Sample records for extraterrestrial ecology exoecology

  1. Exploring the Human Ecology of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Braje, T. J.; Culleton, B. J.


    Several lines of evidence now exist for a major extraterrestrial impact event in North America at 12.9 ka (the YDB). This impact partially destabilized the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, triggered abrupt Younger Dryas cooling and extensive wildfires, and contributed to megafaunal extinction. This event also occurred soon after the well established colonization of the Americas by anatomically modern humans. Confirmation of this event would represent the first near-time extraterrestrial impact with significant effects on human populations. These likely included widespread, abrupt human mortality, population displacement, migration into less effected or newly established habitats, loss of cultural traditions, and resource diversification in the face of the massive megafaunal extinction and population reductions in surviving animal populations. Ultimately, these transformations established the context for the special character of plant and animal domestication and the emergence of agricultural economies in North America. We explore the Late Pleistocene archaeological record in North America within the context of documented major biotic changes associated with the YDB in North America and of the massive ecological affects hypothesized for this event.

  2. Extraterrestrial Life (United States)

    Klein, M. J.


    Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

  3. Extraterrestrial seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Vincent C H


    Seismology is a highly effective tool for investigating the internal structure of the Earth. Similar techniques have also successfully been used to study other planetary bodies (planetary seismology), the Sun (helioseismology), and other stars (asteroseismology). Despite obvious differences between stars and planetary bodies, these disciplines share many similarities and together form a coherent field of scientific research. This unique book takes a transdisciplinary approach to seismology and seismic imaging, reviewing the most recent developments in these extraterrestrial contexts. With contributions from leading scientists, this timely volume systematically outlines the techniques used in observation, data processing, and modelling for asteroseismology, helioseismology, and planetary seismology, drawing comparisons with seismic methods used in geophysics. Important recent discoveries in each discipline are presented. With an emphasis on transcending the traditional boundaries of astronomy, solar, planetary...

  4. Extraterrestrial Metals Processing, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Extraterrestrial Metals Processing (EMP) system produces ferrosilicon, silicon monoxide, a glassy mixed oxide slag, and smaller amounts of alkali earth...

  5. Search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.; Billingham, J.; Wolfe, J.


    Findings are presented of a series of workshops on the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent life and ways in which extraterrestrial intelligence might be detected. The coverage includes the cosmic and cultural evolutions, search strategies, detection of other planetary systems, alternate methods of communication, and radio frequency interference. 17 references

  6. Extraterrestrial Metals Processing, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Extraterrestrial Metals Processing (EMP) system produces iron, silicon, and light metals from Mars, Moon, or asteroid resources in support of advanced human...

  7. Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (United States)

    Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)


    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (LEP) performs experimental and theoretical research on the heliosphere, the interstellar medium, and the magnetospheres and upper atmospheres of the planets, including Earth. LEP space scientists investigate the structure and dynamics of the magnetospheres of the planets including Earth. Their research programs encompass the magnetic fields intrinsic to many planetary bodies as well as their charged-particle environments and plasma-wave emissions. The LEP also conducts research into the nature of planetary ionospheres and their coupling to both the upper atmospheres and their magnetospheres. Finally, the LEP carries out a broad-based research program in heliospheric physics covering the origins of the solar wind, its propagation outward through the solar system all the way to its termination where it encounters the local interstellar medium. Special emphasis is placed on the study of solar coronal mass ejections (CME's), shock waves, and the structure and properties of the fast and slow solar wind. LEP planetary scientists study the chemistry and physics of planetary stratospheres and tropospheres and of solar system bodies including meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets. The LEP conducts a focused program in astronomy, particularly in the infrared and in short as well as very long radio wavelengths. We also perform an extensive program of laboratory research, including spectroscopy and physical chemistry related to astronomical objects. The Laboratory proposes, develops, fabricates, and integrates experiments on Earth-orbiting, planetary, and heliospheric spacecraft to measure the characteristics of planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields and plasmas in space. We design and develop spectrometric instrumentation for continuum and spectral line observations in the x-ray, gamma-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; these are flown on spacecraft to study

  8. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.


    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  9. How likely is extraterrestrial life?

    CERN Document Server

    Halley, J Woods


    What does existing scientific knowledge about physics, chemistry, meteorology and biology tell us about the likelihood of extraterrestrial life and civilizations? And what does the fact that there is currently no credible scientific evidence for the existence of extraterrestrial biospheres or civilizations teach  us? This book reviews the various scientific issues that arise in considering the question of how common extraterrestrial life is likely to be in our galaxy and whether humans are likely to detect it. The book stands out because of its very systematic organization and relatively unbiased treatment of the main open question. It covers all relevant aspects of many disciplines required to present the different   possible answers. It has and will provide undergraduates with a stimulating introduction to many of these fields at an early stage in their university careers, when they are still choosing a specialty. The difficulties and the range of possible answers to the title question are carefully addr...

  10. Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Formulating a normative axiology for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms, should they ever be found, requires an extension of environmental ethics to beyond the Earth. Using an ethical framework for the treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms, this paper elaborates a similar ethic for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms. An ethic of `teloempathy' allows for the moral considerability of any organism that has `interests', based on rudimentary qualities of conativism, and therefore allows for an identical treatment of all life, related or not related to life on Earth. Although, according to this ethic, individual extraterrestrial microscopic organisms have a good of their own and even `rights', at this level the ethic can only be theoretical, allowing for the inevitable destruction of many individual organisms during the course of human exploratory missions, similarly to the daily destruction of microbes by humans on Earth. A holistic teloempathy, an operative ethic, not only provides a framework for human exploration, but it also has important implications for planetary protection and proposals to implement planetary-scale atmospheric alterations on other bodies. Even prior to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, or the discovery of a complete absence of such life, this exercise yields important insights into the moral philosophy that guides our treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms.

  11. Ecology (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko


    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  12. [An encounter with extraterrestrial intelligence]. (United States)

    Hisabayashi, Hisashi


    It is much easier to find extraterrestrial intelligence than to detect simple organisms living on other planets. However, it is hard to communicate with such intelligence without the mutual understanding of inter-stellar communication protocol. The radio SETI (The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) was initiated with the pioneering work of F. Drake in 1960, one year after the historical SETI paper by Cocconi and Morrison. This talk explains that SETI evolves with two bases of science; the understanding of our universe and the development of technology. Since SETI has had strong connection with radio astronomy from its early beginning, the impacts of radio astronomical findings and technological breakthrough can be seen in many aspects of the SETI history. Topics of this talk include the detection of microwave 3 K background radiation in the universe. Interstellar atomic and molecular lines found in radio-wave spectra provide the evidence of pre-biotic chemical evolution in such region. Radio telescope imaging and spectral technique are closely associated with methodology of SETI. Topics of the talk extend to new Allen Telescope Array and projected Square Kilometer Array. Recent optical SETI and the discoveries of extra solar planets are also explained. In the end, the recent understanding of our universe is briefly introduced in terms of matter, dark matter and dark energy. Even our understanding of the universe has been evolutionarily revolved and accumulated after 1960, we must recognize that our universe is still poorly understood and that astronomy and SETI are required to proceed hand in hand.

  13. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalusche, D.


    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites (United States)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)


    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  15. Extraterrestrial Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites (United States)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; Fogel, M.; Sephton, M.; Glavin, D.; Watson, J.; Dworkin, J.; Schwartz, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    . Our stable carbon isotope measurements clearly demonstrate that the nucleobases in the Murchison meteorite are indigenous to the meteorite, and clearly differ from the values determined for the terrestrial nucleobases measured in the soil collected at the impact site. These results support the hypothesis that nucleobases were exogenously delivered to the early Earth, and may have been important for the prebiotic chemistry on our young planet. With regard to the detection of traces of life on other planets such as Mars it is essential to characterize organic materials that have been exogenously delivered to the early planets. The analysis of the composition and isotopic fractionation of extraterrestrial material using complementary techniques can provide crucial insights into the formation of our Solar System, extraterrestrial delivery processes and subsequent addition and incorporation into the carbonaceous material available on the young planets. Ultimately, these parameters form an essential reference point for interpreting biosignatures that may be left in the ancient rock record on a planetary body. References: [1] Hayatsu R. et al. 1975. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 39: 471- 488. [2] Folsome C. E. et al. 1971. Nature 232: 108-109. [3] Stoks P. G. & Schwartz A. W. 1979. Nature 282: 709-710. [4] Stoks P.G. & Schwartz A. W. 1981. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45: 563-569. [5] Shimoyama A. et al. 1990. Geochemical Journal 24: 343-348. [6] Martins Z. et al. 2004. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39: A5145. 2

  16. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    The search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence is placed in the broader astronomical context of the search for extrasolar planets and biomarkers of primitive life elsewhere in the universe. A decision tree of possible search strategies is presented as well as a brief history of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) projects since 1960. The characteristics of 14 SETI projects currently operating on telescopes are discussed and compared using one of many possible figures of merit. Plans for SETI searches in the immediate and more distant future are outlined. Plans for success, the significance of null results, and some opinions on deliberate transmission of signals (as well as listening) are also included. SETI results to date are negative, but in reality, not much searching has yet been done.

  17. Psycholinguistics and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Krotenko


    Full Text Available The author of the article reveals the possibilities of psycholinguistics in the identifi cation and interpretation of languages and texts of Alien Civilizations. The author combines modern interdisciplinary research in psycholinguistics with the theory “Evolving Matter” proposed by Oleg Bazaluk and concludes that the identifi cation of languages and texts of Alien Civilizations, as well as the communication of terrestrial civilization with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is in principle possible. To that end, it is necessary to achieve the required level of the modeling of neurophilosophy and to include these achievements of modern psycholinguistics studies: а language acquisition; b language comprehension; c language production; d second language acquisition. On the one hand, the possibilities of neurophilosophy to accumulate and model advanced neuroscience research; on the other hand, highly specialized psycholinguistic studies in language evolution are able to provide the communication of terrestrial civilization with Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

  18. Extraterrestrial altruism evolution and ethics in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server


    Extraterrestrial Altruism examines a basic assumption of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI): that extraterrestrials will be transmitting messages to us for our benefit. This question of whether extraterrestrials will be altruistic has become increasingly important in recent years as SETI scientists have begun contemplating transmissions from Earth to make contact. Should we expect altruism to evolve throughout the cosmos, or is this only wishful thinking? Would this make biological sense? Is it dangerous to send messages to other worlds, as Stephen Hawking has suggested? Would extraterrestrial societies be based on different ethical principles? Extraterrestrial Altruism explores these and related questions about the motivations of civilizations beyond Earth, providing new insights that are critical for SETI. Chapters are authored by leading scholars from diverse disciplines—anthropology, astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, cosmology, engineering, history of science, law, philos...

  19. [Extraterrestrial influences on health and disease]. (United States)

    Sitar, J


    As to extraterrestrial influences on man in health and disease so far only the effect of the sun and moon are known. This concerns the effect of solar radiation of different wavelengths and the effect of corpuscular solar radiation which has an impact on the condition of the terrestrial magnetic field and electric conditions in the atmosphere. Moreover there is also a question of important influences of gravitation (tides). Here the influence of the position of the moon in relation to the connecting line between sun and earth is involved. In the course of the synodic month (from new moon to the next new moon) a semilunar periodicity of different medical and geomagnetic indicators as well as meteorological ones plays a part. Based on his own research and that of others the author reaches the conclusion that extraterrestrial and terrestrial influences are interrelated and exert a mutual influence on each other and that it is not sensible to separate them strictly. Investigation of all the mentioned influences is important not only for biomedical prognosis but also for basic geophysical and meteorological research. Perspectively it would be useful to plan model experiments. The author feels it is his duty to refuse publication of different horoscopes in the mass media, whatever the intention. In the lay public this may lead to popularization of astrology which has nothing in common with serious research.

  20. Extraterrestrial Intelligence: What Would it Mean? (United States)

    Impey, Chris


    Results from NASA's Kepler mission imply a hundred million Earth-like habitable worlds in the Milky Way galaxy, many of which formed billions of years before the Earth. Each of these worlds is likely to have all of the ingredients needed for biology. The real estate of time and space for the evolution of intelligent life is formidable, begging the question of whether or not we are alone in the universe. The implications of making contact have been explored extensively in science fiction and the popular culture, but less frequently in the serious scientific literature. Astronomers have carried out searches for extraterrestrial intelligence for over half a century, with no success so far. In practice, it is easier to search for alien technology than to discern intelligence of unknown function and form. In this talk, the modes of technology that can currently be detected are summarized, along with the implications of a timing argument than any detected civilization is likely to be much more advanced than ours. Fermi's famous question ``Where Are They?'' is as well posed now as it was sixty years ago. The existence of extraterrestrial intelligence would have profound practical, cultural, and religious implications for humanity.

  1. Is Your Gut Conscious? Is an Extraterrestrial? (United States)

    Vos Post, Jonathan


    This paper speculates on questions intending to be taken scientifically rather than metaphysically: "Can the human gut (enteric nervous system) be conscious?"; "Can your immune system think?"; "Could consciousness be coded in DNA?"; "What do we mean when asserting that an Extraterrestrial is Thinking, or is Conscious? We explore through reference to theory, experiment, and computational models by Christof Koch (Caltech), Barbara Wold (Caltech), and Stuart Kauffman (University of Calgary, Tampere University of Technology, Santa Fe Institute). We use a tentative new definition of thinking, designed to be applicable for humans, cetecea, corvids, artificial intelligences, and extraterrestrial intelligences of any substrate (i.e. Life as We Do Not Know It): "Thinking is the occurrence, transformation, and storage in a mind or brain (or simulation thereof) of information-bearing structures (representations) of one kind or another, such as thoughts, concept, percepts, ideas, impressions, notions, rules, schemas, images, phantasms, or subpersonal representations." We use the framework for Consciousness developed by Francis Crick and Christof Koch. We try to describe scientific goals, but discuss Philosophy sufficient to avoid naïve philosophical category errors (thus are careful not to conflate thought, consciousness, and language) Penrose, Hameroff, and Kauffman speculate (differently) that CNS consciousness is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Might intestinal, immune system, or genetic regulatory network dynamics exhibit emergent cooperative quantum effects? The speculations are in the context of Evolution by Natural Selection, presumed to operate throughout the Cosmos, and recent work in the foundations of Computational Biology and Quantum Mechanics.

  2. Extraterrestrial Radiation Chemistry and Molecular Astronomy (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.


    Astronomical observations of both solar system and interstellar regions have revealed a rich chemical inventory that includes most classes of organic molecules and selected inorganics. For example, gas-phase ethylene glycol and SOz have been observed by astronomers, while solidphase detections include OCS, H2O2 , and the cyanate anion.' All of these are found in environments that are, by earthly standards, exceedingly hostile: temperatures of 10 - 100 K, miniscule densities, and near-ubiquitous ionizing-radiation fields. Beyond the simplest chemical species, these conditions have made it difficult-to-impassible to account for the observed molecular abundances using gas-phase chemistry, suggesting solid-phase reactions play an important role. In extraterrestrial environments, cosmic rays, UV photons, and magnetospheric radiation all drive chemical reactions, even at cryogenic temperatures. To study this chemistry, radiation astrochemists conduct experiments on icy materials, frozen under vacuum and exposed to sources such as keV electrons and MeV protons. Compositional changes usually are followed with IR spectroscopy and, in selected cases, more-sensitive mass-spectral techniques. This talk will review some recent results on known and suspected extraterrestrial molecules and ions. Spectra and reaction pathways will be presented, and predictions made for interstellar chemistry and the chemistry of selected solar system objects. Some past radiation-chemical contributions, and future needs, will be explored.

  3. Search for extraterrestrial life: recent developments. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papagiannis, M D [ed.


    Seventy experts from 20 different countries discuss the many interrelated aspects of the search for extraterrestrial life, including the search for other planetary systems where life may originate and evolve, the widespread presence of complex prebiotic molecules in our Solar System and in interstellar space which could be precursors of life, and the universal aspects of the biological evolution on Earth. They also discuss the nearly 50 radio searches that were undertaken in the last 25 years, the technological progress that has occurred in this period, and the plans for the future including the comprehensive SETI search program that NASA is now preparing for the 1990's. Extensive introductions by the Editor to each of the 8 sections, make this volume friendly even to the non-specialist who has a genuine interest for this new field. 549 refs.; 84 figs.; 21 tabs.

  4. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.


    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  5. Implications of extraterrestrial material on the origin of life (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    Meteoritic organic material may provide the best perspective on prebiotic chemistry. Meteorites have also been invoked as a source of prebiotic material. This study suggests a caveat to extraterrestrial organic delivery: that prebiotic meteoritic organics were too dilute to promote prebiotic reactions. However, meteoritic material provides building material for endogenous synthesis of prebiotic molecules, such as by hydrolysis of extraterrestrial organic tars, and corrosion of phosphide minerals.

  6. Funding the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence with a Lottery Bond


    Haqq-Misra, Jacob


    I propose the establishment of a SETI Lottery Bond to provide a continued source of funding for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The SETI Lottery Bond is a fixed rate perpetual bond with a lottery at maturity, where maturity occurs only upon discovery and confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligent life. Investors in the SETI Lottery Bond purchase shares that yield a fixed rate of interest that continues indefinitely until SETI succeeds---at which point a random subset of...

  7. Development of extraterrestrial intelligence and physical laws (United States)

    Troitskij, V. S.

    This paper considers the restrictions imposed by physical laws on the development of life and intelligence in the form of extraterrestrial civilizations. For this purpose intelligence is defined as the community of intelligent beings, joined by the exchange of mass, energy and information both between themselves and with the external medium. Due to the limitation of the velocity of exchange of information and, in particular, mass and energy exchange, the dimensions of the intelligence cannot exceed some light days, i.e. they are limited by the habitable zone about their star. It is shown that the energy consumption should not exceed the energy output of their star for the sake of preserving the cosmic near-star zone of life from energetic pollution. With the above restrictions of the energy product it takes millions of years to create an omnidirectional beacon-transmitter signals from which would be received by the contemporary antennas in all our Galaxy. It is realistic to create an omnidirectional beacon operating in the range of no more than 100-1000 light years.

  8. Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation (United States)

    Deardoff, J.; Haisch, B.; Maccabee, B.; Puthoff, H. E.

    It has recently been argued that anthropic reasoning applied to inflation theory reinforces the prediction that we should find ourselves part of a large, galaxy-sized civilisation, thus strengthening Fermi's paradox concerning `Where are they?' Furthermore, superstring and M-brane theory allow for the possibility of parallel universes, some of which in principle could be habitable. In addition, discussion of such exotic transport concepts as `traversable wormholes' now appears in the rigorous physics literature. As a result, the `We are alone' solution to Fermi's paradox, based on the constraints of earlier 20th century viewpoints, appears today to be inconsistent with new developments in our best current physics and astrophysics theories. Therefore we reexamine and reevaluate the present assumption that extraterrestrials or their probes are not in the vicinity of Earth, and argue instead that some evidence of their presence might be found in certain high-quality UFO reports. This study follows up on previous arguments that (1) interstellar travel for advanced civilizations is not a priori ruled out by physical principles and therefore may be practicable, and (2) such advanced civilisations may value the search for knowledge from uncontaminated species more than direct, interspecies communication, thereby accounting for apparent covertness regarding their presence.

  9. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.


    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  10. The Search for Extraterrestrials Intercepting Alien Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Monte


    In The Search for Extraterrestrials, Monte Ross explores in detail the key problems in starting a search, the programs that have failed and those that continue. He includes the fundamental considerations and the physics of the necessary laser, UV, IR and RF technologies, as well as coding and information theory considerations. The author explores future possibilities providing the reader with a comprehensive view of the many ways signals from aliens could be sent and explains why the search using RF leaves more than 99% of the electromagnetic spectrum unexamined. He also demonstrates the many parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, considering the next likely steps in this unique enterprise. Given man’s intrinsic nature to explore, the search will continue in one form or many, until success is achieved, which may be tomorrow or a millennium away. In summary, Monte Ross proposes to get around the failure of a fruitless search at radio frequencies by developing, in a precise way, the argument for searching for...

  11. The Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Antiquity to 1900 (United States)

    Crowe, Michael J.; Dowd, Matthew F.

    This chapter provides an overview of the Western historical debate regarding extraterrestrial life from antiquity to the beginning of the twentieth century. Though schools of thought in antiquity differed on whether extraterrestrial life existed, by the Middle Ages, the Aristotelian worldview of a unified, finite cosmos without extraterrestrials was most influential, though there were such dissenters as Nicholas of Cusa. That would change as the Copernican revolution progressed. Scholars such as Bruno, Kepler, Galileo, and Descartes would argue for a Copernican system of a moving Earth. Cartesian and Newtonian physics would eventually lead to a view of the universe in which the Earth was one of many planets in one of many solar systems extended in space. As this cosmological model was developing, so too were notions of extraterrestrial life. Popular and scientific writings, such as those by Fontenelle and Huygens, led to a reversal of fortunes for extraterrestrials, who by the end of the century were gaining recognition. From 1700 to 1800, many leading thinkers discussed extraterrestrial intelligent beings. In doing so, they relied heavily on arguments from analogy and such broad principles and ideas as the Copernican Principle, the Principle of Plenitude, and the Great Chain of Being. Physical evidence for the existence of extraterrestrials was minimal, and was always indirect, such as the sighting of polar caps on Mars, suggesting similarities between Earth and other places in the universe. Nonetheless, the eighteenth century saw writers from a wide variety of genres—science, philosophy, theology, literature—speculate widely on extraterrestrials. In the latter half of the century, increasing research in stellar astronomy would be carried out, heavily overlapping with an interest in extraterrestrial life. By the end of the eighteenth century, belief in intelligent beings on solar system planets was nearly universal and certainly more common than it would be by

  12. Measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.


    Meteorites are rocks and pieces of iron-nickel alloy which fall to earth from time to time. They were formed about 4.6 billion years ago when our solar system was started. Thus it has been said that meteorites are the Rosetta stones of our solar system. We use the long-lived radioactive nuclides produced by cosmic ray bombardment, to study the history of the meteorites and also the history of the cosmic rays. When we have these historical facts in our hads, we hope we will be able to understand better how the solar system works, and how it got started. We can also learn more about the nature and origin of the cosmic rays. The accelerator mass spectrometry method helps not only reduce sample size, in most cases by two or three orders of magnitude, but opens another set of cosmogenic nuclides which have not been measured yet. Already 10 Be (t/sub 1/2 = 1.6 x 10 6 y), 36 Cl (3.0 x 10 5 y) and 129 I (1.6 x 10 7 y) in meteorites have been measured by accelerator mass spectrometry [3, 4, 7, 10]. Possible new candidates for measurement in extraterrestrial materials are 26 Al (7.2 x 10 5 y), 41 Ca (1.3 x 10 5 y), 60 Fe (approx. 10 5 y) and 59 Ni (7.6 x 10 4 y). We hope also to measure 146 Sm (1.0 x 10 8 y) and 92 Nb

  13. Science, religion, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, David


    If the discovery of life elsewhere in the universe is just around the corner, what would be the consequences for religion? Would it represent another major conflict between science and religion, even leading to the death of faith? Some would suggest that the discovery of any suggestion of extraterrestrial life would have a greater impact than even the Copernican and Darwinian revolutions. It is now over 50 years since the first modern scientific papers were published on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Yet the religious implications of this search and possible discovery have never been systematically addressed in the scientific or theological arena. SETI is now entering its most important era of scientific development. New observation techniques are leading to the discovery of extra-solar planets daily, and the Kepler mission has already collected over 1000 planetary candidates. This deluge of data is transforming the scientific and popular view of the existence of extraterrestrial intel...

  14. SETI pioneers scientists talk about their search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, David W.


    Why did some scientists decide to conduct a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI)? What factors in their personal development predisposed them to such a quest? What obstacles did they encounter along the way? David Swift interviewed the first scientists involved in the search & offers a fascinating overview of the emergence of this modern scientific endeavor. He allows some of the most imaginative scientific thinkers of our time to hold forth on their views regarding SETI & extraterrestrial life & on how the field has developed. Readers will react with a range of opinions as broad as those concerning the likelihood of success in SETI itself. ''A goldmine of original information.''

  15. The Ethical Implications for Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life (United States)

    Stuart, Jill


    Ethical frameworks seek to normatively structure our behaviour and preconstitute expectations with regards to moral activity towards each other as well as other creatures and even non-sentient objects such as the environment. This paper considers how ongoing ethical discussions relating to earth-based interactions can be used as analogies to inform nascent conversations about potential future encounters with extraterrestrial life—while also highlighting where these geocentric conversations may fail to capture the unique dynamics of potential extraterrestrial encounters. The paper specifically considers the spectrum of ethical frameworks currently used in earth-based interactions and how they might apply outside the geocentric referent; from ethics towards non- sentient life on earth such as plants and the environment; to ethics towards sentient but ‘unintelligent' life; to intelligent life nonetheless deemed less intelligent than humans. Next the paper considers interactions that we have yet to (knowingly) have encountered here on earth: the ethics of interactions with life more intelligent than ourselves; and finally the ethics of interaction with robotic ‘post-biological' forms, which some specialists in extraterrestrial communications have speculated will likely be the form of ‘creatures' to be encountered should contact with extraterrestrials ever be made. Finally the paper will address deeper philosophical-ethical questions about the significance of such an exercise in shifting ethical frameworks from an anthropocentric perspective.

  16. The Problem of Extraterrestrial Civilizations and Extrasolar Planets (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.


    The problem of extraterrestrial intelligence is the best example of multidisciplinary science. Here philosophy and religion, astronomy, radiophysics, spectrography, space flights and astronautics, geology and planetology, astroecology, chemistry and biology, history and archaeology, psychology, sociology, linguistics, diplomacy, UFOs and peculiar phenomena are involved. Among these many-sided studies, astronomers have probably displayed the most progress by discovering thousands of extrasolar planets. At present, a number of search programs are being accomplished, including those with space telescopes, and planets in so-called "habitable zone" are considered as most important ones, for which various orbital and physical parameters are being calculated. As the discovery of extraterrestrial life is the final goal, a special attention is given to Earth-like planets, for the discovery of which most sensitive technical means are necessary.

  17. Information theory, animal communication, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (United States)

    Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Johnston, Simon; Hanser, Sean F.


    We present ongoing research in the application of information theory to animal communication systems with the goal of developing additional detectors and estimators for possible extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Regardless of the species, for intelligence (i.e., complex knowledge) to be transmitted certain rules of information theory must still be obeyed. We demonstrate some preliminary results of applying information theory to socially complex marine mammal species (bottlenose dolphins and humpback whales) as well as arboreal squirrel monkeys, because they almost exclusively rely on vocal signals for their communications, producing signals which can be readily characterized by signal analysis. Metrics such as Zipf's Law and higher-order information-entropic structure are emerging as indicators of the communicative complexity characteristic of an "intelligent message" content within these animals' signals, perhaps not surprising given these species' social complexity. In addition to human languages, for comparison we also apply these metrics to pulsar signals—perhaps (arguably) the most "organized" of stellar systems—as an example of astrophysical systems that would have to be distinguished from an extraterrestrial intelligence message by such information theoretic filters. We also look at a message transmitted from Earth (Arecibo Observatory) that contains a lot of meaning but little information in the mathematical sense we define it here. We conclude that the study of non-human communication systems on our own planet can make a valuable contribution to the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence by providing quantitative general measures of communicative complexity. Studying the complex communication systems of other intelligent species on our own planet may also be one of the best ways to deprovincialize our thinking about extraterrestrial communication systems in general.

  18. The Role of Extraterrestrial Materials in the Origin of Life (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.


    It has been well established for some time now that C-rich organic materials are relatively common in a number of environments in space. This is known through the telescopic detection of these materials using spectroscopy techniques in the infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges and through the identification of organics in extraterrestrial materials. Extraterrestrial materials in which organics have been found include collected meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, and samples returned by NASA spacecraft from comets. These organics are produced by a variety of astrochemical processes. Despite their abiotic origins, these organic materials of are considerable interest to astrobiology for several reasons. First, organic materials of any composition are important as a means of delivering the elements C, H, O, and N to the surfaces of newly formed planets, and these elements are likely critical to the origin and subsequent evolution of life (certainly for life as we know it). In addition, it is clear that at least a portion of the organics found in space are in the form of molecules that play important roles in modern biology - for example, molecules like amino acids, amphiphiles, quinones, etc. Thus, the delivery of extraterrestrial organics to planetary surfaces brings not only bulk C, H, O, and N, but also molecular complexity in forms that are potentially useful for the origin and early evolution of life. This suggests that the production and delivery of cosmic organic compounds may have played key roles in the origin of life on Earth and, by extension, on other planets in the universe.

  19. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.


    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  20. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetesi, Zsolt


    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

  1. Extraterrestrial materials examined by mean of nuclear microprobe (United States)

    Khodja, H.; Smith, T.; Engrand, C.; Herzog, G.; Raepsaet, C.


    Comet fragments, micrometeorites, and Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small objects (purpose, we need instruments and methods that provide both microanalysis and detailed imaging. In these respects, the nuclear microprobe offers many potential advantages: (i) the spatial resolution, ∼1 μm is well-matched to the typical object dimensions, (ii) with some reservations, it is non-destructive when carefully conducted, (iii) it is quantitative, and especially sensitive for light elements. At the Saclay nuclear microprobe, we have been performing analyses of extraterrestrial objects for many years. We review some of these studies, emphasizing the specific requirements for successful analyses. We also discuss the potential pitfalls that may be encountered.

  2. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetesi, Zsolt, E-mail: zs.hetesi@astro.elte.h [Eoetvoes University, Department of Astronomy, Budapest, H-1518, PO Box 32 (Hungary)


    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

  3. Religions and extraterrestrial life how will we deal with it?

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, David A


    In the twenty-first century, the debate about life on other worlds is quickly changing from the realm of speculation to the domain of hard science. Within a few years, as a consequence of the rapid discovery by astronomers of planets around other stars, astronomers very likely will have discovered clear evidence of life beyond the Earth. Such a discovery of extraterrestrial life will change everything.  Knowing the answer as to whether humanity has company in the universe will trigger one of the greatest intellectual revolutions in history, not the least of which will be a challenge for at least some terrestrial religions. Which religions will handle the discovery of extraterrestrial life with ease and which will struggle to assimilate this new knowledge about our place in the universe? Some religions as currently practiced appear to only be viable on Earth. Other religions could be practiced on distant worlds but nevertheless identify both Earth as a place and humankind as a species of singular spiritual re...

  4. Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.


    Platinum metals are depleted in the earth's crust relative to their cosmic abundance; concentrations of these elements in deep-sea sediments may thus indicate influxes of extraterrestrial material. Deep-sea limestones exposed in Italy, Denmark, and New Zealand show iridium increases of about 30, 160, and 20 times, respectively, above the background level at precisely the time of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions, 65 million years ago. Reasons are given to indicate that this iridium is of extraterrestrial origin, but did not come from a nearby supernova. A hypothesis is suggested which accounts for the extinctions and the iridium observations. Impact of a large earth-crossing asteroid would inject about 60 times the object's mass into the atmosphere as pulverized rock; a fraction of this dust would stay in the stratosphere for several years and be distributed worldwide. The resulting darkness would suppress photosynthesis, and the expected biological consequences match quite closely the extinctions observed in the paleontological record. One prediction of this hypothesis has been verified: the chemical composition of the boundary clay, which is thought to come from the stratospheric dust, is markedly different from that of clay mixed with the Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones, which are chemically similar to each other. Four different independent estimates of the diameter of the asteroid give values that lie in the range 10 +- 4 kilometers

  5. [Ecology and ecologies]. (United States)

    Valera, Luca


    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  6. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria for the Development of Extraterrestrial Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; McKay, D. S.


    In-situ production of consumables (mainly oxygen) using local resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human exploration and settlement of the solar system, starting with the Moon. With few exceptions, nearly all technologies developed to date have employed an approach based on inorganic chemistry. None of these technologies include concepts for integrating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production system. Therefore, a new concept based on the cultivation of cyanobacteria (CB) in semi-closed biogeoreactor, linking ISRU, a biological life support system, and food production, has been proposed. The key feature of the biogeoreactor is to use lithotrophic CB to extract many needed elements such as Fe directly from the dissolved regolith and direct them to any technological loop at an extraterrestrial outpost. Our studies showed that siderophilic (Fe-loving) CB are capable to corrode lunar regolith stimulants because they secrete chelating agents and can tolerate [Fe] up to 1 mM. However, lunar and Martian environments are very hostile (very high UV and gamma-radiation, extreme temperatures, deficit of water). Thus, the selection of CB species with high potential for extraterrestrial biotechnologies that may be utilized in 15 years must be sponsored by NASA as soon as possible. The study of the genomes of candidate CB species and the metagenomes of the terrestrial environments which they inhabit is critical to make this decision. Here we provide preliminary results about peculiarities of the genomes of siderophilic CB revealed by analyzing the genome of siderophilic cyanobacterium JSC-1 and the metagenome of iron depositing hot spring (IDHS) Chocolate Pots (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). It has been found that IDHS are richer with ferrous iron than the majority of hot springs around the world. Fe2+ is known to increase the magnitude of oxidative stress in prokaryotes

  7. Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence SETI Past, Present, and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Shuch, H Paul


    This book is a collection of essays written by the very scientists and engineers who have led, and continue to lead, the scientific quest known as SETI, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Divided into three parts, the first section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Past’, written by the surviving pioneers of this then emerging discipline, reviews the major projects undertaken during the first 50 years of SETI science and the results of that research. In the second section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Present’, the present-day science and technology is discussed in detail, providing the technical background to contemporary SETI instruments, experiments, and analytical techniques, including the processing of the received signals to extract potential alien communications. In the third and final section, ‘The Spirit of SETI Future’, the book looks ahead to the possible directions that SETI will take in the next 50 years, addressing such important topics as interstellar message construction, the risks and assump...

  8. Are we alone: The possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations (United States)

    Rood, R. T.; Trefil, J. S.

    The book explores the possibility of extraterrestrial (ET) intelligence. The formation of stars and planetary systems, the evolution of planetary atmospheres and the evolution of life are reviewed. The possibilities of interstellar communication, ET colonization of other star systems, in addition to earth's colonization of near-earth space are discussed. The state of the earth's depleting energy sources and current technology are used to show why some scientists believe that earth will be colonizing in space within the next century. Current methods of searching for ET intelligence are reviewed, and preliminary designs for various space habitats, including the torus, and discussed, taking into consideration problems that would be encountered. The importance of space colonies for the existence and expansion of the human race is emphasized.

  9. Extraterrestrial Life: Life on Mars - Then and Now (United States)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf; Mojzsis, Stephen


    The recent claim to have identified possible signs of ancient life on Mars has been widely publicized and discussed. The authors conceded that none of the half-dozen pieces of evidence adduced in their paper individually provided strong support for extraterrestrial life, though they argued that the pieces added up to a case worth considering. Most - perhaps all - of the observed phenomena have counterparts in the inorganic world, so even the combination does not make a compelling case that there was ever life on Mars. Nevertheless, the importance of the problem has justified bringing the results to general attention. The paper has focussed interest on the origin and possible ubiquity of life, and on how we can design techniques capable of giving a more definitive answer to the question of whether there is, or has ever been, life elsewhere in the Universe.

  10. Analytical SuperSTEM for extraterrestrial materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R


    Electron-beam studies of extraterrestrial materials with significantly improved spatial resolution, energy resolution and sensitivity are enabled using a 300 keV SuperSTEM scanning transmission electron microscope with a monochromator and two spherical aberration correctors. The improved technical capabilities enable analyses previously not possible. Mineral structures can be directly imaged and analyzed with single-atomic-column resolution, liquids and implanted gases can be detected, and UV-VIS optical properties can be measured. Detection limits for minor/trace elements in thin (<100 nm thick) specimens are improved such that quantitative measurements of some extend to the sub-500 ppm level. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be carried out with 0.10-0.20 eV energy resolution and atomic-scale spatial resolution such that variations in oxidation state from one atomic column to another can be detected. Petrographic mapping is extended down to the atomic scale using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) imaging. Technical capabilities and examples of the applications of SuperSTEM to extraterrestrial materials are presented, including the UV spectral properties and organic carbon K-edge fine structure of carbonaceous matter in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), x-ray elemental maps showing the nanometer-scale distribution of carbon within GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides), the first detection and quantification of trace Ti in GEMS using EDS, and detection of molecular H{sub 2}O in vesicles and implanted H{sub 2} and He in irradiated mineral and glass grains.

  11. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency? (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael


    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  12. Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PI has developed a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), which can be op-timized for space and extraterrestrial applications, by using a...

  13. Insights from Cyanobacterial Genomes for the Development of Extraterrestrial Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Bryant, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.; Malley, K.; Sosa, O.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.


    Using genomic and metagenomic analysis, Fe-tolerant cyanobacterial species with a large and diverse set of stress-tolerant genes, were identified as prime candidates for in situ resource utilization in a biogeoreactor at extraterrestrial outposts.

  14. International law implications of the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals (United States)

    Kopal, Vladimir

    This paper first considers whether the present law of outer space, as it has been enshrined in five United Nations treaties and other legal documents concerning outer space, provides a satisfactory basis for SETI/CETI activities. In the author's opinion, these activities may serve "the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes," as recognized in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. The use of the radio frequency spectrum for SETI/CETI purposes should be in conformity with the legal principles governing this valuable natural resource, as expressed in the International Telecommunication Convention and related documents, and with allocations of the relevant segments of the spectrum by the competent bodies of the International Telecommunication Union. In the second part the author examines the impact that the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals may have on the present body of space law. A possible role for the United Nations in this respect is also explored and a timely interest of the world body in discussing questions relating to this subject is recommended. Consideration of these questions could become a tool helping to concentrate the attention of the world community on problems of common concern and thus to strengthen international cooperation. However, the author believes that a law-making process that would aim at elaborating a special regulation of activities in this field would be premature at this stage. It should be initiated only when the boundary between possibilities and realities is crossed. Finally, the paper outlines some likely transformation in our space law thinking that would be the consequence of the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Elaboration of the principles and norms to govern relations between the international community of our own planet and other intelligent communities in the universe would add a new dimension to the present body of outer space

  15. Astrobiology in culture: the search for extraterrestrial life as "science". (United States)

    Billings, Linda


    This analysis examines the social construction of authority, credibility, and legitimacy for exobiology/astrobiology and, in comparison, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), considering English-language conceptions of these endeavors in scientific culture and popular culture primarily in the United States. The questions that define astrobiology as a scientific endeavor are multidisciplinary in nature, and this endeavor is broadly appealing to public audiences as well as to the scientific community. Thus, it is useful to examine astrobiology in culture-in scientific culture, official culture, and popular culture. A researcher may explore science in culture, science as culture, by analyzing its rhetoric, the primary means that people use to construct their social realities-their cultural environment, as it were. This analysis follows this path, considering scientific and public interest in astrobiology and SETI and focusing on scientific and official constructions of the two endeavors. This analysis will also consider whether and how scientific and public conceptions of astrobiology and SETI, which are related but at the same time separate endeavors, converge or diverge and whether and how these convergences or divergences affect the scientific authority, credibility, and legitimacy of these endeavors.

  16. Extra-terrestrial construction processes - Advancements, opportunities and challenges (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Prabhu, Vibha Levin; Anand, Mahesh; Taylor, Lawrence A.


    Government space agencies, including NASA and ESA, are conducting preliminary studies on building alternative space-habitat systems for deep-space exploration. Such studies include development of advanced technologies for planetary surface exploration, including an in-depth understanding of the use of local resources. Currently, NASA plans to land humans on Mars in the 2030s. Similarly, other space agencies from Europe (ESA), Canada (CSA), Russia (Roscosmos), India (ISRO), Japan (JAXA) and China (CNSA) have already initiated or announced their plans for launching a series of lunar missions over the next decade, ranging from orbiters, landers and rovers for extended stays on the lunar surface. As the Space Odyssey is one of humanity's oldest dreams, there has been a series of research works for establishing temporary or permanent settlement on other planetary bodies, including the Moon and Mars. This paper reviews current projects developing extra-terrestrial construction, broadly categorised as: (i) ISRU-based construction materials; (ii) fabrication methods; and (iii) construction processes. It also discusses four categories of challenges to developing an appropriate construction process: (i) lunar simulants; (ii) material fabrication and curing; (iii) microwave-sintering based fabrication; and (iv) fully autonomous and scaled-up construction processes.

  17. Discovery of ETI: Terrestrial and extraterrestrial legal implications (United States)

    Fasan, Ernst

    TheLegalSituationonEarth: The following international legal regulations seem to apply to the search for and the eventual detection of ETI: a) The "Space Treaty" of Oct. 10, 1967; b) The Liability Convention of Oct. 9, 1973; c) The Moon Agreement of Dec. 5, 1979; d) The International Telecommunication Convention. LegalRelationswithExtraterrestrials: We may expect the following characteristics of ETI: 1. life in the sense of influencing the environment by selection from more than one possibility; 2. intelligence in the sense of self-realization of free will; 3. existence in three dimensional space and a will to live. With this we can expect that each race in the universe may have the following interests regarding its own race: a) to preserve and continue its own life; b) to protect this life from damage and intrusion; c) possibly to expand the realms of its living space. Therefore, if we decide to "answer" ETI, we may want to transmit such legal-philosophical principles: 1. the principle of nonviolation; 2. the principle of equality; 3. the principle to recognize the will to live and the living space of any intelligent race.

  18. A Review of Extra-Terrestrial Mining Concepts (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; van Susante, P. J.


    Outer space contains a vast amount of resources that offer virtually unlimited wealth to the humans that can access and use them for commercial purposes. One of the key technologies for harvesting these resources is robotic mining of regolith, minerals, ices and metals. The harsh environment and vast distances create challenges that are handled best by robotic machines working in collaboration with human explorers. Humans will benefit from the resources that will be mined by robots. They will visit outposts and mining camps as required for exploration, commerce and scientific research, but a continuous presence is most likely to be provided by robotic mining machines that are remotely controlled by humans. There have been a variety of extra-terrestrial robotic mining concepts proposed over the last 40 years and this paper will attempt to summarize and review concepts in the public domain (government, industry and academia) to serve as an informational resource for future mining robot developers and operators. The challenges associated with these concepts will be discussed and feasibility will be assessed. Future needs associated with commercial efforts will also be investigated.

  19. A Review of Extra-Terrestrial Mining Robot Concepts (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Van Susante, Paul J.


    Outer space contains a vast amount of resources that offer virtually unlimited wealth to the humans that can access and use them for commercial purposes. One of the key technologies for harvesting these resources is robotic mining of regolith, minerals, ices and metals. The harsh environment and vast distances create challenges that are handled best by robotic machines working in collaboration with human explorers. Humans will benefit from the resources that will be mined by robots. They will visit outposts and mining camps as required for exploration, commerce and scientific research, but a continuous presence is most likely to be provided by robotic mining machines that are remotely controlled by humans. There have been a variety of extra-terrestrial robotic mining concepts proposed over the last 100 years and this paper will attempt to summarize and review concepts in the public domain (government, industry and academia) to serve as an informational resource for future mining robot developers and operators. The challenges associated with these concepts will be discussed and feasibility will be assessed. Future needs associated with commercial efforts will also be investigated.

  20. The quest for extraterrestrial life: what about the viruses? (United States)

    Griffin, Dale Warren


    Recently, viruses have been recognized as the most numerous entities and the primary drivers of evolution on Earth. Historically, viruses have been mostly ignored in the field of astrobiology due to the view that they are not alive in the classical sense and if encountered would not present risk due to their host-specific nature. What we currently know of viruses is that we are most likely to encounter them on other life-bearing planets; that while some are exquisitely host-specific, many viruses can utilize hundreds of different host species; that viruses are known to exist in our planet's most extreme environments; and that while many do not survive long outside their hosts, some can survive for extended periods, especially in the cold. In our quest for extraterrestrial life, we should be looking for viruses; and while any encountered may pose no risk, the possibility of an encounter with a virus capable of accessing multiple cell types exists, and any prospective contact with such an organism should be treated accordingly.

  1. Thermal Design for Extra-Terrestrial Regenerative Fuel Cell System (United States)

    Gilligan, R.; Guzik, M.; Jakupca, I.; Bennett, W.; Smith, P.; Fincannon, J.


    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 C versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  2. New Fiber Reinforced Waterless Concrete for Extraterrestrial Structural Applications (United States)

    Toutanji, H.; Tucker, D.; Ethridge, E.


    Commercial use of sulfur concrete on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive, e.g., acid and salt, environments. Having found troilite (FeS) on the Moon raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction mate: iii an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water For the purpose of this paper it is assumed that lunar ore is mined, refined, and the raw sulfur processed with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, brick and beam elements. Glass fibers produced from regolith were used as a reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of the sulfur concrete. Glass fibers and glass rebar were produced by melting the lunar regolith simulant. Lunar regolith stimulant was melted in a 25 cc Pt-Rh crucible in a Sybron Thermoline 46100 high temperature MoSi2 furnace at melting temperatures of 1450 to 1600G. The glass melt wets the ceramic rod and long continuous glass fibers were easily hand drawn. The glass fibers were immediately coated with a protective polymer to maintain the mechanical strength. The viability of sulfur concrete as a construction material for extraterrestrial application is presented. The mechanical properties of the glass fiber reinforced sulfur concrete were investigated.

  3. Applying Biomimetic Algorithms for Extra-Terrestrial Habitat Generation (United States)

    Birge, Brian


    The objective is to simulate and optimize distributed cooperation among a network of robots tasked with cooperative excavation on an extra-terrestrial surface. Additionally to examine the concept of directed Emergence among a group of limited artificially intelligent agents. Emergence is the concept of achieving complex results from very simple rules or interactions. For example, in a termite mound each individual termite does not carry a blueprint of how to make their home in a global sense, but their interactions based strictly on local desires create a complex superstructure. Leveraging this Emergence concept applied to a simulation of cooperative agents (robots) will allow an examination of the success of non-directed group strategy achieving specific results. Specifically the simulation will be a testbed to evaluate population based robotic exploration and cooperative strategies while leveraging the evolutionary teamwork approach in the face of uncertainty about the environment and partial loss of sensors. Checking against a cost function and 'social' constraints will optimize cooperation when excavating a simulated tunnel. Agents will act locally with non-local results. The rules by which the simulated robots interact will be optimized to the simplest possible for the desired result, leveraging Emergence. Sensor malfunction and line of sight issues will be incorporated into the simulation. This approach falls under Swarm Robotics, a subset of robot control concerned with finding ways to control large groups of robots. Swarm Robotics often contains biologically inspired approaches, research comes from social insect observation but also data from among groups of herding, schooling, and flocking animals. Biomimetic algorithms applied to manned space exploration is the method under consideration for further study.

  4. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  5. Toward a new cosmic consciousness: Psychoeducational aspects of contact with extraterrestrial civilizations (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G.


    This study presents a new approach to the concept of cosmic consciousness integrated in current neuroscience knowledge and discusses implications for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. It also examines different aspects related to consciousness and how it may play a key role in the understanding of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and life in the Universe and its implications. Subjects (n=116) were college students from Spain, the United States, and Italy. Subjects responded to a questionnaire comprising five different sections: (A) religious beliefs, (B) environment and general opinion, (C) astronomy, (D) contact, and (E) attention and perception. The results showed the importance of several modular aspects that affect Space awareness in humans. Preliminary results are discussed with regard to current neuroscience, factor analysis, and possible implications for the understanding of contact with extraterrestrial intelligence. The roles of education, new search strategies, and possible contact scenarios are also discussed.

  6. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Virgiliu


    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  7. Anthropomorphism in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence - The limits of cognition? (United States)

    Bohlmann, Ulrike M.; Bürger, Moritz J. F.


    The question "Are we alone?" lingers in the human mind since ancient times. Early human civilisations populated the heavens above with a multitude of Gods endowed with some all too human characteristics - from their outer appearance to their innermost motivations. En passant they created thereby their own cultural founding myths on which they built their understanding of the world and its phenomena and deduced as well rules for the functioning of their own society. Advancing technology has enabled us to conduct this human quest for knowledge with more scientific means: optical and radio-wavelengths are being monitored for messages by an extra-terrestrial intelligence and active messaging attempts have also been undertaken. Scenarios have been developed for a possible detection of extra-terrestrial intelligence and post-detection guidelines and protocols have been elaborated. The human responses to the whole array of questions concerning the potential existence, discovery of and communication/interaction with an extra-terrestrial intelligence share as one clear thread a profound anthropomorphism, which ascribes classical human behavioural patterns also to an extra-terrestrial intelligence in much the same way as our ancestors attributed comparable conducts to mythological figures. This paper aims at pinpointing this thread in a number of classical reactions to basic questions related to the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. Many of these reactions are based on human motives such as curiosity and fear, rationalised by experience and historical analogy and modelled in the Science Fiction Culture by literature and movies. Scrutinising the classical hypothetical explanations of the Fermi paradox under the angle of a potentially undue anthropomorphism, this paper intends to assist in understanding our human epistemological limitations in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. This attempt is structured into a series of questions: I. Can we be alone? II

  8. L factor: hope and fear in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (United States)

    Rubin, Charles T.


    The L factor in the Drake equation is widely understood to account for most of the variance in estimates of the number of extraterrestrial intelligences that might be contacted by the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). It is also among the hardest to quantify. An examination of discussions of the L factor in the popular and technical SETI literature suggests that attempts to estimate L involve a variety of potentially conflicting assumptions about civilizational lifespan that reflect hopes and fears about the human future.

  9. Study of extraterrestrial material by means of a high sensitive mass spectrometer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, O.; Kaneko, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Shimamura, T.


    In this report it is described about a high sensitive mass spectrometer for measurement of isotopic abundance of extraterrestrial material. Detecting isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial matter induced by cosmic ray or solar wind irradiation, we can obtain many informations about interplanetary and/or intersteller space. For this purpose we reform the mass spectrometer of Low Energy Physics Division of INS to improve the sensitivity and the resolution. In section I--VI some improvements of the mass spectrometer (vacuum system, ion source, collector etc.) are described. In section VII--X newly developed ion counting system is discussed. (auth.)

  10. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje A. Wolff


    Full Text Available Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  11. Finding Extraterrestrial Life Using Ground-based High-dispersion Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, I.A.G.; Kok, R.; Poole, le R.S.; Brogi, M.; Birkby, J.L.


    Exoplanet observations promise one day to unveil the presence of extraterrestrial life. Atmospheric compounds in strong chemical disequilibrium would point to large-scale biological activity just as oxygen and methane do in the Earth's atmosphere. The cancellation of both the Terrestrial Planet

  12. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.


    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  13. The Younger Dryas climate change: was it caused by an extraterrestrial impact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.


    The Younger Dryas is an abrupt cooling event at the end of the last Glacial associated to a change in ocean circulation. According to the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, however, one or more extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts occuring around 12.8 ka caused the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive

  14. Tracers of the Extraterrestrial Component in Sediments and Inferences for Earth's Accretion History (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.


    The study of extraterrestrial matter in sediments began with the discovery of cosmic spherules during the HMS Challenger Expedition (1873-1876), but has evolved into a multidisciplinary study of the chemical, physical, and isotopic study of sediments. Extraterrestrial matter in sediments comes mainly from dust and large impactors from the asteroid belt and comets. What we know of the nature of these source materials comes from the study of stratospheric dust particles, cosmic spherules, micrometeorites, meteorites, and astronomical observations. The most common chemical tracers of extraterrestrial matter in sediments are the siderophile elements, most commonly iridium and other platinum group elements. Physical tracers include cosmic and impact spherules, Ni-rich spinels, meteorites, fossil meteorites, and ocean-impact melt debris. Three types of isotopic systems have been used to trace extraterrestrial matter. Osmium isotopes cannot distinguish chondritic from mantle sources, but provide a useful tool in modeling long-term accretion rates. Helium isotopes can be used to trace the long-term flux of the fine fraction of the interplanetary dust complex. Chromium isotopes can provide unequivocal evidence of an extraterrestrial source for sediments with high concentrations of meteoritic Cr. The terrestrial history of impacts, as recorded in sediments, is still poorly understood. Helium isotopes, multiple Ir anomalies, spherule beds, and craters all indicate a comet shower in the late Eocene. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact event appears to have been caused by a single carbonaceous chondrite projectile, most likely of asteroid origin. Little is known of the impact record in sediments from the rest of the Phanerozoic. Several impact deposits are known in the Precambrian, including several possible mega-impacts in the Early Archean.

  15. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar


    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  16. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 1: Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. [feasibility of using space shuttle (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Ramler, J. R.; Stevenson, S. M.


    A feasibility study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste is reported. This report covers the initial work done on only one part of the NASA study, that evaluates and compares possible space destinations and space transportation systems. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles by about a factor of 2. The space shuttle requires a third stage to perform the waste disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission, this third stage could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur.

  17. Beyond the Drake Equation: On the Probability of the Nature of Extraterrestrial Life Forms in Our Galaxy Today (United States)

    Geller, Harold A.


    I will discuss my research into the issues associated with the nature of any extraterrestrials that may be encountered in the future in our galaxy. This research was sparked by statements made by Stephen Hawking in 2010 regarding his fear of emitting radiation from our Earth so that an extraterrestrial intelligent civilization may be alerted to our existence in the galaxy today. While addressing issues of extraterrestrial altruism, a probabilistic equation was developed which addresses the number of extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that may exist in our galaxy today, who could use our bodies for nourishment or reproductive purposes. The equation begins with the results from a Drake Equation calculation, and proceeds by addressing such biochemical parameters as the fraction of ETIs with: dextro sugar stereo-isomers; levo amino acid stereo-isomers; similar codon interpretation; chromosomal length and, similar cell membrane structure to allow egg penetration.

  18. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar


    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  19. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence in the 1960s: Science in Popular Culture (United States)

    Smith, Sierra


    Building upon the advancement of technology during the Second World War and the important scientific discoveries which have been made about the structure and components of the universe, scientists, especially in radio astronomy and physics, began seriously addressing the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence in the 1960s. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) quickly became one of the most controversial scientific issues in the post Second World War period. The controversy played out, not only in scientific and technical journals, but in newspapers and in popular literature. Proponents for SETI, including Frank Drake, Carl Sagan, and Philip Morrison, actively used a strategy of engagement with the public by using popular media to lobby for exposure and funding. This paper will examine the use of popular media by scientists interested in SETI to popularize and heighten public awareness and also to examine the effects of popularization on SETI's early development. My research has been generously supported by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  20. Origin of spherule samples recovered from antarctic ice sheet-Terrestrial or extraterrestrial?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, Shun; Takamiya, Koichi; Shibata, Seiichi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kobayashi, Takayuki [College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, Mitsuru [Dept. of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Thirty-eight spherules from the Antarctic ice sheet were analyzed using neutron activation analysis under two different conditions to investigate their origin. In almost all of these spherules, the contents of iron, cobalt, and manganese were determined to be 31% to 88%, 17 mg/kg to 810 mg/kg, and 0.017% to 7%, respectively. A detectable iridium content of 0.84 mg/kg was found in only one spherule, which was judged to be extraterrestrial in origin. A comparison of elemental compositions of the Antarctic spherules analyzed in this study with those of deep-sea sediment spherules and those of terrestrial materials revealed that most of the Antarctic spherules except for the sample in which iridium was detected could not be identified as extraterrestrial in origin.

  1. Limits on diffuse fluxes of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos with the AMANDA-B10 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganugapati, R.; Gaug, M.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hughey, B.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kuehn, K.; Kim, J.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Mandli, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, P.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schinarakis, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.


    Data from the AMANDA-B10 detector taken during the austral winter of 1997 have been searched for a diffuse flux of high energy extraterrestrial muon-neutrinos, as predicted from, e.g., the sum of all active galaxies in the universe. This search yielded no excess events above those expected from the background atmospheric neutrinos, leading to upper limits on the extraterrestrial neutrino flux. For an assumed E -2 spectrum, a 90 percent classical confidence level upper limit has been placed at a level E 2 Phi(E) = 8.4 x 10 -7 GeV cm -2 s -1 1 sr -1 (for a predominant neutrino energy range 6-1000 TeV) which is the most restrictive bound placed by any neutrino detector. When specific predicted spectral forms are considered, it is found that some are excluded

  2. Life from the stars?. [extraterrestrial sources contributing to chemical evolution on Earth (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Cruikshank, Dale P.


    Scientists are now seriously considering the possibility that organic matter from interstellar space could have influenced, or even spurred, the origin of life on Earth. Various aspects of chemical evolution are discussed along with possible extraterrestrial sources responsible for contributing to Earth's life-producing, chemical composition. Specific topics covered include the following: interstellar matter, molecular clouds, asteroid dust, organic molecules in our solar system, interplanetary dust and comets, meteoritic composition, and organic-rich solar-system bodies.

  3. The weak force and SETH: The search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDermott, A.J.


    We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality emdash SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z 0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how the resulting small excess of the more stable enantiomer may be amplified to homochirality. Titan and comets are good places to test for emerging pre-biotic homochirality, while on Mars there may be traces of homochirality as a relic of extinct life. Our calculations of the PVED show that the natural L-amino acids are indeed more stable than their enantiomers, as are several key D-sugars and right-hand helical DNA. Thiosubstituted DNA analogues show particularly large PVEDs. L-quartz is also more stable than D-quartz, and we believe that further crystal counts should be carried out to establish whether reported excesses of L quartz are real. Finding extra-terrestrial molecules of the same hand as on Earth would lend support to the universal chiral influence of the weak force. We describe a novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, which we hope to use to detect optical rotation on other planets. Moving parts are avoided by replacing the normal rotating polarizer by multiple fixed polarizers at different angles as in the eye of the bee. Even if we do not find the same hand as on Earth, finding extra-terrestrial optical rotation would be of enormous importance as it would still be the homochiral signature of life. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. The weak force and SETH: The search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality (United States)

    MacDermott, Alexandra J.


    We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality-SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how the resulting small excess of the more stable enantiomer may be amplified to homochirality. Titan and comets are good places to test for emerging pre-biotic homochirality, while on Mars there may be traces of homochirality as a relic of extinct life. Our calculations of the PVED show that the natural L-amino acids are indeed more stable than their enantiomers, as are several key D-sugars and right-hand helical DNA. Thiosubstituted DNA analogues show particularly large PVEDs. L-quartz is also more stable than D-quartz, and we believe that further crystal counts should be carried out to establish whether reported excesses of L quartz are real. Finding extra-terrestrial molecules of the same hand as on Earth would lend support to the universal chiral influence of the weak force. We describe a novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, which we hope to use to detect optical rotation on other planets. Moving parts are avoided by replacing the normal rotating polarizer by multiple fixed polarizers at different angles as in the eye of the bee. Even if we do not find the same hand as on Earth, finding extra-terrestrial optical rotation would be of enormous importance as it would still be the homochiral signature of life.

  5. Project Cyclops: a Design Study of a System for Detecting Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life (United States)


    The requirements in hardware, manpower, time and funding to conduct a realistic effort aimed at detecting the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent life are examined. The methods used are limited to present or near term future state-of-the-art techniques. Subjects discussed include: (1) possible methods of contact, (2) communication by electromagnetic waves, (3) antenna array and system facilities, (4) antenna elements, (5) signal processing, (6) search strategy, and (7) radio and radar astronomy.

  6. Which colors would extraterrestrial civilizations use to transmit signals?: The ;magic wavelengths; for optical SETI (United States)

    Narusawa, Shin-ya; Aota, Tatusya; Kishimoto, Ryo


    In the case of radio SETI, there are predicted frequencies which extraterrestrial beings select to send messages to other civilizations. Those are called ;magic frequencies. Considering the optical region, terrestrial technologies can not transmit arbitrary wavelengths of high-power optical lasers, easily. In this article, we discuss communications among civilizations with the same level of technology as us to enhance the persuasive power. It might be possible to make a reasonable assumption about the laser wavelengths transmitted by extraterrestrial intelligences to benefit optical SETI (OSETI) methods. Therefore, we propose some ;magic wavelengths; for spectroscopic OSETI observations in this article. From the senders point of view, we argue that the most favorable wavelength used for interstellar communication would be the one of YAG lasers, at 1.064 μm or its Second Harmonic Generation (532.1 nm). On the contrary, there are basic absorption lines in the optical spectra, which are frequently observed by astrophysicists on Earth. It is possible that the extraterrestrials used lasers, which wavelengths are tuned to such absorption lines for sending messages. In that case, there is a possibility that SHG and/or Sum Frequency Generation of YAG and YLF lasers are used. We propose three lines at, 393.8 nm (near the Ca K line), 656.5 nm (near the Hα line) and 589.1 nm (Na D2 line) as the magic wavelengths.

  7. Extraterrestrial Organic Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Origins of Life (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    Extraterrestrially delivered organics in the origin of cellular life. Various processes leading to the emergence of cellular life from organics delivered from space to earth or other planetary bodies in the solar system will be reviewed. The focus will be on: (1) self-assembly of amphiphilic material to vesicles and other structures, such as micelles and multilayers, and its role in creating environments suitable for chemical catalysis, (2) a possible role of extraterrestrial delivery of organics in the formation of the simplest bioenergetics (3) mechanisms leading from amino acids or their precursors to simple peptides and, subsequently, to the evolution of metabolism. These issues will be discussed from two opposite points of view: (1) Which molecules could have been particularly useful in the protobiological evolution; this may provide focus for searching for these molecules in interstellar media. (2) Assuming that a considerable part of the inventory of organic matter on the early earth was delivered extraterrestrially, what does relative abundance of different organics in space tell us about the scenario leading to the origin of life.

  8. Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; West, A.; Kennett, J.P.; Becker, L.; Bunch, T.E.; Revay, Z.S.; Schultz, P.H.; Belgya, T.; Kennett, D.J.; Erlandson, J.M.; Dickenson, O.J.; Goodyear, A.C.; Harris, R.S.; Howard, G.A.; Kloosterman, J.B.; Lechler, P.; Mayewski, P.A.; Montgomery, J.; Porede, R.; Darrah, T.; Que Hee, S.S.; Smith, A.R.; Stich, A.; Topping, W.; Wittke, J.H.; Wolbach, W.S.


    A carbon-rich black layer, dating to ∼12.9 ka, has been previously identified at ∼50 Clovis-age sites across North America and appears contemporaneous with the abrupt onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling. The in situ bones of extinct Pleistocene megafauna and Clovistool assemblages occur below this black layer but not within or above it. Causes for the extinctions, the YD cooling, and the termination of Clovisculture have long been controversial. In this paper, we provide evidence for an extraterrestrial (ET) impact event at ?12.9 ka, which, we hypothesize, caused abrupt environmental changes that contributed to YD cooling, major ecological reorganization, broad-scale extinctions, and rapid human behavioral shifts at the end of the Clovis Period. Clovis-age sites in North American are overlain by a thin, discrete layer with varying peak abundances of: (1) magnetic grains with iridium, (2) magnetic microspherules (3) charcoal, (4) soot, (5) carbon spherules, (6) glass-like carbon, and (7) fullerenes with ET helium, all of which are evidence for an ET impact and associated biomass burning at ∼12.9 ka.This layer also extends throughout at least fifteen Carolina Bays, which are unique, elliptical wetlands, oriented to the northwest across the Atlantic Coastal Plain. We propose that one or more large, low-density ET objects exploded over northern North America, partially destabilizing the Laurentide Ice Sheet and triggering YD cooling. The shock wave, thermal pulse, and event-related environmental effects (e.g., extensive biomass burning, food limitations) contributed to the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions and adaptive shifts among PaleoAmericans in North America

  9. Estimation of potential evapotranspiration from extraterrestrial radiation, air temperature and humidity to assess future climate change effects on the vegetation of the Northern Great Plains, USA (United States)

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ferschweiler, Ken; Hobbins, Michael


    The potential evapotranspiration (PET) that would occur with unlimited plant access to water is a central driver of simulated plant growth in many ecological models. PET is influenced by solar and longwave radiation, temperature, wind speed, and humidity, but it is often modeled as a function of temperature alone. This approach can cause biases in projections of future climate impacts in part because it confounds the effects of warming due to increased greenhouse gases with that which would be caused by increased radiation from the sun. We developed an algorithm for linking PET to extraterrestrial solar radiation (incoming top-of atmosphere solar radiation), as well as temperature and atmospheric water vapor pressure, and incorporated this algorithm into the dynamic global vegetation model MC1. We tested the new algorithm for the Northern Great Plains, USA, whose remaining grasslands are threatened by continuing woody encroachment. Both the new and the standard temperature-dependent MC1 algorithm adequately simulated current PET, as compared to the more rigorous PenPan model of Rotstayn et al. (2006). However, compared to the standard algorithm, the new algorithm projected a much more gradual increase in PET over the 21st century for three contrasting future climates. This difference led to lower simulated drought effects and hence greater woody encroachment with the new algorithm, illustrating the importance of more rigorous calculations of PET in ecological models dealing with climate change.

  10. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  11. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge


    by a more theoretical debate and increased interaction between the heterodox schools of ecological economics and post-Keynesian economics. In addition, both the degrowth community and the research community organized around sustainable transitions of socio-technical systems have contributed to discussions...... on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  12. Mainstream Media and Social Media Reactions to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life (United States)

    Jones, Morris

    The rise of online social media (such as Facebook and Twitter) has overturned traditional top-down and stovepiped channels for mass communications. As social media have risen, traditional media sources have been steadily crippled by economic problems, resulting in a loss of capabilities and credibility. Information can propagate rapidly without the inclusion of traditional editorial checks and controls. Mass communications strategies for any type of major announcement must account for this new media landscape. Scientists announcing the discovery of extraterrestrial life will trigger a multifaceted and unpredictable percolation of the story through the public sphere. They will also potentially struggle with misinformation, rumours and hoaxes. The interplay of official announcements with the discussions of an extraterrestrial discovery on social media has parallels with traditional theories of mass communications. A wide spectrum of different messages is likely to be received by different segments of the community, based on their usage patterns of various media and online communications. The presentation and interpretation of a discovery will be hotly debated and contested within online media environments. In extreme cases, this could lead to "editorial wars" on collaborative media projects as well as cyber-attacks on certain online services and individuals. It is unlikely that a clear and coherent message can be propagated to a near-universal level. This has the potential to contribute to inappropriate reactions in some sectors of the community. Preventing unnecessary panic will be a priority. In turn, the monitoring of online and social media will provide a useful tool for assessing public reactions to a discovery of extraterrestrial life. This will help to calibrate public communications strategies following in the wake of an initial announcement.

  13. Amino Acids from Icy Amines: A Radiation-Chemical Approach to Extraterrestrial Synthesis (United States)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Moore, M. H.


    Detections of amino acids in meteorites go back several decades, with at least 100 such compounds being reported for the Murchison meteorite alone. The presence of these extraterrestrial molecules raises questions as to their formation, abundance, thermal stability, racemization, and possible subsequent reactions. Although all of these topics have been studied in laboratories, such work often involves many variables and unknowns. This has led us to seek out model systems with which to uncover reaction products, test chemical predictions, and sited light on underlying reaction mechanisms. This presentation will describe one such study, focusing on amino-acid formation in ices.

  14. Sediment of a Central European Mountain Lake Implies an Extraterrestrial Impact at the Younger Dryas Onset

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, D.; Kletetschka, G.; Hrubá, J.; Nábělek, L.; Procházka, V.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Bobek, Přemysl; Hořická, Zuzana; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Takáč, M.; Stuchlík, Evžen


    Roč. 52, S1 (2017), A373-A373, č. článku 6230. ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /80./. 23.07.2017-28.07.2017, Santa Fe] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : Younger Dryas * Extraterrestrial Impact * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DA - Hydrology ; Limnology (BC-A); DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  15. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH) [de

  16. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove


    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit...

  17. The G-HAT Search for Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations: The Reddest Extended WISE Sources (United States)

    Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.; Wright, Jason; Griffith, Roger; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan L.


    Freeman Dyson (1960) theorized how to identify possible signatures of advanced extra-terrestrial civilizations by their waste heat, an inevitable byproduct of a civilization using a significant fraction of the luminosity from their host star. If a civilizations could tap the starlight throughout their host galaxy their waste heat would be easily detectable by recent infrared surveys. The Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies (G-HAT) pilot project aims to place limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations at pan-galactic scales. We present results from the G-HAT cleaned catalog of 563 extremely red, extended high Galactic latitude (|b| ≥ 10) sources from the WISE All-Sky Catalog. Our catalog includes sources new to the scientific literature along with well-studied objects (e.g. starburst galaxies, AGN, and planetary nebulae) that exemplify extreme WISE colors. Objects of particular interest include a supergiant Be star (48 Librae) surrounded by a resolved, mid-infrared nebula, possibly indicating dust in the stellar wind ejecta, and a curious cluster of seven extremely red WISE sources (associated with IRAS 04287+6444) that have no optical counterparts.

  18. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era (United States)

    Reynolds, Sarah


    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  19. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. I. Background and Justification (United States)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.


    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review "Dysonian SETI," the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the "monocultural fallacy." We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  20. Inscribed matter as an energy-efficient means of communication with an extraterrestrial civilization. (United States)

    Rose, Christopher; Wright, Gregory


    It is well known that electromagnetic radiation-radio waves-can in principle be used to communicate over interstellar distances. By contrast, sending physical artefacts has seemed extravagantly wasteful of energy, and imagining human travel between the stars even more so. The key consideration in earlier work, however, was the perceived need for haste. If extraterrestrial civilizations existed within a few tens of light years, radio could be used for two-way communication on timescales comparable to human lifetimes (or at least the longevities of human institutions). Here we show that if haste is unimportant, sending messages inscribed on some material can be strikingly more energy efficient than communicating by electromagnetic waves. Because messages require protection from cosmic radiation and small messages could be difficult to find among the material clutter near a recipient, 'inscribed matter' is most effective for long archival messages (as opposed to potentially short "we exist" announcements). The results suggest that our initial contact with extraterrestrial civilizations may be more likely to occur through physical artefacts-essentially messages in a bottle-than via electromagnetic communication.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellen, I. A. G.; Le Poole, R.; Brogi, M.; Birkby, J.; De Kok, R. J.


    Exoplanet observations promise one day to unveil the presence of extraterrestrial life. Atmospheric compounds in strong chemical disequilibrium would point to large-scale biological activity just as oxygen and methane do in the Earth's atmosphere. The cancellation of both the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin missions means that it is unlikely that a dedicated space telescope to search for biomarker gases in exoplanet atmospheres will be launched within the next 25 years. Here we show that ground-based telescopes provide a strong alternative for finding biomarkers in exoplanet atmospheres through transit observations. Recent results on hot Jupiters show the enormous potential of high-dispersion spectroscopy to separate the extraterrestrial and telluric signals, making use of the Doppler shift of the planet. The transmission signal of oxygen from an Earth-twin orbiting a small red dwarf star is only a factor of three smaller than that of carbon monoxide recently detected in the hot Jupiter τ Boötis b, albeit such a star will be orders of magnitude fainter. We show that if Earth-like planets are common, the planned extremely large telescopes can detect oxygen within a few dozen transits. Ultimately, large arrays of dedicated flux-collector telescopes equipped with high-dispersion spectrographs can provide the large collecting area needed to perform a statistical study of life-bearing planets in the solar neighborhood.

  2. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial superresonators as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.; Vath, W.


    This paper reports on the recirculating power fraction of a laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor which can be reduced by using laser diodes to pump a neodymium solid-state laser. To overcome the high costs of two-dimensional arrays of laser diodes, two types of superresonators are proposed: a terrestrially based one and an extraterrestrially based one on a geostationary orbit. Both are designed in such a way that a sequence of short laser pulses (10 to 20 ns wide), each with an energy of 5 to 10 MJ and a frequency of 10 Hz, are produced to trigger a deuterium-tritium ICF reactor. The terrestrial superresonator needs a much smaller number of two-dimensional laser diode arrays than a conventionally pumped once-through solid-state laser system, and the extraterrestrial resonator is pumped by means of concentrated solar radiation. In practice, at least an order of magnitude fewer laser diodes and crystalline calcium fluoride gain media are needed to meet the requirements of a laser driver for an ICF reactor. If, finally, a liquid neodymium laser system could be used for an ICF reactor, the cooling of the gain slabs would be facilitated substantially

  3. Isotopic evidence for extraterrestrial non- racemic amino acids in the Murchison meteorite (United States)

    Engel, M. H.; Macko, S. A.


    Many amino acids contain an asymmetric centre, occurring as laevorotatory, L, or dextrorotatory, D, compounds. It is generally assumed that abiotic synthesis of amino acids on the early Earth resulted in racemic mixtures (L- and D-enantiomers in equal abundance). But the origin of life required, owing to conformational constraints, the almost exclusive selection of either L- or D-enantiomers, and the question of why living systems on the Earth consist of L-enantiomers rather than D-enantiomers is unresolved. A substantial fraction of the organic compounds on the early Earth may have been derived from comet and meteorite impacts. It has been reported previously that amino acids in the Murchison meteorite exhibit an excess of L-enantiomers, raising the possibility that a similar excess was present in the initial inventory of organic compounds on the Earth. The stable carbon isotope compositions of individual amino acids in Murchison support an extraterrestrial origin-rather than a terrestrial overprint of biological amino acids-although reservations have persisted (see, for example, ref. 9). Here we show that individual amino-acid enantiomers from Murchison are enriched in 15N relative to their terrestrial counterparts, so confirming an extraterrestrial source for an L-enantiomer excess in the Solar System that may predate the origin of life on the Earth.

  4. Extraterrestrial amino acids in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark (United States)

    Zhao, Meixun; Bada, Jeffrey L.


    SINCE the discovery1 nearly a decade ago that Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary layers are greatly enriched in iridium, a rare element in the Earth's crust, there has been intense controversy on the relationship between this Ir anomaly and the massive extinction of organisms ranging from dinosaurs to marine plankton that characterizes the K/T boundary. Convincing evidence suggests that both the Ir spike and the extinction event were caused by the collision of a large bolide (>10 km in diameter) with the Earth1-11. Alternative explanations claim that extensive, violent volcanism12-14 can account for the Ir, and that other independent causes were responsible for the mass extinctions15,16. We surmise that the collision of a massive extraterrestrial object with the Earth may have produced a unique organic chemical signature because certain meteorites, and probably comets, contain organic compounds which are either rare or non-existent on the Earth17. In contrast, no organic compounds would be expected to be associated with volcanic processes. Here we find that K/T boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark, contain both α-amino-isobutyric acid [AIB, (CH3)2CNH2COOH] and racemic isovaline [ISOVAL, CH3CH2(CH3)CNH2COOH], two amino acids that are exceedingly rare on the Earth but which are major amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites17,18. An extraterrestrial source is the most reasonable explanation for the presence of these amino acids.

  5. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.


    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  6. Wasteland ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster; Bertoni, Filippo; Bubandt, Nils Ole


    landscapes, this article argues, are the result of unheralded multispecies collaboration that can be traced empirically by attending ethnographically to multispecies forms of “gain-making,” the ways in which humans and other species leverage difference to find economic and ecological opportunity....... in the 1970s, when prevailing perceptions were that the entire mining area was a polluted wasteland, the AFLD Fasterholt waste and recycling plant has since changed in response to new EU waste management regulations, as well as the unexpected proliferation of non-human life in the area. Based on field...... research at this site—an Anthropocene landscape in the heartland of an EU-configured welfare state — this article is a contribution to the multispecies ethnography and political ecology of wastelands. We argue that “waste” is a co-species, biopolitical happening — a complex symbolic, political, biological...

  7. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  8. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  9. Extraterrestrial hydrogeology (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.; Dohm, James M.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Ferris, Justin C.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    Subsurface water processes are common for planetary bodies in the solar system and are highly probable for exoplanets (planets outside the solar system). For many solar system objects, the subsurface water exists as ice. For Earth and Mars, subsurface saturated zones have occurred throughout their planetary histories. Earth is mostly clement with the recharge of most groundwater reservoirs from ample precipitation during transient ice- and hot-house conditions, as recorded through the geologic and fossilized records. On the other hand, Mars is mostly in an ice-house stage, which is interrupted by endogenic-driven activity. This activity catastrophically drives short-lived hydrological cycling and associated climatic perturbations. Regional aquifers in the Martian highlands that developed during past, more Earth-like conditions delivered water to the northern plains. Water was also cycled to the South Polar Region during changes in climate induced by endogenic activity and/or by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. Venus very likely had a warm hydrosphere for hundreds of millions of years, before the development of its current extremely hot atmosphere and surface. Subsequently, Venus lost its hydrosphere as solar luminosity increased and a run-away moist greenhouse took effect. Subsurface oceans of water or ammonia-water composition, induced by tidal forces and radiogenic heating, probably occur on the larger satellites Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, and Triton. Tidal forces operating between some of the small bodies of the outer solar system could also promote the fusion of ice and the stability of inner liquid-water oceans. Les processus de subsurface impliquant l'eau sont communs pour les corps planétaires du système solaire et sont très probables sur les exoplanètes (planètes en dehors du système solaire). Pour plusieurs objets du systèmes solaire, l'eau de subsurface est présente sous forme de glace. Pour la Terre et Mars, les zones saturées de subsurface apparaissent à travers toute leur histoire planétaire. La Terre est particulièrement clémente avec la recharge des réservoirs, avec de amples précipitations, des conditions glaciaires et de fortes chaleurs, comme l'atteste les enregistrements géologiques et paléontologiques. D'un autre côté, Mars se trouve dans une phase essentiellement glaciaire, qui est interrompue par des activités contraintes par les phénomènes endogéniques. Cette activité conduit de manière catastrophique à des cycles hydrologiques et à des perturbations climatiques brutaux. Les aquifères régionaux dans les haute terres martiennes qui se sont formés dans des conditions similaires aux conditions terrestres, alimentent les plaines du Nord. L'eau a également été déplacée vers le Pôle Sud martien durant des changements marqués par une forte activité endogénique et une modification des paramètres de l'orbite de Mars. Venus possèdait vrais emblablement une hydrosphère chaude durant des millions d'année, avant le développement de son atmosphère et sa surface particulièrement chaude. Par après Venus a perdit son hydrosphère alors que la luminosité solaire augmentait et qu'une humidité liée à un effet de serre s'installait. Les océans de subsurface d'eau ou d'eau ammoniacale, induits par les forces de marée et le chauffage radiogénique, apparaissent probablement sur les satellites les plus importants (Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, Triton). Les forces de marée entre les petits corps externes du système solaire peuvent également occasionner la fusion de glace et la stabilité des océans internes d'eau liquide. Los procesos hídricos subsuperficiales son comunes en cuerpos planetarios del sistema solar y son altamente probables para exoplanetas (planetas fuera del sistema solar). Para muchos cuerpos del sistema solar, el agua subsuperficial existe como hielo. Para la Tierra y Marte han ocurrido zonas saturadas subsuperficiales a través de sus historias planetarias. La Tierra es principalmente generosa con la recarga de la mayoría de reservorios de aguas subterráneas a partir de amplia precipitación reconocida en condiciones transitorias calientes y heladas, tal y como aparece en los registros fósiles y geológicos. Por otro lado, Marte se encuentra principalmente en una etapade cámara de hielo la cual es interrumpida por actividad de tipo endogénico. Esta actividad pone en funcionamiento catastróficamente ciclos hidrológicos de vida corta y perturbaciones climáticas asociadas. Acuíferos regionales en las montañas de Marte que se desarrollaron en el pasado en condiciones similares a la Tierra distribuyen agua a las planicies del norte. El agua ha sido transportada hacia el sur de la región polar durante cambios en el clima inducidos por actividad endogénica y/o cambios en los parámetros orbitales de Marte. Venus muy probablemente tuvo una hidrósfera caliente durante cientos de millones de años, antes de que se desarrollara su atmósfera y superficie actual extremadamente caliente. Subsecuentemente, Venus perdió su hidrósfera a medida que la luminosidad solar aumentó y un efecto de invernadero húmedo escapatorio se llevó a cabo. Océanos subsuperficiales de composición agua o amoniaco-agua, inducidos por fuerzas de marea y calentamiento radiogénico, probablemente ocurren en los satélites más grandes como Europa, Ganimeda, Callisto, Titan y Triton. Las fuerzas de marea que operan entre los cuerpos pequeños del sistema solar externo podrían también promover la fusión de hielo y la estabilidad de líquido interno-aguas de los océanos.

  10. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity and Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J. P.


    The objective of this project is to modify the standard oxygen consumption (cone) calorimeter (described in ASTM E 1354 and NASA STD 6001 Test 2) to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. This apparatus will allow us to conduct normal gravity experiments that accurately and quantitatively evaluate a material's flammability characteristics in the real-use environment of spacecraft or extra-terrestrial gravitational acceleration. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone geometry with the sample burning in a ceiling fire configuration that provides a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by a flame in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. Prototype unit testing results are presented in this paper. Ignition delay times and regression rates for PMMA are presented over a range of radiant heat flux levels and equivalent stretch rates which demonstrate the ability of ELSA to simulate key features of microgravity and extraterrestrial fire behavior.

  11. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller


    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  12. Industrial ecology. (United States)

    Patel, C K


    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  13. Extraterrestrial material analysis: loss of amino acids during liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (United States)

    Buch, Arnaud; Brault, Amaury; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline


    Searching for building blocks of life in extraterrestrial material is a way to learn more about how life could have appeared on Earth. With this aim, liquid-phase acid hydrolysis has been used, since at least 1970 , in order to extract amino acids and other organic molecules from extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, lunar fines) or Earth analogues (e.g. Atacama desert soil). This procedure involves drastic conditions such as heating samples in 6N HCl for 24 h, either under inert atmosphere/vacuum, or air. Analysis of the hydrolyzed part of the sample should give its total (free plus bound) amino acid content. The present work deals with the influence of the 6N HCl hydrolysis on amino acid degradation. Our experiments have been performed on a standard solution of 17 amino acids. After liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (6N HCl) under argon atmosphere (24 h at 100°C), the liquid phase was evaporated and the dry residue was derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. After comparison with derivatized amino acids from the standard solution, a significant reduction of the chromatographic peak areas was observed for most of the amino acids after liquid-phase acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the same loss pattern was observed when the amino acids were exposed to cold 6N HCl for a short amount of time. The least affected amino acid, i.e. glycine, was found to be 73,93% percent less abundant compared to the non-hydrolyzed standard, while the most affected, i.e. histidine, was not found in the chromatograms after hydrolysis. Our experiments thereby indicate that liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, even under inert atmosphere, leads to a partial or total loss of all of the 17 amino acids present in the standard solution, and that a quick cold contact with 6N HCl is sufficient to lead to a loss of amino acids. Therefore, in the literature, the reported increase

  14. Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. V.; Thompson, R. L.; Lubick, R. J.


    A feasibility study is summarized of extraterrestrial (space) disposal of radioactive waste. The initial work on the evaluation and comparison of possible space destinations and launch vehicles is reported. Only current or planned space transportation systems were considered. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles, by about a factor of two. The space shuttle will require a third stage to perform the disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission this could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur. Of the destinations considered, high earth orbits (between geostationary and lunar orbit altitudes), solar orbits (such as a 0.90 AU circular solar orbit) or a direct injection to solar system escape appear to be the best candidates. Both earth orbits and solar orbits have uncertainties regarding orbit stability and waste package integrity for times on the order of a million years.

  15. Measuring the effect of an astrobiology course on student optimism regarding extraterrestrial life (United States)

    Morgan, David L.


    Students in an introductory undergraduate Astrobiology course were given a pre/post-test based on the Drake Equation in an attempt to measure changes in their perceptions regarding the prevalence of life in the Galaxy after taking the course. The results indicated that, after taking the course, the students were considerably more optimistic, by a 2 to 1 margin or more, about the prospect of habitable planets, the origin of life, and the evolution of intelligence in other planetary systems. The results suggest that, while it may not be the explicit goal of an astrobiology course to change student beliefs about the abundance or rarity of extraterrestrial life, such changes in opinion can and do occur.

  16. Extraterrestrial intelligence and human imagination SETI at the intersection of science, religion, and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Traphagan, John


    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) represents one of the most significant crossroads at which the assumptions and methods of scientific inquiry come into direct contact with—and in many cases conflict with—those of religion. Indeed, at the core of SETI is the same question that motivates many interested in religion: What is the place of humanity in the universe? Both scientists involved with SETI (and in other areas) and those interested in and dedicated to some religious traditions are engaged in contemplating these types of questions, even if their respective approaches and answers differ significantly. This book explores this intersection with a focus on three core points: 1) the relationship between science and religion as it is expressed within the framework of SETI research, 2) the underlying assumptions, many of which are tacitly based upon cultural values common in American society, that have shaped the ways in which SETI researchers have conceptualized the nature of their endeavo...

  17. From Fossils to Astrobiology Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    CERN Document Server

    Seckbach, Joseph


    From Fossils to Astrobiology reviews developments in paleontology and geobiology that relate to the rapidly-developing field of Astrobiology, the study of life in the Universe. Many traditional areas of scientific study, including astronomy, chemistry and planetary science, contribute to Astrobiology, but the study of the record of life on planet Earth is critical in guiding investigations in the rest of the cosmos. In this varied book, expert scientists from 15 countries present peer-reviewed, stimulating reviews of paleontological and astrobiological studies. The overviews of established and emerging techniques for studying modern and ancient microorganisms on Earth and beyond, will be valuable guides to evaluating biosignatures which could be found in the extraterrestrial surface or subsurface within the Solar System and beyond. This volume also provides discussion on the controversial reports of "nanobacteria" in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. It is a unique volume among Astrobiology monographs in focusi...

  18. Detection of /sup 4/He in stratospheric particles gives evidence of extraterrestrial origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, R S [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism; Brownlee, D E; Tomandl, D; Hodge, P W; Farrar, H; Britten, R A


    The detection of large concentrations of /sup 4/He in some size stratospheric particles collected during the past 2 years is here reported. The final /sup 4/He concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.25 cc/gm. Such high concentrations confirm that the particles were extraterrestrial and that some of them were exposed to solar wind for at least 10 to 100 years; also, since solar wind ions are implanted only to depths of approximately 500 A, the measurements also indicate that the particles existed as small particles in space and were not produced in the atmosphere by fragmentation of larger meteoroids. The possibility that the observed He could have been the product of decaying U appears remote. Since micrometeorites probably have cometary origin, they are potentially a valuable source of primitive Solar System matter.

  19. Accurate computations of monthly average daily extraterrestrial irradiation and the maximum possible sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.C.


    The monthly average daily values of the extraterrestrial irradiation on a horizontal plane and the maximum possible sunshine duration are two important parameters that are frequently needed in various solar energy applications. These are generally calculated by solar scientists and engineers each time they are needed and often by using the approximate short-cut methods. Using the accurate analytical expressions developed by Spencer for the declination and the eccentricity correction factor, computations for these parameters have been made for all the latitude values from 90 deg. N to 90 deg. S at intervals of 1 deg. and are presented in a convenient tabular form. Monthly average daily values of the maximum possible sunshine duration as recorded on a Campbell Stoke's sunshine recorder are also computed and presented. These tables would avoid the need for repetitive and approximate calculations and serve as a useful ready reference for providing accurate values to the solar energy scientists and engineers

  20. The Implications of the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life for Religion and Theology (United States)

    Peters, Ted


    This paper asks about the future of religion: (1) Will confirmation of ETI cause terrestrial religion to collapse? "No" is the answer based upon a summary of the "Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey." Then three questions are posed to the astrotheologian: (2) What is the scope of God's creation? (3) What can we expect when we encounter ETI? (4) Will contact with more advanced ETI diminish human dignity? The paper's thesis is that contact with extraterrestrial intelligence will expand the existing Christian vision that all of creation — including the 13.7 billion year history of the universe replete with all of God's creatures — is the gift of a loving and gracious God.

  1. Table for monthly average daily extraterrestrial irradiation on horizontal surface and the maximum possible sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.C.


    The monthly average daily values of the extraterrestrial irradiation on a horizontal surface (H 0 ) and the maximum possible sunshine duration are two important parameters that are frequently needed in various solar energy applications. These are generally calculated by scientists each time they are needed and by using the approximate short-cut methods. Computations for these values have been made once and for all for latitude values of 60 deg. N to 60 deg. S at intervals of 1 deg. and are presented in a convenient tabular form. Values of the maximum possible sunshine duration as recorded on a Campbell Stoke's sunshine recorder are also computed and presented. These tables should avoid the need for repetition and approximate calculations and serve as a useful ready reference for solar energy scientists and engineers. (author)

  2. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies (United States)

    Wright, Jason Thomas; Povich, Matthew; Griffith, Roger; Maldonado, Jessica; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Star Cartier, Kimberly


    The WISE and Spitzer large-area surveys of the mid-infrared sky bring a new opportunity to search for evidence of the energy supplies of very large extraterrestrial civilizations. If these energy supplies rival the output of a civilization's parent star (Kardashev Type II), or if a galaxy-spanning supercivilization's use rivals that of the total galactic luminosity (Type III), they would be detectable as anomolously mid-infrared-bright stars and galaxies, respectively. We have already performed the first search for this emission from Type III civilizations using the WISE all-sky survey, and put the first upper limits on them in the local universe, and discuss ways to improve on these limits. We also discuss some detectable forms of and limits on Type II civilizations in the Mliky Way.

  3. Polyphase-discrete Fourier transform spectrum analysis for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence sky survey (United States)

    Zimmerman, G. A.; Gulkis, S.


    The sensitivity of a matched filter-detection system to a finite-duration continuous wave (CW) tone is compared with the sensitivities of a windowed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) system and an ideal bandpass filter-bank system. These comparisons are made in the context of the NASA Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) microwave observing project (MOP) sky survey. A review of the theory of polyphase-DFT filter banks and its relationship to the well-known windowed-DFT process is presented. The polyphase-DFT system approximates the ideal bandpass filter bank by using as few as eight filter taps per polyphase branch. An improvement in sensitivity of approx. 3 dB over a windowed-DFT system can be obtained by using the polyphase-DFT approach. Sidelobe rejection of the polyphase-DFT system is vastly superior to the windowed-DFT system, thereby improving its performance in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI).

  4. Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.


    We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is 2 -sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of 2 -sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs

  5. Modeling an Optical and Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Survey with Exoplanet Direct Imaging (United States)

    Vides, Christina; Macintosh, Bruce; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Nielsen, Eric; Povich, Matthew Samuel


    Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a direct high contrast imaging instrument coupled to the Gemini South Telescope. Its purpose is to image extrasolar planets around young (~Intelligence), we modeled GPI’s capabilities to detect an extraterrestrial continuous wave (CW) laser broadcasted within the H-band have been modeled. By using sensitivity evaluated for actual GPI observations of young target stars, we produced models of the CW laser power as a function of distance from the star that could be detected if GPI were to observe nearby (~ 3-5 pc) planet-hosting G-type stars. We took a variety of transmitters into consideration in producing these modeled values. GPI is known to be sensitive to both pulsed and CW coherent electromagnetic radiation. The results were compared to similar studies and it was found that these values are competitive to other optical and infrared observations.

  6. New insights in the bacterial spore resistance to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial factors (United States)

    Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda; Reitz, Guenther

    Based on their unique resistance to various space parameters, Bacillus endospores are one of the model systems used for astrobiological studies. The extremely high resistance of bacterial endospores to environmental stress factors has intrigued researchers since long time and many characteristic spore features, especially those involved in the protection of spore DNA, have already been uncovered. The disclosure of the complete genomic sequence of Bacillus subtilis 168, one of the often used astrobiological model system, and the rapid development of tran-scriptional microarray techniques have opened new opportunities of gaining further insights in the enigma of spore resistance. Spores of B. subtilis were exposed to various extreme ter-restrial and extraterrestrial stressors to reach a better understanding of the DNA protection and repair strategies, which them to cope with the induced DNA damage. Following physical stress factors of environmental importance -either on Earth or in space -were selected for this thesis: (i) mono-and polychromatic UV radiation, (ii) ionizing radiation, (iii) exposure to ultrahigh vacuum; and (iv) high shock pressures simulating meteorite impacts. To reach a most comprehensive understanding of spore resistance to those harsh terrestrial or simulated extraterrestrial conditions, a standardized experimental protocol of the preparation and ana-lyzing methods was established including the determination of the following spore responses: (i) survival, (ii) induced mutations, (iii) DNA damage, (iv) role of different repair pathways by use of a set of repair deficient mutants, and (v) transcriptional responses during spore germi-nation by use of genome-wide transcriptome analyses and confirmation by RT-PCR. From this comprehensive set of data on spore resistance to a variety of environmental stress parameters a model of a "built-in" transcriptional program of bacterial spores in response to DNA damaging treatments to ensure DNA restoration

  7. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.


    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  8. The Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. I. Background and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.


    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review 'Dysonian SETI', the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the 'monocultural fallacy'. We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (<10 9 yr), and that many 'sustainability' counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  9. Comparison of the Raman spectra of ion irradiated soot and collected extraterrestrial carbon (United States)

    Brunetto, R.; Pino, T.; Dartois, E.; Cao, A.-T.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Strazzulla, G.; Bréchignac, Ph.


    We use a low pressure flame to produce soot by-products as possible analogues of the carbonaceous dust present in diverse astrophysical environments, such as circumstellar shells, diffuse interstellar medium, planetary disks, as well as in our own Solar System. Several soot samples, displaying an initial chemical diversity from aromatic to aliphatic dominated material, are irradiated with 200-400 keV H +, He +, and Ar ++ ions, with fluences comprised between 10 14 and 10 16 ions/cm 2, to simulate expected radiation induced modification on extraterrestrial carbon. The evolution of the samples is monitored using Raman spectroscopy, before, during, and after irradiation. A detailed analysis of the first- and second-order Raman spectra is performed, using a fitting combination of Lorentzian and/or Gaussian-shaped bands. Upon irradiation, the samples evolve toward an amorphous carbon phase. The results suggest that the observed variations are more related to vacancy formation than ionization processes. A comparison with Raman spectra of extraterrestrial organic matter and other irradiation experiments of astrophysically relevant carbonaceous materials is presented. The results are consistent with previous experiments showing mostly amorphization of various carbonaceous materials. Irradiated soots have Raman spectra similar to those of some meteorites, IDPs, and Comet Wild 2 grains collected by the Stardust mission. Since the early-Sun expected irradiation fluxes sufficient for amorphization are compatible with accretion timescales, our results support the idea that insoluble organic matter (IOM) observed in primitive meteorites has experienced irradiation-induced amorphization prior to the accretion of the parent bodies, emphasizing the important role played by early solar nebula processing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Tshedrin


    Full Text Available Purpose. The fears express, that «METI-projects», which testify to existence of mankind as technicalgeneous of a civilization for highly advanced ETC of a Galaxy, can have the extremely negative consequences, and «SETI-projects» and received radiosignals can become the information weapon aggressive ETC. The analysis of these fears as complete sociocultural of a phenomenon, them philosophical-anthropological of measurement, sociocultural of the basis, the forms of their display are the purpose of clause. Methodology. Author used the social-communicative approach, methods of system and cluster analyses. Scientific innovation. Are opened philosophical-anthropological of measurement of a problem of life extra-terrestrial intelligents (ETI, the factors of statement of a problem of contacts with ETC in the modern form connected with spacing of scientific and technical activity of mankind, influence of processes globalization on philosophical-anthropological aspects of a problem ETC, connected with changes in the fundamental relation «the Man - World» are investigated. These processes conduct to growth of fears concerning unpredictable intervention in terrestrial sociocultural system of alien reason. The persuasive fears, connected with possible consequences of contacts with ETC, take the form of hypotheses rather extra-terrestrial of artificial intelligence (ETAI as potential subject of space contact. The positive and negative scripts of dialogue with ETAI, problem «of high quality of a signal» and «SETI-hacker», connected with ETAI as by the subject of space dialogue are considered. Conclusions. The further development of a problem of search ETC and establishment of contacts with it will be connected, on the one hand to success in overcoming civilization of impasse, in which there was a mankind on a boundary ХХ – ХХI of centuries, and with another - deepening of revolution in cosmology, progress of observant astronomy, philosophical

  11. Media Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ašković


    Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.

  12. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah


    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  13. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  14. New Extraterrestrial Signature of the Insoluble Organic Matter of the Orgueil, Murchison and Tagish Lake Meteorites as Revealed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (United States)

    Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Derenne, S.; Robert, F.; Ciofini, I.


    EPR of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of three chondrites revealed heterogeneously spread radicals including diradicaloids. These features not observed in terrestrial kerogens appear as an extraterrestrial signature of the chondritic IOM.

  15. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...

  16. Investigations in space-related molecular biology. [cryo-electron microscopic and diffraction studies on terrestrial and extraterrestrial specimens (United States)

    Fernandez-Moran, H.; Pritzker, A. N.


    Improved instrumentation and preparation techniques for high resolution, high voltage cryo-electron microscopic and diffraction studies on terrestrial and extraterrestrial specimens are reported. Computer correlated ultrastructural and biochemical work on hydrated and dried cell membranes and related biological systems provided information on membrane organization, ice crystal formation and ordered water, RNA virus linked to cancer, lunar rock samples, and organometallic superconducting compounds. Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 specimens were analyzed

  17. Widening Perspectives: The Intellectual and Social Benefits of Astrobiology (Regardless of Whether Extraterrestrial Life is Discovered or Not)


    Crawford, Ian A.


    Astrobiology is usually defined as the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. As such it is inherently interdisciplinary and cannot help but engender a worldview infused by cosmic and evolutionary perspectives. Both these attributes of the study of astrobiology are, and will increasingly prove to be, beneficial to society regardless of whether extraterrestrial life is discovered or not.

  18. Widening perspectives: the intellectual and social benefits of astrobiology (regardless of whether extraterrestrial life is discovered or not) (United States)

    Crawford, I. A.


    Astrobiology is usually defined as the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in the Universe. As such it is inherently interdisciplinary and cannot help but engender a worldview infused by cosmic and evolutionary perspectives. Both these attributes of the study of astrobiology are, and will increasingly prove to be, beneficial to society regardless of whether extraterrestrial life is discovered or not.

  19. Detection of Extraterrestrial Civilizations via the Spectral Signature of Advanced Interstellar Spacecraft (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert


    This paper examines the possibility of detecting extraterrestrial civilizations by means of searching for the spectral signature of their interstellar transportation systems. The advantage of such an approach is that the characteristic power levels associated with interstellar transportation systems are many orders of magnitude greater than those required for communication, and so the signal strength may be much greater. Furthermore, unlike communication which is governed by a fairly arbitrary selection of technology and mutually agreed upon conventions, interstellar transportation systems are governed much more stringently by the laws of physics. For purposes of the present analysis we consider 4 methods of interstellar propulsion, the principles of which are fairly well understood. These are anti-matter rockets, fusion rockets, fission rockets, all of which can be used to either accelerate or decelerate a spacecraft, and magnetic sails, which can be used to decelerate a spacecraft by creating drag against the interstellar medium. The types of radiation emitted by each of these propulsion systems is described, and the signal strength for starships of a characteristic mass of 1 million tonnes traveling at speeds and acceleration levels characteristic of the various propulsion systems is estimated. It is shown that for the power level of ships considered, the high energy gamma radiation emitted by the anti-matter, fusion and fission propulsion systems would be undetectable at interstellar distances. Better opportunities for detection would be the bremsstrahlung radiation from the plasma confinement systems of fusion devices, which might be detectable at distances of about 1 light year, and visible light emitted from the radiators of anti-matter driven photon rocket, which might be detectable by the Hubble Space Telescope at a distance of several hundred light years provided the rocket nozzle is oriented towards the Earth. The most detectable form of starship

  20. An alternative origin for extraterrestrial biomolecules from the hot and ionized photosphere of the protosolar nebula. (United States)

    Bekaert, D. V.; Derenne, S.; Tissandier, L.; Marrocchi, Y.; Anquetil, C.; Marty, B.


    Organic matter (OM) synthesized from plasma experiments (so-called Nebulotron) can provide an insight into the processes of organosynthesis within the ionized gas phase of the protosolar nebula (PSN). Organic materials recovered from Nebulotron experiments have a record of success in reproducing key features of chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM), including the aromatic/aliphatic and soluble/insoluble ratios [1], the occurrence of D/H hot and cold spots [2], spectral features as well as elementary and isotopic patterns observed in trapped noble gases [3]. However, up until now little attention has been paid to the soluble fraction of the recovered OM (SOM). In this study, a high-vacuum plasma setting was designed to produce organic condensates from a CO-N2-H2 gas mixture reminiscent of the PSN. The chemical diversity of the synthetized SOM has been investigated by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Our results show that a large range of biomolecules detected in meteorites and comets could have been directly synthetized from the gas phase of the PSN under high ionization rates and temperatures > 800 K. Among other molecules, urea, formamide, glycerol, hydantoin, carboxylic acids, as well as amino acid and nucleobase derivatives are reported. While photochemical processing of interstellar icy grains or asteroidal aqueous alteration are often advocated for the origin of biomolecules in extraterrestrial samples, our results suggest that biomolecule production was also effective in the hot and ionized photosphere of the PSN. Interestingly, solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra of the Nebulotron IOM, indicates that they are very low in aromatics relative to extraterrestrial samples. Given that aromatic units in meteoritic IOM likely result from the cyclization/aromatization of aliphatic chains in the gas [1], Nebulotron-like aliphatic materials could represent the initial precursors of meteoritic OM [4]. These materials would be widespread in the

  1. The need for operating guidelines and a decision making framework applicable to the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; Randolph, Richard O.

    While formal principles have been adopted for the eventuality of detecting intelligent life in our galaxy (SETI Principles), no such guidelines exist for the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life within the solar system. Current scientifically based planetary protection policies for solar system exploration address how to undertake exploration, but do not provide clear guidance on what to do if and when life is detected. Considering that martian life could be detected under several different robotic and human exploration scenarios in the coming decades, it is appropriate to anticipate how detection of non-intelligent, microbial life could impact future exploration missions and activities, especially on Mars. This paper discusses a proposed set of interim guidelines based loosely on the SETI Principles and addresses issues extending from the time of discovery through future handling and treatment of extraterrestrial life on Mars or elsewhere. Based on an analysis of both scientific and ethical considerations, there is a clear need for developing operating protocols applicable at the time of discovery and a decision making framework that anticipates future missions and activities, both robotic and human. There is growing scientific confidence that the discovery of extraterrestrial life in some form is nearly inevitable. If and when life is discovered beyond Earth, non-scientific dimensions may strongly influence decisions about the nature and scope of future missions and activities. It is appropriate to encourage international discussion and consideration of the issues prior to an event of such historical significance.

  2. Measurement of microbial activity in soil by colorimetric observation of in situ dye reduction: an approach to detection of extraterrestrial life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting microbial life in extraterrestrial locations is a goal of space exploration because of ecological and health concerns about possible contamination of other planets with earthly organisms, and vice versa. Previously we suggested a method for life detection based on the fact that living entities require a continual input of energy accessed through coupled oxidations and reductions (an electron transport chain. We demonstrated using earthly soils that the identification of extracted components of electron transport chains is useful for remote detection of a chemical signature of life. The instrument package developed used supercritical carbon dioxide for soil extraction, followed by chromatography or electrophoresis to separate extracted compounds, with final detection by voltammetry and tandem mass-spectrometry. Results Here we used Earth-derived soils to develop a related life detection system based on direct observation of a biological redox signature. We measured the ability of soil microbial communities to reduce artificial electron acceptors. Living organisms in pure culture and those naturally found in soil were shown to reduce 2,3-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP and the tetrazolium dye 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT. Uninoculated or sterilized controls did not reduce the dyes. A soil from Antarctica that was determined by chemical signature and DNA analysis to be sterile also did not reduce the dyes. Conclusion Observation of dye reduction, supplemented with extraction and identification of only a few specific signature redox-active biochemicals such as porphyrins or quinones, provides a simplified means to detect a signature of life in the soils of other planets or their moons.

  3. Fluid-induced organic synthesis in the solar nebula recorded in extraterrestrial dust from meteorites. (United States)

    Vollmer, Christian; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Leitner, Jan; Busemann, Henner; Spring, Nicole H; Ramasse, Quentin M; Hoppe, Peter; Nittler, Larry R


    Isotopically anomalous carbonaceous grains in extraterrestrial samples represent the most pristine organics that were delivered to the early Earth. Here we report on gentle aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy investigations of eight (15)N-rich or D-rich organic grains within two carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrites and two interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) originating from comets. Organic matter in the IDP samples is less aromatic than that in the CR chondrites, and its functional group chemistry is mainly characterized by C-O bonding and aliphatic C. Organic grains in CR chondrites are associated with carbonates and elemental Ca, which originate either from aqueous fluids or possibly an indigenous organic source. One distinct grain from the CR chondrite NWA 852 exhibits a rim structure only visible in chemical maps. The outer part is nanoglobular in shape, highly aromatic, and enriched in anomalous nitrogen. Functional group chemistry of the inner part is similar to spectra from IDP organic grains and less aromatic with nitrogen below the detection limit. The boundary between these two areas is very sharp. The direct association of both IDP-like organic matter with dominant C-O bonding environments and nanoglobular organics with dominant aromatic and C-N functionality within one unique grain provides for the first time to our knowledge strong evidence for organic synthesis in the early solar system activated by an anomalous nitrogen-containing parent body fluid.

  4. Nuclear reactor closed Brayton cycle power conversion system optimization trends for extra-terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, T.L.; Baggenstoss, W.G.; Bons, R.


    Extra-terrestrial exploration and development missions of the next century will require reliable, low-mass power generation modules of 100 kW e and more. These modules will be required to support both fixed-base and manned rover/explorer power needs. Low insolation levels at and beyond Mars and long periods of darkness on the moon make solar conversion less desirable for surface missions. For these missions, a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled with a reactor heat source is a very attractive approach. The authors conducted parametric studies to assess optimized system design trends for nuclear-Brayton systems as a function of operating environment and user requirements. The inherent design flexibility of the closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system permits ready adaptation of the system to future design constraints. This paper describes a dramatic contrast between system designs requiring man-rated shielding. The paper also considers the ramification of using indigenous materials to provide reactor shielding for a fixed-base power source

  5. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency? (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan


    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  6. CENTAR code for extended nonlinear transient analysis of extraterrestrial reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassersharif, B.; Peer, J.S.; DeHart, M.D.


    Current interest in the application of nuclear reactor-driven power systems to space missions has generated a need for a systems simulation code to model and analyze space reactor systems; such a code has been initiated at Texas A and M, and the first version is nearing completion; release was anticipated in the fall of 1987. This code, named CENTAR (Code for Extended Nonlinear Transient Analysis of Extraterrestrial Reactor Systems), is designed specifically for space systems and is highly vectorizable. CENTAR is composed of several specialized modules. A fluids module is used to model fluid behavior throughout the system. A wall heat transfer module models the heat transfer characteristics of all walls, insulation, and structure around the system. A fuel element thermal analysis module is used to predict the temperature behavior and heat transfer characteristics of the reactor fuel rods. A kinetics module uses a six-group point kinetics formulation to model reactivity feedback and control and the ANS 5.1 decay-heat curve to model shutdown decay-heat production. A pump module models the behavior of thermoelectric-electromagnetic pumps, and a heat exchanger module models not only thermal effects in thermoelectric heat exchangers, but also predicts electrical power production for a given configuration. Finally, an accumulator module models coolant expansion/contraction accumulators

  7. If technological intelligent extraterrestrials exist, what biological traits are de rigueur (United States)

    Taylor, E. R.


    If extraterrestrials exist in the depths of cosmic space, and are capable of interstellar communications, even space flight, there is no requirement that they be humanoid in form. However, certain humanoid capabilities would be advantageous for tool fashioning and critical to operating space craft as well as functioning under the disparate extreme conditions under which they may be forced to operate. They would have to be "gas breathing". The reasonable assumption that life based upon the same elements as Earth life requiring water stems from the unique properties of water that no other similar low molecular weight nonmetal hydride offers. Only water offers the diversity of chemical properties and reactivity, including the existence of the three common physical states within a limited temperature range of service to life, avoiding the issues presented by any alternatives. They must, like us, possess a large, abstract-thinking brain, and probably possess at least all the fundamental senses that humankind possess. They would also be carbon-based life, using oxygen as the electron sink of their biochemistry for the reasons considered. They most likely are homeothermic as us, though they may not necessarily be mammalian as we are. Their biochemistry could differ some from ours, perhaps presenting contact hazards for both species as discussed.

  8. Teaching Planetary Science as Part of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Greenberg, Adam H.


    In Spring 2016 and 2017, UCLA offered a course titled "EPSS C179/279 - Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Theory and Applications". The course is designed for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students in the science, technical, engineering, and mathematical fields. Each year, students designed an observing sequence for the Green Bank telescope, observed known planetary systems remotely, wrote a sophisticated and modular data processing pipeline, analyzed the data, and presented their results. In 2016, 15 students participated in the course (9U, 5G; 11M, 3F) and observed 14 planetary systems in the Kepler field. In 2017, 17 students participated (15U, 2G; 10M, 7F) and observed 10 planetary systems in the Kepler field, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. In order to select suitable targets, students learned about planetary systems, planetary habitability, and planetary dynamics. In addition to planetary science fundamentals, students learned radio astronomy fundamentals, collaborative software development, signal processing techniques, and statistics. Evaluations indicate that the course is challenging but that students are eager to learn because of the engrossing nature of SETI. Students particularly value the teamwork approach, the observing experience, and working with their own data. The next offering of the course will be in Spring 2018. Additional information about our SETI work is available at

  9. Long-term lunar stations: Some ecological considerations (United States)

    Maguire, Bassett, Jr.; Scott, Kelly W.


    A major factor for long-term success of a lunar station is the ability to keep an agroecosystem functioning at a desirable, stable steady-state with ecological stability and reliability. Design for a long-lived extraterrestrial manned station must take into account interactions among its subsystems to insure that overall functionality is enhanced (or at least not compromised). Physical isolation of feed production, human living areas, recycling, and other systems may be straightforward, however, microbiological isolation will be very difficult. While it is possible to eliminate plant-associated microbiological communities by growing the plants asepticallly, it is not practical to keep plants germ-free on a large scale if humans are working with them. Ecological theory strongly suggests that some kinds of communities or organisms effectively increase the stability of ecosystems and will protect the plants from potential pathogens. A carefully designed and maintained (lunar-derived) soil can provide a variety of habitats for effective microbial buffers while adding structure to the agroecosystem. A soil can also increase ecosystem reliability through buffering otherwise large element and compound fluctuations (of nutrients, wastes, etc.) as well as buffering temperature level and atmosphere composition. We are doing experiments in ecological dynamics and attempting to extend the relevant theories.

  10. Extra-terrestrial igneous granites and related rocks: A review of their occurrence and petrogenesis (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard


    The telluric planets and the asteroid belt display the same internal structure with a metallic inner core and a silicate outer shell. Experimental data and petrological evidence in silicate systems show that granite can be produced by extreme igneous differentiation through various types of igneous processes. On Moon, 4.4-3.9 Ga granite clasts display dry mineral assemblages. They correspond to at least 8 discrete intrusive events. Large K/Ca enrichment and low REE abundances in granite relative to KREEP are consistent with silicate liquid immiscibility, a process observed in melt inclusions within olivine of lunar basalts and in lunar meteorites. Steep-sided domes identified by remote sensing can represent intrusive or extrusive felsic formations. On Mars, black-and-white rhythmic layers observed on the Tharsis rise along the flanks of the peripheral scarps of the Tharsis Montes giant volcanoes suggest the possible eruption of felsic pyroclastites. Though no true granites were found so far in the Martian SNC meteorites, felsic glasses and mesostases were identified and a component close to terrestrial continental (granitic) crust is inferred from trace element and isotope systematics. Venus has suffered extensive volcanic resurfacing, whereas folded and faulted areas resemble terrestrial continents. Near large shield volcanoes, with dominant basaltic compositions, steep-sided domes have been interpreted as non-degassed silicic extrusions. The hypothesis of a granitic component is "tantalising". Extra-terrestrial granite is frequently found as clasts and mesostases in asteroidal meteorites. Porphyritic textures, with alkali feldspar crystals up to several centimetres in size, were observed in silicate enclaves within iron meteorites. In the chondrite clan, polymict breccias can contain granitic clasts, whose provenance is debated. One clast from the Adzhi-Bogdo meteorite yields a 4.53 ± 0.03 Ga Pb-Pb age, making it the oldest known granite in the solar system. The

  11. Pieces of Other Worlds - Enhance YSS Education and Public Outreach Events with Extraterrestrial Samples (United States)

    Allen, C.


    During the Year of the Solar System spacecraft will encounter two comets; orbit the asteroid Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, is available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) curates NASA's extraterrestrial samples to support research, education, and public outreach. At the current time JSC curates five types of extraterrestrial samples: Moon rocks and soils collected by the Apollo astronauts Meteorites collected on US expeditions to Antarctica (including rocks from the Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta) “Cosmic dust” (asteroid and comet particles) collected by high-altitude aircraft Solar wind atoms collected by the Genesis spacecraft Comet and interstellar dust particles collected by the Stardust spacecraft These rocks, soils, dust particles, and atoms continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. He will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: Sets

  12. The high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS determined from ground-based solar irradiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gröbner


    Full Text Available A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been determined from ground-based measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance (SSI over the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm using the Langley-plot technique. The measurements were obtained at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre from the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Tenerife, Spain, during the period 12 to 24 September 2016. This solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS was combined from medium-resolution (bandpass of 0.86 nm measurements of the QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe spectroradiometer in the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm and high-resolution measurements (0.025 nm from a Fourier transform spectroradiometer (FTS over the wavelength range from 305 to 380 nm. The Kitt Peak solar flux atlas was used to extend this high-resolution solar spectrum to 500 nm. The expanded uncertainties of this solar spectrum are 2 % between 310 and 500 nm and 4 % at 300 nm. The comparison of this solar spectrum with solar spectra measured in space (top of the atmosphere gave very good agreements in some cases, while in some other cases discrepancies of up to 5 % were observed. The QASUMEFTS solar spectrum represents a benchmark dataset with uncertainties lower than anything previously published. The metrological traceability of the measurements to the International System of Units (SI is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations leading to the primary spectral irradiance standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany.

  13. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate (United States)

    Duner, David


    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  14. The limits of extremophilic life expanded under extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments (United States)

    Lage, C.; Dalmaso, G.; Teixeira, L.; Bendia, A.; Rosado, A.


    Astrobiology is a brand new area of science that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the universe. Several hypotheses to explain life in the cosmic context have been developed throughout human history, but only now technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are found universally. As these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still a challenge to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years-old solar system was born within a 10-billion years-old universe. Thus, simple cells like microorganisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or other suitable molecular places in the universe. One hypothesis to explain the origin of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the universe billions of years ago, traveling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets like ours. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile microorganisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is ongoing at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics to test whether microbial life could withstand those inhospitable environments. Ultra-resistant (known or novel ones) microorganisms collected from terrestrial extreme environments, extremophiles, have been exposed to intense radiation sources simulating solar radiation (at synchrotron accelerators), capable of emitting in a few hours radiation equivalent of million years accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal the interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingay, S. J.; Tremblay, C.; Walsh, A.; Urquhart, R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia)


    A spectral line image cube generated from 115 minutes of MWA data that covers a field of view of 400 sq, deg. around the Galactic Center is used to perform the first Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Our work constitutes the first modern SETI experiment at low radio frequencies, here between 103 and 133 MHz, paving the way for large-scale searches with the MWA and, in the future, the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array. Limits of a few hundred mJy beam{sup −1} for narrowband emission (10 kHz) are derived from our data, across our 400 sq. deg. field of view. Within this field, 45 exoplanets in 38 planetary systems are known. We extract spectra at the locations of these systems from our image cube to place limits on the presence of narrow line emission from these systems. We then derive minimum isotropic transmitter powers for these exoplanets; a small handful of the closest objects (10 s of pc) yield our best limits of order 10{sup 14} W (Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power). These limits lie above the highest power directional transmitters near these frequencies currently operational on Earth. A SETI experiment with the MWA covering the full accessible sky and its full frequency range would require approximately one month of observing time. The MWA frequency range, its southern hemisphere location on an extraordinarily radio quiet site, its very large field of view, and its high sensitivity make it a unique facility for SETI.

  16. Accretion rate of extraterrestrial {sup 41}Ca in Antarctic snow samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J.M., E-mail: [Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Physik, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bishop, S.; Faestermann, T.; Famulok, N.; Fimiani, L.; Hain, K.; Jahn, S.; Korschinek, G.; Ludwig, P. [Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Physik, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rodrigues, D. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina)


    Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small grains, generally less than a few hundred micrometers in size. Their main source is the Asteroid Belt, located at 3 AU from the Sun, between Mars and Jupiter. During their flight from the Asteroid Belt to the Earth they are irradiated by galactic and solar cosmic rays (GCR and SCR), thus radionuclides are formed, like {sup 41}Ca and {sup 53}Mn. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca (T{sub 1/2} = 1.03 × 10{sup 5} yr) can be used as a key tracer to determine the accretion rate of IDPs onto the Earth because there are no significant terrestrial sources for this radionuclide. The first step of this study consisted to calculate the production rate of {sup 41}Ca in IDPs accreted by the Earth during their travel from the Asteroid Belt. This production rate, used in accordance with the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratios that will be measured in snow samples from the Antarctica will be used to calculate the amount of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth per year. There challenges for this project are, at first, the much longer time for the flight needed by the IDPs to travel from the Asteroid Belt to the Earth in comparison with the {sup 41}Ca half-life yields an early saturation for the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratio, and second, the importance of selecting the correct sampling site to avoid a high influx of natural {sup 40}Ca, preventing dilution of the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratio, the quantity measured by AMS.

  17. Improving ROLO lunar albedo model using PLEIADES-HR satellites extra-terrestrial observations (United States)

    Meygret, Aimé; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Colzy, Stéphane; Gross-Colzy, Lydwine


    The accurate on orbit radiometric calibration of optical sensors has become a challenge for space agencies which have developed different technics involving on-board calibration systems, ground targets or extra-terrestrial targets. The combination of different approaches and targets is recommended whenever possible and necessary to reach or demonstrate a high accuracy. Among these calibration targets, the moon is widely used through the well-known ROLO (RObotic Lunar Observatory) model developed by USGS. A great and worldwide recognized work was done to characterize the moon albedo which is very stable. However the more and more demanding needs for calibration accuracy have reached the limitations of the model. This paper deals with two mains limitations: the residual error when modelling the phase angle dependency and the absolute accuracy of the model which is no more acceptable for the on orbit calibration of radiometers. Thanks to PLEIADES high resolution satellites agility, a significant data base of moon and stars images was acquired, allowing to show the limitations of ROLO model and to characterize the errors. The phase angle residual dependency is modelled using PLEIADES 1B images acquired for different quasi-complete moon cycles with a phase angle varying by less than 1°. The absolute albedo residual error is modelled using PLEIADES 1A images taken over stars and the moon. The accurate knowledge of the stars spectral irradiance is transferred to the moon spectral albedo using the satellite as a transfer radiometer. This paper describes the data set used, the ROLO model residual errors and their modelling, the quality of the proposed correction and show some calibration results using this improved model.

  18. Surface biosignatures of exo-earths: remote detection of extraterrestrial life. (United States)

    Hegde, Siddharth; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G; Kent, Ryan; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Rothschild, Lynn


    Exoplanet discovery has made remarkable progress, with the first rocky planets having been detected in the central star's liquid water habitable zone. The remote sensing techniques used to characterize such planets for potential habitability and life rely solely on our understanding of life on Earth. The vegetation red edge from terrestrial land plants is often used as a direct signature of life, but it occupies only a small niche in the environmental parameter space that binds life on present-day Earth and has been widespread for only about 460 My. To more fully exploit the diversity of the one example of life known, we measured the spectral characteristics of 137 microorganisms containing a range of pigments, including ones isolated from Earth's most extreme environments. Our database covers the visible and near-infrared to the short-wavelength infrared (0.35-2.5 µm) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and is made freely available from Our results show how the reflectance properties are dominated by the absorption of light by pigments in the visible portion and by strong absorptions by the cellular water of hydration in the infrared (up to 2.5 µm) portion of the spectrum. Our spectral library provides a broader and more realistic guide based on Earth life for the search for surface features of extraterrestrial life. The library, when used as inputs for modeling disk-integrated spectra of exoplanets, in preparation for the next generation of space- and ground-based instruments, will increase the chances of detecting life.

  19. Inhabited or Uninhabited? Pitfalls in the Interpretation of Possible Chemical Signatures of Extraterrestrial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Fox


    Full Text Available The “Rare Earth” hypothesis—put forward by Ward and Brownlee in their 2000 book of the same title—states that prokaryote-type organisms may be common in the universe but animals and higher plants are exceedingly rare. If this idea is correct, the search for extraterrestrial life is essentially the search for microorganisms. Various indicators may be used to detect extant or extinct microbial life beyond Earth. Among them are chemical biosignatures, such as biomolecules and stable isotope ratios. The present minireview focuses on the major problems associated with the identification of chemical biosignatures. Two main types of misinterpretation are distinguished, namely false positive and false negative results. The former can be caused by terrestrial biogenic contaminants or by abiotic products. Terrestrial contamination is a common problem in space missions that search for biosignatures on other planets and moons. Abiotic organics can lead to false positive results if erroneously interpreted as biomolecules, but also to false negatives, for example when an abiotic source obscures a less productive biological one. In principle, all types of putative chemical biosignatures are prone to misinterpretation. Some, however, are more reliable (“stronger” than others. These include: (i homochiral polymers of defined length and sequence, comparable to proteins and polynucleotides; (ii enantiopure compounds; (iii the existence of only a subset of molecules when abiotic syntheses would produce a continuous range of molecules; the proteinogenic amino acids constitute such a subset. These considerations are particularly important for life detection missions to solar system bodies such as Mars, Europa, and Enceladus.

  20. The Case for the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event: Mammoth, Megafauna and Clovis Extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.


    The onset of >1000 years of Younger Dryas cooling, broad-scale extinctions, and the disappearance of the Clovis culture in North America simultaneously occurred 12,900 years ago followed immediately by the appearance of a carbon-rich black layer at many locations. In situ bones of extinct megafauna and Clovis tools occur only beneath this black layer and not within or above it. At the base of the black mat at 9 Clovis-age sites in North America and a site in Belgium numerous extraterrestrial impact markers were found including magnetic grains highly enriched in iridium, magnetic microspherules, vesicular carbon spherules enriched in cubic, hexagonal, and n-type nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon containing Fullerenes and nanodiamonds, charcoal, soot, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The same impact markers were found mixed throughout the sediments of 15 Carolina Bays, elliptical depressions along the Atlantic coast, whose parallel major axes point towards either the Great Lakes or Hudson Bay. The magnetic grains and spherules have an unusual Fe/Ti composition similar to lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane and the organic constituents are enriched in 14C leading to radiocarbon dates often well into the future. These characteristics are inconsistent with known meteorites and suggest that the impact was by a previous unobserved, possibly extrasolar body. The concentration of impact markers peaks near the Great Lakes and their unusually high water content suggests that a 4.6 km-wide comet fragmented and exploded over the Laurentide Ice Sheet creating numerous craters that now persist at the bottom of the Great Lakes. The coincidence of this impact, the onset of Younger Dryas cooling, extinction of the megafauna, and the appearance of a black mat strongly suggests that all these events are directly related. These results have unleashed an avalanche of controversy which I will address in this paper.

  1. The gain of single-axis tracked panel according to extraterrestrial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.


    In the present study, the gain in extraterrestrial radiation received by a single-axis tracked panel relative to a fixed panel was systematically analyzed over a specific period of time. The dynamic angle that the tracked panel should rotate by in order to follow the sun was derived through a series of spherical trigonometric procedures. The instantaneous incident angle of sunlight upon the panel was then calculated, assuming that the panel would simultaneously follow the sun's position. Thus, instantaneous increments of solar energy received by the tracked panel relative to the fixed panel are originally presented. The results show that the angle the tracked panel has to rotate by is 0 deg. at solar noon, and increases towards dawn or dusk. The incident angle of sunlight upon the tracked panel is always smaller than that upon the fixed panel, except at solar noon. As for panels installed with a yearly optimal tilt angle in Taipei, the gains are between 36.3% and 62.1% for four particular days of year, between 37.8% and 60.8% for the four seasons and 49.3% over the entire year. The amount of radiation collected by the tracked panel is enhanced as the maximum rotation angle is increased. The irradiation ratio of the tracked panel to the fixed panel is close to 1.5 for latitudes below 65 deg. and gradually increases for latitudes above this. The yearly optimal tilt angle of a south-facing fixed panel is approximately equal to 0.9 multiplied by the latitude (i.e. 0.9 x φ) for latitudes below 65 deg. and is about 56 + 0.4 x (φ - 65) otherwise

  2. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  3. Taoism and Deep Ecology. (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David


    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  4. Information Assurance Cyber Ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Jane


    .... The goals of the Cyber Ecology project were to: (1) enable and demonstrate the discovery of noel IA technologies for the detection and mitigation of damage due to cyber attack through the application of ecological models, (2...

  5. Forest Fire Ecology. (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others


    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  6. Structural Response of the Earth's Crust to an Extra-Terrestrial Source of Stress by Identifying its Characteristic Pattern (United States)

    Dasgupta, B.


    The earth's crust is a geodynamic realm, which is constantly evolving. Due to its dynamic nature, the crust is constantly being subjected to remodelling. The earth's crustal response to stress is a result of isostatic compensation. The crust is also a living proof of yesteryears' dynamics. Extra-terrestrial agents of deformation refers to meteorites, asteroids etc. These are catastrophic events that influence a larger area (considering larger impact bodies). They effect the crust from outside, hence leave behind very specific structural signatures.Consider an extra-terrestrial object impacting the earth's crust. The problem can be broken down into 3 parts: Pre Impact (kinematics of the object and nature of surface of impact); Syn Impact (dissipation of energy and formation of crater); and Post Impact (structural response, geophysical anomalies and effect on biota)Upon impact, the projectile penetrates the earth's crust to a depth of twice its diameter. Shock waves generated due impact propagate in all possible directions. The reflected waves cause complete melting and vaporization of the impact body. At the same time, increased internal energy of the system melts the target rock. Depending on the thickness and density of crustal matter, its' interaction with the mantle is determined. Data collection from such impact sites is the first step towards its theoretical modeling. Integrating geophysical (seismic, magnetic), paleomagnetic, geochemical and geo-chronological data one can determine the kinematic parameters that governed the event. A working model that illustrates the crustal responses to extraterrestrial stress of extreme magnitude cannot be qualitative. Hence the most fundamental thing at this point is quantification of these parameters. The variables form a `mass-energy equation', a simple theorem in Classical Physics. This project is directed to give the equation its shape. The equation will be the foundation on which the simulation model will rest. Mass

  7. Quantification of ecological debt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alier, Joan


    The discussion about ecological debt is important keeping in mind historical foreign trade, where natural resources exploitation and primary production exported didn't assessment the ecological damage or the environmental values of the interchange. This essay shows the debate of ecological debt on greenhouse emission, enterprise environmental debit, unequal international trade, toxic waste export, and b io piracy ; in order to present the necessity of a new ecological and equitable world economy

  8. On the Search for the Amino Acids on the Lunar Surface as it Relates to Other Extraterrestrial Bodies (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Kolb, Vera M.


    The early search for the amino acids on the lunar surface fines indicated such a low amount of the amino acids that it was deemed insignifi cant. While the later studies seemed to depart in some ways from the earlier results, they were not pursued. In this paper we critically ev aluate the results from the Apollo missions from the new perspective with considerations of the sensitivity of the instrumentation availabl e at the time. We discuss the possible relevance of the lunar results to the findings of the amino acids on the surfaces of other extraterrestrial bodies, such as Mars.

  9. Ecological restoration [book review (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson


    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  10. Ion exchange substrates for plant cultivation in extraterrestrial stations and space crafts (United States)

    Soldatov, Vladimir


    Ion exchange substrates Biona were specially designed at the Belarus Academy of Sciences for plants cultivation in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial stations. The first versions of such substrates have been successfully used in several space experiments and in a long-term experiment in which three soviet test-spacemen spent a full year in hermetic cabin imitating a lunar station cabin (1067-1968). In this experiment the life support system included a section with about one ton of the ion exchange substrate, which was used to grow ten vegetations of different green cultures used in the food of the test persons. Due to failure of a number of Soviet space experiments, decay of the Soviet Union and the following economic crisis the research in this field carried out in Belarus were re-directed to the needs of usual agriculture, such as adaptation of cell cultures, growing seedlings, rootage of cuttings etc. At present ion exchange substrate Biona are produced in limited amounts at the experimental production plant of the Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry and used in a number of agricultural enterprises. New advanced substrates and technologies for their production have been developed during that time. In the presentation scientific principles of preparation and functioning of ion exchange substrates as well as results of their application for cultivation different plants are described. The ion exchange substrate is a mixture of cation and anion exchangers saturated in a certain proportions with all ions of macro and micro elements. These chemically bound ions are not released to water and become available for plants in exchange to their root metabolites. The substrates contain about 5% mass of nutrient elements far exceeding any other nutrient media for plants. They allow generating 3-5 kg of green biomass per kilogram of substrate without adding any fertilizers; they are sterile by the way of production and can be sterilized by usual methods; allow regeneration

  11. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.


    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  12. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A


    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  13. The search for extraterrestrial life: Recent developments; Proceedings of the Symposium, Boston University, MA, June 18-21, 1984 (United States)

    Papagiannis, M. D.

    The conference presents papers on the history of the search for extraterrestrial life, the scientific rationale and methods used in the search for other planetary systems, the detection of distant planets with the Space Telescope, planetary searches using optical astrometric interferometers, and infrared spectral identification of complex organic molecules in interstellar grains. Also considered are universal protein ancestors from hydrogen cyanide and water, astronomical sources of polarized light and their role in determining molecular chirality on earth, the universal diagrams and life in the universe, the precambrian evolution of terrestrial life and a thermodynamic approach to the occurrance and appearance of galactic life forms. Papers are also presented on the Ohio Seti program, lunar reflections of terrestrial radio leakage, the multichannel spectrum analyzer, software implementation of detection algorithms for the MCSA, the Serendip II design, galactic colonization and competition in a young galactic disk, implications of ancient and future migrations, extraterrestrial intelligence, the inevitability and the possible structures of supercivilizations, planetary, interplanetary and interstellar organic matter, and universal aspects of biological evolution.

  14. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity & Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J.


    One of the performance goals for NASA's enterprise of Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) is to develop methods, data bases, and validating tests for material flammability characterization, hazard reduction, and fire detection/suppression strategies for spacecraft and extraterrestrial habitats. This work addresses these needs by applying the fundamental knowledge gained from low stretch experiments to the development of a normal gravity low stretch material flammability test method. The concept of the apparatus being developed uses the low stretch geometry to simulate the conditions of the extraterrestrial environment through proper scaling of the sample dimensions to reduce the buoyant stretch in normal gravity. The apparatus uses controlled forced-air flow to augment the low stretch to levels which simulate Lunar or Martian gravity levels. In addition, the effect of imposed radiant heat flux on material flammability can be studied with the cone heater. After breadboard testing, the apparatus will be integrated into NASA's White Sands Test Facility's Atmosphere-Controlled Cone Calorimeter for evaluation as a new materials screening test method.

  15. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Povich, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States); Mullan, B. [Blue Marble Space Institution of Science, P.O. Box 85561, Seattle, WA 98145-1561 (United States)


    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  16. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.; Mullan, B.


    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  17. Christianity's Response to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life: Insights from Science and Religion and the Sociology of Religion (United States)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    The question of whether or not extraterrestrial life exists and its potential impact for religions, especially Christianity, is an ancient one addressed in numerous historical publications. The contemporary discussion has been dominated by a few notable scientists from the SETI and astrobiology communities, and by a few Christian theologians active in the science and religion field. This discussion amounts to scientists outside of the faith tradition predicting the demise of Christianity if extraterrestrial intelligent life is discovered and theologians within the tradition predicting the enrichment and reformulation of Christian doctrine. Missing from this discussion is insight drawn more broadly from the science and religion field and from the sociology of religion. A consideration of how possibilities for relating science and religion are reflected in the US public's varied acceptance of the theory of evolution; the growth of Christianity in the Global South; and a revised theory of secularization which inversely correlates religiosity to existential security, gives credence to the proposal that the response from those outside of academia would be much more varied and uncertain.

  18. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. II. Framework, Strategy, and First Result (United States)

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.; Mullan, B.


    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited "free" energy generation.

  19. Using ecological production functions to link ecological ... (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively little attention. Ecological production functions may be defined as usable expressions (i.e., models) of the processes by which ecosystems produce ES, often including external influences on those processes. We identify key attributes of EPFs and discuss both actual and idealized examples of their use to inform decision making. Whenever possible, EPFs should estimate final, rather than intermediate, ES. Although various types of EPFs have been developed, we suggest that EPFs are more useful for decision making if they quantify ES outcomes, respond to ecosystem condition, respond to stressor levels or management scenarios, reflect ecological complexity, rely on data with broad coverage, have performed well previously, are practical to use, and are open and transparent. In an example using pesticides, we illustrate how EPFs with these attributes could enable the inclusion of ES in ecological risk assessment. The biggest challenges to ES inclusion are limited data sets that are easily adapted for use in modeling EPFs and generally poor understanding of linkages among ecological components and the processes that ultimately deliver the ES. We conclude by advocating for the incorporation into E

  20. Sampling the Radio Transient Universe: Studies of Pulsars and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (United States)

    Chennamangalam, Jayanth

    The transient radio universe is a relatively unexplored area of astronomy, offering a variety of phenomena, from solar and Jovian bursts, to flare stars, pulsars, and bursts of Galactic and potentially even cosmological origin. Among these, perhaps the most widely studied radio transients, pulsars are fast-spinning neutron stars that emit radio beams from their magnetic poles. In spite of over 40 years of research on pulsars, we have more questions than answers on these exotic compact objects, chief among them the nature of their emission mechanism. Nevertheless, the wealth of phenomena exhibited by pulsars make them one of the most useful astrophysical tools. With their high densities, pulsars are probes of the nature of ultra-dense matter. Characterized by their high timing stability, pulsars can be used to verify the predictions of general relativity, discover planets around them, study bodies in the solar system, and even serve as an interplanetary (and possibly some day, interstellar) navigation aid. Pulsars are also used to study the nature of the interstellar medium, much like a flashlight illuminating airborne dust in a dark room. Studies of pulsars in the Galactic center can help answer questions about the massive black hole in the region and the star formation history in its vicinity. Millisecond pulsars in globular clusters are long-lived tracers of their progenitors, low-mass X-ray binaries, and can be used to study the dynamical history of those clusters. Another source of interest in radio transient astronomy is the hitherto undetected engineered signal from extraterrestrial intelligence. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is an ongoing attempt at discovering the presence of technological life elsewhere in the Galaxy. In this work, I present my forays into two aspects of the study of the radio transient universe---pulsars and SETI. Firstly, I describe my work on the luminosity function and population size of pulsars in the globular

  1. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  2. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas


    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  3. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiblanco R, Carmenza


    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  4. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted


    We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where...... artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....

  5. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)


    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  6. Chemical ecology of fungi. (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter


    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  7. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life (United States)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.


    Bacteria such as the aerobic Salinibacter ruber and the anaerobic members of the Halanaerobiales) use KCl to provide the necessary osmotic balance. Some of these extreme halophiles possess light-driven proton pumps (bacteriorhodopsin, xanthorhodopsin) and chloride pumps (halorhodopsin) that enable them to use photons to drive energetically expensive reactions (Oren, 2002; Oren, 2008). Extremophiles can serve as models for extraterrestrial microbes that may live in celestial bodies. The most promising among these to contain habitable areas are Mars (where the Phoenix Lander recently discovered water) and the Jovian satellite Europa; also Titan (the moon of Saturn) has some features that resemble those that may have existed on Earth during its earliest stages. From the characteristics of extremophilic microorganisms found on the present-day Earth, we can derive some insights on the question of habitability of other planets, and learn about possible bioindicators that may be suitable when searching for extraterrestrial life (Seckbach and Chela-Flores, 2007). Compounds such as methane on Mars or traces of sulfur on Jupiter's moon Europa may have been of biogenic origin and may possibly have been endogenic (Chela-Flores, 2006; Chela-Flores and Kumar, 2008). Biogeochemical tests have been proposed for missions that are in the planning stages, such as LAPLACE (Blanc et al., 2008), a mission to Europa and the Jupiter system by ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The finding of elemental sulfur on Europa may be of special interest. One possibility is that such traces of sulfur might have originated from the metabolism of extremophilic sulfurreducing microorganisms. Radiation may damage traces of biogenic sulfur deposited on the surface. The stopping depth for ionic radiation in the Jovian magnetosphere is expected not to exceed 1 cm (Greenberg, 2005; Dudeja et al., 2008). Thus, organic molecules would not be destroyed below such a thin layer. Based on to the preliminary results of the

  8. Compound specific stable isotopes as probes for distinguishing the sources of biomolecules in terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials (United States)

    Engel, M. H.; Macko, S. A.


    Life on Earth consists of orderly arrangements of several key types of organic compounds (amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, nucleic bases) that are the building blocks of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleotides. Subsequent to death, macromolecules are commonly broken down to their molecular constituents or other similar scale components. Thus, in ancient terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials, it is far more likely to expect the presence of simple compounds such as amino acids rather than the proteins from which they were possibly derived. Given that amino acids, for example, are common components of all extinct and extant organisms, the challenge has been to develop methods for distinguishing their sources. Stable isotopes are powerful probes for determining the origins of organic matter. Amino acid constituents of all organisms on Earth exhibit characteristic stable isotope compositions owing to fractionations associated with their biosynthesis. These fractionations are distinct from those observed for amino acids formed by abiotic processes. Thus it should be possible to use isotopes as probes for determining whether amino acids in ancient rocks on Earth are biotic or abiotic, based on their relative isotopic compositions. Also, owing to differences in the isotope compositions of precursors, amino acids in extraterrestrial materials such as carbonaceous meteorites are moderately to substantially enriched in the heavy isotopes of C, N and H relative to terrestrial amino acids. Assuming that the isotope compositions of the gaseous components of, for example, the Martian atmosphere were distinct from Earth at such time when organic molecules may have formed, it should be possible to distinguish these components from terrestrial contaminants by determining their isotope compositions and/or those of their respective enantiomers. Also, if life as we know it existed on another planet such as Mars, fractionations characteristic of biosynthesis should be

  9. Ecological analyses and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.


    Progress is reported on the following: analysis of ecological impacts of construction and operation of nuclear power plants; fossil energy environmental project; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; HUD modular integrated utility systems; expansion of uranium enrichment facilities at Portsmouth; environmental standard review plans; environmental assessment of cooling reservoirs; and analysis of fish impingement at power plants in the southeastern United States

  10. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.


    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  11. Ecological analyses and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroodsma, R.L.; Craig, R.B.; Hildebrand, S.G.


    Progress is reported on the following: assessment of nuclear power plants; ecological analysis of uranium mining, milling, and fuel fabrication; environmental impact statements concerning uranium enrichment facilities; site evaluations for storage of radioactive wastes; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; enhanced oil recovery; environmental monitoring plan for modular integrated utility systems; and fossil energy environmental project

  12. Terrestrial Ecology Guide. (United States)

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  13. Children's Ecology Books. (United States)

    Lussenhop, Martha

    Selected for this listing of children's books are fiction and non-fiction books which add to an understanding of ecology, broadly considered here as the study of the interrelationships of organisms to each other and their environment. General ecology, natural resources, man and his environment, evolution and adaptation, appreciation, survival,…

  14. Deep-sea spherules from Pacific clay - Mass distribution and influx rate. [extraterrestrial origins from optical and electron microscopy (United States)

    Murrell, M. T.; Davis, P. A., Jr.; Nishiizumi, K.; Millard, H. T., Jr.


    From 411 kg of Pacific clay, 22 mg of stony spherules and 50 mg of iron spherules larger than 150 microns were concentrated. The extraterrestrial origin of these particles was evaluated with the aid of optical and electron microscopy and atomic absorption elemental analysis. An expression for the integral number of stony particles from this sediment in the mass range 20-300 micrograms was derived. The world-wide influx rate of stony particles in the mass range which survive atmospheric heating and ocean sediment storage is calculated to be 90 tons/yr. The relative contributions of ablation debris vs fused interplanetary dust to the influx of stony spherules is discussed, but no conclusions could be made.

  15. Predictive systems ecology. (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G


    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  16. Spatial ecology across scales. (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew


    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  17. What is dental ecology? (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L


    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Applied ecology: retrospect and prospect]. (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Zeng, Dehui


    Applied ecology is evolved into a principal part of modern ecology that rapidly develops. The major stimulus for the development of applied ecology roots in seeking the solutions for the problems of human populations, resources and environments. Through four decades, the science of applied ecology has been becoming a huge group of disciplines. The future for the applied ecology should concern more with human-influenced and managed ecosystems, and acknowledge humans as the components of ecosystems. Nowadays and in future, the top-priorities in applied ecology should include following fields: sustainable ecosystems and biosphere, ecosystem services and ecological design, ecological assessment of genetically modified organisms, ecology of biological invasions, epidemical ecology, ecological forecasting, ecological process and its control. The authors believe that the comprehensive and active research hotspots coupled some new traits would occur around these fields in foreseeable future.

  19. Education in ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, R.


    It is not enough to convey knowledge, insights and attitudes if education in ecology is to have fruitful effects. Space and opportunity for action and creativity must be provided in addition. This includes personal consumer habits (eating, transport, hygiene, leisure activities etc.); an individual workplace - in this case school - that can be shaped according to ecological needs. Beyond this, ecological maturation should not be confined to, but should transcend school, for instance in youth groups, citizens' committees, political parties. If school does not inspire action - including action outside school -then education in ecology could be smothered by the Midas effect, where all life is reduced to material, to the curriculum in this case. This book presents ecological projects that have been tried at schools. They aim at an education in ecology that is oriented to the pupil and open to experience. They could be an incentive for colleagues to conduct similar projects at their schools. The projects work from the pupils' own experience and aim at concrete action and activities in his or her own environment. They should encourage teachers to venture outside the classroom with the pupils and teach ecology where it takes place. (orig.) [de

  20. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  1. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie


    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  2. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  3. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars


    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  4. Ecological Provinces of Minnesota (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  5. Market Squid Ecology Dataset (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....

  6. Ecological risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartell, S.M.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.


    Ecological risk assessment, the process that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors, is being developed by the US EPA as a tool for decision making. This book presents one approach to risk assessment-that of applying laboratory toxicity data within an ecosystem model to predict the potential ecological consequences of toxic chemicals. Both Standard Water Column Model (SWACOM), using zooplankton and fish, and Monte Carlo simulations are discussed in detail, along with quantitative explanations for many responses. Simplifying assumptions are explicitly presented. The final chapter discusses strengths, weaknesses, and future directions of the approach. The book is appropriate for anyone who does or uses ecological risk assessment methodologies

  7. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  8. Ecological Sections of Minnesota (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  9. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard


    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  10. Energy of Extra-Terrestrial Civilizations according to Evo-SETI Theory (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio


    Consider two great scientists of the past: Kepler (1571-1630) and Newton (1642-1727). Kepler discovered his three laws of planetary motion by observing Mars: he knew experimentally that his three laws were correct, but he didn't even suspect that all three mathematical laws could be derived as purely mathematical consequences by a "superior" mathematical law. The latter was the Law of Gravitation that Newton gave the world together with his supreme mathematical discovery of the Calculus, necessary for that mathematical derivation. We think we did the same for the "molecular clock", the experimental law of genetics discovered in 1962 by Émile Zuckerkandl (1922-2013) and Linus Pauling (1901-1994) and derived by us as a purely mathematical consequence of our mathematical Evo-SETI Theory. Let us now summarize how this mathematical derivation was achieved. Darwinian evolution over the last 3.5 billion years was an increase in the number of living species from one (RNA ?) to the current (say) 50 million. This increasing trend in time looks like being exponential, but one may not assume an exact exponential curve since many species went extinct in the past, especially in the five, big mass extinctions. Thus, the simple exponential curve must be replaced by a stochastic process having an exponential mean value. Borrowing from financial mathematics (the "Black-Sholes models"), this "exponential" stochastic process is called Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). Its probability density function (pdf) is a lognormal (and not a Gaussian) (Proof: see Ref. [3], Chapter 30, and Ref. [4], and, more in general, refs. [2] and [5]). Lognormal also is the pdf of the statistical number of communicating ExtraTerrestrial (ET) civilizations in the Galaxy at a certain fixed time, like a snapshot: this result was obtained in 2008 by this author as his solution to the Statistical Drake Equation of SETI (Proof: see Ref. [1]). Thus, the GBM of Darwinian evolution may also be regarded as the

  11. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu


    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  12. Biosemiotics and ecological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio


    of the qualitative and relational aspects that can only be grasped by considering the semiotic networks operative in complex ecological and cultural systems. In this paper, it is suggested that a biosemiotic approach to ecology may prove useful for the modelling process, which in turn will allow the construction...... of meaningful monitoring systems. It is also contended that a biosemiotic approach may also serve to better integrate our understanding and monitoring of ecosystems into the cultural process of searching for (human) sustainability....

  13. Sraffa and ecological economics


    Verger, Yoann


    References to Sraffa and to the neo-Ricardian school is something quite customary in ecological economics. By looking at contributions in this area since the beginning of ecological economics and at contributions on environmental problem from the neo-Ricardian school, we see that a connection between both school still has to be made. This connection should be articulated around the initial aim of Sraffa: to develop a new paradigm, competing against the neoclassical one. Only then it will be p...

  14. Translational ecology for hydrogeology. (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H


    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  15. If the universe is teeming with aliens where is everybody? fifty solutions to the Fermi paradox and the problem of extraterrestrial life

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen


    Given the fact that there are perhaps 400 million stars in our Galaxy alone, and perhaps 400 million galaxies in the Universe, it stands to reason that somewhere out there, in the 14-billion-year-old cosmos, there is or once was a civilization at least as advanced as our own. The sheer enormities of the numbers almost demand that we accept the truth of this hypothesis. Why, then, have we encountered no evidence, no messages, no artifacts of these extraterrestrials? Webb discusses in detail the 50 most cogent and intriguing solutions to Fermi's famous paradox: If the numbers strongly point to the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, why have we found no evidence of them?

  16. If the Universe is teeming with aliens... where is everybody? seventy-five solutions to the Fermi paradox and the problem of extraterrestrial life

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen


    Given the fact that there are perhaps 400 billion stars in our Galaxy alone, and perhaps 400 billion galaxies in the Universe, it stands to reason that somewhere out there, in the 14-billion-year-old cosmos, there is or once was a civilization at least as advanced as our own. The sheer enormity of the numbers almost demands that we accept the truth of this hypothesis. Why, then, have we encountered no evidence, no messages, no artifacts of these extraterrestrials? In this second, significantly revised and expanded edition of his widely popular book, Webb discusses in detail the (for now!) 75 most cogent and intriguing solutions to Fermi's famous paradox: If the numbers strongly point to the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, why have we found no evidence of them?

  17. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boomen, R.; Chaudhuri, N.; Heeb, J.; Jenssen, P.; Kalin, M.; Schönborn, A.; Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.


    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological

  18. Flash pyrolysis of adsorbed aromatic organic acids on carbonate minerals: Assessing the impact of mineralogy for the identification of organic compounds in extraterrestrial bodies (United States)

    Zafar, R.


    The relationship between minerals and organics is an essential factor in comprehending the origin of life on extraterrestrial bodies. So far organic molecules have been detected on meteorites, comets, interstellar medium and interplanetary dust particles. While on Mars, organic molecules may also be present as indicated by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Curiosity Rover in Martian sediments. Minerals including hydrated phyllosilicate, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have been confirmed in carbonaceous chondrites. The presence of phyllosilicate minerals on Mars has been indicated by in situ elemental analysis by the Viking Landers, remote sensing infrared observations and the presence of smectites in meteorites. Likewise, the presence of carbonate minerals on the surface of Mars has been indicated by both Phoenix Lander and Spirit Rover. Considering the fact that both mineral and organic matter are present on the surface of extraterrestrial bodies including Mars, a comprehensive work is required to understand the interaction of minerals with specific organic compounds. The adsorption of the organic molecule at water/mineral surface is a key process of concentrating organic molecules on the surface of minerals. Carboxylic acids are abundantly observed in extraterrestrial material such as meteorites and interstellar space. It is highly suspected that carboxylic acids are also present on Mars due to the average organic carbon infall rate of 108 kg/yr. Further aromatic organic acids have also been observed in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. This work presents the adsorption of an aromatic carboxylic acid at the water/calcite interface and characterization of the products formed after adsorption via on-line pyrolysis. Adsorption and online pyrolysis results are used to gain insight into adsorbed aromatic organic acid-calcite interaction. Adsorption and online pyrolysis results are related to the interpretation of organic compounds identified

  19. [Engineering issues of microbial ecology in space agriculture]. (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Yoji; Oshima, Tairo


    how to conduct preventive maintenance for keeping cultivating soil healthy and productive. 3) Does microbial ecology contribute to building sustainable and expandable human habitation by utilizing the on site extraterrestrial resources? We are assessing technical feasibility of converting regolith to farming soil and structural materials for space agriculture. In the case of Mars habitation, carbon dioxide and a trace amount of nitrogen in atmosphere, and potassium and phosphor in minerals are the sources we consider. Excess oxygen can be accumulated by woods cultivation and their use for lumber. 4) Is the operation of space agriculture robust and safe, if it adopts hyper-thermophilic aerobic microbial ecology? Any ecological system is complex and non-linear, and shows latency and memory effects in its response. It is highly important to understand those features to design and operate space agriculture without falling into the fatal failure. Assessment should be made on the microbial safety and preparation of the preventive measures to eliminate negative elements that would either retard agricultural production or harm the healthy environment. It is worth to mention that such space agriculture would be an effective engineering testbed to solve the global problem on energy and environment. Mars and Moon exploration itself is a good advocate of healthy curiosity expressed by the sustainable civilization of our humankind. We propose to work together towards Mars and Moon with microbial ecology to assure pleasant habitation there.

  20. Deep ice and salty oceans of icy worlds, how high pressures influence their thermodynamics and provide constrains on extraterrestrial habitability (United States)

    Journaux, B.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Abramson, E.


    As in Earth arctic and Antarctic regions, suspected extraterrestrial deep oceans in icy worlds (i.e. icy moons and water-rich exoplanets) chemistry and thermodynamic state will strongly depend on their equilibrium with H2O ice and present solutes. Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 salt species are currently the main suspected ionic solutes to be present in deep oceans based on remote sensing, magnetic field measurements, cryovolcanism ice grains chemical analysis and chondritic material aqueous alteration chemical models. Unlike on our planet, deep extraterrestrial ocean might also be interacting at depth with high pressure ices (e.g. III, V, VI, VI, X) which have different behavior compared to ice Ih. Unfortunately, the pressures and temperatures inside these hydrospheres differ significantly from the one found in Earth aqueous environments, so most of our current thermodynamic databases do not cover the range of conditions relevant for modeling realistically large icy worlds interiors. Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions. High pressure in-situ measurements using diamond anvil cell apparatus were operated both at the University of washington and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility on aqueous systems phase diagrams with Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 species, salt incorporation in high pressure ices and density inversions between the solid and the fluids. These results suggest a more complex picture of the interior structure, dynamic and chemical evolution of large icy worlds hydrospheres when solutes are taken into account, compared to current models mainly using pure water. Based on our in-situ experimental measurements, we propose the existence of new liquid environments at greater depths and the possibility of solid state transport of solute through the high pressure ices

  1. Molecular ecological network analyses. (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Luo, Feng; Zhou, Jizhong


    Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open

  2. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth (United States)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.


    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  3. Ecological suicide in microbes. (United States)

    Ratzke, Christoph; Denk, Jonas; Gore, Jeff


    The growth and survival of organisms often depend on interactions between them. In many cases, these interactions are positive and caused by a cooperative modification of the environment. Examples are the cooperative breakdown of complex nutrients in microbes or the construction of elaborate architectures in social insects, in which the individual profits from the collective actions of her peers. However, organisms can similarly display negative interactions by changing the environment in ways that are detrimental for them, for example by resource depletion or the production of toxic byproducts. Here we find an extreme type of negative interactions, in which Paenibacillus sp. bacteria modify the environmental pH to such a degree that it leads to a rapid extinction of the whole population, a phenomenon that we call ecological suicide. Modification of the pH is more pronounced at higher population densities, and thus ecological suicide is more likely to occur with increasing bacterial density. Correspondingly, promoting bacterial growth can drive populations extinct whereas inhibiting bacterial growth by the addition of harmful substances-such as antibiotics-can rescue them. Moreover, ecological suicide can cause oscillatory dynamics, even in single-species populations. We found ecological suicide in a wide variety of microbes, suggesting that it could have an important role in microbial ecology and evolution.

  4. Marx, Engels and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Löwy


    Full Text Available This is a brief survey of Marx and Engels’ views on ecology, from the viewpoint of their relevance for 21th Century ecosocialism. While there are some serious limitations in the way both consider the “development of productive forces”, there are powerfull insights in their discussion of the destructive consequences of capitalist expansion for the environment - an expansion that generates a disastrous metabolic rift in the exchanges between human societies and nature. Some ecological Marxists distinguish between “first stage ecosocialists” - who believe that Marx analyses on ecological issues are too incomplete and dated to be of real relevance today - and “second stage ecosocialists” that emphasize the contemporary methodological significance of Marx’s ecological critique of capitalism. This paper tries to argue for a third position (which probably could be accepted by several people of the two groups above: Marx and Engels discussion on ecological issues is incomplete and dated, but inspite these shortcomings, it has real relevance and methodological significance today.

  5. Interim balance: Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.


    Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.) [de

  6. Making ecological models adequate (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M.; Marshall, Charles R.; Carlson, Colin J.; Giuggioli, Luca; Ryan, Sadie J.; Romañach, Stephanie; Boettiger, Carl; Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Larsen, Laurel; D'Odorico, Paolo; O'Sullivan, David


    Critical evaluation of the adequacy of ecological models is urgently needed to enhance their utility in developing theory and enabling environmental managers and policymakers to make informed decisions. Poorly supported management can have detrimental, costly or irreversible impacts on the environment and society. Here, we examine common issues in ecological modelling and suggest criteria for improving modelling frameworks. An appropriate level of process description is crucial to constructing the best possible model, given the available data and understanding of ecological structures. Model details unsupported by data typically lead to over parameterisation and poor model performance. Conversely, a lack of mechanistic details may limit a model's ability to predict ecological systems’ responses to management. Ecological studies that employ models should follow a set of model adequacy assessment protocols that include: asking a series of critical questions regarding state and control variable selection, the determinacy of data, and the sensitivity and validity of analyses. We also need to improve model elaboration, refinement and coarse graining procedures to better understand the relevancy and adequacy of our models and the role they play in advancing theory, improving hind and forecasting, and enabling problem solving and management.

  7. The ecological century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, E. B.


    This essay attempts to reconstruct the evolution of Ecology as the scientific basis for environmental conservation and human progress, as seen through the eyes of a biologist who has exercised that science during a number of tasks in various parts of the world over most of the twentieth century. From its beginnings in evolutionary thinking during the nineteenth century, ecology emerged from natural history at the beginning of the twentieth. At first the running was made by botanists; but this was soon followed by zoologists, who dealt with more mobile communities. The first quarter-century was mainly exploratory; the second was mainly descriptive (although biological exploration was still dominant in the tropics). The third quarter saw ecology developing into an experimental science, and, as the environmental revolution got into its stride, ecology became organized both nationally and internationally. Although the term is now often misused and sometimes misunderstood by laymen, the last quarter-century is seeing the wide application of ecology in environmental and human affairs, and this gives some assurance that the twenty-first century will not become one of chaos.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova


    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  9. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.


    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  10. Five years of Project META - An all-sky narrow-band radio search for extraterrestrial signals (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Sagan, Carl


    We have conducted a five-year search of the northern sky (delta between 30 and 60 deg) for narrow-band radio signals near the 1420 MHz line of neutral hydrogen, and its second harmonic, using an 8.4 x 10 exp 6 channel Fourier spectrometer of 0.05 Hz resolution and 400 kHz instantaneous bandwidth. The observing frequency was corrected both for motions with respect to three astronomical inertial frames, and for the effect of Earth's rotation, which provides a characteristic changing Doppler signature for narrow-band signals of extraterrestrial origin. Among the 6 x 10 exp 13 spectral channels searched, we have found 37 candidate events exceeding the average detection threshold of 1.7 x 10 exp -23 W/sq m, none of which was detected upon reobservation. The strongest of these appear to be dominated by rare processor errors. However, the strongest signals that survive culling for terrestrial interference lie in or near the Galactic plane. We describe the search and candidate events, and set limits on the prevalence of supercivilizations transmitting Doppler-precompensated beacons at H I or its second harmonic. We conclude with recommendations for future searches, based upon these findings, and a description of our next-generation search system.

  11. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts (United States)

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.


    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  12. A failure of serendipity: the Square Kilometre Array will struggle to eavesdrop on human-like extraterrestrial intelligence (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Nichol, R. C.


    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will operate in frequency ranges often used by military radar and other communications technology. It has been shown that if extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) communicate using similar technology, then the SKA should be able to detect such transmissions up to distances of ~100 pc (~300 light years) from Earth. However, Mankind has greatly improved its communications technology over the last century, dramatically reducing signal leakage and making the Earth ‘radio quiet’. If ETIs follow the same pattern as the human race, will we be able to detect their signal leakage before they become radio quiet? We investigate this question using Monte Carlo realization techniques to simulate the growth and evolution of intelligent life in the Galaxy. We show that if civilizations are ‘human’ in nature (i.e. they are only ‘radio loud’ for ~100 years, and can only detect each other with an SKA-like instrument out to 100 pc, within a maximum communication time of 100 years), then the probability for such civilizations accidentally detecting each other is low (~10-7), much lower than if other, dedicated communication techniques are permissible (e.g. optical SETI or neutrino communication).

  13. Formation of Methylamine and Ethylamine in Extraterrestrial Ices and Their Role as Fundamental Building Blocks of Proteinogenic α -amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förstel, Marko; Bergantini, Alexandre; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Góbi, Sándor; Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI, 96822 (United States)


    The –CH–NH{sub 2} moiety represents the fundamental building block of all proteinogenic amino acids, with the cyclic amino acid proline being a special case (–CH–NH– in proline). Exploiting a chemical retrosynthesis, we reveal that methylamine (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}) and/or ethylamine (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}) are essential precursors in the formation of each proteinogenic amino acid. In the present study we elucidate the abiotic formation of methylamine and ethylamine from ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) ices exposed to secondary electrons generated by energetic cosmic radiation in cometary and interstellar model ices. Our experiments show that methylamine and ethylamine are crucial reaction products in irradiated ices composed of ammonia and methane. Using isotopic substitution studies we further obtain valuable information on the specific reaction pathways toward methylamine. The very recent identification of methylamine and ethylamine together with glycine in the coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko underlines their potential to the extraterrestrial formation of amino acids.

  14. Ecological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.


    Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)

  15. Numerical ecology with R

    CERN Document Server

    Borcard, Daniel; Legendre, Pierre


    This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary mul...

  16. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...... contains papers which cover other themes thus continuing with the spirit of the meetings in the Nordic Benthological Society (NORBS) by being an open forum for exchanging knowledge on all aspects of benthic ecology. Overall, we feel the proceeding contains a wide selection of very interesting papers...... representing the state-of-the-art of benthic ecology research within, and to a lesser degree, outside the Nordic countries. We wish to thank all the authors for their inspirational contributions to the proceeding, but we feel that a special thanks is due to the invited speakers for their readiness to produce...

  17. Application of ecological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, J.A.


    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables

  18. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess the p...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts......The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...

  19. Coevolutionary ecological economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)


    This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)

  20. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie


    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  1. Ecology of gelatious plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia

    as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its...... in high and intermediate saline areas in Northern Europe. While the ecological impact of M. leidyi in the central Baltic appears to be limited concern, the environment in other European waters should be more favourable to their populations. In these areas, it is suggested that M. leidyi constitutes...

  2. Beyond positivist ecology: toward an integrated ecological ethics. (United States)

    Norton, Bryan G


    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an "ecological ethic" indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of "reflexive" ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for their choices in developing models; this self-reflexive approach opens the door to a new way of integrating values into public discourse and to a more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change. This reflexive building of ecological models is introduced through the transformative simile of Aldo Leopold, which shows that learning to "think like a mountain" involves a shift in both ecological modeling and in values and responsibility. An adequate, interdisciplinary approach to ecological valuation, requires a re-framing of the evaluation questions in entirely new ways, i.e., a review of the current status of interdisciplinary value theory with respect to ecological values reveals that neither of the widely accepted theories of environmental value-neither economic utilitarianism nor intrinsic value theory (environmental ethics)-provides a foundation for an ecologically sensitive evaluation process. Thus, a new, ecologically sensitive, and more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change would include an examination of the metaphors that motivate the models used to describe environmental change.

  3. Ecology in Urban Education. (United States)

    Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

    In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…

  4. Ecological aspects of parasitology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Clive Russell


    ... of these habitats that enable them to cope with and overcome these difficulties. The third section is concerned with population ecology, and emphasises that although individual parasites have to face and overcome particular problems, parasitism is essentially a dynamic relationship between two species populations.

  5. Complexity and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Giraldo, Luis Jair


    The present article examines the transformation that the construction of the theoretical body of ecology as a science has been going through since it first appeared in the XIX century within the logic of classical science until recent developments comprised within complex systemic. Mainly departing from the analysis from thermodynamics of irreversible phenomena

  6. The Autoimmune Ecology. (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana


    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  7. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchell, J E


    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  8. Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens


    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing...

  9. Molecular microbial ecology manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruijn, de F.J.; Head, I.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.


    The field of microbial ecology has been revolutionized in the past two decades by the introduction of molecular methods into the toolbox of the microbial ecologist. This molecular arsenal has helped to unveil the enormity of microbial diversity across the breadth of the earth's ecosystems, and has

  10. Ecology and Human Destiny. (United States)

    Haught, John F.


    Examines eschatology as the heart of Christian faith, suggesting that an appreciation of an eschatological interpretation of the cosmos enables acceptance of nature's transience and a grounding for an ecological ethic. Maintains that recent scientific developments present a promising, rather than pessimistic, picture of the universe. Holds that…

  11. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine


    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  12. Metabolomics in chemical ecology. (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg


    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  13. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel eAnaya


    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  15. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.


    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  16. The redoubtable ecological periodic table (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  17. Some problems of human ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davitashvili, M.


    The problems of the ecology of human are considered. The notion of ''the ecology of human'' is discussed from the viewpoint of human rights and responsibilities in reference to the environment. The ecological factors affecting the men and the ecosystems as a whole are considered. It is emphasized that the ecological problems should be solved not only globally, but also for concrete ecosystems with consideration for their specific features. (author)

  18. Chasing Ecological Interactions. (United States)

    Jordano, Pedro


    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species-naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities.

  19. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John


    knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  20. US ecology data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crase, A.


    The US Ecology computer data system was instituted March 1, 1982. This system was designed to manage the increasing flow of paperwork and data associated with the receipt and disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Richland, Washington and Beatty, Nevada. The system was modified and upgraded in 1984 to accommodate a revised shipping manifest pursuant to the requirements of 10 CFR 20.311. The data system is used to generate various reports for both internal and external distribution. The computer system is located at US Ecology's corporate headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky. Remote access terminals are located at the disposal sites. The system is supported by a Wang VS-100 processor. In addition to supporting the radwaste data system, the system supports a chemical waste data base, word processing, and electronic mail. The management and operation of this data base are described. 19 figures

  1. Fundamental ecology is fundamental. (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E


    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister


    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also

  3. Social Ecology, Deep Ecology and the Future of Green Political Thought. (United States)

    Tokar, Brian


    Describes the differences which divide the social ecology movement and the Deep Ecology Movement. Discusses how each views population ecology, politics, natural resources, and ecological living. Calls for a unified ecological movement. (CW)

  4. 2030 the ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferone, G.


    The ecological crisis will happen on 2030. A combination of climatic change, energy problems, increase in population, will mix up. The author debates about true questions on the economy: how to get quickly towards renewable energies use, how much will it cost, must we generalize the carbon tax, what about economic giant as India and China, what about the technology development to solve the crisis? (A.L.B.)

  5. Towards the ecological dredger


    Rodríguez, Sergio; Lago, Alberto; Villodas, Aritz; Picón, Artzai


    The dredging is a process that intrinsically damages the aquatic environment. Suctioning part of the aquatic bottom surface suppose not only change the ecosystem but it endanger the life of the animal and plant species. Nowadays, there is doing a lot of efforts to improve the ecological aspect of the dredging process. In this work, we propose the introduction of machine vision techniques to obtain this improvement, using hyperspectral imaging. The performed tests show that is p...

  6. Toward an Agathocentric Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erazim Kohák


    Full Text Available I should like to submit to you a simple, basic thesis--that what we are accustomed to calling the "ecological crisis" is not a product of a conflict between human needs and the needs of nature but of a flawed perception of what our needs in truth are. It is, I believe, a crisis of our humanity rather than one of nature or technology, and so requires not only technological but also humanistic answers.

  7. GNP - an ecological catastrophe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.


    In this chapter of the book author deals with the ecological aspects of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) as well as other projects on the European rivers. Ground water levels profiles are presented. Effects of the GNP on the forests, flora, and fauna are discussed. The conditions for delta region protection are presented. Chemical and radioactive contamination, as well as their synergistic effects are discussed

  8. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta


    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  9. Ecological Econophysics for Degrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pueyo


    Full Text Available This paper outlines a synthesis of ecological economics with econophysics and other complexity approaches to economics. Arguably, the resulting “ecological econophysics” will be scientifically sounder than mainstream economics and much better suited to addressing a major challenge of our times: the development of democratically-based policies to reduce economic throughput to an environmentally sustainable level without triggering economic crises and without excluding part of the world’s population, i.e., to implement degrowth. Degrowth will need major structural changes, which leads us to question whether there are limits to the malleability of the economic system’s architecture. A fundamental limit will be encountered if, as suggested by the physics of complexity, long-lasting complex systems always occur midway between an ordered and a disordered state. There is much evidence that this hypothesis holds and that the current economic system satisfies this condition. However, this does not mean that the problems posed by this system should be unavoidable. Ecological econophysics gives clues to identifying alternative economic systems that would also function between order and chaos, but which would have radically different implications for environmental sustainability and social justice.

  10. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Nahon, Laurent


    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee L ) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee L that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee L in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee L = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee L = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee L depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  11. European ecological networks and greenways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ib; Jongman, Rob H.G.; Kulvik, Mart


    renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks......In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been....... This complex interaction between cultural and natural features results in quite different ways for the elaboration of ecological networks and greenways....

  12. Ecology for a changing earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.H.; Roughgarden, J.


    To forecast the ecological impact of global change, research initiatives are needed on the explicit role of humans in ecological systems, and on how ecological processes functioning at different spatial and temporal scales are coupled. Furthermore, to synthesize the results of ecological research for Congress, policymakers, and the general public, a new agency, called the United States Ecological Survey (USES) is urgently required. Also, a national commitment to environmental health, as exemplified by establishing a National Institutes of the Environment (NIE), should be a goal

  13. Statistical ecology comes of age (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric


    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

  14. Statistical ecology comes of age. (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric


    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data.

  15. [Regional ecological construction and mission of landscape ecology]. (United States)

    Xiao, Duning; Xie, Fuju; Wei, Jianbing


    The eco-construction on regional and landscape scale is the one which can be used to specific landscape and intercrossing ecosystem in specific region including performing scientific administration of ecosystem and optimizing environmental function. Recently, the government has taken a series of significant projects into action, such as national forest protection item, partly forest restoration, and adjustment of water, etc. Enforcing regional eco-construction and maintaining the ecology security of the nation have become the strategic requisition. In various regions, different eco-construction should be applied, for example, performing ecological safeguard measure in ecological sensitive zone, accommodating the ecological load in ecological fragile zone, etc., which can control the activities of human being, so that, sustainable development can be reached. Facing opportunity and challenge in the development of landscape ecology, we have some key topics: landscape pattern of ecological security, land use and ecological process, landscape changes under human activity stress, quantitative evaluation of the influence on human being activities, evaluation of zonal ecological security and advance warning of ecological risk, and planning and optimizing of model in landscape eco-construction.

  16. Ecological alarm system for Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehser, L.


    At Itaipu, on the Rio Parana, Brazil and Paraguay are constructing the world's largest hydro-electric power plant with a capacity seven times as high as that of Assuan. An information system is intended to give fair warning in case of threatening ecological conditions. The computer-supported alarm system had four objectives: 1. presentation of the present ecological situation; 2. evaluation of the ecological risks; 3. warning about ecological deficits; 4. suggestions for establishing ecological stability. In a first step the available inventory data concerning soil, topography, vegetation and water were evaluated by expert groups according to their risk grade (0-4) and ecological weight (1-10). The product of these evaluations indicates the ecological deficit (0-40). At a threshold value of 30, the information system automatically signals ecological alarm and locates the centre of danger via computer-plotted maps and tables. The necessary data are supplied periodically by selected measurement stations. Quantification of ecological facts enables the persons who are responsible for decisions at Itaipu to recognize, avoid, or diminish elements of danger even if they have little or no ecological knowledge. The file of data that has been compiled so far should be extended parallel with the development in the Itaipu area. With the help of factor analysis connections of cause and effect can be detected in this extremely complex reservoir system which has hardly been explored yet.

  17. An ecological treatise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.


    The discussion on the different development paths towards a future energy supply is conducted not only with technical, economic, and ecological arguments but also with political, socio-cultural and philosophical ones. It is also concerned with the construction of social reality, a reorganisation of the relationship between nature and society. This descriptive and analytical study carefully contemplates the contents of the different positions and arguments in the energy controversy. It thereby closes a gap which has continued to exist until now in spite of the numerous publications in point. (orig.) [de

  18. Terrestrial Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.F.


    Studies on ecological effects of coal combustion included the following: episodic air pollution stress; interaction of gaseous pollutants and acid precipitation; and brimstone: preliminary results from SO 2 effects on forest growth. Studies on fate and transport of contaminants included deposition of aerosol-associated trace elements to a deciduous forest; hydrologic source areas; and environmental behavior of mercury. The environmental research park is described and forest resource management is discussed. Ecosystem analysis studies included hydrology of Walker branch; water budget of an oak-hickory forest; nutrient release from decaying wood; transpiration of the tulip poplar; and atmospheric CO 2 and its interaction with biospheric changes

  19. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri


    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  20. Building doctoral ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard


    heavily from the support from informal and extra-curricular researcher communities and non-formal support systems even beyond the institution in the private and societal lifeworlds. The chapter describes and analyses such forms of organizational and existential darkness within doctoral education...... and professionalization of doctoral education, with Graduate schools increasing in size and organizational complexity. Paradoxically, we see in contemporary research into doctoral students’ learning experiences that the students do not favour the formalized support systems and supervision, but on the contrary draw most......, and discusses how institutions and doctoral programmes could use such sprawling spaces for learning to build doctoral ecologies and to strengthening existentially based pedagogies within doctoral education....

  1. Ecology and basic laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.


    The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de

  2. Ecological and general systems an introduction to systems ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Odum, Howard T.


    Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.

  3. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David


    requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...

  4. The role of ecological theory in microbial ecology. (United States)

    Prosser, James I; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Curtis, Tom P; Ellis, Richard J; Firestone, Mary K; Freckleton, Rob P; Green, Jessica L; Green, Laura E; Killham, Ken; Lennon, Jack J; Osborn, A Mark; Solan, Martin; van der Gast, Christopher J; Young, J Peter W


    Microbial ecology is currently undergoing a revolution, with repercussions spreading throughout microbiology, ecology and ecosystem science. The rapid accumulation of molecular data is uncovering vast diversity, abundant uncultivated microbial groups and novel microbial functions. This accumulation of data requires the application of theory to provide organization, structure, mechanistic insight and, ultimately, predictive power that is of practical value, but the application of theory in microbial ecology is currently very limited. Here we argue that the full potential of the ongoing revolution will not be realized if research is not directed and driven by theory, and that the generality of established ecological theory must be tested using microbial systems.

  5. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review]. (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai


    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  6. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of methane and C2+ alkanes in electrical spark discharge: implications for identifying sources of hydrocarbons in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings. (United States)

    Telling, Jon; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara


    The low-molecular-weight alkanes--methane, ethane, propane, and butane--are found in a wide range of terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings. The development of robust criteria for distinguishing abiogenic from biogenic alkanes is essential for current investigations of Mars' atmosphere and for future exobiology missions to other planets and moons. Here, we show that alkanes synthesized during gas-phase radical recombination reactions in electrical discharge experiments have values of δ(2)H(methane)>δ(2)H(ethane)>δ(2)H(propane), similar to those of the carbon isotopes. The distribution of hydrogen isotopes in gas-phase radical reactions is likely due to kinetic fractionations either (i) from the preferential incorporation of (1)H into longer-chain alkanes due to the more rapid rate of collisions of the smaller (1)H-containing molecules or (ii) by secondary ion effects. Similar δ(13)C(C1-C2+) and δ(2)H(C1-C2+) patterns may be expected in a range of extraterrestrial environments where gas-phase radical reactions dominate, including interstellar space, the atmosphere and liquid hydrocarbon lakes of Saturn's moon Titan, and the outer atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus. Radical recombination reactions at high temperatures and pressures may provide an explanation for the combined reversed δ(13)C(C1-C2+) and δ(2)H(C1-C2+) patterns of terrestrial alkanes documented at a number of high-temperature/pressure crustal sites.

  7. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.


    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  8. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)


    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  9. Energy and Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin


    With the increase of standard of living of the people, the criteria for a comfortable, secure and foremost a healthy manner of living also increase. Thus arise the stressed importance and necessity of more attention for the issues of protection of the environment, for a better life of future generations, as well as for global problems which do not recognize borders. Republic of Macedonia also contributes in this direction within the frame of its possibilities. The creation of the National Ecological Action Plan /NEAP/, is currently being carried out by the Ministry of Construction, Urbanism and Ecology of Republic Macedonia, financed by the World Bank. The most significant part of the material prepared by the author in this project has been presented, also discussed in detail and worked through with the representatives of the World Bank because of the importance of the energy sector for the development of a state. An energy balance of Macedonia until the end of 1995 is presented here, as well as quantities of harmful effluents emitted through these transformations of energy. (author). 24 tabs., 2 ills


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna BLUSZCZ


    Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  11. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao


    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  12. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes. (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan


    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Automated experimentation in ecological networks. (United States)

    Lurgi, Miguel; Robertson, David


    In ecological networks, natural communities are studied from a complex systems perspective by representing interactions among species within them in the form of a graph, which is in turn analysed using mathematical tools. Topological features encountered in complex networks have been proved to provide the systems they represent with interesting attributes such as robustness and stability, which in ecological systems translates into the ability of communities to resist perturbations of different kinds. A focus of research in community ecology is on understanding the mechanisms by which these complex networks of interactions among species in a community arise. We employ an agent-based approach to model ecological processes operating at the species' interaction level for the study of the emergence of organisation in ecological networks. We have designed protocols of interaction among agents in a multi-agent system based on ecological processes occurring at the interaction level between species in plant-animal mutualistic communities. Interaction models for agents coordination thus engineered facilitate the emergence of network features such as those found in ecological networks of interacting species, in our artificial societies of agents. Agent based models developed in this way facilitate the automation of the design an execution of simulation experiments that allow for the exploration of diverse behavioural mechanisms believed to be responsible for community organisation in ecological communities. This automated way of conducting experiments empowers the study of ecological networks by exploiting the expressive power of interaction models specification in agent systems.

  14. Framework for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, D.; Norton, S.


    Increased interest in ecological issues such as global climate change, habitat loss, acid deposition, reduced biological diversity, and the ecological impacts of pesticides and toxic chemicals prompts this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment ('Framework Report'). The report describes basic elements, or a framework, for evaluating scientific information on the adverse effects of physical and chemical stressors on the environment. The framework offers starting principles and a simple structure as guidance for current ecological risk assessments and as a foundation for future EPA proposals for risk assessment guidelines

  15. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science


    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  16. Ecological Understanding 2: Transformation--A Key to Ecological Understanding. (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta


    Describes the structure and general features of the phenomenon of ecological understanding. Presents qualitatively different ways of experiencing cycling of matter and the flow of energy in the context of ecosystems. The idea of transformation is key to the development of ecological understanding. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.


    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  18. Ecology and ecological quality of fish in lakes and reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubečka, Jan; Boukal S., David; Čech, Martin; Hickley, P.; Kitchell, J. F.; Ricard, Daniel; Rudstam, L.; Soukalová, Kateřina; Welcomme, R.


    Roč. 173, January (2016), s. 1-3 ISSN 0165-7836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish ecological quality * ecological potential * distribution * migration * bioindicators * management monitoring * food webs Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2016

  19. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  20. Socio-Ecological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Socio‐Ecological Innovation or SEI is innovation resulting from strategic integration of sustainable innovation and innovation for sustainability. In particular SEI is regarded as critical to organizations intent on progressing toward Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) and, indeed, progressing......, how developed or mature it is, and how future SEI strategy and results can be improved. As an aid to these efforts, non‐prescriptive approaches to SEI are discussed, maturity scale assessment for SEI is developed and discussed, and a simple assessment report that combines graphic and narrative...... feedback is presented. The assessment report is referred to as a SEI News Report and is intended not only to provide feedback to the organization concerning its present SEI performance, but also to deliver significant foresight that will inform future SEI efforts, strengthening the likelihood...

  1. Ecological Functions of Landscapes (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.


    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  2. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.


    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137 Cs and 60 Co to fish; 137 Cs and 60 Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  3. Ecological disaster in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, T.K.


    Six million barrels of oil are going up in smoke each day in Kuwait, dumping 3.7 million pounds of toxic gases, soot, and smoke - including cancer-causing compounds - into the air each hour. This paper reports that the prognosis for the situation is dim. Even as specialized firefighting companies from the United States and Canada began arriving in Kuwait in March, oil officials there predicted dousing the fires would take at least two years and pumping up oil production to pre-war levels would take between five and 10 years. An oil well fire is a disaster. The effect on the ozone, the ecology, the marine life is massive. We aren't even breathing air here, we're just breathing smog

  4. Ecological Diesel Now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera


    An ACPM (Diesel) lighter and of low contained of sulfur it will begin to elaborate the refinery of Ecopetrol in Barrancabermeja (Colombia); it will be the next product of the refinery that it receives the international certification of insurance of quality ISO-9002. The new ecological product will be dedicated initially to assist the demand in Bogota. Their characteristics understand 340 degrade Celsius of final point of boil and 0, 1% in weight of sulfur, what will contribute to reduce the levels of contamination of the air in the capital. It is the result of several years of the technical personnel's of the refinery investigation, where the distillation units adapted and the advantages that they offer took advantage raw light, of low contained of sulfur and paraffin

  5. Ecology of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennish, M.J.


    Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects represents the most definitive and comprehensive source of reference information available on the human impact on estuarine ecosystems. The book discusses both acute and insidious pollution problems plaguing these coastal ecotones. It also provides a detailed examination of the deleterious and pervasive effects of human activities on biotic communities and sensitive habitat areas in estuaries. Specific areas covered include organic loading, oil pollution, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dredging and dredge-spoil disposal, radionuclides, as well as other contaminants and processes. The diverse components of these anthropogenic influences are assembled in an organized framework and presented in a clear and concise style that will facilitate their understanding

  6. Testing the ecological site group concept (United States)

    The 2016 “Ecological Sites for Landscape Management” special issue of Rangelands recommended an update to our thinking of Ecological Sites, suggesting that in our desire to make Ecological Sites more quantitative, we abandoned consideration of Ecological Sites’ spatial context. In response, Ecologic...

  7. Overview of Ecological Agriculture with High Efficiency


    Huang, Guo-qin; Zhao, Qi-guo; Gong, Shao-lin; Shi, Qing-hua


    From the presentation, connotation, characteristics, principles, pattern, and technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency, we conduct comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of the theoretical and practical progress of ecological agriculture with high efficiency. (i) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency was first advanced in China in 1991. (ii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency highlights "high efficiency", "ecology", and "combination". (iii) Ecol...

  8. The Future of Urban Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten


    This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won.......This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won....

  9. Education and Our Ecological Crisis (United States)

    Klimas, John


    Discusses causes of our ecological crisis and suggests that in order to overcome the crisis we have to sprinkle our teaching with a sense of wonder, impress upon the youth that there is nothing difficult or mysterious about the ecological viewpoint, give youth an awareness of the diversity of things in our environment, stress interrelationships…

  10. Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis (United States)

    Wright, Richard T.


    Critically analyzes the thesis of Christian responsibility for the ecological crisis and leads to its rejection. Present day environmental misuse results from greed, carelessness, and ignorance." Advocates ecological strategy of corrective action, with supplementary theological strategy" for church-influenced citizens. (AL)

  11. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.


    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  12. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.


    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  13. Ecological Applications of Qualitative Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Neumann, M.; Recknagel, F.


    Representing qualitative ecological knowledge is of great interest for ecological modelling. QR provides means to build conceptual models and to make qualitative knowledge explicit, organized and manageable by means of symbolic computing. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of QR using

  14. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others


    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  15. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando


    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  16. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives: A Physicist's Perspective on Ecology. Vishwesha Guttal. Series Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 368-375. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. The feasibility of ecological taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, A.T.G.


    From an analysis of the possibilities and complexities of ecological taxation, conducted within the context of the first NRP (research project 851051E), it follows that the feasibility of ecological taxes is determined by their design, the level at which they are implemented, the taxing authority by which they are imposed and by the constitutional, institutional and fiscal framework in which they are embedded

  18. Ecological networks in urban landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.


    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature

  19. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  20. Astroecology, cosmo-ecology, and the future of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Mautner


    Full Text Available Astroecology concerns the relations between life and space resources, and cosmo-ecology extrapolates these relations to cosmological scales. Experimental astroecology can quantify the amounts of life that can be derived from space resources. For this purpose, soluble carbon and electrolyte nutrients were measured in asteroid/meteorite materials. Microorganisms and plant cultures were observed to grow on these materials, whose fertilities are similar to productive agricultural soils. Based on measured nutrient contents, the 1022 kg carbonaceous asteroids can yield 1018 kg biomass with N and P as limiting nutrients (compared with the estimated 1015 kg biomass on Earth. These data quantify the amounts of life that can be derived from asteroids in terms of time-integrated biomass [BIOTAint = biomass (kg × lifetime (years], as 1027 kg-years during the next billion years of the Solar System (a thousand times the 1024 kg-years to date. The 1026 kg cometary materials can yield biota 10 000 times still larger. In the galaxy, potential future life can be estimated based on stellar luminosities. For example, the Sun will develop into a white dwarf star whose 1015 W luminosity can sustain a BIOTAint of 1034 kg-years over 1020 years. The 1012 main sequence and white and red dwarf stars can sustain 1046 kg-years of BIOTAint in the galaxy and 1057 kg-years in the universe. Life has great potentials in space, but the probability of present extraterrestrial life may be incomputable because of biological and ecological complexities. However, we can establish and expand life in space with present technology, by seeding new young solar systems. Microbial representatives of our life-form can be launched by solar sails to new planetary systems, including extremophiles suited to diverse new environments, autotrophs and heterotrophs to continually form and recycle biomolecules, and simple multicellulars to jump-start higher evolution. These programs can be motivated

  1. Use of ecological exposure units in ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.; Myers, O.; Gallegos, A.; Breshears, D.; Ebinger, M.


    The traditional approach to ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites that are being evaluated for cleanup under CERCLA or RCRA requirements is to focus on the immediate impacts at or adjacent to a site. While this may be acceptable in some situations, it is not ecologically defensible in situations where there are numerous contaminated sites in proximity to each other. In the latter case, transport from the sites, potential cumulative effects, and wide-ranging receptors must be considered. The concept of the Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU) has been proposed to address this situation. Ecological Exposure Units are defined on the basis of ecological considerations and each EEU may contain several to many contaminated sites. The initial steps involved in performing ecological risk assessments using the EEU approach include (1) selection of appropriate receptors and assessment endpoints, and (2) geographical definition of EEUs. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, receptors have been identified and EEUs have been defined for these receptors. GIS is being used as a tool to map EEUs. Receptors include representatives from threatened or endangered species, species reflecting status of ecological health, species with social or cultural relevance, and other species of concern. After definition of EEUs, cumulative impacts of all stressors at all sites within each EEU must be evaluated. The two major advantages to performing ecological risk assessments using this approach are that risk assessments are performed in a more scientifically defensible manner because they are performed on ecologically defined units and that resources are used optimally by minimizing redundant remedial activities

  2. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein


    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

  3. The ecological law and ecological human rights: to the question on necessity of formation


    Khvorostov A. J.


    Necessity of the ecological law is determined by presence of ecological crisis and formed at formation of ecological function of the state. Ecological human rights and the citizen are natural human rights, however should be legally fixed and guaranteed by the state. The further functioning of a society is impossible without observance of norms of the ecological law and ecological human rights.

  4. Some directions in ecological theory. (United States)

    Kendall, Bruce E


    The role of theory within ecology has changed dramatically in recent decades. Once primarily a source of qualitative conceptual framing, ecological theories and models are now often used to develop quantitative explanations of empirical patterns and to project future dynamics of specific ecological systems. In this essay, I recount my own experience of this transformation, in which accelerating computing power and the widespread incorporation of stochastic processes into ecological theory combined to create some novel integration of mathematical and statistical models. This stronger integration drives theory towards incorporating more biological realism, and I explore ways in which we can grapple with that realism to generate new general theoretical insights. This enhanced realism, in turn, may lead to frameworks for projecting ecological responses to anthropogenic change, which is, arguably, the central challenge for 21st-century ecology. In an era of big data and synthesis, ecologists are increasingly seeking to infer causality from observational data; but conventional biometry provides few tools for this project. This is a realm where theorists can and should play an important role, and I close by pointing towards some analytical and philosophical approaches developed in our sister discipline of economics that address this very problem. While I make no grand prognostications about the likely discoveries of ecological theory over the coming century, you will find in this essay a scattering of more or less far-fetched ideas that I, at least, think are interesting and (possibly) fruitful directions for our field.

  5. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J


    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Emergence Unites Ecology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper


    Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social-ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social-ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social-ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social-ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

  7. Ecology and man's environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Naqeeb, R


    A new and exciting discipline of human ecology is in the making. It has not, perhaps fortunately, found its bearings yet and remains to date overly dependent upon the limitations of sociology, biology, engineering and the sciences for its general theory, approaches, and philosophy. A new discipline with a world view and focussed on the human being and his habitat will hopefully emerge from a rich dialectic among scientists, humanists and policy makers educated and experienced in a variety of fields and committed to man's welfare. This new discipline and its practitioner must always be open to the revelations their knowledge will bring to man through the environmental processes. The implications of public policy, science and technology of industrial and post-industrial nations are all in need of considered re-examination by us all. Since their early application in these western societies we have witnessed the general downgrading of the world's environment. An ungrading in social priorities for the development of adequate housing, jobs, medical care and education which is almost always lower in rank than they should be is needed. The role of local groups, involving a well-informed and participating citizenship, in this process of changing priorities will always remain of prime importance, but no long-range goal in a rapidly-changing landscape is possible without broad national and local planning which contains ways and means of implementation.

  8. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  9. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  10. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  11. Laboratory Studies on the Formation of Carbon-Bearing Molecules in Extraterrestrial Environments: From the Gas Phase to the Solid State (United States)

    Jamieson, C. S.; Guo, Y.; Gu, X.; Zhang, F.; Bennett, C. J.; Kaiser, R. I.


    A detailed knowledge of the formation of carbon-bearing molecules in interstellar ices and in the gas phase of the interstellar medium is of paramount interest to understand the astrochemical evolution of extraterrestrial environments (1). This research also holds strong implications to comprehend the chemical processing of Solar System environments such as icy planets and their moons together with the atmospheres of planets and their satellites (2). Since the present composition of each interstellar and Solar System environment reflects the matter from which it was formed and the processes which have changed the chemical nature since the origin (solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, cosmic ray exposure, photolysis, chemical reactions), a detailed investigation of the physicochemical mechanisms altering the pristine environment is of paramount importance to grasp the contemporary composition. Once these underlying processes have been unraveled, we can identify those molecules, which belonged to the nascent setting, distinguish molecular species synthesized in a later stage, and predict the imminent chemical evolution of, for instance, molecular clouds. Laboratory experiments under controlled physicochemical conditions (temperature, pressure, chemical composition, high energy components) present ideal tools for simulating the chemical evolution of interstellar and Solar System environments. Here, laboratory experiments can predict where and how (reaction mechanisms; chemicals necessary) in extraterrestrial environments and in the interstellar medium complex, carbon bearing molecules can be formed on interstellar grains and in the gas phase. This paper overviews the experimental setups utilized in our laboratory to mimic the chemical processing of gas phase and solid state (ices) environments. These are a crossed molecular beams machine (3) and a surface scattering setup (4). We also present typical results of each setup (formation of amino acids, aldehydes, epoxides

  12. Ecological periodic tables: Killer apps for translational ecology (United States)

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are information organizing structures that have transformed chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively. Ecological periodic tables are information organizing structures wit...

  13. Ecological economics and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Rigaud, G.


    What is the subject of ecology? What is the primary concern of economics? How can the interface between ecology and economics be described? Is there a relationship between the two different sciences which constitutes a new research field? This book raises some of these basic questions and reflects on major misleading assumptions research in ecological economics unwittingly relies on. An outlook is given as to the aspects on which research in this field should now primarily concentrate. This publication addresses first of all natural scientists and politicians, though economists, too, might find some new aspects apart from traditional economic reasoning. (orig./KW)

  14. Conventional and ecological public health. (United States)

    Rayner, G


    This paper suggests that current models of public health are no longer sufficient as a means for understanding the health challenges of the anthropogenic age, and argues for an alternative based upon an ecological model. The roots of this perspective originated within the Victorian era, although it found only limited expression at that time. Ecological thinking in public health has only been revived relatively recently. Derived from an analysis of obesity, this paper proposes the development of an approach to ecological public health based on four dimensions of existence: the material, the physiological, the social and the cultural-cognitive. The implications for public policy are considered.

  15. The dimensionality of ecological networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklöf, Anna; Jacob, Ute; Kopp, Jason


    How many dimensions (trait-axes) are required to predict whether two species interact? This unanswered question originated with the idea of ecological niches, and yet bears relevance today for understanding what determines network structure. Here, we analyse a set of 200 ecological networks......, including food webs, antagonistic and mutualistic networks, and find that the number of dimensions needed to completely explain all interactions is small (... the most to explaining network structure. We show that accounting for a few traits dramatically improves our understanding of the structure of ecological networks. Matching traits for resources and consumers, for example, fruit size and bill gape, are the most successful combinations. These results link...

  16. Ecological palaeoecology: a missing link between ecology and evolution


    Rull, V.


    Palaeoecology is more than a palaeoenvironmental discipline; it is a science that is well-suited for supplying the empirical evidence necessary to test ecological hypotheses and contributes to our understanding of the interface of ecology and evolution. A critical time frame in palaeoecology is the often-overlooked Q-time dimension (centuries to millennia), which tends to be the most appropriate time dimension to examine ecology–evolution interactions. This paper discusses these topics from a...

  17. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.


    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  18. Materials Testing - Digital Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Wiley


    Full Text Available Access to credible building product performance information throughout the design and construction process is critical to enable project development, vet product selections, ensure as-built quality, and successfully complete construction. This is common knowledge and part of common practice for nearly all parties involved in design and construction. The sources of such information can range from vernacular to formal – from common practice to special reference. The focus of this paper is one of the more formal or specialized information sources, performance testing, as well as how such performance testing information can be better used. This paper’s goals are to familiarize the reader with performance testing and to depict a new kind of valuable informational tool (digital ecology. Reference to pertinent nomenclature, description of a real world example, and detailed description of such an informational tool’s values will be provided.The major content of this paper was developed during project-based work and firm-funded internal research at point b design, ltd. over approximately the previous 4 years. The phrase ‘digital ecology’ as herein used is a new concept proposed by the author. The analysis contained in this paper could be applied to the field of operations and maintenance as it is herein applied to design and construction; however, operations and maintenance is beyond the scope of this paper and may be addressed in future papers. It is my hope that this paper will contribute to tangible and real improvements of the built environment via continued, positive development within academic and professional practice.

  19. Ecological neo-colonialism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.


    In this chapter of the book author deals with the ecological aspects of chemical industry and energy production as well as the European Communities energy strategy. Author thinks that the current situation suggests that the very primitive fossil energy age will be overlapping with even more primitive atomic age in the majority of the European states for a certain time period. From the thermodynamic point of view, this kind of a development means that we are shifting from energy processes utilizing the temperature of 260 grad C for boiling eggs as well as for heating the rooms to the temperature of 20 grad C, to the energy processes of uranium cleaving with the temperature of 55,000 grad C in order to provide the same functions. This is not only primitive and vulgar but completely ineffective and senseless from the economic point of view. This kind of a development has a clearly destructive effect, negative environmental effect not speaking about the possible disastrous effect. The plutonium economy is going to become a tragic straitjacket, binding the enormous investments and research means. In addition, this kind of economics is going to tie the production structures into the obsolete economies and it is going to prevent the development of the production basis that will become dominant in the advanced economies in a very short time period. Therefore the plutonium economy will further reinforce the neo-colonialist relations typical for the economic relations between the East and the West.Some statistical data in atomic energy development in Europe are given

  20. Ecology of playa lakes (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.


    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  1. Ecological modernization of sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten


    This article will examine how the contemporary development of sustainable buildings has been influenced by the concept of ecological modernisation. Ecological modernisation is a policy concept describing how environmental considerations are increasingly being integrated into modern society...... driven by enthusiasts and grassroots to being a more widespread, generally obtainable and integrated product. We will discuss to what degree this can be understood within the ideas of ecological modernisation, and then discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this development. Based on the concepts...... of governance, standardisation and visibility, the conclusion is that in many ways ecological modernisation has penetrated in Danish sustainable buildings and has contributed to a positive development. However, there are aspects of sustainable consumption that this development does not relate to, including...

  2. Ecology. 2nd German ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmert, H.


    The second edition of this outstanding textbook is now available in translation to English-speaking readers. Revised and expanded from the first edition, it brings into even greater focus the relationship between ecology and sensory physiology. (orig./HP)

  3. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health. (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J


    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  4. The Ecology of Human Mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Thums, Michele; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Harcourt, Rob; Eguí luz, Ví ctor M.


    parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    development between standard economic and ecological theories. ... environmental issues that affect the econiche, and for exploring human conditions and ... about medium, about intention and its signaling via contextualization cues—―are.

  6. Online ecological and environmental data

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Virginia Ann


    Discover important Internet resources for research data made public individually and collectively by researchers from a variety of entities in the fields of environmental studies and ecology Online Ecological and Environmental Data explores innovative projects from a diverse array of institutions that have made environmental and ecological research information freely available online. You will find a wealth of Web site listings with URLs and complete descriptions, data field descriptions, controlled vocabulary examples, and Web screen shots that demonstrate how to use a specific site. The book will help you locate the data, procedures, instruments, notes, and other descriptive information that scientists and engineers need for replicating and building on the research of others. With Online Ecological and Environmental Data, you''ll gain a better understanding of: * the cooperative design, development, and management of interdisciplinary data * cataloging multidisciplinary environmental data * data netw...

  7. Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability (United States)

    Lopes, V. L.


    Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism

  8. Ecological sustainability and urban form


    Ivan Muñiz; Anna Galindo


    One controversial idea present in the debate on urban sustainability is that urban sprawl is an ecological stressing problem. We have tested this popular assumption by measuring the ecological footprint of commuting and housing of the 163 municipalities of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region and by relating the estimated values with residential density and accessibility, the fundamental determinant of residential density according to the Monocentric City Model.

  9. The logic of ecological patchiness. (United States)

    Grünbaum, Daniel


    Most ecological interactions occur in environments that are spatially and temporally heterogeneous-'patchy'-across a wide range of scales. In contrast, most theoretical models of ecological interactions, especially large-scale models applied to societal issues such as climate change, resource management and human health, are based on 'mean field' approaches in which the underlying patchiness of interacting consumers and resources is intentionally averaged out. Mean field ecological models typically have the advantages of tractability, few parameters and clear interpretation; more technically complex spatially explicit models, which resolve ecological patchiness at some (or all relevant) scales, generally lack these advantages. This report presents a heuristic analysis that incorporates important elements of consumer-resource patchiness with minimal technical complexity. The analysis uses scaling arguments to establish conditions under which key mechanisms-movement, reproduction and consumption-strongly affect consumer-resource interactions in patchy environments. By very general arguments, the relative magnitudes of these three mechanisms are quantified by three non-dimensional ecological indices: the Frost, Strathmann and Lessard numbers. Qualitative analysis based on these ecological indices provides a basis for conjectures concerning the expected characteristics of organisms, species interactions and ecosystems in patchy environments.

  10. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology. (United States)

    Baer, B; Millar, A H


    Evolutionary ecologists are traditionally gene-focused, as genes propagate phenotypic traits across generations and mutations and recombination in the DNA generate genetic diversity required for evolutionary processes. As a consequence, the inheritance of changed DNA provides a molecular explanation for the functional changes associated with natural selection. A direct focus on proteins on the other hand, the actual molecular agents responsible for the expression of a phenotypic trait, receives far less interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This is partially due to the central dogma of molecular biology that appears to define proteins as the 'dead-end of molecular information flow' as well as technical limitations in identifying and studying proteins and their diversity in the field and in many of the more exotic genera often favored in ecological studies. Here we provide an overview of a newly forming field of research that we refer to as 'Evolutionary Proteomics'. We point out that the origins of cellular function are related to the properties of polypeptide and RNA and their interactions with the environment, rather than DNA descent, and that the critical role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution is more about coopting new proteins to impact cellular processes than it is about modifying gene function. Furthermore, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes generate a remarkable diversity of mature proteins from a single gene, and the properties of these mature proteins can also influence inheritance through genetic and perhaps epigenetic mechanisms. The influence of post-transcriptional diversification on evolutionary processes could provide a novel mechanistic underpinning for elements of rapid, directed evolutionary changes and adaptations as observed for a variety of evolutionary processes. Modern state-of the art technologies based on mass spectrometry are now available to identify and quantify peptides, proteins, protein

  11. 36 CFR 219.20 - Ecological sustainability. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ecological sustainability... Sustainability § 219.20 Ecological sustainability. To achieve ecological sustainability, the responsible official... diversity and species diversity are components of ecological sustainability. The planning process must...

  12. [Ecological carrying capacity and Chongming Island's ecological construction]. (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyun; Zou, Chunjing; Kong, Zhenghong; Wang, Tianhou; Chen, Xiaoyong


    This paper overviewed the goals of Chongming Island's ecological construction and its background, analyzed the current eco-economic status and constraints of the Island, and put forward some scientific issues on its ecological construction. It was suggested that for the resources-saving and sustainable development of the Island, the researches on its ecological construction should be based on its ecological carrying capacity, fully take the regional characteristics into consideration, and refer the successful development modes at home and abroad. The carrying capacity study should ground on systemic and dynamic views, give a thorough evaluation of the Island's present carrying capacity, simulate its possible changes, and forecast its demands and risks. Operable countermeasures to promote the Island's carrying capacity should be worked out, new industry structure, population scale, and optimized distribution projects conforming to regional carrying capacity should be formulated, and effective ecological security alarming and control system should be built, with the aim of providing suggestions and strategic evidences for the decision-making of economic development and sustainable environmental resources use of the region.

  13. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  14. Squamation and ecology of thelodonts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto G Ferrón

    Full Text Available Thelodonts are an enigmatic group of Paleozoic jawless vertebrates that have been well studied from taxonomical, biostratigraphic and paleogeographic points of view, although our knowledge of their ecology and mode of life is still scant. Their bodies were covered by micrometric scales whose morphology, histology and the developmental process are extremely similar to those of extant sharks. Based on these similarities and on the well-recognized relationship between squamation and ecology in sharks, here we explore the ecological diversity and lifestyles of thelodonts. For this we use classic morphometrics and discriminant analysis to characterize the squamation patterns of a significant number of extant shark species whose ecology is well known. Multivariate analyses have defined a characteristic squamation pattern for each ecological group, thus establishing a comparative framework for inferring lifestyles in thelodonts. We then use this information to study the squamation of the currently described 147 species of thelodonts, known from both articulated and disarticulated remains. Discriminant analysis has allowed recognizing squamation patterns comparable to those of sharks and links them to specific ecological groups. Our results suggest a remarkable ecological diversity in thelodonts. A large number of them were probably demersal species inhabiting hard substrates, within caves and crevices in rocky environments or reefs, taking advantage of the flexibility provided by their micromeric squamations. Contrary to classical interpretations, only few thelodonts were placed among demersal species inhabiting sandy and muddy substrates. Schooling species with defensive scales against ectoparasites could be also abundant suggesting that social interactions and pressure of ectoparasites were present in vertebrates as early the Silurian. The presence of species showing scales suggestive of low to moderate speed and a lifestyle presumably associated

  15. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor


    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread. 

  16. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor


    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  17. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes


    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.


    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  18. Introduction to the Special Volume on "Ecology and Ecological Modeling in R"


    Kneib, Thomas; Petzoldt, Thomas


    The third special volume in the "Foometrics in R" series of the Journal of Statistical Software collects a number of contributions describing statistical methodology and corresponding implementations related to ecology and ecological modelling. The scope of the papers ranges from theoretical ecology and ecological modelling to statistical methodology relevant for data analyses in ecological applications.

  19. World-Ecology and Ireland: The Neoliberal Ecological Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharae Deckard


    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Celtic Tiger, the socio-economic particularity of neoliberal capitalism in its Irish manifestation has increasingly been critiqued, but little attention has been paid to neoliberalism as ecology within Ireland. This article conducts an exploratory survey of the characteristics of the Irish neoliberal ecological regime during and after the Celtic Tiger, identifying the opening of new commodity frontiers (such as fracking, water, agro-biotechnology, and biopharma constituted in the neoliberal drive to appropriate and financialize nature. I argue for the usefulness of applying not only the tools of world-systems analysis, but also Jason W. Moore’s world-ecological paradigm, to analysis of Ireland as a semi-periphery. What is crucial to a macro-ecological understanding of Ireland’s role in the neoliberal regime of the world-ecology is the inextricability of its financial role as a tax haven and secrecy jurisdiction zone from its environmental function as a semi-peripheral pollution and water haven. We can adapt Jason W. Moore’s slogan that “Wall Street…becomes a way of organizing all of nature, characterized by the financialization of any income-generating activity” (Moore 2011b: 39 to say that to say that the “IFSC is a way of organizing nature,” with pernicious consequences for water, energy, and food systems in Ireland. Financial service centers and pharmaceutical factories, plantations and cattle ranches, tax havens and pollution havens, empires and common markets are all forms of environment-making that constellate human relations and extra-human processes into new ecological regimes. More expansive, dialectical understandings of “ecology” as comprising the whole of socio-ecological relations within the capitalist world-ecology—from farming to pharma to financialization—are crucial to forming configurations of knowledge able not only to take account of Ireland’s role in the environmental

  20. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman


    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  1. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.


    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  2. Interim balance: Ecology. Oekologische Zwischenbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogon, E; Jungk, R


    The world wide ecology problem is discussed with examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, and water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord is considered. Conservative in our political parties and their views on environmental protection are presented, including alliance between reds and 'greens''. The Rhine initiative is discussed. Lead respects no borders accounts experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life is hearing on environmental protection. Other subjects include: 'Green's in the Bremen Senate; policy in a hard-hearing world psychology of citizens' action groups; critical ecological research and scientific establishment; full productivity and ecology; the deluge to follow/hints on how to build an ark; symbiosis is more than coexistence/ecologists' social theory; throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science; scientific journals; alternative literature; and a teaching model for a teaching subject' ecology'.

  3. Parallel ecological networks in ecosystems (United States)

    Olff, Han; Alonso, David; Berg, Matty P.; Eriksson, B. Klemens; Loreau, Michel; Piersma, Theunis; Rooney, Neil


    In ecosystems, species interact with other species directly and through abiotic factors in multiple ways, often forming complex networks of various types of ecological interaction. Out of this suite of interactions, predator–prey interactions have received most attention. The resulting food webs, however, will always operate simultaneously with networks based on other types of ecological interaction, such as through the activities of ecosystem engineers or mutualistic interactions. Little is known about how to classify, organize and quantify these other ecological networks and their mutual interplay. The aim of this paper is to provide new and testable ideas on how to understand and model ecosystems in which many different types of ecological interaction operate simultaneously. We approach this problem by first identifying six main types of interaction that operate within ecosystems, of which food web interactions are one. Then, we propose that food webs are structured among two main axes of organization: a vertical (classic) axis representing trophic position and a new horizontal ‘ecological stoichiometry’ axis representing decreasing palatability of plant parts and detritus for herbivores and detrivores and slower turnover times. The usefulness of these new ideas is then explored with three very different ecosystems as test cases: temperate intertidal mudflats; temperate short grass prairie; and tropical savannah. PMID:19451126

  4. The feasibility of ecological taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, A.T.G.


    The feasibility of ecological taxation in general and for the Netherlands in specific was analyzed within the context of one of the NRP research projects. The analysis shows that the feasibility of ecological taxes is generally determined by the tax design, the taxing authority by which these taxes are imposed and by the constitutional, institutional and fiscal structures into which they are embedded. In order to be feasible, the analysis shows that ecologically relevant taxes have to be imposed by a taxing authority which is clearly related to relevant ecological circumstances. Since normal taxing authorities tend to be political units which most of the times do not fit this description, institutional and constitutional changes are necessary to introduce and impose (additional) feasible types of ecological taxes in practice. Within the context of the Netherlands, the analysis shows that the currently changing intergovernmental and financial relationships in this country provide important starting points for municipalities, water authorities and provinces to introduce feasible types of such taxes. 225 refs

  5. The ecology of religious beliefs (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.


    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  6. The beauty of sensory ecology. (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Aldana, Elis


    Sensory ecology is a discipline that focuses on how living creatures use information to survive, but not to live. By trans-defining the orthodox concept of sensory ecology, a serious heterodox question arises: how do organisms use their senses to live, i.e. to enjoy or suffer life? To respond to such a query the objective (time-independent) and emotional (non-rational) meaning of symbols must be revealed. Our program is distinct from both the neo-Darwinian and the classical ecological perspective because it does not focus on survival values of phenotypes and their functions, but asks for the aesthetic effect of biological structures and their symbolism. Our message recognizes that sensing apart from having a survival value also has a beauty value. Thus, we offer a provoking and inspiring new view on the sensory relations of 'living things' and their surroundings, where the innovating power of feelings have more weight than the privative power of reason.

  7. The Ecology of Human Mobility. (United States)

    Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Thums, Michele; Sequeira, Ana M M; Harcourt, Rob; Eguíluz, Víctor M


    Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems. In turn, big data on human movement can be explored in the context of animal movement ecology to provide solutions for urgent conservation problems and management challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Ecology of Human Mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Meekan, Mark G.


    Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems. In turn, big data on human movement can be explored in the context of animal movement ecology to provide solutions for urgent conservation problems and management challenges.

  9. Ecological units: definitions and application. (United States)

    Jax, Kurt


    Concepts of ecological units, such as population, community, and ecosystem, are at the basis of ecological theory and research and have increasingly become the focus of conservation strategies. Concepts of these units still suffer from inconsistencies and confusions over terminology. The different concepts are treated here together as a common "conceptual cluster," with similar ecological functions (roles) and similar problems in their definition and use. An analysis of the multitude of existing terms and concepts that have been developed for these units reveals that they differ with respect to at least four basic criteria: (i) the questions as to whether they are defined statistically or via a network of interactions; (ii) if their boundaries are drawn by topographical or process-related criteria; (iii) how high the required internal relationships are; and (iv) if they are perceived as "real" entities or abstractions by an observer The various definitions cannot be easily sorted into just a few types, but they can be characterized by several independent criteria. I argue that serious problems arise if the different possibilities of defining ecological units are not recognized and if the concepts are perceived as self-evident. The different concepts of ecological units should be defined and used in a philosophically informed manner I propose a dual approach to the use of ecological units. Generic meanings of the main concepts (especially population, community, and ecosystem) should be retained only as heuristically useful perspectives, while specific and "operational" definitions of the concepts as units should be developed, depending on specific purposes of their use. Some thoughts on the basic requirements for such definitions and the domains of their uses are briefly explained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimat M. Alilova


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research is to study environmental problems related to the decline of culture, the importance of philosophy in overcoming private and personal interests as well as the unilateral approach of man in his relationship to nature. The study shows how philosophy can participate in the formation of ecological culture, a new ecological consciousness in man, while ecological culture is called upon to resist technocratic stereotypes and the course of history was aimed at preventing the biosphere from becoming deserted. Discussion. On the basis of the analysis of literary sources, we used the method of socio-cultural and socio-natural approaches based on the possibility of philosophy to introduce a new life into culture, new ecological values and new ecological principles. To solve these problems, environmental philosophy develops new theories. Representatives of different cultures, ethnic groups, nations, religions must learn to coexist with each other. We consider philosophy as a means of teaching rapprochement between peoples and creating new opportunities for understanding and improving the environmental situation. Cultural development makes it possible to assess the level of a man’s knowledge of nature, himself and the world around him. Ecological culture is a way of connecting man with nature on the basis of deeper knowledge and understanding. Philosophy says that you cannot move away from nature and be lauded over it since this will destroy culture. Rational doctrines tend to put a person above other living beings so the synthesis of philosophy with culture can have a positive ecological meaning. Conclusion. The findings obtained can be recommended for practical use in schools, starting from primary school, as well as in secondary special educational institutions and universities. It is necessary to work on the motivation and values of people, develop a common and ecological culture. Only a cultured person can move from

  11. The chemical ecology of copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Selander, Erik


    for the functioning of the marine food web, much is still unknown. We synthesize current knowledge about chemical ecology of copepods including foraging, survival and reproduction. We also compile information on the sensory apparatus and new analytical approaches that may facilitate the identification of signal...... molecules. The review illustrates the importance of chemical interactions in many aspects of copepod ecology and identifies gaps in our knowledge, such as the lack of identified infochemicals and electrophysiological studies to confirm the function of sensory structures. We suggest approaches...

  12. The microbial ecology of permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Janet; Tas, Neslihan


    Permafrost constitutes a major portion of the terrestrial cryosphere of the Earth and is a unique ecological niche for cold-adapted microorganisms. There is a relatively high microbial diversity in permafrost, although there is some variation in community composition across different permafrost......-gas emissions. This Review describes new data on the microbial ecology of permafrost and provides a platform for understanding microbial life strategies in frozen soil as well as the impact of climate change on permafrost microorganisms and their functional roles....

  13. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Pisanko, Zh.Yi.


    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  14. Special issue introduction: Ecological modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massa, Ilmo; Andersen, Mikael Skou


    The contributions to this special issue of the Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning stem from an international conference on ecological modernization that took place at the Department of Social Policy of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in late 1998. They have been selected, among other...... reasons, for their possible contribution to conceptual understanding and clarification. While recent publications have explored the implications of ecological modernization in different settings (Mol & Sonnenfeld, 2000), here we try to put the concept under the microscope again, in the hope of clarifying...

  15. the ecology of an ecology project and some suggested adaptations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be ineffective in making the classroom teaching of ecology more meaningful. It may be ... schooling and certification offer a route to a more fulfilling life. It is perhaps too easy .... begin to say 11The way school is, is a problem and we want to do ...

  16. From Ecological Sounding Artifacts Towards Sonic Artifact Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Serafin, Stefania


    The discipline of sonic interaction design has been focused on the interaction between a single user and an artifact. This strongly limits one of the fundamental aspects of music as a social and interactive experience. In this paper we propose sonic artifact ecologies as a mean to examine interac...

  17. Ecological forestry in the Southeast: Understanding the ecology of fuels (United States)

    R.J. Mitchell; J.K. Hiers; J. O’Brien; G. Starr


    Fire is a dominant disturbance within many forested ecosystems worldwide. Understanding the complex feedbacks among vegetation as a fuel for fire, the effects of fuels on fire behavior, and the impact of fire behavior on future vegetation are critical for sustaining biodiversity in fire-dependent forests. Nonetheless, understanding in fire ecology has been limited in...

  18. Hollow Ecology: Ecological Modernization Theory and the Death of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Ewing


    Full Text Available The last few decades have seen the rise of ‘ecological modernization theory’ (EMT as a “green capitalist” tradition extending modernization theory into environmental sociology. This article uses a synthesis of political economy, world-systems theory, and political, economic, and environmental sociology to demonstrate that the EMT presumption of growth and profit as economic priorities (alongside its neglect of core-periphery relations produces many feedback loops which fatally undermine the viability of EMT’s own political, technological, and social prescriptions, alongside creating problems for the fundamental EMT concept of ‘ecological rationality.’ Furthermore, this article attempts to explain why “green capitalist” approaches to environmental analysis have influence within policy and social science circles despite their inadequacies within environmental sociology. Finally, this article argues that in order to address the ecological challenges of our era, environmental sociology needs to reject “green capitalist” traditions like ‘ecological modernization theory’ which presuppose the desirability and maintenance of profit and growth as economic priorities (and predominantly fail to critique power imbalances between core and non-core nations, and instead return to the development of traditions willing to critique the fundamental traits of the capitalist world-system.

  19. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.


    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  20. Increasing connectivity between metapopulation ecology and landscape ecology. (United States)

    Howell, Paige E; Muths, Erin; Hossack, Blake R; Sigafus, Brent H; Chandler, Richard B


    Metapopulation ecology and landscape ecology aim to understand how spatial structure influences ecological processes, yet these disciplines address the problem using fundamentally different modeling approaches. Metapopulation models describe how the spatial distribution of patches affects colonization and extinction, but often do not account for the heterogeneity in the landscape between patches. Models in landscape ecology use detailed descriptions of landscape structure, but often without considering colonization and extinction dynamics. We present a novel spatially explicit modeling framework for narrowing the divide between these disciplines to advance understanding of the effects of landscape structure on metapopulation dynamics. Unlike previous efforts, this framework allows for statistical inference on landscape resistance to colonization using empirical data. We demonstrate the approach using 11 yr of data on a threatened amphibian in a desert ecosystem. Occupancy data for Lithobates chiricahuensis (Chiricahua leopard frog) were collected on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR), Arizona, USA from 2007 to 2017 following a reintroduction in 2003. Results indicated that colonization dynamics were influenced by both patch characteristics and landscape structure. Landscape resistance increased with increasing elevation and distance to the nearest streambed. Colonization rate was also influenced by patch quality, with semi-permanent and permanent ponds contributing substantially more to the colonization of neighboring ponds relative to intermittent ponds. Ponds that only hold water intermittently also had the highest extinction rate. Our modeling framework can be widely applied to understand metapopulation dynamics in complex landscapes, particularly in systems in which the environment between habitat patches influences the colonization process. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Methods of ecological capability evaluation of forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, M.; Makhdoum, M.F.; Akbarnia, M.; Saghebtalebi, Kh.


    In this research common methods of ecological capability evaluation of forests were reviewed and limitations for performance were analysed. Ecological capability of forests is an index that show site potential in several role of wood production, soil conservation, flood control, biodiversity, conservation and water supply. This index is related to ecological characteristics of land, such as soil, micro climate, elevation, slope and aspect that affect potential of sites. Suitable method of ecological capability evaluation must be chosen according to the objective of forestry. Common methods for ecological capability evaluation include plant and animal diversity, site index curve, soil and land form, inter branches, index plants, leave analyses, analyses regeneration and ecological mapping

  2. Ecological risk assessment: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This conference was held November 14--18, 1993 in Houston, Texas for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on ecological risk assessment. This book is comprised of the abstracts of the presentations at this symposium. Individual abstracts have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Applied Ecology Seminar. Training Manual. (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Presented is material on planning, administering, collecting, evaluating, interpreting, and reporting biological data related to water quality studies in both fresh and marine waters. Topics include aquatic ecology, water pollution, taxonomy, bacteriology, bioassays, water quality enhancement, and administration of water quality standards. Each of…

  4. European ecological networks and greenways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Külvik, M.; Kristiansen, I.


    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been

  5. Ecological network analysis: network construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fath, B.D.; Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Hannon, B.


    Ecological network analysis (ENA) is a systems-oriented methodology to analyze within system interactions used to identify holistic properties that are otherwise not evident from the direct observations. Like any analysis technique, the accuracy of the results is as good as the data available, but

  6. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred


    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  7. Chemical ecology of the Thysanoptera (United States)

    Murray S. Blum


    The chemical ecology of the Thysanoptera is identified with a variety of natural products discharged in anal droplets during confrontations with adversaries. These exudates are fortified with defensive allomones that may function as repellents, contact irritants, or in some cases, fumigants. Thrips synthesize a large diversity of allomonal products that include...

  8. Ecological materials for solar architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik-Senegaenik, M.


    In general, materials which have been used in construction, have had a negative influence in all the phases of the life cycle. The effects can be seen in the form of tampering with the environment, overuse of electric power, harmful emissions, wastes and in the form of pollution with vapours, dust, fibres, poisonous and radioactive matter. Materials can be divided into three groups regarding their origin: natural materials, artificial mineral materials and synthetic materials. An assessment of separate influences on macro- and micro-environment shows a hierarchical scale of suitability of material use. Materials of natural origin (stone, clay, wood) and less artificial ones (brick, ceramic, metals, glass, lime, cement, concrete, mineral thermal-insulation materials) are most convenient for man and environment. Synthetic materials (plastics, polymers, synthetic thermal-insulation materials, synthetic pastes, composed synthetic materials) negatively influence macro- and micro-environment and therefore they should be used on an extremely selective and premeditated basis. Ecological structure of the future will demand the nowadays-established exploitation of natural sources of power and passive exploitation of natural resources. Introduction of ecological constructing is to be foreseen in planing of the future buildings. At present ecological constructing includes two principles ecological selection of materials and disintegration of composite materials and constructions. (au)

  9. Fynbos ecology: a preliminary synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Day, J


    Full Text Available Current knowledge and thinking on the ecology of the Mediterranean type sclerophyll shrublands and heath lands of the southern and south-western Cape is reviewed in 13 concise syntheses. The Fynbos Biome is defined and characterized in terms...

  10. Molecular ecology of microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H.; Cretoiu, M.S.; Stal, L.J.


    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep

  11. Ecological homogenization of residential macrosystems (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Meghan Avolio; Jeannine Cavender-Bares; Neil D. Bettez; J. Morgan Grove; Sharon J. Hall; Sarah E. Hobbie; Kelli L. Larson; Susannah B. Lerman; Dexter H. Locke; James B. Heffernan; Jennifer L. Morse; Christopher Neill; Kristen C. Nelson; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Diane E. Pataki; Colin Polsky; Rinku Roy Chowdhury; Tara L. E. Trammell


    Similarities in planning, development and culture within urban areas may lead to the convergence of ecological processes on continental scales. Transdisciplinary, multi-scale research is now needed to understand and predict the impact of human-dominated landscapes on ecosystem structure and function.

  12. Disturbance Ecology from nearby Supernovae


    Hartmann, D. H.; Kretschmer, K.; Diehl, R.


    Monte Carlo simulations of Galactic Supernovae are carried out to study the rate of nearby events, which may have a direct effect on Earth's ecology though ionizing radiation and cosmic ray bombardment. A nearby supernova may have left a radioactive imprint (60Fe) in recent galactic history.

  13. Ecology for conserving our sirenians (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.


    Review of: Ecology and conservation of the sirenia: dugongs and manatees. Helene Marsh, Thomas J. O'Shea and John E. Reynolds III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, 521 pp, ISBN 978-0-521-88828-8, US$135 and 978-0-521-71643-7, US$65.

  14. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  15. Toward a Developmental Ecological Psychology. (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C.


    Discusses Adolph's research on locomotion with regard to the requirements of an ecological psychology, especially the use of control laws; her examination of individual styles and normative patterns as it reflects a dynamic systems perspective; and her use of cognitive processes of decision making in explaining why infants approach or avoid a…

  16. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.


    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of

  17. Interactions between ecology and economics


    Bittig, Bernhard


    Interactions between economics and ecology are analyzed by means of a deductive approach as well as by means of an iteration model. Additional approaches are briefly touched upon, with the Black box approach being considered as particularly suitable. Finally, the limits of all thought models are defined.

  18. Parallel ecological networks in ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han; Alonso, David; Berg, Matty P.; Eriksson, B. Klemens; Loreau, Michel; Piersma, Theunis; Rooney, Neil


    In ecosystems, species interact with other species directly and through abiotic factors in multiple ways, often forming complex networks of various types of ecological interaction. Out of this suite of interactions, predator-prey interactions have received most attention. The resulting food webs,

  19. Linking Statistical and Ecological Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Keith; Parsons, Todd L.; Ijaz, Umer Z.; Lahti, Leo; Holmes, Ian; Quince, Christopher


    Neutral models which assume ecological equivalence between species provide null models for community assembly. In Hubbell's unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), many local communities are connected to a single metacommunity through differing immigration rates. Our ability to fit the

  20. Krsko NPP ecological information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, A.; Breznik, B.


    The Ecological Information System was developed and is used for continuous data collecting from different measuring points as well as for dose calculation in case of emergency. The system collects all the data which are continuously measured in the environment or might have influence to the environment or are necessary for evaluation of impact to the environment. (author)

  1. Ecological ethics and creation faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Körtner


    Full Text Available Over past decades a concept of ecological ethics has taken root, which is often equated with environmental ethics. Church and theology have also responded to the environmental crisis. In the last third of the past century an intense discourse about the concerns and extent of a so called creation ethics was conducted. In connection with the question of a creation ethics, and the global responsibility of humans for the biosphere of our planet, the topic of creation has also gained new attention in dogmatics. In this way, ecology has also become a topic of systematic theology. The article focuses on the debate in the German speaking context. Occasionally, a quasi-religious elevation of ecology to the status of a doctrine of salvation is observable. Because theology always also has a function of critique of religion, it must also critically engage the sometimes open and sometimes hidden religious contents and claims of eco-ethical concepts. For this purpose, the first step of the present contribution is to more precisely determine the concepts of creation and nature. Thereafter, the problem of anthropocentrism is analysed. In a further step, the concept of sustainability is analysed. In conclusion, the main features of a responsibility-ethics model of ecological ethics are outlined.

  2. The Ecological Economics of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Reisch, Lucia A.

    In accordance with the transdisciplinary basis of ecological economics, this volume encompasses contributions from different perspectives, often cutting across disciplines. It is divided into three parts that group contributions on · problematizing consumption both as a concept and as an economic...

  3. Production ecology of Thuja occidentalis (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Robert S. Seymour; Laura S. Kenefic


    Equations to predict branch and tree leaf area, foliar mass, and stemwood volume were developed from 25 destructively sampled northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees, a species whose production ecology has not been studied. Resulting models were applied to a large sample of 296 cored trees from 60 sites stratified across a soil gradient...

  4. Quantifying chaos for ecological stoichiometry. (United States)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep


    The theory of ecological stoichiometry considers ecological interactions among species with different chemical compositions. Both experimental and theoretical investigations have shown the importance of species composition in the outcome of the population dynamics. A recent study of a theoretical three-species food chain model considering stoichiometry [B. Deng and I. Loladze, Chaos 17, 033108 (2007)] shows that coexistence between two consumers predating on the same prey is possible via chaos. In this work we study the topological and dynamical measures of the chaotic attractors found in such a model under ecological relevant parameters. By using the theory of symbolic dynamics, we first compute the topological entropy associated with unimodal Poincaré return maps obtained by Deng and Loladze from a dimension reduction. With this measure we numerically prove chaotic competitive coexistence, which is characterized by positive topological entropy and positive Lyapunov exponents, achieved when the first predator reduces its maximum growth rate, as happens at increasing δ1. However, for higher values of δ1 the dynamics become again stable due to an asymmetric bubble-like bifurcation scenario. We also show that a decrease in the efficiency of the predator sensitive to prey's quality (increasing parameter ζ) stabilizes the dynamics. Finally, we estimate the fractal dimension of the chaotic attractors for the stoichiometric ecological model.

  5. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence. (United States)

    Dennehy, John J


    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Weed ecology and population dynamics (United States)

    A global rise in herbicide resistant weed genotypes, coupled with a growing demand for food produced with minimal external synthetic inputs, is driving producer interest in reducing reliance on herbicides for weed management. An improved understanding of weed ecology can support the design of weed s...

  7. Network spandrels reflect ecological assembly. (United States)

    Maynard, Daniel S; Serván, Carlos A; Allesina, Stefano


    Ecological networks that exhibit stable dynamics should theoretically persist longer than those that fluctuate wildly. Thus, network structures which are over-represented in natural systems are often hypothesised to be either a cause or consequence of ecological stability. Rarely considered, however, is that these network structures can also be by-products of the processes that determine how new species attempt to join the community. Using a simulation approach in tandem with key results from random matrix theory, we illustrate how historical assembly mechanisms alter the structure of ecological networks. We demonstrate that different community assembly scenarios can lead to the emergence of structures that are often interpreted as evidence of 'selection for stability'. However, by controlling for the underlying selection pressures, we show that these assembly artefacts-or spandrels-are completely unrelated to stability or selection, and are instead by-products of how new species are introduced into the system. We propose that these network-assembly spandrels are critically overlooked aspects of network theory and stability analysis, and we illustrate how a failure to adequately account for historical assembly can lead to incorrect inference about the causes and consequences of ecological stability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Ecology – A Pocket Guide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. Ecology – A Pocket Guide. Renee M Borges. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 99-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  9. School Effectiveness in Ecological Perspective. (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    This report focuses on the learning and development of primary and secondary school children, employing an "ecology of human development" model. This model is defined as involving the scientific study of the accommodation between growing human beings and the changing immediate settings in which they live and learn. The conceptual framework for the…

  10. Chemical Ecology of Stingless Bees. (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana


    Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: Meliponini) represent a highly diverse group of social bees confined to the world's tropics and subtropics. They show a striking diversity of structural and behavioral adaptations and are important pollinators of tropical plants. Despite their diversity and functional importance, their ecology, and especially chemical ecology, has received relatively little attention, particularly compared to their relative the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Here, I review various aspects of the chemical ecology of stingless bees, from communication over resource allocation to defense. I list examples in which functions of specific compounds (or compound groups) have been demonstrated by behavioral experiments, and show that many aspects (e.g., queen-worker interactions, host-parasite interactions, neuronal processing etc.) remain little studied. This review further reveals that the vast majority of studies on the chemical ecology of stingless bees have been conducted in the New World, whereas studies on Old World stingless bees are still comparatively rare. Given the diversity of species, behaviors and, apparently, chemical compounds used, I suggest that stingless bees provide an ideal subject for studying how functional context and the need for species specificity may interact to shape pheromone diversification in social insects.

  11. Mechanisms for the inversion of chirality: Global reaction route mapping of stereochemical pathways in a probable chiral extraterrestrial molecule, 2-aminopropionitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Vikas


    2-Aminopropionitrile (APN), a probable candidate as a chiral astrophysical molecule, is a precursor to amino-acid alanine. Stereochemical pathways in 2-APN are explored using Global Reaction Route Mapping (GRRM) method employing high-level quantum-mechanical computations. Besides predicting the conventional mechanism for chiral inversion that proceeds through an achiral intermediate, a counterintuitive flipping mechanism is revealed for 2-APN through chiral intermediates explored using the GRRM. The feasibility of the proposed stereochemical pathways, in terms of the Gibbs free-energy change, is analyzed at the temperature conditions akin to the interstellar medium. Notably, the stereoinversion in 2-APN is observed to be more feasible than the dissociation of 2-APN and intermediates involved along the stereochemical pathways, and the flipping barrier is observed to be as low as 3.68 kJ/mol along one of the pathways. The pathways proposed for the inversion of chirality in 2-APN may provide significant insight into the extraterrestrial origin of life

  12. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. (United States)

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K


    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system.

  13. Ecological palaeoecology: a missing link between ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.


    Full Text Available Palaeoecology is more than a palaeoenvironmental discipline; it is a science that is well-suited for supplying the empirical evidence necessary to test ecological hypotheses and contributes to our understanding of the interface of ecology and evolution. A critical time frame in palaeoecology is the often-overlooked Q-time dimension (centuries to millennia, which tends to be the most appropriate time dimension to examine ecology–evolution interactions. This paper discusses these topics from a conceptual perspective and provides examples of the contributions of palaeoecology to the study of ecology–evolution interactions. It also admonishes researchers about the threats of overlooking palaeoecology. Specifically, this paper argues that the neglect of palaeoecology may result in the loss of empirical support for ecology and its interactions with evolution as DNA-based phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies become more and more prevalent. The main concepts discussed are the time continuum, the notion of ecological palaeoecology and the empirical nature of palaeoecology in the face of more hypothetical approaches. More practically speaking, several examples are provided that highlight the utility of ecological palaeoecology for understanding a variety of processes, including ecological succession, community– environment equilibria, community assembly, biotic responses to environmental change, speciation and extinction, and biodiversity conservation. The ecology–evolution interface is analysed using two processes in which these disciplines interact intensively: ecological succession and long-range migration. This work concludes that both ecological palaeoecology (including ancient DNA records and DNA-based phylogenetics and phylogeography are needed to better understand the biosphere ecologically and the processes occurring at the ecology–evolution interface.La paleoecología es más que una disciplina ambiental, ya que proporciona las

  14. The ecological impacts of marine debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A.J.; Franeker, Van Jan A.; Thompson, Richard C.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.


    Anthropogenic debris contaminates marine habitats globally, leading to several perceived ecological impacts. Here, we critically and systematically review the literature regarding impacts of debris from several scientific fields to understand the weight of evidence regarding the ecological

  15. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies. (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore


    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  16. Ecological aspects influencing the implementation of inclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Assessment and Support Strategy, barriers to learning, ecological model, identification, inclusive ..... impedes the management of these learners in the mainstream schools. ..... An ecological systems theory perspective on youth.

  17. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be de...

  18. Reconciling ecology and economy in modern commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, W.A.; Schrijver, R.


    Keywords: heathland ecology, cultural history, vegetation ecology, heathland fauna, ecotourism, stake-holder analysis, cost-benefit analysis, food production, ecosystem services, heathland management, land use, agriculture, Europe, Natura 2000

  19. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008 (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  20. Integrative ecology: from molecules to ecosystems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodward, G


    .... As such, none of these chapters are typical representatives of any single traditional field in ecology, as between them they attempt to forge new links from molecular biology to ecosystems ecology...

  1. Statistical Physics Approaches to Microbial Ecology (United States)

    Mehta, Pankaj

    The unprecedented ability to quantitatively measure and probe complex microbial communities has renewed interest in identifying the fundamental ecological principles governing community ecology in microbial ecosystems. Here, we present work from our group and others showing how ideas from statistical physics can help us uncover these ecological principles. Two major lessons emerge from this work. First, large, ecosystems with many species often display new, emergent ecological behaviors that are absent in small ecosystems with just a few species. To paraphrase Nobel laureate Phil Anderson, ''More is Different'', especially in community ecology. Second, the lack of trophic layer separation in microbial ecology fundamentally distinguishes microbial ecology from classical paradigms of community ecology and leads to qualitative different rules for community assembly in microbes. I illustrate these ideas using both theoretical modeling and novel new experiments on large microbial ecosystems performed by our collaborators (Joshua Goldford and Alvaro Sanchez). Work supported by Simons Investigator in MMLS and NIH R35 R35 GM119461.

  2. Waianae Ecological Characterization Oahu, Hawaii 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Waianae Ecological Characterization is a digital synthesis of historical and current physical, ecological, and cultural information about the Waianae moku, which...

  3. Development and characteristics of applied ecology


    Sooth, Farina


    Master i anvendt økologi. Evenstad 2014 The science of applied ecology is lacking a general theory and a commonly acknowledged definition. Additionally, information about the development of applied ecology over the past years, the relation to other disciplines and the importance of applied ecology in different continents are scarce. This is problematic because applied ecology is confronted with growing problems and the society demands more and more that it fulfils its promise of solving pr...

  4. Ecological Values of Mangrove Forest Ecosystem


    Kusmana, Cecep


    Research on quantification of ecological values of mangrove forest ecosystem are urgently needed, due to its importance as the basics for utilization and management of resources. From the ecological point of vlew, the main prohlem of mangrove ecosystem is rarity and inconsistency of data and limited accurate methods inquantifying ecological values of that ecosystem. Results show that mangrove has the significant ecological values on coastal ecosystem. However, there must be further research t...

  5. Historical ecology: past, present and future. (United States)

    Szabó, Péter


    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Ecological research at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Research is organized around two major programs: thermal and aquatic stress and mineral cycling. These programs are strengthened by a previously established foundation of basic ecological knowledge. Research in basic ecology continues to be a major component of all SREL environmental programs. Emphasis in all programs has been placed upon field-oriented research relating to regional and local problems having broad ecological significance. For example, extensive research has been conducted in the Par Pond reservoir system and the Savannah River swamp, both of which have received thermal effluent, heavy metals, and low levels of radioisotopes. Furthermore, the availability of low levels of plutonium and uranium in both terrestrial and aquatic environments on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has provided an unusual opportunity for field research in this area. The studies seek to document the effects, to determine the extent of local environmental problems, and to establish predictable relationships which have general applicability. In order to accomplish this objective it has been imperative that studies be carried out in the natural, environmentally unaffected areas on the SRP as a vital part of the overall program. Progress is reported in forty-nine studies.

  7. The Encyclical Laudato Si': integral ecology, gender and deep ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eustáquio Diniz Alves


    Full Text Available Pope Jorge Mario Bergoglio released the "Encyclical Laudato Si': on the care of common home" on June 18, 2015, the same day that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA has shown that the temperature of Earth continues increasing and that May of 2015 was Earth's warmest month, since 1880. By endorsing the scientific knowledge in relation to anthropogenic factors on global warming and by defending actions to confront the causes of climate change and ecosystem degradation, the Holy See has taken a key step to put Catholics at the forefront of global ecological struggle and to encourage the signing of the global treaty to replace the Kyoto Protocol at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP-21, that will take place in December in Paris. But the encyclical of Pope Francis proposes a larger task that is to protect the poorest of the poor countries, addressing jointly the human environment and the natural environment from the perspective of an integral ecology. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the advances and limitations of the propositions of the encyclical Laudato Si ' and to expand the dialogue on gender relations and deep ecology.

  8. Asian Eden : large herbivore ecology in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrestani, F.S.


    The study of large mammalian herbivore ecology has a strong allometric tradition. The
    majority of studies that have helped better understand how body mass affects large herbivore
    ecology in the tropics, from a biological, functional, and ecological perspective, are from

  9. Methodical ecologization principles in construction management


    Nuzhina Irina Pavlovna; Yudakhina Olga Borisovna


    In the article the subject of ecologization of construction sector is presented, the necessity of ecologization technology and technological processes is proved. The article also presents principles of ecologically friendly management of construction and investment activities and describes these principles in detail.

  10. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior


    Chen, Xiaogang; Zhou, Dehu; Lin, Hui


    In terms of human behavior, company and government policy, it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  11. Aspects of an ecological theory of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, J. C.; Trampe, W.


    Our aim and knowledge-constitutive interest is to identify some central aspects of an ecological theory of language. In our understanding of building an integrative ecological theory of language, it seems useful to look first for roots of a special ecological understanding of language. Here...

  12. The use of ecological classification in management (United States)

    Constance A. Carpenter; Wolf-Dieter Busch; David T. Cleland; Juan Gallegos; Rick Harris; ray Holm; Chris Topik; Al Williamson


    Ecological classificafion systems range over a variety of scales and reflect a variety of scientific viewpoints. They incorporate or emphasize varied arrays of environmental factors. Ecological classifications have been developed for marine, wetland, lake, stream, and terrestrial ecosystems. What are the benefits of ecological classification for natural resource...

  13. Ecological value orientations of prospective secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ecological balance is believed to depend largely on values acquired in the course of his/her life. Putnam .... North American culture and the more ecological vision of the Latin American .... ecological/environmental value orientations of different segments of .... of prospective teachers in Ethiopia as compared to participants of.

  14. Ecological units of the Northern Region: Subsections (United States)

    John A. Nesser; Gary L. Ford; C. Lee Maynard; Debbie Dumroese


    Ecological units are described at the subsection level of the Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units. A total of 91 subsections are delineated on the 1996 map "Ecological Units of the Northern Region: Subsections," based on physical and biological criteria. This document consists of descriptions of the climate, geomorphology,...

  15. Bayesian inference with ecological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Link, William A


    This text is written to provide a mathematically sound but accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference specifically for environmental scientists, ecologists and wildlife biologists. It emphasizes the power and usefulness of Bayesian methods in an ecological context. The advent of fast personal computers and easily available software has simplified the use of Bayesian and hierarchical models . One obstacle remains for ecologists and wildlife biologists, namely the near absence of Bayesian texts written specifically for them. The book includes many relevant examples, is supported by software and examples on a companion website and will become an essential grounding in this approach for students and research ecologists. Engagingly written text specifically designed to demystify a complex subject Examples drawn from ecology and wildlife research An essential grounding for graduate and research ecologists in the increasingly prevalent Bayesian approach to inference Companion website with analyt...

  16. Ecological economics and institutional change. (United States)

    Krall, Lisi; Klitgaard, Kent


    Ecological economics remains unfinished in its effort to provide a framework for transforming the economy so that it is compatible with biophysical limits. Great strides have been made in valuing natural capital and ecosystem services and recognizing the need to limit the scale of economic activity, but the question of how to effectively transform the economy to limit the scale of economic activity remains unclear. To gain clarity about the institutional changes necessary to limit the scale of economic activity, it is essential that ecological economics understands the limitations of its neoclassical roots and expands its theoretical framework to include how markets are embedded in social and institutional structures. This has long been the domain of institutional economics and heterodox political economy. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Agrarian philosophy and ecological ethics. (United States)

    Thompson, Paul B


    Mainstream environmental ethics grew out of an approach to value that was rooted in a particular conception of rationality and rational choice. As weaknesses in this approach have become more evident, environmental philosophers have experimented with both virtue ethics and with pragmatism as alternative starting points for developing a more truly ecological orientation to environmental philosophy. However, it is possible to see both virtue ethics and pragmatism as emerging from older philosophical traditions that are here characterized as "agrarian." Agrarian philosophy stresses the role of nature, soil and climate in the formation of moral character as well as social and political institutions. As such, reaching back to the agrarian tradition may provide a way to move forward with both virtue oriented themes as well as pragmatist themes in developing ecological ethics.

  18. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation. (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian


    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  19. Ecological Stoichiometry of Ocean Plankton (United States)

    Moreno, Allison R.; Martiny, Adam C.


    Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained. We propose that specific physiological mechanisms have a strong impact on plankton and community stoichiometry in nutrient-rich environments, whereas biogeochemical interactions are important for the stoichiometry of the oligotrophic gyres. Finally, we outline key areas with missing information that is needed to advance understanding of the present and future ecological stoichiometry of ocean plankton.

  20. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten


    Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...... as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main...

  1. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.


    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  2. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.


    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units

  3. Social Ecology and Aesthetic Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen, Connor


    Full Text Available While ecocriticism has become a respected field in literary theory and in the broader landscape of aesthetic philosophy, it could benefit from an enhanced ethical-political framework which social ecology – an underrated critical theory developed by Murray Bookchin – could provide. This essay attempts to tease out the potentials for such a framework, integrating the insights of social ecology, ecocriticism, Critical Realism, and John Dewey's aesthetic concepts into a layered idea-set used for the study of all kinds of aesthetic objects, from popular art to the gallery arts. Its key principles are the emergence of aesthetic objects (including formal artworks out of congealed human experience, the relation between organism and environment in assessing meaning, the breakdown of implicit or overt hierarchies within a work, and the idea of the artist and art-critic as a "gardener".

  4. Political ecology of Bruno Latour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birešev Ana


    Full Text Available The paper explores Latour’s conception of political ecology and its theoretical and political implications. The first part of the paper shows Latour’s critique of theoretical frameworks of scientific and political practices, which, in his opinion, constrain a true discussion on ecological crises by simplifying them and putting them into readymade interpretative models. The second part of the paper examines the notions - the collective, representation, propositions, articulation, and parliament of things - central to understanding Latour’s idea of involvement of humans and non-humans in politics. Finally, the paper explores the potentials and constraints of Latour’s idea of political community of new political subjects (hybrid entities, which is constituted in controversies and through controversies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  5. Ecology scientific and practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medori, P.; Devaux, J.; Faurie, C.; Ferra, Ch.


    In this work devoted to ecology and ecosystems, is a chapter relative to the nuclear power and its pollutions in environment. From the nuisances of operating nuclear facilities to the problem of radioactive wastes management, each kind of risk is studied. The fact that any problem can become a world problem, and the example of Chernobyl accident proved it, gives a particular dimension to nuclear energy use. (N.C.)

  6. Need for an Ecological Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Wickramasinghe


    Full Text Available The article was published in the Sri Lankan newspaper 'The Island' on the 30th November 2005 after the World Environmental Education Congress (WEEC held in Milan. Author hopes it could provide a base for a project for senior school children or more senior students to devise an Ecological Index and ‘If nothing else, it could help them in thinking out the issues involved!’ Author supposes that could be a form of environmental education.

  7. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Ecuador (United States)


    years occurred in Peru in the northern departments bordering Ecuador in 1992-1994. Sylvatic plague is endemic in the southern provinces of Loja and... Ecuador ) Micrurus bocourti (Pacific lowlands of western Ecuador ) Micrurus catamayensis (Catamayo Valley, Loja Province) Micrurus dumerilii spp...Disease Vector Ecology Profile Ecuador -~· ""’ -.. ~ """ Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center’ Armed Forces Pest Management

  8. Used lubricants and ecological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimov, A.Yu.; Dzhamalov, A.A.; Lashkhi, V.L.


    This planet is undergoing a severe ecological crisis. The consequent problems include not only how to prevent the destruction of contemporary civilization, but also how to preserve mankind as a biological species. In the onset of this crisis, used lubricants (ULs) play a role that is by no means the least important. Every year, the worldwide discharge of petroleum products to the biosphere is approximately 6 million tonnes, of which more than 50% consists of ULs. The ecologically dangerous components of both commercial lubricants and used lubricants are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are originally present in crude oil; polyhalobiphenyls, mainly polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) of anthropogenic origin; sulfur- and chlorine-containing additives; a number of biocides; organic compounds of metals (lead, barium, antimony, zinc); and nitrites. These substances are distributed in the atmosphere, water, and soil, entering the food chain and appearing in foodstuffs. Moreover, hydrocarbons of petroleum and synthetic oils with a low degree of biodegradability (10-30%) accumulate in the environment and may shift the ecological equilibrium (accelerated multiplication and mutation of microorganisms that assimilate petroleum products). 32 refs., 1 fig

  9. Ecological, biological balances and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.L.


    The scientific work within the activity ''ecological/biological balances and conservation'' is summarised in this report. The aims of the activity during its existence between 1992 and 1994 have been to: (i) arrange a workshop and publish the presentations on the environmental aspects of energy forest cultivations, (ii) perform joint scientific work together with the activity group on ''biological disposal of wastewaters and sludges'', that is closely related to environmental problems, and (iii) produce ecological guidelines concerning energy forestry, suitable for advisers and farmers dealing with bioenergy problems. The most important results from the workshop were the environmental benefits from energy forestry when compared with intensive agriculture and forestry. Energy forestry has positive influence on the carbon balances, nutrient recycling, and soil sustainability. The effects are also positive on the natural flora and fauna, which in most cases are enriched when compared with agricultural crops. From the joint efforts of the two activities the main result was a study tour, conference and workshop, concentrating on biological purification systems. The most promising system seems to be the vegetation filters of short rotation coppice. The report on ecological guidelines contains a number of ideas and recommendations for establishment, management, and harvesting of energy forests in an environmentally acceptable way. It also gives advice on how to locate the stands to minimise the risk of nutrient leakage from arable land. (Author)

  10. Ecological economics and economic growth. (United States)

    Victor, Peter A


    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M


    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  12. The movement ecology of seagrasses. (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos


    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  13. Theoretical ecology as etiological from the start. (United States)

    Donhauser, Justin


    The world's leading environmental advisory institutions look to ecological theory and research as an objective guide for policy and resource management decision-making. In addition to the theoretical and broadly philosophical merits of doing so, it is therefore practically significant to clear up confusions about ecology's conceptual foundations and to clarify the basic workings of inferential methods used in the science. Through discussion of key moments in the genesis of the theoretical branch of ecology, this essay elucidates a general heuristic role of teleological metaphors in ecological research and defuses certain enduring confusions about work in ecology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction based on ecological network analysis


    Chen, Shaoqing; Fath, Brian D.; Chen, Bin


    Dam construction is regarded as one of the major factors contributing to significant modifications of the river ecosystems, and the ecological risk (ER) assessment of dam construction has received growing attention in recent years. In the present study, we explored the potential ecological risk caused by dam project based on the general principles of the ecological risk assessment. Ecological network analysis was proposed as the usable analytic method for the implement of ecological risk asse...

  15. [Regional ecological planning and ecological network construction: a case study of "Ji Triangle" Region]. (United States)

    Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun


    By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built.

  16. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  17. Ecological and Economic Problems of Environmental Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashchenko Maryna A.


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining a common mechanism for assessing the ecological and economic threats and ecological losses on the basis of a long-term study to ensure the environmental security of the State. The necessity of a new approach to the State regulation through achievement of environmental security is displayed, that will allow to reduce tensions of the ecological-economic problems in Ukraine. For implementation of this approach, a general mechanism for estimation of ecological-economic threats and ecological losses is provided, which is carried out through formation of an integral costs system. The costs system is presented in the article in the form of an in-depth mechanism for estimating the ecological-economic threats on the example of ecological impacts. Structuring and preparation of the costs system for applied researches is the next stage of this prolonged research.

  18. Multigenerational Independent Colony for Extraterrestrial Habitation, Autonomy, and Behavior Health (MICEHAB): An Investigation of a Long Duration, Partial Gravity, Autonomous Rodent Colony (United States)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Simon, Matthew A.; Antol, Jeffrey; Chai, Patrick R.; Jones, Christopher A.; Klovstad, Jordan J.; Neilan, James H.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Williams, Phillip A.; Bednara, Michael; hide


    The path from Earth to Mars requires exploration missions to be increasingly Earth-independent as the foundation is laid for a sustained human presence in the following decades. NASA pioneering of Mars will expand the boundaries of human exploration, as a sustainable presence on the surface requires humans to successfully reproduce in a partial gravity environment independent from Earth intervention. Before significant investment is made in capabilities leading to such pioneering efforts, the challenges of multigenerational mammalian reproduction in a partial gravity environment need be investigated. The Multi-generational Independent Colony for Extraterrestrial Habitation, Autonomy, and Behavior health is designed to study these challenges. The proposed concept is a conceptual, long duration, autonomous habitat designed to house rodents in a partial gravity environment with the goal of understanding the effects of partial gravity on mammalian reproduction over multiple generations and how to effectively design such a facility to operate autonomously while keeping the rodents healthy in order to achieve multiple generations. All systems are designed to feed forward directly to full-scale human missions to Mars. This paper presents the baseline design concept formulated after considering challenges in the mission and vehicle architectures such as: vehicle automation, automated crew health management/medical care, unique automated waste disposal and hygiene, handling of deceased crew members, reliable long-duration crew support systems, and radiation protection. This concept was selected from an architectural trade space considering the balance between mission science return and robotic and autonomy capabilities. The baseline design is described in detail including: transportation and facility operation constraints, artificial gravity system design, habitat design, and a full-scale mock-up demonstration of autonomous rodent care facilities. The proposed concept has

  19. The 2P1/2 → 2P3/2 laser transition in atomic iodine and the problem of search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P


    It is proposed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) at a wavelength of 1.315 μm of the laser 2 P 1/2 → 2 P 3/2 transition in the atomic iodine, which can be used for this purpose as the natural frequency reference. The search at this wavelength is promising because active quantum filters (AQFs) with the quantum sensitivity limit have been developed for this wavelength, which are capable of receiving laser signals, consisting of only a few photons, against the background of emission from a star under study. In addition, high-power iodine lasers emitting diffraction-limited radiation at 1.315 μm have been created, which highly developed ETI also can have. If a ETI sends in our direction a diffraction-limited 10-ns, 1-kJ laser pulse with the beam diameter of 10 m, a receiver with an AQF mounted on a ten-meter extra-atmospheric optical telescope can detect this signal at a distance of up to 300 light years, irrespective of the ETI position on the celestial sphere. The realisation of the projects for manufacturing optical telescopes of diameter 30 m will increase the research range up to 2700 light years. A weak absorption of the 1.315-μm radiation in the Earth atmosphere (the signal is attenuated by less than 20%) allows the search for ETI signals by using ground telescopes equipped with adaptive optical systems. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Ecology

    CERN Multimedia



    Brice Lalonde est un militant de longue date; en tant qu'étudiant il a participé aux journées de Mai 1968 à Paris. A l'époque il était président de l'Union Nationale des Etudiants de France à la Sorbonne. Ensuite il s'est tourné vers l'écologie et en parlera ce soir.

  1. [Using ecology thinking reconstructing traditional agronomy: role of production ecology]. (United States)

    Wang, Song-Liang


    Traditional agronomy, as a discipline or specialty, is originated from the reductionism thinking of neoteric experimental sciences and motivated by the great success of industrialized revolution, but loses the ensemble grasp of the relationships between agricultural organisms and their resources and environment, i.e., agroecosystem mechanism. Moreover, due to the excessively relying on exogenous fossil energy input and the monoculture with a few highly productive crop cultivars, the agricultural interior sustainability has unceasingly lost, making our mankind facing the double crises of grain security and food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to reconstruct the traditional agronomy and its educational system. In this paper, the author proposed to link traditional agronomy with ecology, establishing agroecology as the core subject and agroecosystem management as the core applied system, and in particular, establishing 'production ecology' to fill up the wide gap between the crop cultivation and farming system and the crop genetics and breeding, the two second grade disciplines under agronomy. Ideologically and methodologically, this proposal could provide disciplinary, scientific, and educational bases to authentically implement the strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.

  2. [Urban ecological risk assessment: a review]. (United States)

    Wang, Mei-E; Chen, Wei-Ping; Peng, Chi


    With the development of urbanization and the degradation of urban living environment, urban ecological risks caused by urbanization have attracted more and more attentions. Based on urban ecology principles and ecological risk assessment frameworks, contents of urban ecological risk assessment were reviewed in terms of driven forces, risk resources, risk receptors, endpoints and integrated approaches for risk assessment. It was suggested that types and degrees of urban economical and social activities were the driven forces for urban ecological risks. Ecological functional components at different levels in urban ecosystems as well as the urban system as a whole were the risk receptors. Assessment endpoints involved in changes of urban ecological structures, processes, functional components and the integrity of characteristic and function. Social-ecological models should be the major approaches for urban ecological risk assessment. Trends for urban ecological risk assessment study should focus on setting a definite protection target and criteria corresponding to assessment endpoints, establishing a multiple-parameter assessment system and integrative assessment approaches.

  3. Epochality, Global Capitalism and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hope


    Full Text Available What type of capitalism do we live in today? My answer to this question draws upon two interrelated lines of argument. Firstly, I will argue that we inhabit an epoch of global capitalism. The precursors of this kind of capitalism originated from the late nineteenth century when the development of telegraph networks, modern transport systems and world time zones provided a global template for industrialisation and Western imperialism. From about 1980 a confluence of global events and processes bought a fully-fledged global capitalism into being. These included the collapse of Fordist Keynesianism, national Keynesianism and Soviet Communism along with First, Second and Third World demarcations; the international proliferation of neo-liberal policy regimes; the growth of transnational corporations in all economic sectors; the predominance of financialisation and the reconstitution of global workforces. Secondly, I will argue that the shift from organic surface energy to underground fossil energy intertwined the time of the earth with the time of human history as nature was being instrumentalised as a resource for humanity. Understanding the capitalist relations of power involved here requires that we rethink the emergence of industrial capitalism in the historical context of a world system built upon unequal socio-ecological exchange between core and periphery. Today, global capitalism has intensified the anthropogenic feedback loops associated with CO2 emissions and climate change and universalised the organisational frameworks of profit extraction and socio-ecological destruction. I refer here to the transnational systems of fossil fuel capitalism along with their interlinkages with financialisation and advertising/commodity fetishism. From the preceding lines of argument I will briefly outline the intra-capitalist and planetary-ecological crises out of which transnational coalitions of opposition might emerge.

  4. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 2: Theme summary. 3: Search for extraterrestrial intelligence (no. 9). A: Theme statement. B. 26 April 1976 presentation. C. Summary. D. Newer initiatives (form 4). E. Initiative actions (form 5) (United States)


    Preliminary (1977-1983), intermediate (1982-1988), and long term (1989+) phases of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) program are examined as well as the benefits to be derived in radioastronomy and the problems to be surmounted in radio frequency interference. The priorities, intrinsic value, criteria, and strategy for the search are discussed for both terrestrial and lunar-based CYCLOPS and for a space SETI system located at lunar liberation point L4. New initiatives related to antenna independent technology, multichannel analyzers, and radio frequency interference shielding are listed. Projected SETI program costs are included.

  5. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh


    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  6. Energy, ecology, and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Richard F


    Energy, Ecology, and the Environment discusses how our need for energy and the different means required to obtain it affect the environment and the harnessing of different natural resources. The book also aims to show more efficient ways to use and generate energy. The book, after a brief introduction to the concept of energy, covers topics such as the different energy resources and the demands, costs, and policies regarding energy. The book also discusses the problems brought about by the production of energy such as the hazards to nature and man; environmental problems and pollution; and

  7. Applications of fractals in ecology. (United States)

    Sugihara, G; M May, R


    Fractal models describe the geometry of a wide variety of natural objects such as coastlines, island chains, coral reefs, satellite ocean-color images and patches of vegetation. Cast in the form of modified diffusion models, they can mimic natural and artificial landscapes having different types of complexity of shape. This article provides a brief introduction to fractals and reports on how they can be used by ecologists to answer a variety of basic questions, about scale, measurement and hierarchy in, ecological systems. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Advances in Ecological Speciation: an integrative approach. (United States)

    Faria, Rui; Renaut, Sebastien; Galindo, Juan; Pinho, Catarina; Melo-Ferreira, José; Melo, Martim; Jones, Felicity; Salzburger, Walter; Schluter, Dolph; Butlin, Roger


    The role of natural selection in promoting reproductive isolation has received substantial renewed interest within the last two decades. As a consequence, the study of ecological speciation has become an extremely productive research area in modern evolutionary biology. Recent innovations in sequencing technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the mechanisms involved in ecological speciation. Genome scans provide significant insights but have some important limitations; efforts are needed to integrate them with other approaches to make full use of the sequencing data deluge. An international conference 'Advances in Ecological Speciation' organized by the University of Porto (Portugal) aimed to review current progress in ecological speciation. Using some of the examples presented at the conference, we highlight the benefits of integrating ecological and genomic data and discuss different mechanisms of parallel evolution. Finally, future avenues of research are suggested to advance our knowledge concerning the role of natural selection in the establishment of reproductive isolation during ecological speciation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ecologically Sound Procedural Generation of Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Onrust


    Full Text Available Current techniques for the creation and exploration of virtual worlds are largely unable to generate sound natural environments from ecological data and to provide interactive web-based visualizations of such detailed environments. We tackle this challenge and propose a novel framework that (i explores the advantages of landscape maps and ecological statistical data, translating them to an ecologically sound plant distribution, and (ii creates a visually convincing 3D representation of the natural environment suitable for its interactive visualization over the web. Our vegetation model improves techniques from procedural ecosystem generation and neutral landscape modeling. It is able to generate diverse ecological sound plant distributions directly from landscape maps with statistical ecological data. Our visualization model integrates existing level of detail and illumination techniques to achieve interactive frame rates and improve realism. We validated with ecology experts the outcome of our framework using two case studies and concluded that it provides convincing interactive visualizations of large natural environments.

  10. Mapping Social Ecological Systems Archetypes (United States)

    Rocha, J. C.; Malmborg, K.; Gordon, L.


    Achieving sustainable development goals requires targeting and monitoring sustainable solutions tailored to different social and ecological contexts. Elinor Ostrom stressed that there is no panaceas or universal solutions to environmental problems, and developed a social-ecological systems' (SES) framework -a nested multi tier set of variables- to help diagnose problems, identify complex interactions, and solutions tailored to each SES arena. However, to our knowledge, the SES framework has only been applied to over a hundred cases, and typically reflect the analysis of local case studies with relatively small coverage in space and time. While case studies are context rich and necessary, their conclusions might not reach policy making instances. Here we develop a data driven method for upscaling Ostrom's SES framework and applied to a context where we expect data is scarce, incomplete, but also where sustainable solutions are badly needed. The purpose of upscaling the framework is to create a tool that facilitates decision making on data scarce environments such as developing countries. We mapped SES by applying the SES framework to poverty alleviation and food security issues in the Volta River basin in Ghana and Burkina Faso. We found archetypical configurations of SES in space given data availability, we study their change over time, and discuss where agricultural innovations such as water reservoirs might have a stronger impact at increasing food security and therefore alleviating poverty and hunger. We conclude outlining how the method can be used in other SES comparative studies.

  11. Ecological approaches to human nutrition. (United States)

    DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Palm, Cheryl; Remans, Roseline


    Malnutrition affects a large number of people throughout the developing world. Approaches to reducing malnutrition rarely focus on ecology and agriculture to simultaneously improve human nutrition and environmental sustainability. However, evidence suggests that interdisciplinary approaches that combine the knowledge bases of these disciplines can serve as a central strategy in alleviating hidden hunger for the world's poorest. To describe the role that ecological knowledge plays in alleviating hidden hunger, considering human nutrition as an overlooked ecosystem service. We review existing literature and propose a framework that expands on earlier work on econutrition. We provide novel evidence from case studies conducted by the authors in western Kenya and propose a framework for interdisciplinary collaboration to alleviate hidden hunger, increase agricultural productivity, and improve environmental sustainability. Our review supports the concept that an integrated approach will impact human nutrition. We provide evidence that increased functional agrobiodiversity can alleviate anemia, and interventions that contribute to environmental sustainability can have both direct and indirect effects on human health and nutritional well-being. Integrated and interdisciplinary approaches are critical to reaching development goals. Ecologists must begin to consider not only how their field can contribute to biodiversity conservation, but also, the relationship between biodiversity and provisioning of nontraditional ecosystem services such as human health. Likewise, nutritionists and agronomists must recognize that many of the solutions to increasing human wellbeing and health can best be achieved by focusing on a healthy environment and the conservation of ecosystem services.

  12. Game theory and plant ecology. (United States)

    McNickle, Gordon G; Dybzinski, Ray


    The fixed and plastic traits possessed by a plant, which may be collectively thought of as its strategy, are commonly modelled as density-independent adaptations to its environment. However, plant strategies may also represent density- or frequency-dependent adaptations to the strategies used by neighbours. Game theory provides the tools to characterise such density- and frequency-dependent interactions. Here, we review the contributions of game theory to plant ecology. After briefly reviewing game theory from the perspective of plant ecology, we divide our review into three sections. First, game theoretical models of allocation to shoots and roots often predict investment in those organs beyond what would be optimal in the absence of competition. Second, game theoretical models of enemy defence suggest that an individual's investment in defence is not only a means of reducing its own tissue damage but also a means of deflecting enemies onto competitors. Finally, game theoretical models of trade with mutualistic partners suggest that the optimal trade may reflect competition for access to mutualistic partners among plants. In short, our review provides an accessible entrance to game theory that will help plant ecologists enrich their research with its worldview and existing predictions. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. The maturing of microbial ecology. (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M


    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  14. The water, fundamental ecological base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, Luis Humberto


    To speak of ecology and the man's interaction with the environment takes, in fact implicit many elements that, actuating harmoniously generates a conducive entropy to a better to be, however it is necessary to hierarchy the importance of these elements, finding that the water, not alone to constitute sixty five percent of the total volume of the planet, or sixty percent of the human body, but to be the well called molecule of the life, it is constituted in the main element to consider in the study of the ecology. The water circulates continually through the endless hydrological cycle of condensation, precipitation, filtration, retention, evaporation, precipitation and so forth; however, due to the quick growth of the cities, its expansion of the green areas or its border lands, result of a demographic behavior and of inadequate social establishment; or of the advance industrial excessive, they produce irreparable alterations in the continuous processes of the water production, for this reason it is fundamental to know some inherent problems to the sources of water. The water, the most important in the renewable natural resources, essential for the life and for the achievement of good part of the man's goals in their productive function, it is direct or indirectly the natural resource more threatened by the human action

  15. Ecology and Education in Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Miller


    Full Text Available Landscape architects engage in a wide range of projects relating to environmental quality. Indeed, the goals of preserving biodiversity and maintaining the integrity of ecological function is implicit in the charters of several of the discipline's professional organisations. Nonetheless, there is widespread opinion that much of the potential of design to contribute to environmental solutions goes unrealised. There are numerous explanations that purport to account for this situation; in this paper, we focus on one, the assertion that degree programmes in landscape architecture generally do a poor job of preparing students for practice grounded in ecological awareness. We examined the validity of this assertion by quantifying the amount and form of ecology-based coursework required of landscape architecture students. We surveyed the curricula of all 63 accredited, first-professional degree programmes in North America (28 offering a BLA, 17 offering an MLA and 18 offering both. We focused on required courses that could be categorised as emphasising information-based ecology, ecology/design integration, or plant identification and ecology. We recorded the level (introductory or advanced and number of credit hours for each course, and the total number of credits required for graduation in each programme. Thirty-seven undergraduate programmes required an introductory information-based ecology course. Only 13 required an advanced class in ecology and, of these, only three required coursework in landscape ecology. All of the undergraduate programmes except one required a plant class. Ten of the graduate programmes required an information-based class, an advanced, except one. Six required a course in landscape ecology. Eight required at least one ecology-design integration course, yet had no requirements regarding information-based courses. Thirty graduate programmes required at least one plant course. We discuss the implications of these results and

  16. [Ecological and hygienic problems of nanotech progress]. (United States)

    Latyshevskaia, N I; Strekalova, A S


    In article necessity of development of new directions of researches--nanoecology (ecology of nanoindustry) and nanohygiene (hygiene of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials) is proved. On the basis of the spent review key ecological and hygienic problems of nanoindustrial development are systematized and also debatable questions are allocated. The conclusion is drawn on necessity of an intensification of studying of ecological and hygienic aspects of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.

  17. A conception of ecological providing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshkina, S.


    Full text: Ecological proving ground is a multifunctional intersectoral and interterritorial complex. The proving ground is created to organize the work of the Regional System of Ecological Safety, its structure and elements, and their unification and conversion into national system. It's also created for the working out of some questions of technical policy and normative-legal regulation in the field of ecology. The main task is the elaboration of mechanisms for the co-operation of the legislative executive bodies and their regional structure in the process of creation adoption and working of the Complex Regional System of Ecological Safety. The directions of polygon's activity: 1. Sanitary-epidemic protection of population. 2. Radiational Safety. 3. Chemical Safety. 4. Monitoring of Ecological situation and normalization of the environment. 4.1. Control of contamination of the waters. 4.2. Control of contamination of the air. 4.3. Ecological monitoring of soil. 4.4. State and protection of flora and fauna. 5. Ecologically pure agricultural production on the territory of the polygon. 5.1. Radiational and chemical control of agricultural areas and production. 5.2. Production of pure products. 6. The creation of normative, legal, informational, methodical and metrological supply of polygon's activity. 7. Optimization of the models of ecological situation. 8. Ecological informational-educational activity. The choice of territory for the polygon is based on the following statements: the intensity of ecological situation; the topography of the environment; the density of population; the availability of scientific base; the intensity of social movements. Some experience, that would allow to improve existing ecological legislation and spread some tried methods of supply of ecological safety on the territory of Russia, will be gained as a result. (author)

  18. Historical ecology: past, present and future


    Szabó, Péter


    The term ‘historical ecology’ has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and c...

  19. A universal simulator for ecological models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Niels


    Software design is an often neglected issue in ecological models, even though bad software design often becomes a hindrance for re-using, sharing and even grasping an ecological model. In this paper, the methodology of agile software design was applied to the domain of ecological models. Thus...... the principles for a universal design of ecological models were arrived at. To exemplify this design, the open-source software Universal Simulator was constructed using C++ and XML and is provided as a resource for inspiration....

  20. Some empirical evidence for ecological dissonance theory. (United States)

    Miller, D I; Verhoek-Miller, N; Giesen, J M; Wells-Parker, E


    Using Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory as a model, the extension to Barker's ecological theory, referred to as ecological dissonance theory, was developed. Designed to examine the motivational dynamics involved when environmental systems are in conflict with each other or with cognitive systems, ecological dissonance theory yielded five propositions which were tested in 10 studies. This summary of the studies suggests operationally defined measures of ecological dissonance may correlate with workers' satisfaction with their jobs, involvement with their jobs, alienation from their work, and to a lesser extent, workers' conflict resolution behavior and communication style.

  1. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008 (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  2. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  3. Ecological education and environmental protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejuniene, E.


    One of important directions of teaching processes in Lithuania now is ecological education and environment protection training. The real possibility to involve scientists into students, teachers ecological education appeared since 1993 when scientific programme 'Ignalina NPP and the Environment' was launched. Scientists working at Drukshiai Ecological Station together with specialists from Pedagogical University and Institute of Pedagogy prepared teaching programmes, methodical aids. During 1993 - 1997 31 measures - ecological camps for schoolchildren and students as well as seminars and workshops for teachers were organized; 551 participants took part. (author)

  4. Asteroids and Archaean crustal evolution: Tests of possible genetic links between major mantle/crust melting events and clustered extraterrestrial bombardments (United States)

    Glikson, A. Y.


    Since the oldest intact terrestrial rocks of ca. 4.0 Ga and oldest zircon xenocrysts of ca. 4.3 Ga measured to date overlap with the lunar late heavy bombardment, the early Precambrian record requires close reexamination vis a vis the effects of megaimpacts. The identification of microtektite-bearing horizons containing spinals of chondritic chemistry and Ir anomalies in 3.5-3.4-Ga greenstone belts provides the first direct evidence for large-scale Archaean impacts. The Archaean crustal record contains evidence for several major greenstone-granite-forming episodes where deep upwelling and adiabatic fusion of the mantle was accompanied by contemporaneous crustal anatexis. Isotopic age studies suggest evidence for principal age clusters about 3.5, 3.0, and 2.7 (+/- 0.8) Ga, relics of a ca. 3.8-Ga event, and several less well defined episodes. These peak events were accompanied and followed by protracted thermal fluctuations in intracrustal high-grade metamorphic zones. Interpretations of these events in terms of internal dynamics of the Earth are difficult to reconcile with the thermal behavior of silicate rheologies in a continuously convecting mantle regime. A triggering of these episodes by mantle rebound response to intermittent extraterrestrial asteroid impacts is supported by (1) identification of major Archaean impacts from microtektite and distal ejecta horizons marked by Ir anomalies; (2) geochemical and experimental evidence for mantle upwelling, possibly from levels as deep as the transition zone; and (3) catastrophic adiabatic melting required to generate peridotitic komatites. Episodic differentiation/accretion growth of sial consequent on these events is capable of resolving the volume problem that arises from comparisons between modern continental crust and the estimated sial produced by continuous two-stage mantle melting processes. The volume problem is exacerbated by projected high accretion rates under Archaean geotherms. It is suggested that

  5. Ecological aspects of the nuclear age: selected readings in radiation ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, V.; Whicker, F.W.


    A compilation of selected readings is presented in the areas of radiation ecology, radionuclide cycling, ionizing radiation effects, radioisotope tracer techniques in ecology, and military and peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  6. Using ecological production functions to link ecological processes to ecosystem services. (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively ...

  7. Globalization and sustainable development: a political ecology strategy to realize ecological justice


    Byrne, John; Glover, Leigh; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted


    Organic agriculture is, like mainstream agriculture, faced with the challenges of globalization and sustainable development. Ecological justice, the fair distribution of livelihoods and environments, has emerged as a key concept in efforts, on the one hand, to resist negative consequences of globalization and ecological modernization and, on the other to propose new agenda and institutional arrangements. This chapter investigates the role that ecological justice as a political ecology strateg...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MOISE


    Full Text Available This paper present a vision about the possibility to speed up the conversion process to an ecological agriculture in Romania. The link from ecological products consumer and ecologic agricultural producer is also explained from point of view of certification process. Presenting the consumer mentality and principles and rules of organic farming and certification can open the way to a sustainable and ecological agriculture.

  9. [Dynamic changes of ecological footprint and ecological capacity in Fujian Province]. (United States)

    Weng, Boqi; Wang, Yixiang; Huang, Yibin; Ying, Zhaoyang; Huang, Qinlou


    The analysis on the dynamic changes of ecological footprint and ecological capacity in Fujian Province showed that in 1999-2003, the ecological footprint per capita in the Province increased from 1.428 hm2 to 1.658 hm2, while the ecological capacity per capita decreased from 0.683 hm2 to 0.607 hm2, with an increased ecological deficit year after year. The contradiction between the ecological footprint and ecological capacity pricked up gradually, and the ecological environment was at risk. There existed a severe imbalance in the supply and demand of ecological footprint per capita. The main body of the demands was grassland and fossil fuel, accouting for 55.74% - 63.43% of the total, while their supply only occupied 0.77% - 0.82% and next to nothing of the ecological capacity per capita, respectively. As a whole, the ecological footprint per ten thousand yuan GDP declined in the five years, indicating that the resources use efficiency in the Province was improved gradually. Based on the analysis of the present situation of the economic development and resources distribution in the Province, the strategies on reducing ecological deficit were put forward.

  10. Perspectives on economics and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, R.V.


    As we move toward the twenty-first century, the overlap and synergism between economics and ecology demands our scientific attention. But in the intellectual excitement of seeing this new field emerge, we must not lose sight of the underlying global dynamics that are driving the pending merger. Simply stated: the population bomb has not been defused. The media and ecologists have simply fatigued of repeating the obvious. The combination of human population growth and increasing per capita impact is placing irreconcilable demands on the global biotic system. We can reduce per capita demands with technology and recycling. But such strategies simply delay the inevitable unless the human population asymptotes. of course, the population will reach a limit. The choice is between a series of global crises and a reasoned plan for the future. But for Global Sustainability to avoid becoming a cruel and unattainable fantasy, plans must include human population control and economics.

  11. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.


    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  12. Sustainable urban spaces: Ecological parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçak Erdoğan Onur


    Full Text Available Rapidly depleted resources with technological and economic developments which increased in recent years has led to deterioration of the natural balance in the world. Urban ecosystems is considerably changed, especially with population growth and intensive construction in the city. This situation, as such in all other areas, urban ecosystems are also increasing their sustainability concerns. More compatible solution with the natural process in landscape design and management have to be brought. This article describes the conceptual structure of ecological park that has become a tool for sustainable urban target in community that matured of environmental awareness. Also planning, design and management principles are explained by supporting with application examples. The obtained results within the framework, it is aimed to create a source for similar applications that will lead to spread in our country. In addition, it is put forward suggestions for dissemination of such practices.

  13. Embracing uncertainty in applied ecology. (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, E J; Shea, K


    Applied ecologists often face uncertainty that hinders effective decision-making.Common traps that may catch the unwary are: ignoring uncertainty, acknowledging uncertainty but ploughing on, focussing on trivial uncertainties, believing your models, and unclear objectives.We integrate research insights and examples from a wide range of applied ecological fields to illustrate advances that are generally underused, but could facilitate ecologists' ability to plan and execute research to support management.Recommended approaches to avoid uncertainty traps are: embracing models, using decision theory, using models more effectively, thinking experimentally, and being realistic about uncertainty. Synthesis and applications . Applied ecologists can become more effective at informing management by using approaches that explicitly take account of uncertainty.

  14. What is microbial community ecology? (United States)

    Konopka, Allan


    The activities of complex communities of microbes affect biogeochemical transformations in natural, managed and engineered ecosystems. Meaningfully defining what constitutes a community of interacting microbial populations is not trivial, but is important for rigorous progress in the field. Important elements of research in microbial community ecology include the analysis of functional pathways for nutrient resource and energy flows, mechanistic understanding of interactions between microbial populations and their environment, and the emergent properties of the complex community. Some emergent properties mirror those analyzed by community ecologists who study plants and animals: biological diversity, functional redundancy and system stability. However, because microbes possess mechanisms for the horizontal transfer of genetic information, the metagenome may also be considered as a community property.

  15. In Search of Ecological Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Jahnel de Oliveira


    Full Text Available In the scope of social science, studies dealing with environmental issues have gained prominence in recent years. Given the intense and profound changes the capitalist system has brought to society, culmina ng in the current environmental crisis, science and philosophy have sought ways to overcome the contradic s found in our current ethical model. In this sense, the objetive of this paper is, from a review of the related literature, to present ecological ethics as an alternative that points the way to the formula of strategies aimed at sustainability, since this ethical discourse, broaching issues such as anthropocentrism and moral competence, leads to a redefinition of the relationship between humans and their environment

  16. Proactive ecology for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stuart Chapin


    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid, directional global changes that characterize the Anthropocene provide unprecedented opportunities for ecologists and other scientists to discover new paradigms that shape our understanding of the ways that the world is changing. These paradigms will likely focus more strongly on interactions, feedbacks, thresholds, and model uncertainty than on steady-state dynamics and statistical uncertainty. We advocate a shift in ecology and other disciplines to a more proactive leadership role in defining problems and possibilities in a rapidly changing world rather than being relegated to a reactive role of trying to fix the problems after the horse has left the barn. This requires not only renewed commitment by ecologists (and other citizens to a more proactive ethic of environmental citizenship but also institutional changes in education, the scientific review and funding processes, and promotion and tenure processes to encourage and celebrate those who seek to shape trajectories toward greater ecosystem and social resilience and well-being.

  17. Ecological Factors in Human Development. (United States)

    Cross, William E


    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Theoretical microbial ecology without species (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail


    Ecosystems are commonly conceptualized as networks of interacting species. However, partitioning natural diversity of organisms into discrete units is notoriously problematic and mounting experimental evidence raises the intriguing question whether this perspective is appropriate for the microbial world. Here an alternative formalism is proposed that does not require postulating the existence of species as fundamental ecological variables and provides a naturally hierarchical description of community dynamics. This formalism allows approaching the species problem from the opposite direction. While the classical models treat a world of imperfectly clustered organism types as a perturbation around well-clustered species, the presented approach allows gradually adding structure to a fully disordered background. The relevance of this theoretical construct for describing highly diverse natural ecosystems is discussed.

  19. Microbial ecology of watery kimchi. (United States)

    Kyung, Kyu Hang; Medina Pradas, Eduardo; Kim, Song Gun; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Kyong Ho; Choi, Jin Joo; Cho, Joo Hyong; Chung, Chang Ho; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Breidt, Frederick


    The biochemistry and microbial ecology of 2 similar types of watery (mul) kimchi, containing sliced and unsliced radish and vegetables (nabak and dongchimi, respectively), were investigated. Samples from kimchi were fermented at 4, 10, and 20 °C were analyzed by plating on differential and selective media, high-performance liquid chromatography, and high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rDNA. Nabak kimchi showed similar trends as dongchimi, with increasing lactic and acetic acids and decreasing pH for each temperature, but differences in microbiota were apparent. Interestingly, bacteria from the Proteobacterium phylum, including Enterobacteriaceae, decreased more rapidly during fermentation at 4 °C in nabak cabbage fermentations compared with dongchimi. Although changes for Proteobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae populations were similar during fermentation at 10 and 20 °C, the homolactic stage of fermentation did not develop for the 4 and 10 °C samples of both nabak and dongchimi during the experiment. These data show the differences in biochemistry and microbial ecology that can result from preparation method and fermentation conditions of the kimchi, which may impact safety (Enterobacteriaceae populations may include pathogenic bacteria) and quality (homolactic fermentation can be undesirable, if too much acid is produced) of the product. In addition, the data also illustrate the need for improved methods for identifying and differentiating closely related lactic acid bacteria species using high-throughput sequencing methods. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®. This article has been contributed by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Ecological information on radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.V.; Stas', K.N.


    The accident at Chernobyl has affected health and has had economic consequences, and it has sharpened the call throughout the work for safety in industry, the supervision of technological processes, and monitoring effects on the environment. Safety and monitoring in the nuclear industry are being given a great deal of attention, and experience is being accumulated on methods of handling such tasks by virtue of the above and also because of features in nuclear processes and the plants based on them and the specific features of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances. The accident at Chernobyl showed that this apparently ill-encompassing monitoring was insufficient. One needs in essence a systematic approach to methods of obtaining, processing, and distributing information as well as organizational measures that together represent an ecological information system. This should be the basis on the one hand for an efficient system for safe operation of existing and developing industrial areas and for minimizing the adverse consequences of accidents, while on the other it should provide for understanding between social movements, specialists, and the population as regards particular ecological situations. To provide a clean environment and deal with pollution, one needs first of all reliable and prompt information on the states of natural and industrial areas, since without detailed evidence one cannot take any action and ensure a positive outcome. Such information is obtained with special equipment and monitoring systems. Monitoring implies the following: (1) measuring physical quantities or nuclide concentrations characterizing the physical fields, compositions, or states of objects or media; (2) interpreting the measurements and forecasting developments and effects