration. The system currently interfaces to cameras but has the capability to also use three-dimensional inputs from scanning laser rangers. The inputs are fed into an image processing and tracking section where the camera inputs are conditioned for the multiple tracker algorithms. An executive section monitors the image processing and tracker outputs and performs all the control and decision processes. The present architecture of the system is presented with discussion of its evolutionary growth for space applications. An autonomous rendezvous demonstration of this system was performed last year. More realistic demonstrations in planning are discussed.

  9. Emotionally intelligent teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Cabello

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the importance of complementing teachers’ training with the learning and development of social and emotional aspects. It is in this way that Emotional Intelligence (EI –understood as a complement of the cognitive development of teachers and students– is to play a role in the educational context. We review Mayer & Salovey’s ability model (1997, some of the programmes of socio-emotional improvement that are also designed for teachers and several activities for the development of teachers’ EI. In addition, we examine the implications for teachers derived from the development of their EI to enhance their capacity to appropriately perceive, understand and manage one’s own emotions and those of others.

  10. Artificial intelligence in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Parmar, Chintan; Quackenbush, John; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2018-05-17

    Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics. In this Opinion article, we establish a general understanding of AI methods, particularly those pertaining to image-based tasks. We explore how these methods could impact multiple facets of radiology, with a general focus on applications in oncology, and demonstrate ways in which these methods are advancing the field. Finally, we discuss the challenges facing clinical implementation and provide our perspective on how the domain could be advanced.

  11. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  12. An Intelligent Weather Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Mestre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead.

  13. Artificial Intelligence and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapshak, Paul

    2018-01-01

    From the start, Kurt Godel observed that computer and brain paradigms were considered on a par by researchers and that researchers had misunderstood his theorems. He hailed with displeasure that the brain transcends computers. In this brief article, we point out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) comprises multitudes of human-made methodologies, systems, and languages, and implemented with computer technology. These advances enhance development in the electron and quantum realms. In the biological realm, animal neurons function, also utilizing electron flow, and are products of evolution. Mirror neurons are an important paradigm in neuroscience research. Moreover, the paradigm shift proposed here - 'hall of mirror neurons' - is a potentially further productive research tactic. These concepts further expand AI and brain research.

  14. Intelligent multivariate process supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visuri, Pertti.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis addresses the difficulties encountered in managing large amounts of data in supervisory control of complex systems. Some previous alarm and disturbance analysis concepts are reviewed and a method for improving the supervision of complex systems is presented. The method, called multivariate supervision, is based on adding low level intelligence to the process control system. By using several measured variables linked together by means of deductive logic, the system can take into account the overall state of the supervised system. Thus, it can present to the operators fewer messages with higher information content than the conventional control systems which are based on independent processing of each variable. In addition, the multivariate method contains a special information presentation concept for improving the man-machine interface. (author)

  15. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  16. Intelligent it outsourcing

    CERN Document Server

    Willcocks, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent IT Outsourcing enables practitioners to focus in on the essential issues that need to be addressed so that the fundamental structure of their sourcing strategy and its implementation is sound. The authors provide insight into the challenges likely to be faced and give detailed advice on how to pre-empt and manage these.IT and outsourcing continue to be problematic, not least because fundamental learning about this subject fails to be applied systematically, and because IT is inherently difficult to manage. The economics are not obvious and emerging technologies have to be addressed, therefore IT goes to the heart of many enterprises and interfaces with multiple business units and processes, and there are continuous skills shortages.Unfortunately complexities are not removed in outsourced situations where additional problems come into play, for example the supplier''s capabilities, whether the IT is right for an outsourcing solution, and whether the contract is robust but flexible enough to allow f...

  17. Intelligently interactive combat simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  18. Multiple intelligences in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castro Solano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During many years has prevailed the idea of intelligence as a single problem solving ability (factor g considered the best predictor of student’s academic achievement. Recently, researches have begun to take an alternative view of the problem, understanding it is a multidimensional construct. Multiple intelligences (MI theory proposed by Gardner (1983 takes into account seven talents or skills individuals appear to have in certain amount. These latent bio-psychological potentials are stable and they are mantained through life. Theory of MI proposes that every person learns in relation to them. MI theory has many educational applications, however, very few efforts have been made to verify such statements. The main goal of this study is to analyze the IM differential individual profile of high school and university students studying the relation between IM, academic achievement and self efficacy competence on course performance. Two studies were carried out , the first was done with high school students (N=500 and the second with military students (N=362. Based on Armstrong’s proposals to assess IM, an inventory was designed. Main results point out that there is a correspondence between academic attainment, self interest and self perception of competence in different courses students take. MI are good predictors of academic achievement considering specific areas but they don’t provide a better estimation compared to traditional assessment instruments. Students who have failed in school were those with more spatial and corporal abilities, usually relegated by traditional instruction. High achievers were those with more logical and intrapersonal skills. Different relations were found for military students. For these latter students IM theory was not a valuable predictor of successful academic attainment. 

  19. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  20. Power System for Intelligent House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jahelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power supply of intelligent houses or house phones is possible to do with standard transformer with voltage stabilizer or with intelligent power supply. Standard solution can has as a result of failure fuse blown or fire occurrence. Intelligent power supply switch off power and tests with little current whether short circuit is removed. After it resume system power supply. At the same time it cares of system backup with accumulator, informs control system about short circuit or failure net power supply, or can switch off all system power after command from control system.

  1. Novel applications of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kasabov, Nikola; Filev, Dimitar; Jotsov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this carefully edited book some selected results of theoretical and applied research in the field of broadly perceived intelligent systems are presented. The problems vary from industrial to web and problem independent applications. All this is united under the slogan: "Intelligent systems conquer the world”. The book brings together innovation projects with analytical research, invention, retrieval and processing of knowledge and logical applications in technology. This book is aiming to a wide circle of readers and particularly to the young generation of IT/ICT experts who will build the next generations of intelligent systems.

  2. Complexity Intelligence and Cultural Coaching:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Inglis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the term complexity intelligence as a useful moniker to describe the reasoning ability, emotional capacity and social cognition necessary to meet the challenges of our prevailing life conditions. We suggest that, as a society and as individuals, we develop complexity intelligence as we navigate the gap between our current capacities and the capacities needed to respond to the next stage of complex challenges in our lives. We further suggest that it is possible to stimulate and support the emergence of complexity intelligence in a society, but we need a new form of social change agent - a cultural coach, to midwife its emergence.

  3. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  4. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  5. Computational Foundations of Natural Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    New developments in AI and neuroscience are revitalizing the quest to understanding natural intelligence, offering insight about how to equip machines with human-like capabilities. This paper reviews some of the computational principles relevant for understanding natural intelligence and, ultimately, achieving strong AI. After reviewing basic principles, a variety of computational modeling approaches is discussed. Subsequently, I concentrate on the use of artificial neural networks as a framework for modeling cognitive processes. This paper ends by outlining some of the challenges that remain to fulfill the promise of machines that show human-like intelligence.

  6. Computational Foundations of Natural Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel van Gerven

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New developments in AI and neuroscience are revitalizing the quest to understanding natural intelligence, offering insight about how to equip machines with human-like capabilities. This paper reviews some of the computational principles relevant for understanding natural intelligence and, ultimately, achieving strong AI. After reviewing basic principles, a variety of computational modeling approaches is discussed. Subsequently, I concentrate on the use of artificial neural networks as a framework for modeling cognitive processes. This paper ends by outlining some of the challenges that remain to fulfill the promise of machines that show human-like intelligence.

  7. Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, A; Vale, Zita

    2011-01-01

    "Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems" provides an overview and original analysis of new developments and advances in several areas of computational intelligence. Computational Intelligence have become the road-map for engineers to develop and analyze novel techniques to solve problems in basic sciences (such as physics, chemistry and biology) and engineering, environmental, life and social sciences. The contributions are written by international experts, who provide up-to-date aspects of the topics discussed and present recent, original insights into their own experien

  8. Special Issue on Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genci Capi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on intelligent robots will produce robots that are able to operate in everyday life environments, to adapt their program according to environment changes, and to cooperate with other team members and humans. Operating in human environments, robots need to process, in real time, a large amount of sensory data—such as vision, laser, microphone—in order to determine the best action. Intelligent algorithms have been successfully applied to link complex sensory data to robot action. This editorial briefly summarizes recent findings in the field of intelligent robots as described in the articles published in this special issue.

  9. CHANNELING: SEARCH OF THE METAANTHROPOLOGIC MEAS-UREMENTS OF MIND BEING IN THE UNIVERSE (based on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Tshedrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study. In the context of religious and philosophical movements of the «New Age» gained channeling phenomenon – «laying channel», «transmission channel» information from the consciousness that is not in human form, to the individual and humanity as a whole. In the socio-cultural environment of the postmodern channeling reflects the problem of finding extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI; «ETC-problem»; SETІ problem and to establish contacts with them, this problem has a different projection, important philosophical and anthropological measurements in culture. Investigation of mechanisms of constructing virtual superhuman personalities in the world web is not only of interest for further analysis of the problem of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI, but also to extend subject field of anthropology of the Internet as an important area of philosophical and anthropological studies. The purpose of the study. Analysis of the phenomenon of channeling as a projection of the fundamental problems of life ETI, its representation on the World Wide Web, the impact on the archaism of postmodern culture posing problems meta an-thropological dimensions of existence in the universe of reason and contact with him in the doctrinal grounds channeling. Analysis of research on the problem and its empirical base. Clustered nature of the problem of ETI and channeling its element involves the widespread use of radio astronomy paradigm works carriers solve CETI; work in anthropology Internet; works of researchers of the phenomenon of «New Age». Empirical basis of the study are network resources, as well as texts–representatives created and introduced into circulation by the channelers, their predecessors. Research Methodology. Channeling as an object of research, its network of representation – as a matter of methods involve the use of analytical hermeneutics and archaeographic commenting text fractal logic cluster analysis. The main

  10. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dinu AIRINEI; Dora-Anca BERTA

    2012-01-01

    Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solutio...

  11. Elementary epistemological features of machine intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of machine intelligence (MI) is useful for defining a common platform in both theoretical and applied artificial intelligence (AI). The goal of this paper is to set canonical definitions that can assist pragmatic research in both strong and weak AI. Described epistemological features of machine intelligence include relationship between intelligent behavior, intelligent and unintelligent machine characteristics, observable and unobservable entities and classification of in...

  12. The 'Wow' Signal, Drake Equation and Exoplanet Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, E.

    It has been 38 years since the most likely artificial transmission ever recorded from a possible extraterrestrial source was received [1, 2]. Using greatly improved technology, subsequent efforts by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have continued, yet silence from space prevails [3]. This article examines whether the transmission was an artificial signal, and if so why it matters, to include the possibility that the modest technology used by the "Big Ear" receiver could have been accommodated by the source. The transmission and the ensuing long silence may be intended. This paper reconsiders the Drake equation, an estimate for the number of civilizations in our galaxy that may possess technology for interstellar signaling [4, 5], and shows that statement of the current alleged best estimate of two civilizations is not supported [6]. An alternate and original method suggests ~100 civilizations. It importantly relies on experience and detectable events, including recent astronomical evidence about exoplanets as cataloged by the European Exoplanet program and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exoplanet Science Institute [7, 8]. In addition it addresses major geological and astronomical occurrences that profoundly affected development of life on Earth and might apply similarly for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (ETI). The alternate approach is not intended to compute ETI precisely but to examine the possibility that, though vastly spread, it likely exists. The discussion anticipates difficulties in communication with an alien civilization, hardly an exercise in science fiction, and explores how international groups can participate in future specific response. One response might be to monitor the electromagnetic radiation spectral line of an element to be determined by consensus.

  13. Area monitoring intelligent system - SIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoem, P.; Hisas, F.; Gelardi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The area monitoring intelligent system (SIMA) is an equipment to be used in radioprotection. SIMA has the function of monitoring the radiation levels of determined areas of the installations where radioactive materials are handled. (Author) [es

  14. System for intelligent teleoperation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA Langley Research Center is developing a research capability in the field of artificial intelligence, particularly as applicable in teleoperator/robotics development for remote space operations. As a testbed for experimentation in these areas, a system concept has been developed and is being implemented. This system, termed DAISIE (Distributed Artificially Intelligent System for Interacting with the Environment), interfaces the key processes of perception, reasoning, and manipulation by linking hardware sensors and manipulators to a modular artificial intelligence (AI) software system in a hierarchical control structure. Verification experiments have been performed: one experiment used a blocksworld database and planner embedded in the DAISIE system to intelligently manipulate a simple physical environment; the other experiment implemented a joint-space collision avoidance algorithm. Continued system development is planned

  15. Intelligent Transportation Systems : critical standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards are industry-consensus standards that provide the details about how different systems interconnect and communicate information to deliver the ITS user services described in the National ITS Architect...

  16. Building Explainable Artificial Intelligence Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Core, Mark G; Lane, H. Chad; van Lent, Michael; Gomboc, Dave; Solomon, Steve; Rosenberg, Milton

    2006-01-01

    As artificial intelligence (AI) systems and behavior models in military simulations become increasingly complex, it has been difficult for users to understand the activities of computer-controlled entities...

  17. Smithtown: An Intelligent Tutoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Kalyani; Katz, Arnold

    1989-01-01

    Described is an instructional aid that employs artificial intelligence methods to assist students in beginning economics courses to improve their problem-solving skills. Discussed are the rationale, structure, and evaluation of this program. (CW)

  18. Business intelligence for insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    IGNATIUK A.

    2016-01-01

    The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  19. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FOR INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignatiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  20. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)