WorldWideScience

Sample records for extrapolating earth-based spectral

  1. SNSEDextend: SuperNova Spectral Energy Distributions extrapolation toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierel, Justin D. R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Avelino, Arturo; Bianco, Federica; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew; Hicken, Malcolm; Hounsell, Rebekah; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kessler, Richard; Kirshner, Robert; Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, Gautham; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Scolnic, Daniel; Strolger, Louis-Gregory

    2018-05-01

    SNSEDextend extrapolates core-collapse and Type Ia Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) into the UV and IR for use in simulations and photometric classifications. The user provides a library of existing SED templates (such as those in the authors' SN SED Repository) along with new photometric constraints in the UV and/or NIR wavelength ranges. The software then extends the existing template SEDs so their colors match the input data at all phases. SNSEDextend can also extend the SALT2 spectral time-series model for Type Ia SN for a "first-order" extrapolation of the SALT2 model components, suitable for use in survey simulations and photometric classification tools; as the code does not do a rigorous re-training of the SALT2 model, the results should not be relied on for precision applications such as light curve fitting for cosmology.

  2. Estimation and Extrapolation of Tree Parameters Using Spectral Correlation between UAV and Pléiades Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Abdollahnejad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest technological advances in space-borne imagery have significantly enhanced the acquisition of high-quality data. With the availability of very high-resolution satellites, such as Pléiades, it is now possible to estimate tree parameters at the individual level with high fidelity. Despite innovative advantages on high-precision satellites, data acquisition is not yet available to the public at a reasonable cost. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the practical advantage of data acquisition at a higher spatial resolution than that of satellites. This study is divided into two main parts: (1 we describe the estimation of basic tree attributes, such as tree height, crown diameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, and stem volume derived from UAV data based on structure from motion (SfM algorithms; and (2 we consider the extrapolation of the UAV data to a larger area, using correlation between satellite and UAV observations as an economically viable approach. Results have shown that UAVs can be used to predict tree characteristics with high accuracy (i.e., crown projection, stem volume, cross-sectional area (CSA, and height. We observed a significant relation between extracted data from UAV and ground data with R2 = 0.71 for stem volume, R2 = 0.87 for height, and R2 = 0.60 for CSA. In addition, our results showed a high linear relation between spectral data from the UAV and the satellite (R2 = 0.94. Overall, the accuracy of the results between UAV and Pléiades was reasonable and showed that the used methods are feasible for extrapolation of extracted data from UAV to larger areas.

  3. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a

  4. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  5. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  6. Finite lattice extrapolation algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, M.; Schuetz, G.

    1987-08-01

    Two algorithms for sequence extrapolation, due to von den Broeck and Schwartz and Bulirsch and Stoer are reviewed and critically compared. Applications to three states and six states quantum chains and to the (2+1)D Ising model show that the algorithm of Bulirsch and Stoer is superior, in particular if only very few finite lattice data are available. (orig.)

  7. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-02-27

    Solving the wave equation using finite-difference approximations allows for fast extrapolation of the wavefield for modelling, imaging and inversion in complex media. It, however, suffers from dispersion and stability-related limitations that might hamper its efficient or proper application to high frequencies. Spectral-based time extrapolation methods tend to mitigate these problems, but at an additional cost to the extrapolation. I investigate the prospective of using a residual formulation of the spectral approach, along with utilizing Shanks transform-based expansions, that adheres to the residual requirements, to improve accuracy and reduce the cost. Utilizing the fact that spectral methods excel (time steps are allowed to be large) in homogeneous and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms required in every step of the spectral-based implementation. The approach here fixes that by improving the accuracy of each, potentially longer, time step.

  8. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  9. The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2013-01-01

    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wave-field extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media, because of its dispersion and artifact free, as well as highly accurate, solutions of the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number of inverse FFT required per time extrapolation step, and thus, a lower rank admits faster extrapolations. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its low rank representation.Thus,we obtain more accurate wave-fields using lower rank representation, and thus cheaper extrapolations. The optimization operation to define the low rank representation depends only on the velocity model, and this is done only once, and valid for a full reverse time migration (many shots) or one iteration of full waveform inversion. Applications on the BP model yielded superior results than those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, the solutions were free of the shear wave artifacts, and does not require that eta>0.

  10. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  11. Extrapolation methods theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    1991-01-01

    This volume is a self-contained, exhaustive exposition of the extrapolation methods theory, and of the various algorithms and procedures for accelerating the convergence of scalar and vector sequences. Many subroutines (written in FORTRAN 77) with instructions for their use are provided on a floppy disk in order to demonstrate to those working with sequences the advantages of the use of extrapolation methods. Many numerical examples showing the effectiveness of the procedures and a consequent chapter on applications are also provided - including some never before published results and applicat

  12. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  13. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-04-30

    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  14. The ATLAS Track Extrapolation Package

    CERN Document Server

    Salzburger, A

    2007-01-01

    The extrapolation of track parameters and their associated covariances to destination surfaces of different types is a very frequent process in the event reconstruction of high energy physics experiments. This is amongst other reasons due to the fact that most track and vertex fitting techniques are based on the first and second momentum of the underlying probability density distribution. The correct stochastic or deterministic treatment of interactions with the traversed detector material is hereby crucial for high quality track reconstruction throughout the entire momentum range of final state particles that are produced in high energy physics collision experiments. This document presents the main concepts, the algorithms and the implementation of the newly developed, powerful ATLAS track extrapolation engine. It also emphasises on validation procedures, timing measurements and the integration into the ATLAS offline reconstruction software.

  15. UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  16. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Gang; Fomel, Sergey; Du, Qizhen; Hu, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  17. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  18. Flavor extrapolation in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Explicit calculation of the effect of virtual quark-antiquark pairs in lattice QCD has eluded researchers. To include their effect explicitly one must calculate the determinant of the fermion-fermion coupling matrix. Owing to the large number of sites in a continuum limit size lattice, direct evaluation of this term requires an unrealistic amount of computer time. The effect of the virtual pairs can be approximated by ignoring this term and adjusting lattice couplings to reproduce experimental results. This procedure is called the valence approximation since it ignores all but the minimal number of quarks needed to describe hadrons. In this work the effect of the quark-antiquark pairs has been incorporated in a theory with an effective negative number of quark flavors contributing to the closed loops. Various particle masses and decay constants have been calculated for this theory and for one with no virtual pairs. The author attempts to extrapolate results towards positive numbers of quark flavors. The results show approximate agreement with experimental measurements and demonstrate the smoothness of lattice expectations in the number of quark flavors

  19. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq; Ma, Xuxin; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-01-01

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  20. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-07-03

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  1. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  2. Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...

  3. Motion extrapolation in the central fovea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanghua Shi

    Full Text Available Neural transmission latency would introduce a spatial lag when an object moves across the visual field, if the latency was not compensated. A visual predictive mechanism has been proposed, which overcomes such spatial lag by extrapolating the position of the moving object forward. However, a forward position shift is often absent if the object abruptly stops moving (motion-termination. A recent "correction-for-extrapolation" hypothesis suggests that the absence of forward shifts is caused by sensory signals representing 'failed' predictions. Thus far, this hypothesis has been tested only for extra-foveal retinal locations. We tested this hypothesis using two foveal scotomas: scotoma to dim light and scotoma to blue light. We found that the perceived position of a dim dot is extrapolated into the fovea during motion-termination. Next, we compared the perceived position shifts of a blue versus a green moving dot. As predicted the extrapolation at motion-termination was only found with the blue moving dot. The results provide new evidence for the correction-for-extrapolation hypothesis for the region with highest spatial acuity, the fovea.

  4. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  5. The relationship between orbital, earth-based, and sample data for lunar landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Hawke, B. R.; Basu, A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of a detailed examination of data available for the Apollo lunar landing sites, including the Apollo orbital measurements of six major elements derived from XRF and gamma-ray instruments and geochemical parameters derived from earth-based spectral reflectivity data. Wherever orbital coverage for Apollo landing sites exist, the remote data were correlated with geochemical data derived from the soil sample averages for major geological units and the major rock components associated with these units. Discrepancies were observed between the remote and the soil-anlysis elemental concentration data, which were apparently due to the differences in the extent of exposure of geological units, and, hence, major rock eomponents, in the area sampled. Differences were observed in signal depths between various orbital experiments, which may provide a mechanism for explaining differences between the XRF and other landing-site data.

  6. A Method for Extrapolation of Atmospheric Soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    case are not shown here. We also briefly examined data for the Anchorage, AK ( PANC ), radiosonde site for the case of the inversion height equal to...or greater than the extrapolation depth (i.e., hinv ≥ hext). PANC lies at the end of a broad inlet extending northward from the Gulf of Alaska at...type of terrain can affect the model and in turn affect the extrapolation. We examined a sounding from PANC (61.16 N and –150.01 W, elevation of 40

  7. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...... must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold method is recommended. In this paper this method is considered and some of the assumptions are examined...

  8. Extrapolation Method for System Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2012-01-01

    of integrals with scaled domains. The performance of this class of approximation depends on the approach applied for the scaling and the functional form utilized for the extrapolation. A scheme for this task is derived here taking basis in the theory of asymptotic solutions to multinormal probability integrals......The present paper presents a new scheme for probability integral solution for system reliability analysis, which takes basis in the approaches by Naess et al. (2009) and Bucher (2009). The idea is to evaluate the probability integral by extrapolation, based on a sequence of MC approximations...... that the proposed scheme is efficient and adds to generality for this class of approximations for probability integrals....

  9. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  10. Efficient and stable extrapolation of prestack wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2013-09-22

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields in time, nevertheless, is a big challenge because the radicand can be negative, thus reduce to a complex phase velocity, which will make the rank of the mixed domain matrix very high. Using the vertical offset between the sources and receivers, we introduce a method for deriving the DSR formulation, which gives us the opportunity to derive approximations for the mixed domain operator. The method extrapolates prestack wavefields by combining all data into one wave extrapolation procedure, allowing both upgoing and downgoing wavefields since the extrapolation is done in time, and doesn’t have the v(z) assumption in the offset axis of the media. Thus, the imaging condition is imposed by taking the zero-time and zero-offset slice from the multi-dimensional prestack wavefield. Unlike reverse time migration (RTM), no crosscorrelation is needed and we also have access to the subsurface offset information, which is important for migration velocity analysis. Numerical examples show the capability of this approach in dealing with complex velocity models and can provide a better quality image compared to RTM more efficiently.

  11. Cosmogony as an extrapolation of magnetospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1984-03-01

    A theory of the origin and evolution of the Solar System (Alfven and Arrhenius, 1975: 1976) which considered electromagnetic forces and plasma effects is revised in the light of new information supplied by space research. In situ measurements in the magnetospheres and solar wind have changed our views of basic properties of cosmic plasmas. These results can be extrapolated both outwards in space, to interstellar clouds, backwards in time, to the formation of the solar system. The first extrapolation leads to a revision of some cloud properties which are essential for the early phases in the formation of stars and solar nebule. The latter extrapolation makes possible to approach the cosmogonic processes by extrapolation of (rather) well-known magnetospheric phenomena. Pioneer-Voyager observations of the Saturnian rings indicate that essential parts of their structure are fossils from cosmogonic times. By using detailed information from these space missions, it seems possible to reconstruct certain events 4-5 billion years ago with an accuracy of a few percent. This will cause a change in our views of the evolution of the solar system.(author)

  12. Efficient and stable extrapolation of prestack wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields in time, nevertheless, is a big challenge because the radicand can be negative, thus reduce to a complex phase velocity, which will make the rank of the mixed domain matrix very high. Using the vertical offset between the sources and receivers, we introduce a method for deriving the DSR formulation, which gives us the opportunity to derive approximations for the mixed domain operator. The method extrapolates prestack wavefields by combining all data into one wave extrapolation procedure, allowing both upgoing and downgoing wavefields since the extrapolation is done in time, and doesn’t have the v(z) assumption in the offset axis of the media. Thus, the imaging condition is imposed by taking the zero-time and zero-offset slice from the multi-dimensional prestack wavefield. Unlike reverse time migration (RTM), no crosscorrelation is needed and we also have access to the subsurface offset information, which is important for migration velocity analysis. Numerical examples show the capability of this approach in dealing with complex velocity models and can provide a better quality image compared to RTM more efficiently.

  13. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Fomel, Sergey

    2012-04-30

    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  14. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.

    2014-07-18

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  15. Statistical modeling and extrapolation of carcinogenesis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Murdoch, D.; Dewanji, A.

    1986-01-01

    Mathematical models of carcinogenesis are reviewed, including pharmacokinetic models for metabolic activation of carcinogenic substances. Maximum likelihood procedures for fitting these models to epidemiological data are discussed, including situations where the time to tumor occurrence is unobservable. The plausibility of different possible shapes of the dose response curve at low doses is examined, and a robust method for linear extrapolation to low doses is proposed and applied to epidemiological data on radiation carcinogenesis

  16. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth's subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  17. Radiographic film: surface dose extrapolation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW; Currie, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate 2 dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that surface % dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionisation chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10cm, 20cmand 30cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. Corresponding parallel plate ionisation chamber measurement are 16%, 27% and 37% respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  18. Surface dose extrapolation measurements with radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Currie, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields. An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate two-dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that the surface percentage dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionization chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. The corresponding parallel plate ionization chamber measurements are 16%, 27% and 37%, respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. (note)

  19. The influence of an extrapolation chamber over the low energy X-ray beam radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanuri de F, M. T.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: mttf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The extrapolation chambers are detectors whose sensitive volume can be modified by changing the distance between the electrodes and has been widely used for beta particles primary measurement system. In this work, was performed a PTW 23392 extrapolation chamber Monte Carlo simulation, by mean the MCNPX code. Although the sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber can be reduced to very small size, their packaging is large enough to modify the radiation field and change the absorbed dose measurements values. Experiments were performed to calculate correction factors for this purpose. The validation of the Monte Carlo model was done by comparing the spectra obtained with a CdTe detector according to the ISO 4037 criteria. Agreements smaller than 5% for half value layers, 10% for spectral resolution and 1% for mean energy, were found. It was verified that the correction factors are dependent of the X-ray beam quality. (Author)

  20. The influence of an extrapolation chamber over the low energy X-ray beam radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanuri de F, M. T.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    The extrapolation chambers are detectors whose sensitive volume can be modified by changing the distance between the electrodes and has been widely used for beta particles primary measurement system. In this work, was performed a PTW 23392 extrapolation chamber Monte Carlo simulation, by mean the MCNPX code. Although the sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber can be reduced to very small size, their packaging is large enough to modify the radiation field and change the absorbed dose measurements values. Experiments were performed to calculate correction factors for this purpose. The validation of the Monte Carlo model was done by comparing the spectra obtained with a CdTe detector according to the ISO 4037 criteria. Agreements smaller than 5% for half value layers, 10% for spectral resolution and 1% for mean energy, were found. It was verified that the correction factors are dependent of the X-ray beam quality. (Author)

  1. A fast dynamic mode in rare earth based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Xue, R. J.; Zhu, Z. G.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y., E-mail: hybai@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ngai, K. L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-05-28

    Metallic glasses (MGs) usually exhibit only slow β-relaxation peak, and the signature of the fast dynamic is challenging to be observed experimentally in MGs. We report a general and unusual fast dynamic mode in a series of rare earth based MGs manifested as a distinct fast β′-relaxation peak in addition to slow β-relaxation and α-relaxation peaks. We show that the activation energy of the fast β′-relaxation is about 12RT{sub g} and is equivalent to the activation of localized flow event. The coupling of these dynamic processes as well as their relationship with glass transition and structural heterogeneity is discussed.

  2. Biosimilars: From Extrapolation into Off Label Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sizheng; Nair, Jagdish R; Moots, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Biologic drugs have revolutionised the management of many inflammatory conditions. Patent expirations have stimulated development of highly similar but non-identical molecules, the biosimilars. Extrapolation of indications is a key concept in the development of biosimilars. However, this has been met with concerns around mechanisms of action, equivalence in efficacy and immunogenicity, which are reviewed in this article. Narrative overview composed from literature search and the authors' experience. Literature search included Pubmed, Web of Science, and online document archives of the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. The concepts of biosimilarity and extrapolation of indications are revisited. Concerns around extrapolation are exemplified using the biosimilar infliximab, CT-P13, focusing on mechanisms of action, immunogenicity and trial design. The opportunities and cautions for using biologics and biosimilars in unlicensed inflammatory conditions are reviewed. Biosimilars offer many potential opportunities in improving treatment access and increasing treatment options. The high cost associated with marketing approval means that many bio-originators may never become licenced for rarer inflammatory conditions, despite clinical efficacy. Biosimilars, with lower acquisition cost, may improve access for off-label use of biologics in the management of these patients. They may also provide opportunities to explore off-label treatment of conditions where biologic therapy is less established. However, this potential advantage must be balanced with the awareness that off-label prescribing can potentially expose patients to risky and ineffective treatments. Post-marketing surveillance is critical to developing long-term evidence to provide assurances on efficacy as well as safety. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms

  4. Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-10-08

    Most modern seismic imaging methods separate input data into parts (shot gathers). We develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield forward or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth-order nature of the extrapolation in time leads to four solutions, two of which correspond to the incoming and outgoing P-waves and reduce to the zero-offset exploding-reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. A challenge for implementing two-way time extrapolation is an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation. Using spectral methods based on the low-rank approximation of the propagation symbol, we extrapolate only the desired solutions in an accurate and efficient manner with reduced dispersion artiefacts. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach.

  5. Extrapolating Satellite Winds to Turbine Operating Heights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wind retrievals from satellite sensors are typically performed for the standard level of 10 m. This restricts their full exploitation for wind energy planning, which requires wind information at much higher levels where wind turbines operate. A new method is presented for the vertical...... extrapolation of satellitebased wind maps. Winds near the sea surface are obtained from satellite data and used together with an adaptation of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory to estimate the wind speed at higher levels. The thermal stratification of the atmosphere is taken into account through a long...

  6. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Ma, X.; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented

  7. Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences to further understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The first section deals with a report of the events that occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki just after the 1945 bombings with respect to the physical conditions of the affected areas, the immediate effects on humans, the psychological response of the victims, and the nature of outside assistance. Because there can be no experimental data to validate the effects on cities and their populations of detonations from current weapons, the data from the actual explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide a point of departure. The second section examines possible extrapolations from and comparisons with the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. A comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from the conventional bombings of cities during World War II, the consequences of major earthquakes, the historical effects of the Black Plague and widespread famines, and other extreme natural events. The potential effects of detonating a modern 1 MT warhead on the city of Hiroshima as it exists today are simulated. This is extended to the local effects on a targeted city from a global nuclear war, and attention is directed to problems of estimating the societal effects from such a war

  8. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1978-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p→π + pπ 0 and π + p→π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T=1 and T=2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965, which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that, if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) was dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  9. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1977-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p → π + pπ 0 and π + p → π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T = 1 and T = 2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965 which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) were dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  10. Edge database analysis for extrapolation to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, M.; Janeschitz, G.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    An edge database has been archived to facilitate cross-machine comparisons of SOL and edge pedestal characteristics, and to enable comparison with theoretical models with an aim to extrapolate to ITER. The SOL decay lengths of power, density and temperature become broader for increasing density and q 95 . The power decay length is predicted to be 1.4-3.5 cm (L-mode) and 1.4-2.7 cm (H-mode) at the midplane in ITER. Analysis of Type I ELMs suggests that each giant ELM on ITER would exceed the ablation threshold of the divertor plates. Theoretical models are proposed for the H-mode transition, for Type I and Type III ELMs and are compared with the edge pedestal database. (author)

  11. Scintillation counting: an extrapolation into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in scintillation counting is intimately related to advances in a variety of other disciplines such as photochemistry, photophysics, and instrumentation. And while there is steady progress in the understanding of luminescent phenomena, there is a virtual explosion in the application of semiconductor technology to detectors, counting systems, and data processing. The exponential growth of this technology has had, and will continue to have, a profound effect on the art of scintillation spectroscopy. This paper will review key events in technology that have had an impact on the development of scintillation science (solid and liquid) and will attempt to extrapolate future directions based on existing and projected capability in associated fields. Along the way there have been occasional pitfalls and several false starts; these too will be discussed as a reminder that if you want the future to be different than the past, study the past

  12. Irradiated food: validity of extrapolating wholesomeness data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taub, I.A.; Angelini, P.; Merritt, C. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Criteria are considered for validly extrapolating the conclusions reached on the wholesomeness of an irradiated food receiving high doses to the same food receiving a lower dose. A consideration first is made of the possible chemical mechanisms that could give rise to different functional dependences of radiolytic products on dose. It is shown that such products should increase linearly with dose and the ratio of products should be constant throughout the dose range considered. The assumption, generally accepted in pharmacology, then is made that if any adverse effects related to the food are discerned in the test animals, then the intensity of these effects would increase with the concentration of radiolytic products in the food. Lastly, the need to compare data from animal studies with foods irradiated to several doses against chemical evidence obtained over a comparable dose range is considered. It is concluded that if the products depend linearly on dose and if feeding studies indicate no adverse effects, then an extrapolation to lower doses is clearly valid. This approach is illustrated for irradiated codfish. The formation of selected volatile products in samples receiving between 0.1 and 3 Mrads was examined, and their concentrations were found to increase linearly at least up to 1 Mrad. These data were compared with results from animal feeding studies establishing the wholesomeness of codfish and haddock irradiated to 0.2, 0.6 and 2.8 Mrads. It is stated, therefore, that if ocean fish, currently under consideration for onboard processing, were irradiated to 0.1 Mrad, it would be correspondingly wholesome

  13. Extrapolated stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vaquero, J.; Kleefeld, B.

    2016-12-01

    Extrapolated Stabilized Explicit Runge-Kutta methods (ESERK) are proposed to solve multi-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In such methods it is necessary to evaluate the function nt times per step, but the stability region is O (nt2). Hence, the computational cost is O (nt) times lower than for a traditional explicit algorithm. In that way stiff problems can be integrated by the use of simple explicit evaluations in which case implicit methods usually had to be used. Therefore, they are especially well-suited for the method of lines (MOL) discretizations of parabolic nonlinear multi-dimensional PDEs. In this work, first s-stages first-order methods with extended stability along the negative real axis are obtained. They have slightly shorter stability regions than other traditional first-order stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta algorithms (also called Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes). Later, they are used to derive nt-stages second- and fourth-order schemes using Richardson extrapolation. The stability regions of these fourth-order codes include the interval [ - 0.01nt2, 0 ] (nt being the number of total functions evaluations), which are shorter than stability regions of ROCK4 methods, for example. However, the new algorithms neither suffer from propagation of errors (as other Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes as ROCK4 or DUMKA) nor internal instabilities. Additionally, many other types of higher-order (and also lower-order) methods can be obtained easily in a similar way. These methods also allow adaptation of the length step with no extra cost. Hence, the stability domain is adapted precisely to the spectrum of the problem at the current time of integration in an optimal way, i.e., with minimal number of additional stages. We compare the new techniques with other well-known algorithms with good results in very stiff diffusion or reaction-diffusion multi-dimensional nonlinear equations.

  14. The optimized expansion based low-rank method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2014-03-01

    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wavefield extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media because it tends to be dispersion and artifact free as well as highly accurate when solving the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain extrapolation operator efficiently. To solve this problem, we evaluated an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with a low-rank variable separation representation. The rank defines the number of inverse Fourier transforms for each time extrapolation step, and thus, the lower the rank, the faster the extrapolation. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its explicit low-rank representation. As a result, we obtain lower rank representations compared with the standard low-rank method within reasonable accuracy and thus cheaper extrapolations. Additional bounds set on the range of propagated wavenumbers to adhere to the physical wave limits yield unconditionally stable extrapolations regardless of the time step. An application on the BP model provided superior results compared to those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, because we used the pure P-wave dispersion relation, we obtained solutions that were free of the shear wave artifacts, and the algorithm does not require that n > 0. In addition, the required rank for the optimization approach to obtain high accuracy in anisotropic media was lower than that obtained by the decomposition approach, and thus, it was more efficient. A reverse time migration result for the BP tilted transverse isotropy model using this method as a wave propagator demonstrated the ability of the algorithm.

  15. Scaling and extrapolation of hydrogen distribution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1986-01-01

    The containment plays an important role in predicting the residual risk to the environment under severe accident conditions. Risk analyses show that massive fission product release from the reactor fuel can occur only if during a loss of coolant the core is severely damaged and a containment failure is anticipated. Large amounts of hydrogen inevitably, are formed during the core degradation and will be released into the containment. More combustible gases are produced later when the coremelt will contact the containment concrete. Thus a potential for an early containment failure exists if a massive hydrogen deflagration cannot be excluded. A more remote cause for early containment failure may be an energetic steam explosion which requires a number of independent conditions when the molten core material contacts residual coolant water. The prediction of the containment loads caused by a hydrogen combustion is dependent on the prediction of the combustion mode. In the paper an attempt is made to identify on basis of a dimensional analysis such areas for which particular care must be exercised when scale experimental evidence is interpreted and extrapolated with the aid of a computer code or a system of computer codes. The study is restricted to fluid dynamic phenomena of the gas distribution process within the containment atmosphere. The gas sources and the mechanical response of containment structures are considered as given boundary conditions under which the containment is to be analyzed

  16. 40 CFR 86.435-78 - Extrapolated emission values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extrapolated emission values. 86.435-78 Section 86.435-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.435-78 Extrapolated emission values...

  17. An introduction to NH-A neutron earth base moisture gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huaian; Jiang Yulan; Yin Xilin; Yu Peiying; Luo Pinjie

    1988-01-01

    NH-A neutron earth base moisture gage is an accurate instrument which can measure earth moisture rapidly and non-destructively and display moisture results immediately. The deviation is estimated at ±0.012g/cm

  18. Multiparameter extrapolation and deflation methods for solving equation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Hughes Hallett

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Most models in economics and the applied sciences are solved by first order iterative techniques, usually those based on the Gauss-Seidel algorithm. This paper examines the convergence of multiparameter extrapolations (accelerations of first order iterations, as an improved approximation to the Newton method for solving arbitrary nonlinear equation systems. It generalises my earlier results on single parameter extrapolations. Richardson's generalised method and the deflation method for detecting successive solutions in nonlinear equation systems are also presented as multiparameter extrapolations of first order iterations. New convergence results are obtained for those methods.

  19. Problems in the extrapolation of laboratory rheological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, M. S.

    1987-02-01

    The many types of variables and deformation regimes that need to be taken into account in extrapolating rheological behaviour from the laboratory to the earth are reviewed. The problems of extrapolation are then illustrated with two particular cases. In the case of divine-rich rocks, recent experimental work indicates that, within present uncertainties of extrapolation, the flow in the upper mantle could be either grain size dependent and near-Newtonian or grain size independent and distinctly non-Newtonian. Both types of behaviour would be influenced by the present of trace amounts of water. In the case of quartz-rich rocks, the uncertainties are even greater and it is still premature to attempt any extrapolation to geological conditions except as an upper bound; the fugacity and the scale of dispersion of the water are probably two important variables but the quantitative laws governing their influence are not yet clear.

  20. Spacecraft navigation at Mars using earth-based and in situ radio tracking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, S. W.; Edwards, C. D.; Kahn, R. D.; Vijayaraghavan, A.; Hastrup, R. C.; Cesarone, R. J.

    1992-08-01

    A survey of earth-based and in situ radiometric data types and results from a number of studies investigating potential radio navigation performance for spacecraft approaching/orbiting Mars and for landed spacecraft and rovers on the surface of Mars are presented. The performance of Doppler, ranging and interferometry earth-based data types involving single or multiple spacecraft is addressed. This evaluation is conducted with that of in situ data types, such as Doppler and ranging measurements between two spacecraft near Mars, or between a spacecraft and one or more surface radio beacons.

  1. Properties of an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    The properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber were studied, and the possibility is shown of its use in beta radiation dosimetry. The chamber calibration factors were determined for several sources ( 90 Sr, 90 Y- 204 Tl and 147 Pm) making known the dependence of its response on the energy of the incident radiation. Extrapolation curves allow to obtain independence on energy for each source. One of such curves, shown for the 90 Sr- 90 Y source at 50 cm from the detector, is obtained through the variation of the chamber window thickness and the extrapolation to the null distance (determined graphically). Different curves shown also: 1) the dependence of the calibration factor on the average energy of beta radiation; 2) the variation of ionization current with the distance between the chamber and the sources; 3) the effect of the collecting electrode area on the value of calibration factors for the different sources. (I.C.R.) [pt

  2. Functional differential equations with unbounded delay in extrapolation spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Adimy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence, regularity and stability of solutions for nonlinear partial neutral functional differential equations with unbounded delay and a Hille-Yosida operator on a Banach space X. We consider two nonlinear perturbations: the first one is a function taking its values in X and the second one is a function belonging to a space larger than X, an extrapolated space. We use the extrapolation techniques to prove the existence and regularity of solutions and we establish a linearization principle for the stability of the equilibria of our equation.

  3. Results of Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steven; Hansen, Candice; Janssen, Michael; Adriani, Alberto; Gladstone, G. Randall; Bagenal, Fran; Ingersoll, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both Earth-proximal and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 μm through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (2016 August 27), 3 (2016 December 11), 4 (2017 February 2) and possibly "early" results from 5 (2017 March 27). Besides a global network of professional astronomers, the Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who provided a quasi-continuous picture of the evolution of features observed by

  4. Outlier robustness for wind turbine extrapolated extreme loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Verelst, David Robert

    2012-01-01

    . Stochastic identification of numerical artifacts in simulated loads is demonstrated using the method of principal component analysis. The extrapolation methodology is made robust to outliers through a weighted loads approach, whereby the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix obtained using the loads with its...

  5. Assessment of load extrapolation methods for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, H.S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima and the peak over...

  6. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick

    2011-01-01

    , an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima, and the peak over...

  7. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  8. On extrapolation blowups in the $L_p$ scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Capone, C.; Fiorenza, A.; Krbec, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2006), s. 1-15 ISSN 1025-5834 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : extrapolation * Lebesgue spaces * small Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2004

  9. Extrapolation of ZPR sodium void measurements to the power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.L.; Collins, P.J.; Lineberry, M.J.; Grasseschi, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Sodium-voiding measurements of ZPPR assemblies 2 and 5 are analyzed with ENDF/B Version IV data. Computations include directional diffusion coefficients to account for streaming effects resulting from the plate structure of the critical assembly. Bias factors for extrapolating critical assembly data to the CRBR design are derived from the results of this analysis

  10. Employing Measures of Heterogeneity and an Object-Based Approach to Extrapolate Tree Species Distribution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G. Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Information derived from high spatial resolution remotely sensed data is critical for the effective management of forested ecosystems. However, high spatial resolution data-sets are typically costly to acquire and process and usually provide limited geographic coverage. In contrast, moderate spatial resolution remotely sensed data, while not able to provide the spectral or spatial detail required for certain types of products and applications, offer inexpensive, comprehensive landscape-level coverage. This study assessed using an object-based approach to extrapolate detailed tree species heterogeneity beyond the extent of hyperspectral/LiDAR flightlines to the broader area covered by a Landsat scene. Using image segments, regression trees established ecologically decipherable relationships between tree species heterogeneity and the spectral properties of Landsat segments. The spectral properties of Landsat bands 4 (i.e., NIR: 0.76–0.90 µm, 5 (i.e., SWIR: 1.55–1.75 µm and 7 (SWIR: 2.08–2.35 µm were consistently selected as predictor variables, explaining approximately 50% of variance in richness and diversity. Results have important ramifications for ongoing management initiatives in the study area and are applicable to wide range of applications.

  11. Proposition of Improved Methodology in Creep Life Extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Park, Jae Young; Jang, Jin Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To design SFRs for a 60-year operation, it is desirable to have the experimental creep-rupture data for Gr. 91 steel close to 20 y, or at least rupture lives significantly higher than 10{sup 5} h. This requirement arises from the fact that, for the creep design, a factor of 3 times for extrapolation is considered to be appropriate. However, obtaining experimental data close to 20 y would be expensive and also take considerable time. Therefore, reliable creep life extrapolation techniques become necessary for a safe design life of 60 y. In addition, it is appropriate to obtain experimental longterm creep-rupture data in the range 10{sup 5} ∼ 2x10{sup 5} h to improve the reliability of extrapolation. In the present investigation, a new function of a hyperbolic sine ('sinh') form for a master curve in time-temperature parameter (TTP) methods, was proposed to accurately extrapolate the long-term creep rupture stress of Gr. 91 steel. Constant values used for each parametric equation were optimized on the basis of the creep rupture data. Average stress values predicted for up to 60 y were evaluated and compared with those of French Nuclear Design Code, RCC-MRx. The results showed that the master curve of the 'sinh' function was a wider acceptance with good flexibility in the low stress ranges beyond the experimental data. It was clarified clarified that the 'sinh' function was reasonable in creep life extrapolation compared with polynomial forms, which have been used conventionally until now.

  12. Proposition of Improved Methodology in Creep Life Extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Park, Jae Young; Jang, Jin Sung

    2016-01-01

    To design SFRs for a 60-year operation, it is desirable to have the experimental creep-rupture data for Gr. 91 steel close to 20 y, or at least rupture lives significantly higher than 10"5 h. This requirement arises from the fact that, for the creep design, a factor of 3 times for extrapolation is considered to be appropriate. However, obtaining experimental data close to 20 y would be expensive and also take considerable time. Therefore, reliable creep life extrapolation techniques become necessary for a safe design life of 60 y. In addition, it is appropriate to obtain experimental longterm creep-rupture data in the range 10"5 ∼ 2x10"5 h to improve the reliability of extrapolation. In the present investigation, a new function of a hyperbolic sine ('sinh') form for a master curve in time-temperature parameter (TTP) methods, was proposed to accurately extrapolate the long-term creep rupture stress of Gr. 91 steel. Constant values used for each parametric equation were optimized on the basis of the creep rupture data. Average stress values predicted for up to 60 y were evaluated and compared with those of French Nuclear Design Code, RCC-MRx. The results showed that the master curve of the 'sinh' function was a wider acceptance with good flexibility in the low stress ranges beyond the experimental data. It was clarified clarified that the 'sinh' function was reasonable in creep life extrapolation compared with polynomial forms, which have been used conventionally until now.

  13. Efficient anisotropic quasi-P wavefield extrapolation using an isotropic low-rank approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-12-17

    The computational cost of quasi-P wave extrapolation depends on the complexity of the medium, and specifically the anisotropy. Our effective-model method splits the anisotropic dispersion relation into an isotropic background and a correction factor to handle this dependency. The correction term depends on the slope (measured using the gradient) of current wavefields and the anisotropy. As a result, the computational cost is independent of the nature of anisotropy, which makes the extrapolation efficient. A dynamic implementation of this approach decomposes the original pseudo-differential operator into a Laplacian, handled using the low-rank approximation of the spectral operator, plus an angular dependent correction factor applied in the space domain to correct for anisotropy. We analyze the role played by the correction factor and propose a new spherical decomposition of the dispersion relation. The proposed method provides accurate wavefields in phase and more balanced amplitudes than a previous spherical decomposition. Also, it is free of SV-wave artifacts. Applications to a simple homogeneous transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) and a modified Hess VTI model demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The Reverse Time Migration (RTM) applied to a modified BP VTI model reveals that the anisotropic migration using the proposed modeling engine performs better than an isotropic migration.

  14. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  15. Apollo 16 landing site: Summary of earth based remote sensing data, part W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisk, S. H.; Masursky, H.; Milton, D. J.; Schaber, G. G.; Shorthill, R. W.; Thompson, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Infrared and radar studies of the Apollo 16 landing site are summarized. Correlations and comparisons between earth based remote sensing data, IR observations, and other data are discussed in detail. Remote sensing studies were devoted to solving two problems: (1) determining the physical difference between Cayley and Descartes geologic units near the landing site; and (2) determining the nature of the bright unit of Descartes mountain material.

  16. Effect of rare-earth-based nanoparticles on the erythrocyte osmotic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    О. К. Пакулова; В. К. Kлочков; Н. С. Кавок; И. А. Костина; А. С. Сопотова; В. А. Бондаренко

    2017-01-01

    Rare-earth-based nanoparticles (REB NPs) have been employed in molecular and cell biology due to their unique features. However, their interaction with biosystems and the influence on cell functioning are poorly understood. In this study effect of REB NPs (composed of dielectric nanocrystalls of cerium dioxide and orthovanadates of gadolinium and yttrium) with different form-factor as well as REB NPs-cholesterol complexes on the adaptation of human erythrocytes to hypertonic lysis (4 M NaCl) ...

  17. Medical extrapolation chamber dosimeter model XW6012A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Tao; Wang Mi; Wu Jinzheng; Guo Qi

    1992-01-01

    An extrapolation chamber dosimeter has been developed for clinical dosimetry of electron beams and X-rays from medical linear accelerators. It consists of a new type extrapolation chamber, a water phantom and an intelligent portable instrument. With a thin entrance window and a φ20 mm collecting electrode made of polystyrene, the electrode spacing can be varied from 0.2 to 6 mm. The dosimeter can accomplish dose measurement automatically, and has functions of error self-diagnosis and dose self-recording. The energy range applicable is 0.5-20 MeV, and the dose-rate range 0.02-40 Gy/min. The total uncertainty is 2.7%

  18. A regularization method for extrapolation of solar potential magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, G. A.; Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical basis of a Tikhonov regularization method for extrapolating the chromospheric-coronal magnetic field using photospheric vector magnetograms is discussed. The basic techniques show that the Cauchy initial value problem can be formulated for potential magnetic fields. The potential field analysis considers a set of linear, elliptic partial differential equations. It is found that, by introducing an appropriate smoothing of the initial data of the Cauchy potential problem, an approximate Fourier integral solution is found, and an upper bound to the error in the solution is derived. This specific regularization technique, which is a function of magnetograph measurement sensitivities, provides a method to extrapolate the potential magnetic field above an active region into the chromosphere and low corona.

  19. Earth-based construction material field tests characterization in the Alto Douro Wine Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rui; Pinto, Jorge; Paiva, Anabela; Lanzinha, João Carlos

    2017-12-01

    The Alto Douro Wine Region, located in the northeast of Portugal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, presents an abundant vernacular building heritage. This building technology is based on a timber framed structure filled with a composite earth-based material. A lack of scientific studies related to this technology is evident, furthermore, principally in rural areas, this traditional building stock is highly deteriorated and damaged because of the rareness of conservation and strengthening works, which is partly related to the non-engineered character of this technology and to the knowledge loosed on that technique. Those aspects motivated the writing of this paper, whose main purpose is the physical and chemical characterization of the earth-based material applied in the tabique buildings of that region through field tests. Consequently, experimental work was conducted and the results obtained allowed, among others, the proposal of a series of adequate field tests. At our knowledge, this is the first time field tests are undertaken for tabique technology. This information will provide the means to assess the suitability of a given earth-based material with regards to this technology. The knowledge from this study could also be very useful for the development of future normative documents and as a reference for architects and engineers that work with this technology to guide and regulate future conservation, rehabilitation or construction processes helping to preserve this important legacy.

  20. Tabique walls composite earth-based material characterization in the Alto Douro wine region, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui CARDOSO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Alto Douro Wine Region, located in the northeast of Portugal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, presents a relevant tabique building stock, a traditional vernacular building technology. A technology based on a timber framed structure filled with a composite earth-based material. Meanwhile, previous research works have revealed that, principally in rural areas, this Portuguese heritage is highly deteriorated and damaged because of the rareness of conservation and strengthening works, which is partly related to the non-engineered character of this technology and to the growing phenomenon of rural to urban migration. Those aspects associated with the lack of scientific studies related to this technology motivated the writing of this paper, whose main purpose is the physical and chemical characterization of the earth-based material applied in the tabique buildings of that region. Consequently, an experimental work was conducted and the results obtained allowed, among others, the proposal of a particle size distribution envelope in respect to this material. This information will provide the means to assess the suitability of a given earth-based material in regard to this technology. The knowledge from this study could be very useful for the development of future normative documents and as a reference for architects and engineers that work with earth to guide and regulate future conservation, rehabilitation or construction processes helping to preserve this fabulous legacy.

  1. Earth-based construction material field tests characterization in the Alto Douro Wine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Rui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Alto Douro Wine Region, located in the northeast of Portugal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, presents an abundant vernacular building heritage. This building technology is based on a timber framed structure filled with a composite earth-based material. A lack of scientific studies related to this technology is evident, furthermore, principally in rural areas, this traditional building stock is highly deteriorated and damaged because of the rareness of conservation and strengthening works, which is partly related to the non-engineered character of this technology and to the knowledge loosed on that technique. Those aspects motivated the writing of this paper, whose main purpose is the physical and chemical characterization of the earth-based material applied in the tabique buildings of that region through field tests. Consequently, experimental work was conducted and the results obtained allowed, among others, the proposal of a series of adequate field tests. At our knowledge, this is the first time field tests are undertaken for tabique technology. This information will provide the means to assess the suitability of a given earth-based material with regards to this technology. The knowledge from this study could also be very useful for the development of future normative documents and as a reference for architects and engineers that work with this technology to guide and regulate future conservation, rehabilitation or construction processes helping to preserve this important legacy.

  2. Line-of-sight extrapolation noise in dust polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poh, Jason; Dodelson, Scott

    2017-05-19

    The B-modes of polarization at frequencies ranging from 50-1000 GHz are produced by Galactic dust, lensing of primordial E-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by intervening large scale structure, and possibly by primordial B-modes in the CMB imprinted by gravitational waves produced during inflation. The conventional method used to separate the dust component of the signal is to assume that the signal at high frequencies (e.g., 350 GHz) is due solely to dust and then extrapolate the signal down to lower frequency (e.g., 150 GHz) using the measured scaling of the polarized dust signal amplitude with frequency. For typical Galactic thermal dust temperatures of about 20K, these frequencies are not fully in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit. Therefore, deviations in the dust cloud temperatures from cloud to cloud will lead to different scaling factors for clouds of different temperatures. Hence, when multiple clouds of different temperatures and polarization angles contribute to the integrated line-of-sight polarization signal, the relative contribution of individual clouds to the integrated signal can change between frequencies. This can cause the integrated signal to be decorrelated in both amplitude and direction when extrapolating in frequency. Here we carry out a Monte Carlo analysis on the impact of this line-of-sight extrapolation noise, enabling us to quantify its effect. Using results from the Planck experiment, we find that this effect is small, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the current uncertainties. However, line-of-sight extrapolation noise may be a significant source of uncertainty in future low-noise primordial B-mode experiments. Scaling from Planck results, we find that accounting for this uncertainty becomes potentially important when experiments are sensitive to primordial B-mode signals with amplitude r < 0.0015 .

  3. Biosimilars in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Facts and Fears of Extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Shomron; Vande Casteele, Niels; Schreiber, Stefan; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2016-12-01

    Biologic drugs such as infliximab and other anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibodies have transformed the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]). However, the complex manufacturing processes involved in producing these drugs mean their use in clinical practice is expensive. Recent or impending expiration of patents for several biologics has led to development of biosimilar versions of these drugs, with the aim of providing substantial cost savings and increased accessibility to treatment. Biosimilars undergo an expedited regulatory process. This involves proving structural, functional, and biological biosimilarity to the reference product (RP). It is also expected that clinical equivalency/comparability will be demonstrated in a clinical trial in one (or more) sensitive population. Once these requirements are fulfilled, extrapolation of biosimilar approval to other indications for which the RP is approved is permitted without the need for further clinical trials, as long as this is scientifically justifiable. However, such justification requires that the mechanism(s) of action of the RP in question should be similar across indications and also comparable between the RP and the biosimilar in the clinically tested population(s). Likewise, the pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and safety of the RP should be similar across indications and comparable between the RP and biosimilar in the clinically tested population(s). To date, most anti-tumor necrosis factor biosimilars have been tested in trials recruiting patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Concerns have been raised regarding extrapolation of clinical data obtained in rheumatologic populations to IBD indications. In this review, we discuss the issues surrounding indication extrapolation, with a focus on extrapolation to IBD. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez Jacome, Wilson

    2013-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the

  5. Statistically extrapolated nowcasting of summertime precipitation over the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Bica, Benedikt; Tüchler, Lukas; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a new multiple linear regression (MLR) approach to updating the hourly, extrapolated precipitation forecasts generated by the INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) system for the Eastern Alps. The generalized form of the model approximates the updated precipitation forecast as a linear response to combinations of predictors selected through a backward elimination algorithm from a pool of predictors. The predictors comprise the raw output of the extrapolated precipitation forecast, the latest radar observations, the convective analysis, and the precipitation analysis. For every MLR model, bias and distribution correction procedures are designed to further correct the systematic regression errors. Applications of the MLR models to a verification dataset containing two months of qualified samples, and to one-month gridded data, are performed and evaluated. Generally, MLR yields slight, but definite, improvements in the intensity accuracy of forecasts during the late evening to morning period, and significantly improves the forecasts for large thresholds. The structure-amplitude-location scores, used to evaluate the performance of the MLR approach, based on its simulation of morphological features, indicate that MLR typically reduces the overestimation of amplitudes and generates similar horizontal structures in precipitation patterns and slightly degraded location forecasts, when compared with the extrapolated nowcasting.

  6. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-03-23

    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  7. A simple extrapolation of thermodynamic perturbation theory to infinite order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Recent analyses of the third and fourth order perturbation contributions to the equations of state for square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains show trends that persist across orders and molecular models. In particular, the ratio between orders (e.g., A 3 /A 2 , where A i is the ith order perturbation contribution) exhibits a peak when plotted with respect to density. The trend resembles a Gaussian curve with the peak near the critical density. This observation can form the basis for a simple recursion and extrapolation from the highest available order to infinite order. The resulting extrapolation is analytic and therefore cannot fully characterize the critical region, but it remarkably improves accuracy, especially for the binodal curve. Whereas a second order theory is typically accurate for the binodal at temperatures within 90% of the critical temperature, the extrapolated result is accurate to within 99% of the critical temperature. In addition to square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains, we demonstrate how the method can be applied semi-empirically to the Perturbed Chain - Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT)

  8. Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair Bin

    2016-04-22

    Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i

  9. Predicting structural properties of fluids by thermodynamic extrapolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A.; Jiao, Sally; Hatch, Harold W.; Blanco, Marco A.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2018-05-01

    We describe a methodology for extrapolating the structural properties of multicomponent fluids from one thermodynamic state to another. These properties generally include features of a system that may be computed from an individual configuration such as radial distribution functions, cluster size distributions, or a polymer's radius of gyration. This approach is based on the principle of using fluctuations in a system's extensive thermodynamic variables, such as energy, to construct an appropriate Taylor series expansion for these structural properties in terms of intensive conjugate variables, such as temperature. Thus, one may extrapolate these properties from one state to another when the series is truncated to some finite order. We demonstrate this extrapolation for simple and coarse-grained fluids in both the canonical and grand canonical ensembles, in terms of both temperatures and the chemical potentials of different components. The results show that this method is able to reasonably approximate structural properties of such fluids over a broad range of conditions. Consequently, this methodology may be employed to increase the computational efficiency of molecular simulations used to measure the structural properties of certain fluid systems, especially those used in high-throughput or data-driven investigations.

  10. Extrapolation of zircon fission-track annealing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palissari, R.; Guedes, S.; Curvo, E.A.C.; Moreira, P.A.F.P.; Tello, C.A.; Hadler, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of this study is to give further constraints on the temperature range of the zircon partial annealing zone over a geological time scale using data from borehole zircon samples, which have experienced stable temperatures for ∼1 Ma. In this way, the extrapolation problem is explicitly addressed by fitting the zircon annealing models with geological timescale data. Several empirical model formulations have been proposed to perform these calibrations and have been compared in this work. The basic form proposed for annealing models is the Arrhenius-type model. There are other annealing models, that are based on the same general formulation. These empirical model equations have been preferred due to the great number of phenomena from track formation to chemical etching that are not well understood. However, there are two other models, which try to establish a direct correlation between their parameters and the related phenomena. To compare the response of the different annealing models, thermal indexes, such as closure temperature, total annealing temperature and the partial annealing zone, have been calculated and compared with field evidence. After comparing the different models, it was concluded that the fanning curvilinear models yield the best agreement between predicted index temperatures and field evidence. - Highlights: ► Geological data were used along with lab data for improving model extrapolation. ► Index temperatures were simulated for testing model extrapolation. ► Curvilinear Arrhenius models produced better geological temperature predictions

  11. Extrapolated HPGe efficiency estimates based on a single calibration measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopists often must analyze samples with geometries for which their detectors are not calibrated. The effort to experimentally recalibrate a detector for a new geometry can be quite time consuming, causing delay in reporting useful results. Such concerns have motivated development of a method for extrapolating HPGe efficiency estimates from an existing single measured efficiency. Overall, the method provides useful preliminary results for analyses that do not require exceptional accuracy, while reliably bracketing the credible range. The estimated efficiency element-of for a uniform sample in a geometry with volume V is extrapolated from the measured element-of 0 of the base sample of volume V 0 . Assuming all samples are centered atop the detector for maximum efficiency, element-of decreases monotonically as V increases about V 0 , and vice versa. Extrapolation of high and low efficiency estimates element-of h and element-of L provides an average estimate of element-of = 1/2 [element-of h + element-of L ] ± 1/2 [element-of h - element-of L ] (general) where an uncertainty D element-of = 1/2 (element-of h - element-of L ] brackets limits for a maximum possible error. The element-of h and element-of L both diverge from element-of 0 as V deviates from V 0 , causing D element-of to increase accordingly. The above concepts guided development of both conservative and refined estimates for element-of

  12. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  13. Estimated UV clutter levels at 10-100 meter sensor pixel resolution extrapolated from recent Polar Bear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, M.; Huguenin, R.; Weinberg, M.; Huffman, R.; Eastes, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and the results obtained at 1304 A wavelength from an analysis of the AFGL Polar Bear experiment. The basic measurement equipment provided data of a spatial resolution of 20 km over a large portion of the earth. The instrumentation also provided sampled outputs as the footprint scanned along the measurement track. The combination of the fine scanning and large area coverage provided opportunity for a spatial power spectral analysis that in turn provided a means for extrapolation to finer spatial scale

  14. A comparison of high-order explicit Runge–Kutta, extrapolation, and deferred correction methods in serial and parallel

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-06-13

    We compare the three main types of high-order one-step initial value solvers: extrapolation, spectral deferred correction, and embedded Runge–Kutta pairs. We consider orders four through twelve, including both serial and parallel implementations. We cast extrapolation and deferred correction methods as fixed-order Runge–Kutta methods, providing a natural framework for the comparison. The stability and accuracy properties of the methods are analyzed by theoretical measures, and these are compared with the results of numerical tests. In serial, the eighth-order pair of Prince and Dormand (DOP8) is most efficient. But other high-order methods can be more efficient than DOP8 when implemented in parallel. This is demonstrated by comparing a parallelized version of the wellknown ODEX code with the (serial) DOP853 code. For an N-body problem with N = 400, the experimental extrapolation code is as fast as the tuned Runge–Kutta pair at loose tolerances, and is up to two times as fast at tight tolerances.

  15. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  16. Extrapolation of vertical target motion through a brief visual occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; Iosa, Marco; Maffei, Vincenzo; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    It is known that arbitrary target accelerations along the horizontal generally are extrapolated much less accurately than target speed through a visual occlusion. The extent to which vertical accelerations can be extrapolated through an occlusion is much less understood. Here, we presented a virtual target rapidly descending on a blank screen with different motion laws. The target accelerated under gravity (1g), decelerated under reversed gravity (-1g), or moved at constant speed (0g). Probability of each type of acceleration differed across experiments: one acceleration at a time, or two to three different accelerations randomly intermingled could be presented. After a given viewing period, the target disappeared for a brief, variable period until arrival (occluded trials) or it remained visible throughout (visible trials). Subjects were asked to press a button when the target arrived at destination. We found that, in visible trials, the average performance with 1g targets could be better or worse than that with 0g targets depending on the acceleration probability, and both were always superior to the performance with -1g targets. By contrast, the average performance with 1g targets was always superior to that with 0g and -1g targets in occluded trials. Moreover, the response times of 1g trials tended to approach the ideal value with practice in occluded protocols. To gain insight into the mechanisms of extrapolation, we modeled the response timing based on different types of threshold models. We found that occlusion was accompanied by an adaptation of model parameters (threshold time and central processing time) in a direction that suggests a strategy oriented to the interception of 1g targets at the expense of the interception of the other types of tested targets. We argue that the prediction of occluded vertical motion may incorporate an expectation of gravity effects.

  17. Mass extrapolation of quarks and leptons to higher generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-05-01

    An empirical mass formula is tested for the basic fermion sequences of charged quarks and leptons. This relation is a generalization of Barut's mass formula for the lepton sequence (e, ..mu.., tau ....). It is found that successful mass extrapolation to the third and possibly to other higher generations (N > 2) can be obtained with the first and second generation masses as inputs, which predicts the top quark mass msub(t) to be around 20 GeV. This also leads to the mass ratios between members of two different sequences (i) and (i') corresponding to the same higher generations (N > 2).

  18. Mass extrapolation of quarks and leptons to higher generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.

    1981-01-01

    An empirical mass formula is tested for the basic fermion sequences of charged quarks and leptons. This relation is a generalization of Barut's mass formula for the lepton sequence (e, μ, tau ....). It is found that successful mass extrapolation to the third and possibly to other higher generations (N > 2) can be obtained with the first and second generation masses as inputs, which predicts the top quark mass msub(t) to be around 20 GeV. This also leads to the mass ratios between members of two different sequences (i) and (i') corresponding to the same higher generations (N > 2). (author)

  19. Testing an extrapolation chamber in computed tomography standard beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M. C.; Silva, N. F.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2018-03-01

    The computed tomography (CT) is responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. Therefore, the radiation doses in this procedure must be accurate. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam yet. In order to search for a CT primary standard, an extrapolation ionization chamber built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), was tested in this work. The results showed to be within the international recommended limits.

  20. Chiral and continuum extrapolation of partially-quenched hadron masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chris Allton; Wes Armour; Derek Leinweber; Anthony Thomas; Ross Young

    2005-01-01

    Using the finite-range regularization (FRR) of chiral effective field theory, the chiral extrapolation formula for the vector meson mass is derived for the case of partially-quenched QCD. We re-analyze the dynamical fermion QCD data for the vector meson mass from the CP-PACS collaboration. A global fit, including finite lattice spacing effects, of all 16 of their ensembles is performed. We study the FRR method together with a naive polynomial approach and find excellent agreement (∼1%) with the experimental value of M ρ from the former approach. These results are extended to the case of the nucleon mass

  1. Novel extrapolation method in the Monte Carlo shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Noritaka; Abe, Takashi; Utsuno, Yutaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu; Honma, Michio

    2010-01-01

    We propose an extrapolation method utilizing energy variance in the Monte Carlo shell model to estimate the energy eigenvalue and observables accurately. We derive a formula for the energy variance with deformed Slater determinants, which enables us to calculate the energy variance efficiently. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for the full pf-shell calculation of 56 Ni, and the applicability of the method to a system beyond the current limit of exact diagonalization is shown for the pf+g 9/2 -shell calculation of 64 Ge.

  2. Chiral and continuum extrapolation of partially-quenched hadron masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Allton; Wes Armour; Derek Leinweber; Anthony Thomas; Ross Young

    2005-09-29

    Using the finite-range regularization (FRR) of chiral effective field theory, the chiral extrapolation formula for the vector meson mass is derived for the case of partially-quenched QCD. We re-analyze the dynamical fermion QCD data for the vector meson mass from the CP-PACS collaboration. A global fit, including finite lattice spacing effects, of all 16 of their ensembles is performed. We study the FRR method together with a naive polynomial approach and find excellent agreement ({approx}1%) with the experimental value of M{sub {rho}} from the former approach. These results are extended to the case of the nucleon mass.

  3. Results from Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Hansen, C. J.; Janssen, M. A.; Adriani, A.; Gladstone, R.; Bagenal, F.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Momary, T.; Payne, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both space- and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind described elsewhere in this meeting. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 microns through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (August 27), 2 (October 19), 3 (November 2), 4 (November 15), and 5 (November 30). The Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who, besides providing input needed for public operation of the JunoCam visible camera, tracked the evolution of features in Jupiter

  4. Earth-based Observing Campaign For Comet 103p/hartley 2 For The Dixi Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen Jean; Kelley, M. S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; DIXI Observing Team

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Impact Extended mission (DIXI) is part of the EPOXI mission and will rendezvous with the comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 4 Nov. 2010 at 13:50 UT. Many of the anticipated key science results will come from the combined interpretation of the in-situ spacecraft data and the Earth- and space-based observing campaigns. DIXI in-situ objectives include characterizing the nucleus properties, understanding the activity (outbursts, and sources), mapping the surface and correlating surface albedo, color and temperature with topography to understand the thermal properties of the surface. The Earth-based observations provide a longer-term context for the in-situ observations, and will characterize the activity levels leading up to the encounter, including assessing the dust environment and volatile species production rates. Earth-based observations will search for outbursts and jets that might be linked to activity. The international observing campaign scheduled at more than 20 observatories, began in March 2010, and will continue beyond January 2011, although selected observations began in 2008 with the recovery of the nucleus (Snodgrass et al., (2010), A&A, 516L) and Spitzer IR observations (Lisse et al., (2009) PASP 121, 968), and in 2009 with the measurement of the rotational light curve. We will report on Earth-based observing highlights and their synergies with the in-situ observations. With these combined data we can not only better understand comet Hartley 2, but through the legacy of telescopic observations we may also better understand comets as a whole.

  5. Jovian decametric radiation seen from Juno, Cassini, STEREO A, WIND, and Earth-based radio observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.; Lecacheux, A.; Lamy, L.; Zarka, P.; Clarke, T. E.; Higgins, C. A.

    2017-09-01

    Jupiter's decametric (DAM) radiation is generated very close to the local gyrofrequency by the electron cyclotron maser instability (CMI). The first two-point common detections of Jovian DAM radiation were made using the Voyager spacecraft and ground-based radio observatories in early 1979, but, due to geometrical constraints and limited flyby duration, a full understanding of the latitudinal beaming of Jovian DAM radiation remains elusive. The stereoscopic DAM radiation viewed from Juno, Cassini, STEREO A, WIND, and Earth-based radio observatories provides a unique opportunity to analyze the CMI emission mechanism and beaming properties.

  6. Earth-Base: testing the temporal congruency of paleontological collections and geologic maps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, N. A.; Kishor, P.; McClennen, M.; Peters, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Free and open source software and data facilitate novel research by allowing geoscientists to quickly and easily bring together disparate data that have been independently collected for many different purposes. The Earth-Base project brings together several datasets using a common space-time framework that is managed and analyzed using open source software. Earth-Base currently draws on stratigraphic, paleontologic, tectonic, geodynamic, seismic, botanical, hydrologic and cartographic data. Furthermore, Earth-Base is powered by RESTful data services operating on top of PostgreSQL and MySQL databases and the R programming environment, making much of the functionality accessible to third-parties even though the detailed data schemas are unknown to them. We demonstrate the scientific potential of Earth-Base and other FOSS by comparing the stated age of fossil collections to the age of the bedrock upon which they are geolocated. This analysis makes use of web services for the Paleobiology Database (PaleoDB), Macrostrat, the 2005 Geologic Map of North America (Garrity et al. 2009) and geologic maps of the conterminous United States. This analysis is a way to quickly assess the accuracy of temporal and spatial congruence of the paleontologic and geologic map datasets. We find that 56.1% of the 52,593 PaleoDB collections have temporally consistent ages with the bedrock upon which they are located based on the Geologic Map of North America. Surprisingly, fossil collections within the conterminous United States are more consistently located on bedrock with congruent geological ages, even though the USA maps are spatially and temporally more precise. Approximately 57% of the 37,344 PaleoDB collections in the USA are located on similarly aged geologic map units. Increased accuracy is attributed to the lumping of Pliocene and Quaternary geologic map units along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in the Geologic Map of North America. The abundant Pliocene fossil collections

  7. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  8. Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilek, Michael; Sundell-Bergman, Synnoeve; Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2004-01-01

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors> individual to population> ecosystem structure to function

  9. Guided wave tomography in anisotropic media using recursive extrapolation operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno

    2018-04-01

    Guided wave tomography is an advanced technology for quantitative wall thickness mapping to image wall loss due to corrosion or erosion. An inversion approach is used to match the measured phase (time) at a specific frequency to a model. The accuracy of the model determines the sizing accuracy. Particularly for seam welded pipes there is a measurable amount of anisotropy. Moreover, for small defects a ray-tracing based modelling approach is no longer accurate. Both issues are solved by applying a recursive wave field extrapolation operator assuming vertical transverse anisotropy. The inversion scheme is extended by not only estimating the wall loss profile but also the anisotropy, local material changes and transducer ring alignment errors. This makes the approach more robust. The approach will be demonstrated experimentally on different defect sizes, and a comparison will be made between this new approach and an isotropic ray-tracing approach. An example is given in Fig. 1 for a 75 mm wide, 5 mm deep defect. The wave field extrapolation based tomography clearly provides superior results.

  10. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilad, E., E-mail: gilade@bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2017-05-11

    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  11. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  12. Higher Order Aitken Extrapolation with Application to Converging and Diverging Gauss-Seidel Iterations

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruneh, Ababu Teklemariam

    2013-01-01

    Aitken extrapolation normally applied to convergent fixed point iteration is extended to extrapolate the solution of a divergent iteration. In addition, higher order Aitken extrapolation is introduced that enables successive decomposition of high Eigen values of the iteration matrix to enable convergence. While extrapolation of a convergent fixed point iteration using a geometric series sum is a known form of Aitken acceleration, it is shown in this paper that the same formula can be used to ...

  13. Why does the Aitken extrapolation often help to attain convergence in self-consistent field calculations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioslowski, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Aitken (three-point) extrapolation is one of the most popular convergence accelerators in the SCF calculations. The conditions that guarantee the Aitken extrapolation to bring about an unconditional convergence in the SCF process are examined. Classification of the SCF divergences is presented and it is shown that the extrapolation can be expected to work properly only in the case of oscillatory divergence

  14. Earth-Base: A Free And Open Source, RESTful Earth Sciences Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, P.; Heim, N. A.; Peters, S. E.; McClennen, M.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation describes the motivation, concept, and architecture behind Earth-Base, a web-based, RESTful data-management, analysis and visualization platform for earth sciences data. Traditionally web applications have been built directly accessing data from a database using a scripting language. While such applications are great at bring results to a wide audience, they are limited in scope to the imagination and capabilities of the application developer. Earth-Base decouples the data store from the web application by introducing an intermediate "data application" tier. The data application's job is to query the data store using self-documented, RESTful URIs, and send the results back formatted as JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). Decoupling the data store from the application allows virtually limitless flexibility in developing applications, both web-based for human consumption or programmatic for machine consumption. It also allows outside developers to use the data in their own applications, potentially creating applications that the original data creator and app developer may not have even thought of. Standardized specifications for URI-based querying and JSON-formatted results make querying and developing applications easy. URI-based querying also allows utilizing distributed datasets easily. Companion mechanisms for querying data snapshots aka time-travel, usage tracking and license management, and verification of semantic equivalence of data are also described. The latter promotes the "What You Expect Is What You Get" (WYEIWYG) principle that can aid in data citation and verification.

  15. Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Lee, Dean [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA - High Performance Computing, Juelich (Germany); Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Rupak, Gautam [Mississippi State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the ''symmetry-sign extrapolation'' method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the {sup 12}C, {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)

  16. Performance of an extrapolation chamber in computed tomography standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maysa C.; Silva, Natália F.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2017-01-01

    Among the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the computed tomography (CT) diagnostic exams are responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. The dosimetry procedure in CT scanner beams makes use of pencil ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 10 cm. The aim of its calibration is to compare the values that are obtained with the instrument to be calibrated and a standard reference system. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam. Therefore, an extrapolation ionization chamber built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI), was used to establish a CT primary standard. The objective of this work was to perform some characterization tests (short- and medium-term stabilities, saturation curve, polarity effect and ion collection efficiency) in the standard X-rays beams established for computed tomography at the LCI. (author)

  17. UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N

    2012-01-01

    Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

  18. Performance of an extrapolation chamber in computed tomography standard beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Maysa C.; Silva, Natália F.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: mcastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Among the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the computed tomography (CT) diagnostic exams are responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. The dosimetry procedure in CT scanner beams makes use of pencil ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 10 cm. The aim of its calibration is to compare the values that are obtained with the instrument to be calibrated and a standard reference system. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam. Therefore, an extrapolation ionization chamber built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI), was used to establish a CT primary standard. The objective of this work was to perform some characterization tests (short- and medium-term stabilities, saturation curve, polarity effect and ion collection efficiency) in the standard X-rays beams established for computed tomography at the LCI. (author)

  19. A generalized sound extrapolation method for turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Siyang; Zhang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Sound extrapolation methods are often used to compute acoustic far-field directivities using near-field flow data in aeroacoustics applications. The results may be erroneous if the volume integrals are neglected (to save computational cost), while non-acoustic fluctuations are collected on the integration surfaces. In this work, we develop a new sound extrapolation method based on an acoustic analogy using Taylor's hypothesis (Taylor 1938 Proc. R. Soc. Lon. A 164, 476-490. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1938.0032)). Typically, a convection operator is used to filter out the acoustically inefficient components in the turbulent flows, and an acoustics dominant indirect variable Dcp‧ is solved. The sound pressure p' at the far field is computed from Dcp‧ based on the asymptotic properties of the Green's function. Validations results for benchmark problems with well-defined sources match well with the exact solutions. For aeroacoustics applications: the sound predictions by the aerofoil-gust interaction are close to those by an earlier method specially developed to remove the effect of vortical fluctuations (Zhong & Zhang 2017 J. Fluid Mech. 820, 424-450. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2017.219)); for the case of vortex shedding noise from a cylinder, the off-body predictions by the proposed method match well with the on-body Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings result; different integration surfaces yield close predictions (of both spectra and far-field directivities) for a co-flowing jet case using an established direct numerical simulation database. The results suggest that the method may be a potential candidate for sound projection in aeroacoustics applications.

  20. Investigating the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium flow emplacement with Earth-based radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G. A.; Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Hawke, B. R.

    2016-08-01

    The lunar maria are the product of extensive basaltic volcanism that flooded widespread portions of the Moon's surface. Constraining mare volcanic history therefore provides a window into the endogenic processes responsible for shaping the Moon. Due to the low magma viscosity and the associated thin nature of lava units, the majority of mare surface structures are masked and subdued by impact regolith. Subtle individual mare flow morphologies, coupled with spatial limitations in the use of crater size distributions to distinguish surface units close in age, restrict our understanding of mare stratigraphy. Earth-based 70 cm wavelength (P band) radar can reveal features beneath the regolith and highlight very subtle changes in the ilmenite content of the flows, providing a unique means to map mare units. Here we map volcanic units in Mare Imbrium using high-resolution (200 m/pixel), Earth-based P band data. Situated within the heat-producing potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus terrane, Mare Imbrium experienced some of the most long-lived (and recent) lunar volcanism, and its surface exhibits a significant diversity of basaltic chemistry. Our investigation identifies at least four distinct stages of volcanic activity, originating from multiple sources within Imbrium. The most recent of these stages comprises extensive, yet relatively thin volcanic flow units that left remnant kipukas of older mare material distributed across much of the basin. From a future mission perspective, it may be possible to collect samples expressing a wide range in age from small areas of Mare Imbrium. Our map also places important constraints on the interpretation of the Chang'e-3 Lunar Penetrating Radar measurements.

  1. Extrapolation of lattice gauge theories to the continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.; Vaidya, H.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of extrapolating lattice gauge theories from the strong-coupling phase to the continuum critical point is studied for the Abelian (U(1)) and non-Abelian (SU(2)) theories in three (space--time) dimensions. A method is described for obtaining the asymptotic behavior, for large β, of such thermodynamic quantities and correlation functions as the free energy and Wilson loop function. Certain general analyticity and positivity properties (in the complex β-plane) are shown to lead, after appropriate analytic remappings, to a Stieltjes property of these functions. Rigorous theorems then guarantee uniform and monotone convergence of the Pade approximants, with exact pointwise upper and lower bounds. The first three Pade's are computed for both the free energy and the Wilson function. For the free energy, satisfactory agreement is with the asymptotic behavior computed by an explicit lattice calculation. The strong-coupling series for the Wilson function is found to be considerably more unstable in the lower order terms - correspondingly, convergence of the Pade's is found to be slower than in the free-energy case. It is suggested that higher-order calculations may allow a reasonably accurate determination of the string constant for the SU(2) theory. 14 references

  2. Dynamic Aperture Extrapolation in Presence of Tune Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannozzi, Massimo; Todesco, Ezio

    1998-01-01

    In hadron colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be built at CERN, the long-term stability of the single-particle motion is mostly determined by the field-shape quality of the superconducting magnets. The mechanism of particle loss may be largely enhanced by modulation of betatron tunes, induced either by synchro-betatron coupling (via the residual uncorrected chromaticity), or by unavoidable power supply ripple. This harmful effect is investigated in a simple dynamical system model, the Henon map with modulated linear frequencies. Then, a realistic accelerator model describing the injection optics of the LHC lattice is analyzed. Orbital data obtained with long-term tracking simulations ($10^5$-$10^7$ turns) are post-processed to obtain the dynamic aperture. It turns out that the dynamic aperture can be interpolated using a simple mpirical formula, and it decays proportionally to a power of the inverse logarithm of the number of turns. Furthermore, the extrapolation of tracking data at $10^5$ t...

  3. Multivariable extrapolation of grand canonical free energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A.; Errington, Jeffrey R.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2017-12-01

    We derive an approach for extrapolating the free energy landscape of multicomponent systems in the grand canonical ensemble, obtained from flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations, from one set of temperature and chemical potentials to another. This is accomplished by expanding the landscape in a Taylor series at each value of the order parameter which defines its macrostate phase space. The coefficients in each Taylor polynomial are known exactly from fluctuation formulas, which may be computed by measuring the appropriate moments of extensive variables that fluctuate in this ensemble. Here we derive the expressions necessary to define these coefficients up to arbitrary order. In principle, this enables a single flat-histogram simulation to provide complete thermodynamic information over a broad range of temperatures and chemical potentials. Using this, we also show how to combine a small number of simulations, each performed at different conditions, in a thermodynamically consistent fashion to accurately compute properties at arbitrary temperatures and chemical potentials. This method may significantly increase the computational efficiency of biased grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, especially for multicomponent mixtures. Although approximate, this approach is amenable to high-throughput and data-intensive investigations where it is preferable to have a large quantity of reasonably accurate simulation data, rather than a smaller amount with a higher accuracy.

  4. Detectability Factors for Earth-based Imaging of the LCROSS Ejecta Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Schotte, Jonathan M.; Temme, Ruth L.; Chanover, Nancy J.

    2017-10-01

    NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission delivered a kinetic impactor into Cabeus Crater on 9 October 2009 [1, 2]. Observing campaigns from Earth-based telescopes at multiple facilities attempted to obtain temporally-resolved imaging of the ejecta plume [3], but no Earth-based imaging detections were reported until 2013 after processing images with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) filtering [4]. Subsequently, PCA filtering has revealed plume detections in two additional cameras and also confirmed a non-detection from one telescope [5, 6]. This combination of detection and non-detection data is useful in determining the criteria for detectability in future observations of transient events. The goal of this work is to identify factors contributing to detectability and to establish thresholds applicable to the LCROSS event. We take the data containing detections and then degrade a specific factor in them until the plume is no longer detectable. These derived thresholds for factors (e.g., scattered light, temporal resolution, spatial resolution, field of view, and signal-to-noise of the illuminated foreground of Cabeus) can be compared to the properties of the actual non-detection data to identify problems specific to its observing conditions or observational setup. The percent differences between the thresholds and both the detection data and non-detection data may also reveal the relative importance of these detectability factors. This work was supported by NASA’s Lunar Data Analysis Program through grant number NNX15AP92G. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.References: [1] Colaprete, A. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 463-468. [2] Schultz, P. H. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 468-472. [3] Heldmann, J. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev., 167:93-140, doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9759-y. [4] Strycker, P. D. et al. (2013) Nat. Commun., 4

  5. Alkaline earth-based coordination polymers derived from a cyclotriphosphazene-functionalized hexacarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yajing; Bai, Dongjie; Feng, Yunlong; He, Yabing

    2016-01-01

    earth-based coordination polymers were constructed from a semirigid cyclotriphosphazene-functionalized hexacarboxylate exhibiting different inorganic nodes as well as distinct ligand conformations relying on the metal ions, which presents the first example of such a ligand incorporated into alkaline earth–based coordination polymers. - Highlights: • Three alkaline earth-based coordination polymers were synthesized. • The three compounds exhibit different inorganic nodes and ligand conformations. • The three compounds are photoluminscent in the solid state.

  6. Evaluating In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation of Toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, John F; Hughes, Michael F; Ring, Caroline L; MacMillan, Denise K; Ford, Jermaine; Fennell, Timothy R; Black, Sherry R; Snyder, Rodney W; Sipes, Nisha S; Wetmore, Barbara A; Westerhout, Joost; Setzer, R Woodrow; Pearce, Robert G; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Thomas, Russell S

    2018-05-01

    Prioritizing the risk posed by thousands of chemicals potentially present in the environment requires exposure, toxicity, and toxicokinetic (TK) data, which are often unavailable. Relatively high throughput, in vitro TK (HTTK) assays and in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) methods have been developed to predict TK, but most of the in vivo TK data available to benchmark these methods are from pharmaceuticals. Here we report on new, in vivo rat TK experiments for 26 non-pharmaceutical chemicals with environmental relevance. Both intravenous and oral dosing were used to calculate bioavailability. These chemicals, and an additional 19 chemicals (including some pharmaceuticals) from previously published in vivo rat studies, were systematically analyzed to estimate in vivo TK parameters (e.g., volume of distribution [Vd], elimination rate). For each of the chemicals, rat-specific HTTK data were available and key TK predictions were examined: oral bioavailability, clearance, Vd, and uncertainty. For the non-pharmaceutical chemicals, predictions for bioavailability were not effective. While no pharmaceutical was absorbed at less than 10%, the fraction bioavailable for non-pharmaceutical chemicals was as low as 0.3%. Total clearance was generally more under-estimated for nonpharmaceuticals and Vd methods calibrated to pharmaceuticals may not be appropriate for other chemicals. However, the steady-state, peak, and time-integrated plasma concentrations of nonpharmaceuticals were predicted with reasonable accuracy. The plasma concentration predictions improved when experimental measurements of bioavailability were incorporated. In summary, HTTK and IVIVE methods are adequately robust to be applied to high throughput in vitro toxicity screening data of environmentally relevant chemicals for prioritizing based on human health risks.

  7. Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, Sean P.; Marozas, John A.; Kelly, John H.; Boehly, Thomas R.; Donaldson, William R.; Jaanimagi, Paul A.; Keck, Robert L.; Kessler, Terrance J.; Meyerhofer, David D.; Seka, Wolf

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of smoothing rates for smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) of high-power, solid-state laser beams used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research are reported. Smoothing rates were obtained from the intensity distributions of equivalent target plane images for laser pulses of varying duration. Simulations of the experimental data with the known properties of the phase plates and the frequency modulators are in good agreement with the experimental data. These results inspire confidence in extrapolating to higher bandwidths and other SSD configurations that may be suitable for ICF experiments and ultimately for direct-drive laser-fusion ignition. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  8. A family of rare-earth-based single chain magnets: playing with anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Kevin; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta

    2006-06-21

    The first family of rare-earth-based single chain magnets is presented. Compounds of general formula [M(hfac)3(NITPhOPh)], where M = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, or Yb, and PhOPh is the nitronyl-nitroxide radical (2,4'-benzoxo-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), have been structurally characterized and found to be isostructural. The characterization of both static and dynamic magnetic properties of the whole family is reported. Dy, Tb, and Ho compounds display slow relaxation of the magnetization, and ac susceptibility shows a thermally activated regime with energy barriers of 69, 45, and 34 K for Dy, Tb, and Ho compounds, respectively, while only a frequency-dependent susceptibility is observed for Er below 2.0 K. In Gd and Yb derivatives, antiferromagnetic interactions dominate. The pre-exponential factors differ by about 4 orders of magnitude. Finite size effects, due to naturally occurring defects, affect the static and dynamic properties of the compounds differently.

  9. Ternary rare-earth based alternative gate-dielectrics for future integration in MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Juergen; Lopes, Joao Marcelo; Durgun Oezben, Eylem; Luptak, Roman; Lenk, Steffi; Zander, Willi; Roeckerath, Martin [IBN 1-IT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The dielectric SiO{sub 2} has been the key to the tremendous improvements in Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device performance over the past four decades. It has, however, reached its limit in terms of scaling since it exhibits a leakage current density higher than 1 A/cm{sup 2} and does not retain its intrinsic physical properties at thicknesses below 1.5 nm. In order to overcome these problems and keep Moore's law ongoing, the use of higher dielectric constant (k) gate oxides has been suggested. These high-k materials must satisfy numerous requirements such as the high k, low leakage currents, suitable band gap und offsets to silicon. Rare-earth based dielectrics are promising materials which fulfill these needs. We will review the properties of REScO{sub 3} (RE = La, Dy, Gd, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} thin films, grown with pulsed laser deposition, e-gun evaporation or molecular beam deposition, integrated in capacitors and transistors. A k > 20 for the REScO{sub 3} (RE = Dy, Gd) and around 30 for (RE = La, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} are obtained. Transistors prepared on SOI and sSOI show mobility values up to 380 cm{sup 2}/Vs on sSOI, which are comparable to such prepared with HfO{sub 2}.

  10. in vivo EFFECTS OF RARE-EARTH BASED NANOPARTICLES ON OXIDATIVE BALANCE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Klochkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to find the influence of rare-earth based nanoparticles (CeO2, GdVO2: Eu3+ on the oxidative balance in rats. We analyzed biochemical markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation level, nitric oxide metabolites, sulfhydryl groups content and enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase in tissues of rats. It has been found that administration of both types of the nanoparticles increased nitric oxide metabolites and products of lipid peroxidation in liver and spleen within 5 days. At injections of GdVO2: Eu3+ lipid peroxidation products, nitric oxide metabolites in serum at 5, 10 and 15 days of the experiment was also increased whereas the level of sulfhydryl groups decreased compared to the intact state and the control. In contrast, under the influence of nanoparticle CeO2 level diene conjugates were not significantly changed and the level of nitric oxide metabolites within 15 day even decreased. During this period, under the influence of both types of nanoparticles the activity of superoxide dismutase was increased, catalase activity was not changed. Oxidative stress coefficient showed the less pronounced CeO2 prooxidant effect (2.04 in comparison to GdVO2: Eu3+ (6.89. However, after-effect of both types of nanoparticles showed complete restoration of oxidative balance values.

  11. Effect of rare-earth-based nanoparticles on the erythrocyte osmotic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. К. Пакулова

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth-based nanoparticles (REB NPs have been employed in molecular and cell biology due to their unique features. However, their interaction with biosystems and the influence on cell functioning are poorly understood. In this study effect of REB NPs (composed of dielectric nanocrystalls of cerium dioxide and orthovanadates of gadolinium and yttrium with different form-factor as well as REB NPs-cholesterol complexes on the adaptation of human erythrocytes to hypertonic lysis (4 M NaCl has been evaluated spectrophotometrically. It appeared that the degree of cell damage in the presence of REP NPs under hyperosmotic conditions varied with geometric parameters of REB NPs. Specifically: i ultra-small (2 nm spherical CeO2 or GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs, penetrating through the plasma membrane, ii grain-like (8´30 nm GdVO4:Eu3+ NPs, adsorbed on the membrane surface, iii and spherical GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs-cholesterol complexes promoted cell adaptation to hypertonic lysis. Furthermore, the composition of nanoparticles affected their stabilizing effect on the cells. E.g., orthovanadate NPs at 0.1 g/l had the highest antihemolytic activity after short preincubation, while cerium dioxide NPs showed the same effect after prolonged preincubation. In conclusion, REB NPs promoted hyperosmotic cell adaptation by the two different mechanisms, viz. membrane stabilization by the adsorption on the cell surface and/or penetration into the cell.

  12. Earth-based and Galileo SSI multispectral observations of eastern mare serenitatis and the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both the Apollo 17 and the Mare Serenitatis region were observed by Galileo during its fly-by in December 1992. We used earth-based multispectral data to define mare units which then can be compared with the results of the Galileo SSI data evaluation.

  13. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  14. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  15. Fuel cycle design for ITER and its extrapolation to DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: s-konishi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Glugla, Manfred [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hayashi, Takumi [Apan Atomic Energy AgencyTokai, Ibaraki 319-0015 Japan (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    future energy source. Some of the subjects cannot be expected to be within the extrapolation of ITER technology and require long term efforts paralleling ITER.

  16. Fuel cycle design for ITER and its extrapolation to DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Glugla, Manfred; Hayashi, Takumi

    2008-01-01

    future energy source. Some of the subjects cannot be expected to be within the extrapolation of ITER technology and require long term efforts paralleling ITER

  17. Oral-to-inhalation route extrapolation in occupational health risk assessment: A critical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, M.A.J.; Bouwman, T.; Wilschut, A.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Heer, C.de

    2004-01-01

    Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, the health risks resulting from occupational exposure are frequently assessed by route-to-route (RtR) extrapolation based on oral toxicity data. Insight into the conditions for and the uncertainties connected with the application of RtR extrapolation

  18. Hydrologic nonstationarity and extrapolating models to predict the future: overview of session and proceeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. S. Chiew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of this IAHS symposium and PIAHS proceeding on "hydrologic nonstationarity and extrapolating models to predict the future". The paper provides a brief review of research on this topic, presents approaches used to account for nonstationarity when extrapolating models to predict the future, and summarises the papers in this session and proceeding.

  19. On the existence of the optimal order for wavefunction extrapolation in Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jun; Wang, Han, E-mail: wang-han@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing (China); CAEP Software Center for High Performance Numerical Simulation, Beijing (China); Gao, Xingyu; Song, Haifeng [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing (China); CAEP Software Center for High Performance Numerical Simulation, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Computational Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-28

    Wavefunction extrapolation greatly reduces the number of self-consistent field (SCF) iterations and thus the overall computational cost of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) that is based on the Kohn–Sham density functional theory. Going against the intuition that the higher order of extrapolation possesses a better accuracy, we demonstrate, from both theoretical and numerical perspectives, that the extrapolation accuracy firstly increases and then decreases with respect to the order, and an optimal extrapolation order in terms of minimal number of SCF iterations always exists. We also prove that the optimal order tends to be larger when using larger MD time steps or more strict SCF convergence criteria. By example BOMD simulations of a solid copper system, we show that the optimal extrapolation order covers a broad range when varying the MD time step or the SCF convergence criterion. Therefore, we suggest the necessity for BOMD simulation packages to open the user interface and to provide more choices on the extrapolation order. Another factor that may influence the extrapolation accuracy is the alignment scheme that eliminates the discontinuity in the wavefunctions with respect to the atomic or cell variables. We prove the equivalence between the two existing schemes, thus the implementation of either of them does not lead to essential difference in the extrapolation accuracy.

  20. Extrapolation bias and the predictability of stock returns by price-scaled variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassella, Stefano; Gulen, H.

    Using survey data on expectations of future stock returns, we recursively estimate the degree of extrapolative weighting in investors' beliefs (DOX). In an extrapolation framework, DOX determines the relative weight investors place on recent-versus-distant past returns. DOX varies considerably over

  1. Can Pearlite form Outside of the Hultgren Extrapolation of the Ae3 and Acm Phase Boundaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, M. M.; Rementeria, R.; Capdevila, C.; Hackenberg, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    It is usually assumed that ferrous pearlite can form only when the average austenite carbon concentration C 0 lies between the extrapolated Ae3 ( γ/ α) and Acm ( γ/ θ) phase boundaries (the "Hultgren extrapolation"). This "mutual supersaturation" criterion for cooperative lamellar nucleation and growth is critically examined from a historical perspective and in light of recent experiments on coarse-grained hypoeutectoid steels which show pearlite formation outside the Hultgren extrapolation. This criterion, at least as interpreted in terms of the average austenite composition, is shown to be unnecessarily restrictive. The carbon fluxes evaluated from Brandt's solution are sufficient to allow pearlite growth both inside and outside the Hultgren Extrapolation. As for the feasibility of the nucleation events leading to pearlite, the only criterion is that there are some local regions of austenite inside the Hultgren Extrapolation, even if the average austenite composition is outside.

  2. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Tamayo Garcia, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Bragg-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents the characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta radiation field. The absorbed dose rate to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm was calculated and is (0.13206±0.0028) μGy. The extrapolation chamber null depth was determined and its value is 60 μm. The influence of temperature, pressure and humidity on the value of the corrected current was also evaluated. Temperature is the parameter that has more influence on this value and the influence of pressure and the humidity is not very significant. Extrapolation curves were obtained. (Author)

  3. Investigations on fabricating strategies and utilization of rare earth based multicomponent oxide powders in radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Seema; Pitale, S.S.; Banthia, S.; Ghosh, M.; Tyagi, M.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Materials containing rare earths demonstrate a broad field of applications as high energy radiation detectors, mainly due to their fascinating optical properties. Currently, Ce 3+ -doped rare earth silicates and garnets dominate the scintillator market because they show a high light yield, fast decay time, and high chemical stability. Moreover, the emission wavelength of silicates (410-440 nm) matches the wavelength sensitivity of conventional PMTs while, Si-photo-detector readouts are possible with garnets (emission near 550 nm). The composition, structure and phase of rare earth silicates are rather complex. For example, there are many phases like oxyorthosilicate R 2 SiO 5 , disilicate R 2 Si 2 O 7 , hexagonal R x (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 oxyapatite etc (where R= Rare earth element). The controlled synthesis of single phase rare earth silicates and garnets nanomaterials is not easy and can only be reached with precisely controlled experimental conditions. In this work, we provide a broad overview of our recent scientific developments linked to a few aspects of synthesizing cerium activated rare earth based silicates and garnet materials, namely Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce 3+ , Gd 4.67 (SiO 4 ) 3 O, Gd 2 Si 2 O 7 :Ce 3+ and Gd 3 Al x Ga 1-x O 12 :Ce 3+ (where 0≤x≤5) exploiting the advantages of solution combustion, chemical co-precipitation and hydrothermal techniques. A brief summary of results based on synthesis strategy adopted, composition, size shape and corresponding luminescence features of Gd based compounds are tabulated. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) features of compounds listed. Efforts towards finding new properties and new materials will be continued and several applications, in particular energy-conversion and scintillator detectors, will benefit from these rare earth materials

  4. Photodetachment and UV-Vis spectral properties of Cl2rad -·nHO clusters: Extrapolation to bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A. K.; Mukherjee, T.; Maity, D. K.

    2008-03-01

    Vertical detachment energy (VDE) and UV-Vis spectra of Cl2rad -·nHO clusters ( n = 1-11) are reported based on first principle electronic structure calculations. VDE of the hydrated clusters are calculated following second order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) as well as coupled cluster theory with 6-311++G(d,p) set of basis function. The excess electron in these hydrated clusters is mainly localized over the solute Cl atoms. A linear relationship is obtained for VDE vs. ( n + 2.6) -1/3 and bulk VDE of Cl2rad - aqueous solution is calculated as 10.61 eV at CCSD(T) level of theory. UV-Vis spectra of these hydrated clusters are calculated applying CI with single electron (CIS) excitation procedure. Simulated UV-Vis spectra of Cl2rad -·10HO cluster is noted to be in excellent agreement with the reported spectra of Cl2rad - (aq) system, λmax for Cl2rad -·11HO system is calculated to be red shifted though.

  5. A high precision extrapolation method in multiphase-field model for simulating dendrite growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cong; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2018-05-01

    The phase-field method coupling with thermodynamic data has become a trend for predicting the microstructure formation in technical alloys. Nevertheless, the frequent access to thermodynamic database and calculation of local equilibrium conditions can be time intensive. The extrapolation methods, which are derived based on Taylor expansion, can provide approximation results with a high computational efficiency, and have been proven successful in applications. This paper presents a high precision second order extrapolation method for calculating the driving force in phase transformation. To obtain the phase compositions, different methods in solving the quasi-equilibrium condition are tested, and the M-slope approach is chosen for its best accuracy. The developed second order extrapolation method along with the M-slope approach and the first order extrapolation method are applied to simulate dendrite growth in a Ni-Al-Cr ternary alloy. The results of the extrapolation methods are compared with the exact solution with respect to the composition profile and dendrite tip position, which demonstrate the high precision and efficiency of the newly developed algorithm. To accelerate the phase-field and extrapolation computation, the graphic processing unit (GPU) based parallel computing scheme is developed. The application to large-scale simulation of multi-dendrite growth in an isothermal cross-section has demonstrated the ability of the developed GPU-accelerated second order extrapolation approach for multiphase-field model.

  6. Design and construction of an interface system for the extrapolation chamber from the beta secondary standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez C, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Interface System for the Extrapolation Chamber (SICE) contains several devices handled by a personal computer (PC), it is able to get the required data to calculate the absorbed dose due to Beta radiation. The main functions of the system are: a) Measures the ionization current or charge stored in the extrapolation chamber. b) Adjusts the distance between the plates of the extrapolation chamber automatically. c) Adjust the bias voltage of the extrapolation chamber automatically. d) Acquires the data of the temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity of the environment and the voltage applied between the plates of the extrapolation chamber. e) Calculates the effective area of the plates of the extrapolation chamber and the real distance between them. f) Stores all the obtained information in hard disk or diskette. A comparison between the desired distance and the distance in the dial of the extrapolation chamber, show us that the resolution of the system is of 20 μm. The voltage can be changed between -399.9 V and +399.9 V with an error of less the 3 % with a resolution of 0.1 V. These uncertainties are between the accepted limits to be used in the determination of the absolute absorbed dose due to beta radiation. (Author)

  7. Empirical models of the Solar Wind : Extrapolations from the Helios & Ulysses observations back to the corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic, M.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2017-12-01

    We will present extrapolation of the HELIOS & Ulysses proton density, temperature & bulk velocities back to the corona. Using simple mass flux conservations we show a very good agreement between these extrapolations and the current state knowledge of these parameters in the corona, based on SOHO mesurements. These simple extrapolations could potentially be very useful for the science planning of both the Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter missions. Finally will also present some modelling considerations, based on simple energy balance equations which arise from these empirical observationnal models.

  8. Effect of extrapolation length on the phase transformation of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.S.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.B.; Zheng, X.J.; Zhou, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of extrapolation length on the phase transformation of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films on dissimilar cubic substrates have been studied on the basis of the mean-field Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire (LGD) thermodynamic theory by taking an uneven distribution of the interior stress with thickness into account. It was found that the polarization of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films is strongly dependent on the extrapolation length of films. The physical origin of the extrapolation length during the phase transformation from paraelectric to ferroelectric was revealed in the case of ferroelectric thin films

  9. Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm for an accelerated solution of weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesgarani, H; Parmour, P; Aghazadeh, N

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm as acceleration technique for the solution of a weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equation of the second kind. In this paper, based on Tao and Yong (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 324 225-37.) the integral equation is solved by Navot's quadrature formula. Also, Tao and Yong (2006) for the first time applied Richardson extrapolation to accelerating convergence for the weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations of the second kind. To our knowledge, this paper may be the first attempt to apply Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm for the weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations of the second kind.

  10. An extrapolation scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shift calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Conventional quantum chemical and solid-state physical approaches include several problems to accurately calculate solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties. We propose a reliable computational scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shifts using an extrapolation scheme that retains the advantages of these approaches but reduces their disadvantages. Our scheme can satisfactorily yield solid-state NMR magnetic shielding constants. The estimated values have only a small dependence on the low-level density functional theory calculation with the extrapolation scheme. Thus, our approach is efficient because the rough calculation can be performed in the extrapolation scheme.

  11. The optimized gradient method for full waveform inversion and its spectral implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    At the heart of the full waveform inversion (FWI) implementation is wavefield extrapolation, and specifically its accuracy and cost. To obtain accurate, dispersion free wavefields, the extrapolation for modelling is often expensive. Combining an efficient extrapolation with a novel gradient preconditioning can render an FWI implementation that efficiently converges to an accurate model. We, specifically, recast the extrapolation part of the inversion in terms of its spectral components for both data and gradient calculation. This admits dispersion free wavefields even at large extrapolation time steps, which improves the efficiency of the inversion. An alternative spectral representation of the depth axis in terms of sine functions allows us to impose a free surface boundary condition, which reflects our medium boundaries more accurately. Using a newly derived perfectly matched layer formulation for this spectral implementation, we can define a finite model with absorbing boundaries. In order to reduce the nonlinearity in FWI, we propose a multiscale conditioning of the objective function through combining the different directional components of the gradient to optimally update the velocity. Through solving a simple optimization problem, it specifically admits the smoothest approximate update while guaranteeing its ascending direction. An application to the Marmousi model demonstrates the capability of the proposed approach and justifies our assertions with respect to cost and convergence.

  12. The optimized gradient method for full waveform inversion and its spectral implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2016-03-28

    At the heart of the full waveform inversion (FWI) implementation is wavefield extrapolation, and specifically its accuracy and cost. To obtain accurate, dispersion free wavefields, the extrapolation for modelling is often expensive. Combining an efficient extrapolation with a novel gradient preconditioning can render an FWI implementation that efficiently converges to an accurate model. We, specifically, recast the extrapolation part of the inversion in terms of its spectral components for both data and gradient calculation. This admits dispersion free wavefields even at large extrapolation time steps, which improves the efficiency of the inversion. An alternative spectral representation of the depth axis in terms of sine functions allows us to impose a free surface boundary condition, which reflects our medium boundaries more accurately. Using a newly derived perfectly matched layer formulation for this spectral implementation, we can define a finite model with absorbing boundaries. In order to reduce the nonlinearity in FWI, we propose a multiscale conditioning of the objective function through combining the different directional components of the gradient to optimally update the velocity. Through solving a simple optimization problem, it specifically admits the smoothest approximate update while guaranteeing its ascending direction. An application to the Marmousi model demonstrates the capability of the proposed approach and justifies our assertions with respect to cost and convergence.

  13. Design for low dose extrapolation of carcinogenicity data. Technical report No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.C.

    1979-06-01

    Parameters for modelling dose-response relationships in carcinogenesis models were found to be very complicated, especially for distinguishing low dose effects. The author concluded that extrapolation always bears the danger of providing misleading information

  14. Calibration of the 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic and dermatological applicators with an extrapolation ionization minichamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Oliveira, Mércia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2014-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. 90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. - Highlights: • 90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators were calibrated using a mini-extrapolation chamber. • An extrapolation curve was obtained for each applicator during its calibration. • The results were compared with those provided by the calibration certificates. • All results of the dermatological applicators presented lower differences than 5%

  15. The extrapolation of creep rupture data by PD6605 - An independent case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.net [65 Fisher Avenue, Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The worked example presented in BSI document PD6605-1:1998, to illustrate the selection, validation and extrapolation of a creep rupture model using statistical analysis, was independently examined. Alternative rupture models were formulated and analysed by the same statistical methods, and were shown to represent the test data more accurately than the original model. Median rupture lives extrapolated from the original and alternative models were found to diverge widely under some conditions of practical interest. The tests prescribed in PD6605 and employed to validate the original model were applied to the better of the alternative models. But the tests were unable to discriminate between the two, demonstrating that these tests fail to ensure reliability in extrapolation. The difficulties of determining when a model is sufficiently reliable for use in extrapolation are discussed and some proposals are made.

  16. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    to cases where the Gumbel distribution is the appropriate asymptotic extreme value distribution. However, two extra parameters are introduced by which a more general and flexible class of extreme value distributions is obtained with the Gumbel distribution as a subclass. The general method is implemented...... within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out......The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted...

  17. Melting of “non-magic” argon clusters and extrapolation to the bulk limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, Florian; Wiebke, Jonas; Schumann, Ole; Gohr, Sebastian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Pahl, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The melting of argon clusters Ar N is investigated by applying a parallel-tempering Monte Carlo algorithm for all cluster sizes in the range from 55 to 309 atoms. Extrapolation to the bulk gives a melting temperature of 85.9 K in good agreement with the previous value of 88.9 K using only Mackay icosahedral clusters for the extrapolation [E. Pahl, F. Calvo, L. Koči, and P. Schwerdtfeger, “Accurate melting temperatures for neon and argon from ab initio Monte Carlo simulations,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 8207 (2008)]. Our results for argon demonstrate that for the extrapolation to the bulk one does not have to restrict to magic number cluster sizes in order to obtain good estimates for the bulk melting temperature. However, the extrapolation to the bulk remains a problem, especially for the systematic selection of suitable cluster sizes

  18. NLT and extrapolated DLT:3-D cinematography alternatives for enlarging the volume of calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, R N; McLean, S P

    1995-10-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the direct linear transformation (DLT) and non-linear transformation (NLT) methods of 3-D cinematography/videography. A comparison of standard DLT, extrapolated DLT, and NLT calibrations showed the standard (non-extrapolated) DLT to be the most accurate, especially when a large number of control points (40-60) were used. The NLT was more accurate than the extrapolated DLT when the level of extrapolation exceeded 100%. The results indicated that when possible one should use the DLT with a control object, sufficiently large as to encompass the entire activity being studied. However, in situations where the activity volume exceeds the size of one's DLT control object, the NLT method should be considered.

  19. The Extrapolation-Accelerated Multilevel Aggregation Method in PageRank Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yuan Pu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated multilevel aggregation method is presented for calculating the stationary probability vector of an irreducible stochastic matrix in PageRank computation, where the vector extrapolation method is its accelerator. We show how to periodically combine the extrapolation method together with the multilevel aggregation method on the finest level for speeding up the PageRank computation. Detailed numerical results are given to illustrate the behavior of this method, and comparisons with the typical methods are also made.

  20. Extrapolation of π-meson form factor, zeros in the analyticity domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of a stable extrapolation from the cut to an arbitrary interior of the analyticity domain for the pion form factor is formulated and solved. As it is shown a stable solution can be derived if module representations with the Karleman weight function are used as the analyticity conditions. The case when the form factor has zeros is discussed. If there are zeros in the complex plane they must be taken into account when determining the extrapolation function

  1. Loop integration results using numerical extrapolation for a non-scalar integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncker, E. de; Shimizu, Y.; Fujimoto, J.; Yuasa, F.; Kaugars, K.; Cucos, L.; Van Voorst, J.

    2004-01-01

    Loop integration results have been obtained using numerical integration and extrapolation. An extrapolation to the limit is performed with respect to a parameter in the integrand which tends to zero. Results are given for a non-scalar four-point diagram. Extensions to accommodate loop integration by existing integration packages are also discussed. These include: using previously generated partitions of the domain and roundoff error guards

  2. Extrapolation method in the Monte Carlo Shell Model and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Noritaka; Abe, Takashi; Utsuno, Yutaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu; Honma, Michio

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how the energy-variance extrapolation method works using the sequence of the approximated wave functions obtained by the Monte Carlo Shell Model (MCSM), taking 56 Ni with pf-shell as an example. The extrapolation method is shown to work well even in the case that the MCSM shows slow convergence, such as 72 Ge with f5pg9-shell. The structure of 72 Se is also studied including the discussion of the shape-coexistence phenomenon.

  3. In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2014-01-01

    This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation

  5. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.

    2006-01-01

    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  6. Full waveform inversion based on the optimized gradient and its spectral implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    for the convergence are available, the high number of iterations required to approach a solution renders FWI as very expensive (especially in 3D). A spectral implementation in which the wavefields are extrapolated and gradients are calculated in the wavenumber domain

  7. Extrapolation of Nitrogen Fertiliser Recommendation Zones for Maize in Kisii District Using Geographical Information Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoth, P.F.; Wamae, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    A GIS database was established for fertiliser recommendation domains in Kisii District by using FURP fertiliser trial results, KSS soils data and MDBP climatic data. These are manipulated in ESRI's (Personal Computer Environmental Systems Research Institute) ARCINFO and ARCVIEW softwares. The extrapolations were only done for the long rains season (March- August) with three to four years data. GIS technology was used to cluster fertiliser recommendation domains as a geographical area expressed in terms of variation over space and not limited to the site of experiment where a certain agronomic or economic fertiliser recommendation was made. The extrapolation over space was found to be more representative for any recommendation, the result being digital maps describing each area in the geographical space. From the results of the extrapolations, approximately 38,255 ha of the district require zero Nitrogen (N) fertilisation while 94,330 ha requires 75 kg ha -1 Nitrogen fertilisation during the (March-August) long rains. The extrapolation was made difficult since no direct relationships could be established to occur between the available-N, % Carbon (C) or any of the other soil properties with the obtained yields. Decision rules were however developed based on % C which was the soil variable with values closest to the obtained yields. 3% organic carbon was found to be the boundary between 0 application and 75 kg-N application. GIS techniques made it possible to model and extrapolates the results using the available data. The extrapolations still need to be verified with more ground data from fertiliser trials. Data gaps in the soil map left some soil mapping units with no recommendations. Elevation was observed to influence yields and it should be included in future extrapolation by clustering digital elevation models with rainfall data in a spatial model at the district scale

  8. Evolving earth-based and in-situ satellite network architectures for Mars communications and navigation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Weinberg, Aaron; McOmber, Robert

    1991-09-01

    Results of on-going studies to develop navigation/telecommunications network concepts to support future robotic and human missions to Mars are presented. The performance and connectivity improvements provided by the relay network will permit use of simpler, lower performance, and less costly telecom subsystems for the in-situ mission exploration elements. Orbiting relay satellites can serve as effective navigation aids by supporting earth-based tracking as well as providing Mars-centered radiometric data for mission elements approaching, in orbit, or on the surface of Mars. The relay satellite orbits may be selected to optimize navigation aid support and communication coverage for specific mission sets.

  9. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2013-04-01

    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity profiles from the entire cross section and multiple transects to determine a mean profile for the measurement. The use of an exponent derived from normalized data from the entire cross section is shown to be valid for application of the power velocity distribution law in the computation of the unmeasured discharge in a cross section. Selected statistics are combined with empirically derived criteria to automatically select the appropriate extrapolation methods. A graphical user interface (GUI) provides the user tools to visually evaluate the automatically selected extrapolation methods and manually change them, as necessary. The sensitivity of the total discharge to available extrapolation methods is presented in the GUI. Use of extrap by field hydrographers has demonstrated that extrap is a more accurate and efficient method of determining the appropriate extrapolation methods compared with tools currently (2012) provided in the ADCP manufacturers' software.

  10. Sustainable earth-based vs. conventional construction systems in the Mediterranean climate: Experimental analysis of thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, S.; de Gracia, A.; Pérez, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    The building envelope has high potential to reduce the energy consumption of buildings according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) because it is involved along all the building process: design, construction, use, and end-of-life. The present study compares the thermal behavior of seven different building prototypes tested under Mediterranean climate: two of them were built with sustainable earth-based construction systems and the other five, with conventional brick construction systems. The tested earth-based construction systems consist of rammed earth walls and wooden green roofs, which have been adapted to contemporary requirements by reducing their thickness. In order to balance the thermal response, wooden insulation panels were placed in one of the earth prototypes. All building prototypes have the same inner dimensions and orientation, and they are fully monitored to register inner temperature and humidity, surface walls temperatures and temperatures inside walls. Furthermore, all building prototypes are equipped with a heat pump and an electricity meter to measure the electrical energy consumed to maintain a certain level of comfort. The experimentation was performed along a whole year by carrying out several experiments in free floating and controlled temperature conditions. This study aims at demonstrating that sustainable construction systems can behave similarly or even better than conventional ones under summer and winter conditions. Results show that thermal behavior is strongly penalized when rammed earth wall thickness is reduced. However, the addition of 6 cm of wooden insulation panels in the outer surface of the building prototype successfully improves the thermal response.

  11. A special mini-extrapolation chamber for calibration of 90Sr+90Y sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L; Caldas, Linda V E

    2005-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators are commonly utilized in brachytherapy, including ophthalmic procedures. The recommended instruments for the calibration of these applicators are extrapolation chambers, which are ionization chambers that allow the variation of their sensitive volume. Using the extrapolation method, the absorbed dose rate at the applicator surface can be determined. The aim of the present work was to develop a mini-extrapolation chamber for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta ray applicators. The developed mini-chamber has a 3.0 cm outer diameter and is 11.3 cm in length. An aluminized polyester foil is used as the entrance window while the collecting electrode is made of graphited polymethylmethacrylate. This mini-chamber was tested in 90 Sr+ 90 Y radiation beams from a beta particle check source and with a plane ophthalmic applicator, showing adequate results

  12. Technique of Critical Current Density Measurement of Bulk Superconductor with Linear Extrapolation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi, Wisnu Ari; Sukirman, Engkir; Winatapura, Didin S.

    2000-01-01

    Technique of critical current density measurement (Jc) of HTc bulk ceramic superconductor has been performed by using linear extrapolation with four-point probes method. The measurement of critical current density HTc bulk ceramic superconductor usually causes damage in contact resistance. In order to decrease this damage factor, we introduce extrapolation method. The extrapolating data show that the critical current density Jc for YBCO (123) and BSCCO (2212) at 77 K are 10,85(6) Amp.cm - 2 and 14,46(6) Amp.cm - 2, respectively. This technique is easier, simpler, and the use of the current flow is low, so it will not damage the contact resistance of the sample. We expect that the method can give a better solution for bulk superconductor application. Key words. : superconductor, critical temperature, and critical current density

  13. Generalized empirical equation for the extrapolated range of electrons in elemental and compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W. de; Poli CR, D. de

    1999-01-01

    The extrapolated range R ex of electrons is useful for various purposes in research and in the application of electrons, for example, in polymer modification, electron energy determination and estimation of effects associated with deep penetration of electrons. A number of works have used empirical equations to express the extrapolated range for some elements. In this work a generalized empirical equation, very simple and accurate, in the energy region 0.3 keV - 50 MeV is proposed. The extrapolated range for elements, in organic or inorganic molecules and compound materials, can be well expressed as a function of the atomic number Z or two empirical parameters Zm for molecules and Zc for compound materials instead of Z. (author)

  14. Emissions of sulfur gases from marine and freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades: Rates and extrapolation using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mark E.; Pelletier, Ramona E.; Crill, Patrick M.

    1992-01-01

    Rates of emissions of the biogenic sulfur (S) gases carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were measured in a variety of marine and freshwater wetland habitats in the Florida Everglades during a short duration period in October using dynamic chambers, cryotrapping techniques, and gas chromatography. The most rapid emissions of greater than 500 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1) occurred in red mangrove-dominated sites that were adjacent to open seawater and contained numerous crab burrows. Poorly drained red mangrove sites exhibited lower fluxes of approximately 60 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1) which were similar to fluxes from the black mangrove areas which dominated the marine-influenced wetland sites in the Everglades. DMS was the dominant organo-S gas emitted especially in the freshwater areas. Spectral data from a scene from the Landsat thematic mapper were used to map habitats in the Everglades. Six vegetation categories were delineated using geographical information system software and S gas emission were extrapolated for the entire Everglades National Park. The black mangrove-dominated areas accounted for the largest portion of S gas emissions to the area. The large area extent of the saw grass communities (42 percent) accounted for approximately 24 percent of the total S emissions.

  15. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  16. Dose rates from a C-14 source using extrapolation chamber and MC calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.

    1996-05-01

    The extrapolation chamber technique and the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation technique based on the EGS4 system have been studied for application for determination of dose rates in a low-energy β radiation field e.g., that from a 14 C source. The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for determination of dose rates in β radiation fields. Applying a number of correction factors and the stopping power ratio, tissue to air, the measured dose rate in an air volume surrounded by tissue equivalent material is converted into dose to tissue. Various details of the extrapolation chamber measurement method and evaluation procedure have been studied and further developed, and a complete procedure for the experimental determination of dose rates from a 14 C source is presented. A number of correction factors and other parameters used in the evaluation procedure for the measured data have been obtained by MC calculations. The whole extrapolation chamber measurement procedure was simulated using the MC method. The measured dose rates showed an increasing deviation from the MC calculated dose rates as the absorber thickness increased. This indicates that the EGS4 code may have some limitations for transport of very low-energy electrons. i.e., electrons with estimated energies less than 10 - 20 keV. MC calculations of dose to tissue were performed using two models: a cylindrical tissue phantom and a computer model of the extrapolation chamber. The dose to tissue in the extrapolation chamber model showed an additional buildup dose compared to the dose in the tissue model. (au) 10 tabs., 11 ills., 18 refs

  17. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  18. Characterization of low energy X-rays beams with an extrapolation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Fernanda Martins

    2015-01-01

    In laboratories involving Radiological Protection practices, it is usual to use reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and to study their response in terms of energy dependence. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established four series of reference X-rays beams in the ISO- 4037 standard: the L and H series, as low and high air Kerma rates, respectively, the N series of narrow spectrum and W series of wide spectrum. The X-rays beams with tube potential below 30 kV, called 'low energy beams' are, in most cases, critical as far as the determination of their parameters for characterization purpose, such as half-value layer. Extrapolation chambers are parallel plate ionization chambers that have one mobile electrode that allows variation of the air volume in its interior. These detectors are commonly used to measure the quantity Absorbed Dose, mostly in the medium surface, based on the extrapolation of the linear ionization current as a function of the distance between the electrodes. In this work, a characterization of a model 23392 PTW extrapolation chamber was done in low energy X-rays beams of the ISO- 4037 standard, by determining the polarization voltage range through the saturation curves and the value of the true null electrode spacing. In addition, the metrological reliability of the extrapolation chamber was studied with measurements of the value of leakage current and repeatability tests; limit values were established for the proper use of the chamber. The PTW23392 extrapolation chamber was calibrated in terms of air Kerma in some of the ISO radiation series of low energy; the traceability of the chamber to the National Standard Dosimeter was established. The study of energy dependency of the extrapolation chamber and the assessment of the uncertainties related to the calibration coefficient were also done; it was shown that the energy dependence was reduced to 4% when the extrapolation technique was used. Finally, the first

  19. Windtunnel Rebuilding And Extrapolation To Flight At Transsonic Speed For ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Markus; Neeb, Dominik; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The static as well as the dynamic behaviour of the EXOMARS vehicle in the transonic velocity regime has been investigated experimentally by the Supersonic and Hypersonic Technology Department of DLR in order to investigate the behaviour prior to parachute opening. Since the experimental work was performed in air, a numerical extrapolation to flight by means of CFD is necessary. At low supersonic speed this extrapolation to flight was performed by the Spacecraft Department of the Institute of Flow Technology of DLR employing the CFD code TAU. Numerical as well as experimental results for the wind tunnel test at Mach 1.2 will be compared and discussed for three different angles of attack.

  20. Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Properties of MUSES C Target Asteroid 25143 Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, K. S.; Vilas, F.; Kelley, M. S.; Abell, P. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese MUSES C mission launched the Hayabusa spacecraft last May 15, 2003, to encounter and study the near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa. The spacecraft will obtain visible images through broadband filters similar to the ECAS filters, and near-infrared spectra from 0.85 - 2.1 microns. In preparation for this encounter, opportunities to study the asteroid with Earth-based telescopes have been fully leveraged. Visible and near-infrared spectral observations were made of asteroid 25143 Itokawa during several nights of March, 2001, around the last apparition. We report here on the results of extensive spectral observations made to address the questions of compositional variations across the surface of the asteroid (as determined by the rotational period and shape model); variations in phase angle (Sun-Itokawa-Earth angle) on spectral characteristics; and predictions of Itokawa observations by Hayabusa based on the spectral resolution and responsivity of the NIRS and AMICA instruments.

  1. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  2. Accurate Conformational Energy Differences of Carbohydrates: A Complete Basis Set Extrapolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Csonka, G. I.; Kaminský, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2011), s. 988-997 ISSN 1549-9618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : MP2 * basis set extrapolation * saccharides Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.215, year: 2011

  3. A NEW CODE FOR NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATION OF THE GLOBAL CORONA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chaowei; Feng Xueshang; Xiang Changqing

    2012-01-01

    Reliable measurements of the solar magnetic field are still restricted to the photosphere, and our present knowledge of the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field is largely based on extrapolations from photospheric magnetograms using physical models, e.g., the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model that is usually adopted. Most of the currently available NLFFF codes have been developed with computational volume such as a Cartesian box or a spherical wedge, while a global full-sphere extrapolation is still under development. A high-performance global extrapolation code is in particular urgently needed considering that the Solar Dynamics Observatory can provide a full-disk magnetogram with resolution up to 4096 × 4096. In this work, we present a new parallelized code for global NLFFF extrapolation with the photosphere magnetogram as input. The method is based on the magnetohydrodynamics relaxation approach, the CESE-MHD numerical scheme, and a Yin-Yang spherical grid that is used to overcome the polar problems of the standard spherical grid. The code is validated by two full-sphere force-free solutions from Low and Lou's semi-analytic force-free field model. The code shows high accuracy and fast convergence, and can be ready for future practical application if combined with an adaptive mesh refinement technique.

  4. Corrosion allowances for sodium heated steam generators: evaluation of effects and extrapolation to component life time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosser, E E; Menken, G

    1975-07-01

    Steam generator tubes are subjected to two categories of corrosion; metal/sodium reactions and metal/water-steam interactions. Referring to these environmental conditions the relevant parameters are discussed. The influences of these parameters on the sodium corrosion and water/steam-reactions are evaluated. Extrapolations of corrosion values to steam generator design conditions are performed and discussed in detail. (author)

  5. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2015-01-01

    to small storms. Model tests of three container ships have been carried out in different sea states under realistic assumptions. Preliminary extrapolation of the measured data suggested that moderate storms are dimensioning when whipping is included due to higher maximum speed in moderate storms...

  6. Regression models in the determination of the absorbed dose with extrapolation chamber for ophthalmological applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Morales P, R.

    1992-06-01

    The absorbed dose for equivalent soft tissue is determined,it is imparted by ophthalmologic applicators, ( 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 1850 MBq) using an extrapolation chamber of variable electrodes; when estimating the slope of the extrapolation curve using a simple lineal regression model is observed that the dose values are underestimated from 17.7 percent up to a 20.4 percent in relation to the estimate of this dose by means of a regression model polynomial two grade, at the same time are observed an improvement in the standard error for the quadratic model until in 50%. Finally the global uncertainty of the dose is presented, taking into account the reproducibility of the experimental arrangement. As conclusion it can infers that in experimental arrangements where the source is to contact with the extrapolation chamber, it was recommended to substitute the lineal regression model by the quadratic regression model, in the determination of the slope of the extrapolation curve, for more exact and accurate measurements of the absorbed dose. (Author)

  7. Comparison of precipitation nowcasting by extrapolation and statistical-advection methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Kitzmiller, D.; Pešice, Petr; Mejsnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, 1 April (2013), s. 17-30 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09033 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * Statistical models * Regression * Quantitative precipitation forecast * Extrapolation forecast Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809512003390

  8. Nowcasting of precipitation by an NWP model using assimilation of extrapolated radar reflectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr, jr.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 665 (2012), s. 1072-1082 ISSN 0035-9009 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation forecast * radar extrapolation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/qj.970/abstract

  9. On Richardson extrapolation for low-dissipation low-dispersion diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havasi, Ágnes; Kazemi, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    In the modeling of wave propagation phenomena it is necessary to use time integration methods which are not only sufficiently accurate, but also properly describe the amplitude and phase of the propagating waves. It is not clear if amending the developed schemes by extrapolation methods to obtain a high order of accuracy preserves the qualitative properties of these schemes in the perspective of dissipation, dispersion and stability analysis. It is illustrated that the combination of various optimized schemes with Richardson extrapolation is not optimal for minimal dissipation and dispersion errors. Optimized third-order and fourth-order methods are obtained, and it is shown that the proposed methods combined with Richardson extrapolation result in fourth and fifth orders of accuracy correspondingly, while preserving optimality and stability. The numerical applications include the linear wave equation, a stiff system of reaction-diffusion equations and the nonlinear Euler equations with oscillatory initial conditions. It is demonstrated that the extrapolated third-order scheme outperforms the recently developed fourth-order diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta scheme in terms of accuracy and stability.

  10. Potential Hydraulic Modelling Errors Associated with Rheological Data Extrapolation in Laminar Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadday, Martin A. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The potential errors associated with the modelling of flows of non-Newtonian slurries through pipes, due to inadequate rheological models and extrapolation outside of the ranges of data bases, are demonstrated. The behaviors of both dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids with yield stresses, and the errors associated with treating them as Bingham plastics, are investigated

  11. Extrapolation for exposure duration in oral toxicity: A quantitative analysis of historical toxicity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, C.N.; Hakkert, B.C.; Bos, P.M.J.; Heer, C.de

    2004-01-01

    For human risk assessment, experimental data often have to be extrapolated for exposure duration, which is generally done by means of default values. The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, to derive a statistical distribution for differences in exposure duration that can be used in a

  12. Hazard characterisation of chemicals in food and diet : dose response, mechanisms and extrapolation issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dybing, E.; Doe, J.; Groten, J.; Kleiner, J.; O'Brien, J.; Renwick, A.G.; Schlatter, J.; Steinberg, P.; Tritscher, A.; Walker, R.; Younes, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hazard characterisation of low molecular weight chemicals in food and diet generally use a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) or a benchmark dose as the starting point. For hazards that are considered not to have thresholds for their mode of action, low-dose extrapolation and other modelling

  13. Corrosion allowances for sodium heated steam generators: evaluation of effects and extrapolation to component life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, E.E.; Menken, G.

    1975-01-01

    Steam generator tubes are subjected to two categories of corrosion; metal/sodium reactions and metal/water-steam interactions. Referring to these environmental conditions the relevant parameters are discussed. The influences of these parameters on the sodium corrosion and water/steam-reactions are evaluated. Extrapolations of corrosion values to steam generator design conditions are performed and discussed in detail. (author)

  14. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  15. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species' evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals ("MammalDIET"). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  16. Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Tia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1 characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2 developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

  17. Evaluation of extrapolation methods for actual state expenditures on health care in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Banin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting methods, extrapolation ones in particular, are used in health care for medical, biological and clinical research. The author, using accessible internet space, has not met a single publication devoted to extrapolation of financial parameters of health care activities. This determined the relevance of the material presented in the article: based on health care financing dynamics in Russia in 2000–2010 the author examined possibility of application of basic perspective extrapolation methods - moving average, exponential smoothing and least squares. It is hypothesized that all three methods can equally forecast actual public expenditures on health care in medium term in Russia’s current financial and economic conditions. The study result was evaluated in two time periods: within the studied interval and a five-year period. It was found that within the study period all methods have an average relative extrapolation error of 3–5%, which means high precision of the forecast. The study shown a specific feature of the least squares method which were gradually accumulating results so their economic interpretation became possible only in the end of the studied period. That is why the extrapolating results obtained by least squares method are not applicable in an entire study period and rather have a theoretical value. Beyond the study period, however, this feature was found to be the most corresponding to the real situation. It was the least squares method that proved to be the most appropriate for economic interpretation of the forecast results of actual public expenditures on health care. The hypothesis was not confirmed, the author received three differently directed results, while each method had independent significance and its application depended on evaluation study objectives and real social, economic and financial situation in Russian health care system.

  18. SU-D-204-02: BED Consistent Extrapolation of Mean Dose Tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, Z; Bortfeld, T; Hong, T; Wolfgang, J; Unkelbach, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The safe use of radiotherapy requires the knowledge of tolerable organ doses. For experimental fractionation schemes (e.g. hypofractionation) these are typically extrapolated from traditional fractionation schedules using the Biologically Effective Dose (BED) model. This work demonstrates that using the mean dose in the standard BED equation may overestimate tolerances, potentially leading to unsafe treatments. Instead, extrapolation of mean dose tolerances should take the spatial dose distribution into account. Methods: A formula has been derived to extrapolate mean physical dose constraints such that they are mean BED equivalent. This formula constitutes a modified BED equation where the influence of the spatial dose distribution is summarized in a single parameter, the dose shape factor. To quantify effects we analyzed 14 liver cancer patients previously treated with proton therapy in 5 or 15 fractions, for whom also photon IMRT plans were available. Results: Our work has two main implications. First, in typical clinical plans the dose distribution can have significant effects. When mean dose tolerances are extrapolated from standard fractionation towards hypofractionation they can be overestimated by 10–15%. Second, the shape difference between photon and proton dose distributions can cause 30–40% differences in mean physical dose for plans having the same mean BED. The combined effect when extrapolating proton doses to mean BED equivalent photon doses in traditional 35 fraction regimens resulted in up to 7–8 Gy higher doses than when applying the standard BED formula. This can potentially lead to unsafe treatments (in 1 of the 14 analyzed plans the liver mean dose was above its 32 Gy tolerance). Conclusion: The shape effect should be accounted for to avoid unsafe overestimation of mean dose tolerances, particularly when estimating constraints for hypofractionated regimens. In addition, tolerances established for a given treatment modality cannot

  19. Projecting species' vulnerability to climate change: Which uncertainty sources matter most and extrapolate best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie; Sofaer, Helen R; Skagen, Susan K; Ray, Andrea J; Noon, Barry R

    2017-11-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are commonly used to assess potential climate change impacts on biodiversity, but several critical methodological decisions are often made arbitrarily. We compare variability arising from these decisions to the uncertainty in future climate change itself. We also test whether certain choices offer improved skill for extrapolating to a changed climate and whether internal cross-validation skill indicates extrapolative skill. We compared projected vulnerability for 29 wetland-dependent bird species breeding in the climatically dynamic Prairie Pothole Region, USA. For each species we built 1,080 SDMs to represent a unique combination of: future climate, class of climate covariates, collinearity level, and thresholding procedure. We examined the variation in projected vulnerability attributed to each uncertainty source. To assess extrapolation skill under a changed climate, we compared model predictions with observations from historic drought years. Uncertainty in projected vulnerability was substantial, and the largest source was that of future climate change. Large uncertainty was also attributed to climate covariate class with hydrological covariates projecting half the range loss of bioclimatic covariates or other summaries of temperature and precipitation. We found that choices based on performance in cross-validation improved skill in extrapolation. Qualitative rankings were also highly uncertain. Given uncertainty in projected vulnerability and resulting uncertainty in rankings used for conservation prioritization, a number of considerations appear critical for using bioclimatic SDMs to inform climate change mitigation strategies. Our results emphasize explicitly selecting climate summaries that most closely represent processes likely to underlie ecological response to climate change. For example, hydrological covariates projected substantially reduced vulnerability, highlighting the importance of considering whether water

  20. SU-F-T-579: Extrapolation Techniques for Small Field Dosimetry Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J [Chris OBrien Lifehouse, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to test an experimental approach using an extrapolation technique for Gafchromic EBT3 film for small field x-ray dosimetry. Methods: Small fields from a Novalis Tx linear accelerator with HD Multileaf Collimators with 6 MV was used. The field sizes ranged from 5 × 5 to 50 × 50 mm2 MLC fields and a range of circular cones of 4 to 30 mm2 diameters. All measurements were performed in water at an SSD of 100 cm and at a depth of 10 cm. The relative output factors (ROFs) were determined from an extrapolation technique developed to eliminate the effects of partial volume averaging in film scan by scanning films with high resolution (1200 DPI). The size of the regions of interest (ROI) was varied to produce a plot of ROFs versus ROI which was then extrapolated to zero ROI to determine the relative output factor. The results were compared with other solid state detectors with proper correction, namely, IBA SFD diode, PTW 60008 and PTW 60012 diode. Results: For the 4 mm cone, the extrapolated ROF had a value of 0.658 ± 0.014 as compared to 0.642 and 0.636 for 0.5 mm and 1 mm2 ROI analysis, respectively. This showed a change in output factor of 2.4% and 3.3% at this comparative ROI sizes. In comparison, the 25 mm cone had a difference in measured output factor of 0.3% and 0.5% between 0.5 and 1.0 mm, respectively compared to zero volume. For the fields defined by MLCs a difference of up to 2% for 5×5 mm2 was observed. Conclusion: A measureable difference can be seen in ROF based on the ROI when radiochromic film is used. Using extrapolation technique from high resolution scanning a good agreement can be achieved.

  1. Extrapolation of rate constants of reactions producing H2 and O2 in radiolysis of water at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, R.; Ghandi, K.; Hackman, B.; Liu, G.

    2014-01-01

    One target of our research is to extrapolate known data on the rate constants of reactions and add corrections to estimate the rate constants at the higher temperatures reached by the SCWR reactors. The focus of this work was to extrapolate known data on the rate constants of reactions that produce Hydrogen or Oxygen with a rate constant below 10 10 mol -1 s -1 at room temperature. The extrapolation is done taking into account the change in the diffusion rate of the interacting species and the cage effect with thermodynamic conditions. The extrapolations are done over a wide temperature range and under isobaric conditions. (author)

  2. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  3. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  4. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  5. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  6. Making the most of what we have: application of extrapolation approaches in radioecological wildlife transfer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, Nicholas A.; Wood, Michael D.; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Yankovich, Tamara L.; Bradshaw, Clare; Willey, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We will never have data to populate all of the potential radioecological modelling parameters required for wildlife assessments. Therefore, we need robust extrapolation approaches which allow us to make best use of our available knowledge. This paper reviews and, in some cases, develops, tests and validates some of the suggested extrapolation approaches. The concentration ratio (CR_p_r_o_d_u_c_t_-_d_i_e_t or CR_w_o_-_d_i_e_t) is shown to be a generic (trans-species) parameter which should enable the more abundant data for farm animals to be applied to wild species. An allometric model for predicting the biological half-life of radionuclides in vertebrates is further tested and generally shown to perform acceptably. However, to fully exploit allometry we need to understand why some elements do not scale to expected values. For aquatic ecosystems, the relationship between log_1_0(a) (a parameter from the allometric relationship for the organism-water concentration ratio) and log(K_d) presents a potential opportunity to estimate concentration ratios using K_d values. An alternative approach to the CR_w_o_-_m_e_d_i_a model proposed for estimating the transfer of radionuclides to freshwater fish is used to satisfactorily predict activity concentrations in fish of different species from three lakes. We recommend that this approach (REML modelling) be further investigated and developed for other radionuclides and across a wider range of organisms and ecosystems. Ecological stoichiometry shows potential as an extrapolation method in radioecology, either from one element to another or from one species to another. Although some of the approaches considered require further development and testing, we demonstrate the potential to significantly improve predictions of radionuclide transfer to wildlife by making better use of available data. - Highlights: • Robust extrapolation approaches allowing best use of available knowledge are needed. • Extrapolation approaches are

  7. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  8. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  9. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  10. An Efficient Method of Reweighting and Reconstructing Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation Data for Extrapolation to Different Temperature and Density Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces an efficient technique to generate new molecular simulation Markov chains for different temperature and density conditions, which allow for rapid extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages at a range of temperatures and densities different from the original conditions where a single simulation is conducted. Obtained information from the original simulation are reweighted and even reconstructed in order to extrapolate our knowledge to the new conditions. Our technique allows not only the extrapolation to a new temperature or density, but also the double extrapolation to both new temperature and density. The method was implemented for Lennard-Jones fluid with structureless particles in single-gas phase region. Extrapolation behaviors as functions of extrapolation ranges were studied. Limits of extrapolation ranges showed a remarkable capability especially along isochors where only reweighting is required. Various factors that could affect the limits of extrapolation ranges were investigated and compared. In particular, these limits were shown to be sensitive to the number of particles used and starting point where the simulation was originally conducted.

  11. An Efficient Method of Reweighting and Reconstructing Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation Data for Extrapolation to Different Temperature and Density Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu; Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Salama, Amgad

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an efficient technique to generate new molecular simulation Markov chains for different temperature and density conditions, which allow for rapid extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages at a range of temperatures and densities different from the original conditions where a single simulation is conducted. Obtained information from the original simulation are reweighted and even reconstructed in order to extrapolate our knowledge to the new conditions. Our technique allows not only the extrapolation to a new temperature or density, but also the double extrapolation to both new temperature and density. The method was implemented for Lennard-Jones fluid with structureless particles in single-gas phase region. Extrapolation behaviors as functions of extrapolation ranges were studied. Limits of extrapolation ranges showed a remarkable capability especially along isochors where only reweighting is required. Various factors that could affect the limits of extrapolation ranges were investigated and compared. In particular, these limits were shown to be sensitive to the number of particles used and starting point where the simulation was originally conducted.

  12. Performance of a prototype of an extrapolation minichamber in various radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2007-01-01

    An extrapolation minichamber was developed for measuring doses from weakly penetrating types of radiation. The chamber was tested at the radiotherapeutic dose level in a beam from a 90 Sr+ 90 Y check source, in a beam from a plane 90 Sr+ 90 Y ophthalmic applicator, and in several reference beams from an X-ray tube. Saturation, ion collection efficiency, stabilization time, extrapolation curves, linearity of chamber response vs. air kerma rate, and dependences of the response on the energy and irradiation angle were characterized. The results are satisfactory; they show that the chamber can be used in the dosimetry of 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta particles and low-energy X-ray beams

  13. Parametric methods of describing and extrapolating the characteristics of long-term strength of refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvilyuk, I.S.; Avramenko, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper carries out the comparative analysis of the suitability of parametric methods for describing and extrapolating the results of longterm tests on refractory materials. Diagrams are presented of the longterm strength of niobium based alloys tested in a vacuum of 1.3 X 10 -3 Pa. The predicted values and variance of the estimate of endurance of refractory alloys are presented by parametric dependences. The longterm strength characteristics can be described most adequately by the Manson-Sakkop and Sherby-Dorn methods. Several methods must be used to ensure the reliable extrapolation of the longterm strength characteristics to the time period an order of magnitude longer than the experimental data. The most suitable method cannot always be selected on the basis of the correlation ratio

  14. Source‐receiver two‐way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding‐reflector modeling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Fomel, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    While most of the modern seismic imaging methods perform imaging by separating input data into parts (shot gathers), we develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield backward in time. While computationally extensive, this approach has the potential of generating accurate images, free of artifacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high‐order partial differential equations in source‐receiver‐time domain. The fourth order nature of the extrapolation in time has four solutions two of which correspond to the ingoing and outgoing P‐waves and reduces to the zero‐offset exploding‐reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. Using asymptotic approximations, we develop an approach to extrapolating the full prestack wavefield forward or backward in time.

  15. Linear extrapolation distance for a black cylindrical control rod with the pulsed neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenhielm, G.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the linear extrapolation distance for a central black cylindrical control rod in a cylindrical water moderator. The radius for both the control rod and the moderator was varied. The pulsed neutron technique was used and the decay constant was measured for both a homogeneous and a heterogeneous system. From the difference in the decay constants the extrapolation distance could be calculated. The conclusion is that within experimental error it is safe to use the approximate formula given by Pellaud or the more exact one given by Kavenoky. We can also conclude that linear anisotropic scattering is accounted for in a correct way in the approximate formula given by Pellaud and Prinja and Williams

  16. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    , the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was digitized from two global...... species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally...... information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external validation showed that: (1) extrapolations were most reliable for primary food items; (2) several diet categories (“Animal”, “Mammal...

  17. Communication: Predicting virial coefficients and alchemical transformations by extrapolating Mayer-sampling Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Harold W.; Jiao, Sally; Mahynski, Nathan A.; Blanco, Marco A.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2017-12-01

    Virial coefficients are predicted over a large range of both temperatures and model parameter values (i.e., alchemical transformation) from an individual Mayer-sampling Monte Carlo simulation by statistical mechanical extrapolation with minimal increase in computational cost. With this extrapolation method, a Mayer-sampling Monte Carlo simulation of the SPC/E (extended simple point charge) water model quantitatively predicted the second virial coefficient as a continuous function spanning over four orders of magnitude in value and over three orders of magnitude in temperature with less than a 2% deviation. In addition, the same simulation predicted the second virial coefficient if the site charges were scaled by a constant factor, from an increase of 40% down to zero charge. This method is also shown to perform well for the third virial coefficient and the exponential parameter for a Lennard-Jones fluid.

  18. 131I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de

    2009-01-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's 125 ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the 131 I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I were considered. (author)

  19. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  20. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas

    2009-07-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  1. Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.

    2014-03-01

    We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q 2 in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV 2 . The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio μ p G E p /G M p . This quantity decreases with Q 2 in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.

  2. Extrapolation of Extreme Response for Wind Turbines based on FieldMeasurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    extrapolation are presented. The first method is based on the same assumptions as the existing method but the statistical extrapolation is only performed for a limited number of mean wind speeds where the extreme load is likely to occur. For the second method the mean wind speeds are divided into storms which......The characteristic loads on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. These parameters must be taken into account in the assessment of the characteristic load. The characteristic load...... are assumed independent and the characteristic loads are determined from the extreme load in each storm....

  3. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos

    2009-01-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125 I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125 I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131 I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  4. Source‐receiver two‐way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding‐reflector modeling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2010-10-17

    While most of the modern seismic imaging methods perform imaging by separating input data into parts (shot gathers), we develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield backward in time. While computationally extensive, this approach has the potential of generating accurate images, free of artifacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high‐order partial differential equations in source‐receiver‐time domain. The fourth order nature of the extrapolation in time has four solutions two of which correspond to the ingoing and outgoing P‐waves and reduces to the zero‐offset exploding‐reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. Using asymptotic approximations, we develop an approach to extrapolating the full prestack wavefield forward or backward in time.

  5. Forests and methane - at the intersection of science and politics, experimentation and extrapolation, objectivity and subjectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyron, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    According to recent information, vegetation is thought to be a major source of methane. This phenomenon had not been contemplated until now and still remains to be explained. According to the authors and on the basis of rough extrapolations, it may cast light on some missing pieces in the global methane balance. The initial reaction by commentators following this discovery was to discuss its consequences on the strategy to fight the greenhouse effect considering methane's considerable impact on global warming. However, a preliminary analysis based on opinions from a range of experts underscores three aspects - the experimental discovery needs to be confirmed and explained before drawing any hasty conclusions; extrapolations performed so far on a global scale are highly inadequate and probably overestimated; implications for fighting the greenhouse effect are limited because the phenomenon in question is a natural one and not extensive enough to offset the benefits of forests as a sink for carbon dioxide. (authors)

  6. Calibration of a scintillation dosemeter for beta rays using an extrapolation ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanen, A.T.; Sipilae, P.M.; Kosunen, A.

    2004-01-01

    A scintillation dosemeter is calibrated for 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta rays from an ophthalmic applicator, using an extrapolation ionization chamber as a reference instrument. The calibration factor for the scintillation dosemeter agrees with that given by the manufacturer of the dosemeter within ca. 2%. The estimated overall uncertainty of the present calibration is ca. 6% (2 sd). A calibrated beta-ray ophthalmic applicator can be used as a reference source for further calibrations performed in the laboratory or in the hospital

  7. Emotional experience is subject to social and technological change: extrapolating to the future

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Klaus R.

    2001-01-01

    While the emotion mechanism is generally considered to be evolutionarily continuous, suggesting a certain degree of universality of emotional responding, there is evidence that emotional experience may differ across cultures and historical periods. This article extrapolates potential changes in future emotional experiences that can be expected to be caused by rapid social and technological change. Specifically, four issues are discussed: (1) the effect of social change on emotions that are st...

  8. -Error Estimates of the Extrapolated Crank-Nicolson Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations for Nonlinear Sobolev Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HyunYoung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.

  9. Measurement of the surface field on open magnetic samples by the extrapolation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2005), 104701/1-104701/7 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/04/P010; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic field measurement * extrapolation * air gaps * magnetic permeability Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2005

  10. Entropy Rate Estimates for Natural Language—A New Extrapolation of Compressed Large-Scale Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Takahira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental questions about human language is whether its entropy rate is positive. The entropy rate measures the average amount of information communicated per unit time. The question about the entropy of language dates back to experiments by Shannon in 1951, but in 1990 Hilberg raised doubt regarding a correct interpretation of these experiments. This article provides an in-depth empirical analysis, using 20 corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes across six languages (English, French, Russian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese, to conclude that the entropy rate is positive. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes were proposed previously, here we use a new stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. Thus, we conclude that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but approximately 20% smaller than without extrapolation. Although the entropy rate estimates depend on the script kind, the exponent of the ansatz function turns out to be constant across different languages and governs the complexity of natural language in general. In other words, in spite of typological differences, all languages seem equally hard to learn, which partly confirms Hilberg’s hypothesis.

  11. Failure of the straight-line DCS boundary when extrapolated to the hypobaric realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J; Van Liew, H D

    1992-11-01

    The lowest pressure (P2) to which a diver can ascend without developing decompression sickness (DCS) after becoming equilibrated at some higher pressure (P1) is described by a straight line with a negative y-intercept. We tested whether extrapolation of such a line also predicts safe decompression to altitude. We substituted tissue nitrogen pressure (P1N2) calculated for a compartment with a 360-min half-time for P1 values; this allows data from hypobaric exposures to be plotted on a P2 vs. P1N2 graph, even if the subject breathes oxygen before ascent. In literature sources, we found 40 reports of human exposures in hypobaric chambers that fell in the region of a P2 vs. P1N2 plot where the extrapolation from hyperbaric data predicted that the decompression should be free of DCS. Of 4,576 exposures, 785 persons suffered decompression sickness (17%), indicating that extrapolation of the diver line to altitude is not valid. Over the pressure range spanned by human hypobaric exposures and hyperbaric air exposures, the best separation between no DCS and DCS on a P2 vs. P1N2 plot seems to be a curve which approximates a straight line in the hyperbaric region but bends toward the origin in the hypobaric region.

  12. Evaluation of functioning of an extrapolation chamber using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.

    2015-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Braff-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents a simulation for evaluating the functioning of an extrapolation chamber type 23392 of PTW, using the MCNPX Monte Carlo method. In the simulation, the fluence in the air collector cavity of the chamber was obtained. The influence of the materials that compose the camera on its response against beta radiation beam was also analysed. A comparison of the contribution of primary and secondary radiation was performed. The energy deposition in the air collector cavity for different depths was calculated. The component with the higher energy deposition is the Polymethyl methacrylate block. The energy deposition in the air collector cavity for chamber depth 2500 μm is greater with a value of 9.708E-07 MeV. The fluence in the air collector cavity decreases with depth. It's value is 1.758E-04 1/cm 2 for chamber depth 500 μm. The values reported are for individual electron and photon histories. The graphics of simulated parameters are presented in the paper. (Author)

  13. Free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity diagnostics for the quality of NLFF field extrapolations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  14. Extending Supernova Spectral Templates for Next Generation Space Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Pierel, Justin; Rodney, Steven A.; Steven Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Widely used empirical supernova (SN) Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) have not historically extended meaningfully into the ultraviolet (UV), or the infrared (IR). However, both are critical for current and future aspects of SN research including UV spectra as probes of poorly understood SN Ia physical properties, and expanding our view of the universe with high-redshift James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) IR observations. We therefore present a comprehensive set of SN SED templates that have been extended into the UV and IR, as well as an open-source software package written in Python that enables a user to generate their own extrapolated SEDs. We have taken a sampling of core-collapse (CC) and Type Ia SNe to get a time-dependent distribution of UV and IR colors (U-B,r’-[JHK]), and then generated color curves are used to extrapolate SEDs into the UV and IR. The SED extrapolation process is now easily duplicated using a user’s own data and parameters via our open-source Python package: SNSEDextend. This work develops the tools necessary to explore the JWST’s ability to discriminate between CC and Type Ia SNe, as well as provides a repository of SN SEDs that will be invaluable to future JWST and WFIRST SN studies.

  15. Analysis of orbit determination from Earth-based tracking for relay satellites in a perturbed areostationary orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, P.; Pablos, B.; Barderas, G.

    2017-07-01

    Areostationary satellites are considered a high interest group of satellites to satisfy the telecommunications needs of the foreseen missions to Mars. An areostationary satellite, in an areoequatorial circular orbit with a period of 1 Martian sidereal day, would orbit Mars remaining at a fixed location over the Martian surface, analogous to a geostationary satellite around the Earth. This work addresses an analysis of the perturbed orbital motion of an areostationary satellite as well as a preliminary analysis of the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy based on Earth tracking observations. First, the models for the perturbations due to the Mars gravitational field, the gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, and solar radiation pressure are described. Then, the observability from Earth including possible occultations by Mars of an areostationary satellite in a perturbed areosynchronous motion is analyzed. The results show that continuous Earth-based tracking is achievable using observations from the three NASA Deep Space Network Complexes in Madrid, Goldstone and Canberra in an occultation-free scenario. Finally, an analysis of the orbit determination accuracy is addressed considering several scenarios including discontinuous tracking schedules for different epochs and different areoestationary satellites. Simulations also allow to quantify the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy for various tracking series durations and observed orbit arc-lengths.

  16. A rare earth-based metal-organic framework for moisture removal and control in confined spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-13

    A method for preparing a metal-organic framework (MOF) comprising contacting one or more of a rare earth metal ion component with one or more of a tetratopic ligand component, sufficient to form a rare earth-based MOF for controlling moisture in an environment. A method of moisture control in an environment comprising adsorbing and/or desorbing water vapor in an environment using a MOF, the MOF including one or more of a rare earth metal ion component and one or more of a tetratopic ligand component. A method of controlling moisture in an environment comprising sensing the relative humidity in the environment comprising a MOF; and adsorbing water vapor on the MOF if the relative humidity is above a first level, sufficient to control moisture in an environment. The examples relate to a MOF created from 1,2,4,5-Tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl )benzene (BTEB) as tetratopic ligand, 2-fluorobenzoic acid and Y(NO3)3, Tb(NO3)3 and Yb(NO3)3 as rare earth metals.

  17. SU-E-J-145: Geometric Uncertainty in CBCT Extrapolation for Head and Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Kumarasiri, A; Chetvertkov, M; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Siddiqui, F; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: One primary limitation of using CBCT images for H'N adaptive radiotherapy (ART) is the limited field of view (FOV) range. We propose a method to extrapolate the CBCT by using a deformed planning CT for the dose of the day calculations. The aim was to estimate the geometric uncertainty of our extrapolation method. Methods: Ten H'N patients, each with a planning CT (CT1) and a subsequent CT (CT2) taken, were selected. Furthermore, a small FOV CBCT (CT2short) was synthetically created by cropping CT2 to the size of a CBCT image. Then, an extrapolated CBCT (CBCTextrp) was generated by deformably registering CT1 to CT2short and resampling with a wider FOV (42mm more from the CT2short borders), where CT1 is deformed through translation, rigid, affine, and b-spline transformations in order. The geometric error is measured as the distance map ||DVF|| produced by a deformable registration between CBCTextrp and CT2. Mean errors were calculated as a function of the distance away from the CBCT borders. The quality of all the registrations was visually verified. Results: Results were collected based on the average numbers from 10 patients. The extrapolation error increased linearly as a function of the distance (at a rate of 0.7mm per 1 cm) away from the CBCT borders in the S/I direction. The errors (μ±σ) at the superior and inferior boarders were 0.8 ± 0.5mm and 3.0 ± 1.5mm respectively, and increased to 2.7 ± 2.2mm and 5.9 ± 1.9mm at 4.2cm away. The mean error within CBCT borders was 1.16 ± 0.54mm . The overall errors within 4.2cm error expansion were 2.0 ± 1.2mm (sup) and 4.5 ± 1.6mm (inf). Conclusion: The overall error in inf direction is larger due to more large unpredictable deformations in the chest. The error introduced by extrapolation is plan dependent. The mean error in the expanded region can be large, and must be considered during implementation. This work is supported in part by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA.

  18. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  19. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  20. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  1. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  2. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  3. Correction method for critical extrapolation of control-rods-rising during physical start-up of reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Chen Wenzhen; Yu Lei

    2008-01-01

    During physical start-up of nuclear reactor, the curve got by lifting the con- trol rods to extrapolate to the critical state is often in protruding shape, by which the supercritical phenomena is led. In the paper, the reason why the curve was in protruding was analyzed. A correction method was introduced, and the calculations were carried out by the practical data used in a nuclear power plant. The results show that the correction method reverses the protruding shape of the extrapolating curve, and the risk of reactor supercritical phenomena can be reduced using the extrapolated curve got by the correction method during physical start-up of the reactor. (authors)

  4. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  5. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  6. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  7. An Extrapolation of a Radical Equation More Accurately Predicts Shelf Life of Frozen Biological Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vore, Karl W; Fatahi, Nadia M; Sass, John E

    2016-08-01

    Arrhenius modeling of analyte recovery at increased temperatures to predict long-term colder storage stability of biological raw materials, reagents, calibrators, and controls is standard practice in the diagnostics industry. Predicting subzero temperature stability using the same practice is frequently criticized but nevertheless heavily relied upon. We compared the ability to predict analyte recovery during frozen storage using 3 separate strategies: traditional accelerated studies with Arrhenius modeling, and extrapolation of recovery at 20% of shelf life using either ordinary least squares or a radical equation y = B1x(0.5) + B0. Computer simulations were performed to establish equivalence of statistical power to discern the expected changes during frozen storage or accelerated stress. This was followed by actual predictive and follow-up confirmatory testing of 12 chemistry and immunoassay analytes. Linear extrapolations tended to be the most conservative in the predicted percent recovery, reducing customer and patient risk. However, the majority of analytes followed a rate of change that slowed over time, which was fit best to a radical equation of the form y = B1x(0.5) + B0. Other evidence strongly suggested that the slowing of the rate was not due to higher-order kinetics, but to changes in the matrix during storage. Predicting shelf life of frozen products through extrapolation of early initial real-time storage analyte recovery should be considered the most accurate method. Although in this study the time required for a prediction was longer than a typical accelerated testing protocol, there are less potential sources of error, reduced costs, and a lower expenditure of resources. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. Community assessment techniques and the implications for rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kieran D; Black, Morgan J; Filip, Natalia; Miller, Matthew R; Mohns, Kayla; Mortimor, James; Freitas, Thaise R; Greiter Loerzer, Raquel; Gerwing, Travis G; Juanes, Francis; Dudas, Sarah E

    2017-12-01

    Diversity estimates play a key role in ecological assessments. Species richness and abundance are commonly used to generate complex diversity indices that are dependent on the quality of these estimates. As such, there is a long-standing interest in the development of monitoring techniques, their ability to adequately assess species diversity, and the implications for generated indices. To determine the ability of substratum community assessment methods to capture species diversity, we evaluated four methods: photo quadrat, point intercept, random subsampling, and full quadrat assessments. Species density, abundance, richness, Shannon diversity, and Simpson diversity were then calculated for each method. We then conducted a method validation at a subset of locations to serve as an indication for how well each method captured the totality of the diversity present. Density, richness, Shannon diversity, and Simpson diversity estimates varied between methods, despite assessments occurring at the same locations, with photo quadrats detecting the lowest estimates and full quadrat assessments the highest. Abundance estimates were consistent among methods. Sample-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves indicated that differences between Hill numbers (richness, Shannon diversity, and Simpson diversity) were significant in the majority of cases, and coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves confirmed that these dissimilarities were due to differences between the methods, not the sample completeness. Method validation highlighted the inability of the tested methods to capture the totality of the diversity present, while further supporting the notion of extrapolating abundances. Our results highlight the need for consistency across research methods, the advantages of utilizing multiple diversity indices, and potential concerns and considerations when comparing data from multiple sources.

  9. Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scaleia, Barbara; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Zago, Myrka

    2014-01-01

    It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions) and slope (30°, 45° or 60°). In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1). However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2) or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3), they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.

  10. Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara La Scaleia

    Full Text Available It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions and slope (30°, 45° or 60°. In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1. However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2 or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3, they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.

  11. A new technique for extracting the red edge position from hyperspectral data : the linear extrapolation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using hyperspectral data for quantitative characterization of vegetation in spatial and temporal scopes. Many spectral indices are being developed to improve vegetation sensitivity by minimizing the background influence. The chlorophyll absorption continuum index

  12. Efficient anisotropic quasi-P wavefield extrapolation using an isotropic low-rank approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong

    2017-01-01

    efficient. A dynamic implementation of this approach decomposes the original pseudo-differential operator into a Laplacian, handled using the low-rank approximation of the spectral operator, plus an angular dependent correction factor applied in the space

  13. Standardization of electron-capture and complex beta-gamma radionuclides by the efficiency extrapolation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, L.

    1976-07-01

    The efficiency extrapolation method was improved by establishing ''linearity conditions'' for the discrimination on the gamma channel of the coincidence equipment. These conditions were proved to eliminate the systematic error of the method. A control procedure for the fulfilment of linearity conditions and estimation of residual systematic error was given. For law-energy gamma transitions an ''equivalent scheme principle'' was established, which allow for a correct application of the method. Solutions of Cs-134, Co-57, Ba-133 and Zn-65 were standardized with an ''effective standard deviation'' of 0.3-0.7 per cent. For Zn-65 ''special linearity conditions'' were applied. (author)

  14. Study of the collecting electrode material of an extrapolation chamber by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedovato, Uly Pita; Santos, William S.; Perini, Ana Paula; Belinato, Walmir

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the influence of different materials of the collecting electrode on the response of an extrapolation ionization chamber, was evaluated. This ionization chamber was simulated with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code and the spectrum of a standard diagnostic radiology beam (RQR5) was utilized. The different results are due to interactions of photons with different materials of the collecting electrode contributing with different values of energy deposited in the sensitive volume of the ionization chamber, which depends on the atomic number of the evaluated materials. The material that presented the least influence was graphite, the original constituent of the ionization chamber. (author)

  15. Making the most of what we have: application of extrapolation approaches in wildlife transfer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, Nicholas A.; Barnett, Catherine L.; Wells, Claire [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Brown, Justin E.; Hosseini, Ali [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna (Austria); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Willey, Neil [Centre for Research in Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radiological environmental protection models need to predict the transfer of many radionuclides to a large number of organisms. There has been considerable development of transfer (predominantly concentration ratio) databases over the last decade. However, in reality it is unlikely we will ever have empirical data for all the species-radionuclide combinations which may need to be included in assessments. To provide default values for a number of existing models/frameworks various extrapolation approaches have been suggested (e.g. using data for a similar organism or element). This paper presents recent developments in two such extrapolation approaches, namely phylogeny and allometry. An evaluation of how extrapolation approaches have performed and the potential application of Bayesian statistics to make best use of available data will also be given. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-model regression we initially analysed a dataset comprising 597 entries for 53 freshwater fish species from 67 sites to investigate if phylogenetic variation in transfer could be identified. The REML analysis generated an estimated mean value for each species on a common scale after taking account of the effect of the inter-site variation. Using an independent dataset, we tested the hypothesis that the REML model outputs could be used to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in other species from the results of a species which had been sampled at a specific site. The outputs of the REML analysis accurately predicted {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in different species of fish from 27 lakes. Although initially investigated as an extrapolation approach the output of this work is a potential alternative to the highly site dependent concentration ratio model. We are currently applying this approach to a wider range of organism types and different ecosystems. An initial analysis of these results will be presented. The application of allometric, or mass

  16. Study of an extrapolation chamber in a standard diagnostic radiology beam by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedovato, Uly Pita; Silva, Rayre Janaina Vieira; Neves, Lucio Pereira; Santos, William S.; Perini, Ana Paula; Belinato, Walmir

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of the components of an extrapolation ionization chamber in its response. This study was undertaken using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo code, and the standard diagnostic radiology quality for direct beams (RQR5). Using tally F6 and 2.1 x 10"9 simulated histories, the results showed that the chamber design and material not alter significantly the energy deposited in its sensitive volume. The collecting electrode and support board were the components with more influence on the chamber response. (author)

  17. Extrapolation of the Dutch 1 MW tunable free electron maser to a 5 MW ECRH source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Nelson, S.; Kamin, G.; Antonsen, T. Levush, B.; Urbanus, W.; Tulupov, A.

    1995-01-01

    A Free Electron Maser (FEM) is now under construction at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz with wall plug efficiencies of 50% (Verhoeven, et al EC-9 Conference). An extrapolated version of this device is proposed which by scaling up the beam current, would produce microwave power levels of up to 5 MW CW in order to reduce the cost per watt and increase the power per module, thus providing the fusion community with a practical ECRH source

  18. Resolution enhancement in digital holography by self-extrapolation of holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2013-03-25

    It is generally believed that the resolution in digital holography is limited by the size of the captured holographic record. Here, we present a method to circumvent this limit by self-extrapolating experimental holograms beyond the area that is actually captured. This is done by first padding the surroundings of the hologram and then conducting an iterative reconstruction procedure. The wavefront beyond the experimentally detected area is thus retrieved and the hologram reconstruction shows enhanced resolution. To demonstrate the power of this concept, we apply it to simulated as well as experimental holograms.

  19. Combined effect of external irradiation and radiostrontium administration (extrapolation of experimental data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1987-01-01

    Assessment was made of the activities of strontium-89 and strontium-90, which may aggravate the effect of external irradiation, causing changes in peripheral blood leucocytes. Extrapolation of the results was carried out on the basis of the so called radiosensitivity coefficients (laboratory rat/man). Inference is drawn that summing of the effects of the radiation factors may be expected in cases of external irradiation with 100 Gy and oral administration of 150-200 MBq strontium-89 or 60-90 MBq strontium-90 and through the air passages of 110-150 MBq strontium-89 or 40-60 MBq strontium-90

  20. Extrapolation of dynamic load behaviour on hydroelectric turbine blades with cyclostationary modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Marc; Gagnon, Martin; Tahan, Antoine; Coutu, André; Chamberland-lauzon, Joël

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the application of cyclostationary modelling for the extrapolation of short stationary load strain samples measured in situ on hydraulic turbine blades. Long periods of measurements allow for a wide range of fluctuations representative of long-term reality to be considered. However, sampling over short periods limits the dynamic strain fluctuations available for analysis. The purpose of the technique presented here is therefore to generate a representative signal containing proper long term characteristics and expected spectrum starting with a much shorter signal period. The final objective is to obtain a strain history that can be used to estimate long-term fatigue behaviour of hydroelectric turbine runners.

  1. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  2. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  3. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  4. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L α two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1 . The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1

  5. Accelerating Monte Carlo Molecular Simulations Using Novel Extrapolation Schemes Combined with Fast Database Generation on Massively Parallel Machines

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to extrapolate and interpolate normalized Canonical NVT ensemble averages like pressure and energy for Lennard-Jones (L-J) fluids. Preliminary results show promising applicability in oil and gas modeling, where accurate determination of thermodynamic properties in reservoirs is challenging. The thermodynamic interpolation and thermodynamic extrapolation schemes predict ensemble averages at different thermodynamic conditions from expensively simulated data points. The methods reweight and reconstruct previously generated database values of Markov chains at neighboring temperature and density conditions. To investigate the efficiency of these methods, two databases corresponding to different combinations of normalized density and temperature are generated. One contains 175 Markov chains with 10,000,000 MC cycles each and the other contains 3000 Markov chains with 61,000,000 MC cycles each. For such massive database creation, two algorithms to parallelize the computations have been investigated. The accuracy of the thermodynamic extrapolation scheme is investigated with respect to classical interpolation and extrapolation. Finally, thermodynamic interpolation benefiting from four neighboring Markov chains points is implemented and compared with previous schemes. The thermodynamic interpolation scheme using knowledge from the four neighboring points proves to be more accurate than the thermodynamic extrapolation from the closest point only, while both thermodynamic extrapolation and thermodynamic interpolation are more accurate than the classical interpolation and extrapolation. The investigated extrapolation scheme has great potential in oil and gas reservoir modeling.That is, such a scheme has the potential to speed up the MCMC thermodynamic computation to be comparable with conventional Equation of State approaches in efficiency. In particular, this makes it applicable to large-scale optimization of L

  6. A method of creep rupture data extrapolation based on physical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinster, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable method to extrapolate generic creep rupture data to failure times in excess of the currently published times. A method based on well-understood and mathematically described physical processes is likely to be stable and reliable. Creep process descriptions have been developed based on accepted theory, to the extent that good fits with published data have been obtained. Methods have been developed to apply these descriptions to extrapolate creep rupture data to stresses below the published values. The relationship creep life parameter=f(ln(sinh(stress))) has been shown to be justifiable over the stress ranges of most interest, and gives realistic results at high temperatures and long times to failure. In the interests of continuity with past and present practice, the suggested method is intended to extend existing polynomial descriptions of life parameters at low stress. Where no polynomials exist, the method can be used to describe the behaviour of life parameters throughout the full range of a particular failure mode in the published data

  7. EXTRAPOLATION METHOD FOR MAXIMAL AND 24-H AVERAGE LTE TDD EXPOSURE ESTIMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, D; Grillo, E; Pavoncello, S; Coltellacci, S; Buccella, C; Aureli, T

    2018-01-01

    The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) system represents the evolution of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System technology. This technology introduces two duplex modes: Frequency Division Duplex and Time Division Duplex (TDD). Despite having experienced a limited expansion in the European countries since the debut of the LTE technology, a renewed commercial interest for LTE TDD technology has recently been shown. Therefore, the development of extrapolation procedures optimised for TDD systems becomes crucial, especially for the regulatory authorities. This article presents an extrapolation method aimed to assess the exposure to LTE TDD sources, based on the detection of the Cell-Specific Reference Signal power level. The method introduces a βTDD parameter intended to quantify the fraction of the LTE TDD frame duration reserved for downlink transmission. The method has been validated by experimental measurements performed on signals generated by both a vector signal generator and a test Base Transceiver Station installed at Linkem S.p.A facility in Rome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JSC; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: CSSM and QCDSF/UKQCD Collaborations

    2014-03-15

    We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q{sup 2} in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV{sup 2}. The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio μ{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}. This quantity decreases with Q{sup 2} in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.

  9. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  10. On Extrapolating Past the Range of Observed Data When Making Statistical Predictions in Ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B Conn

    Full Text Available Ecologists are increasingly using statistical models to predict animal abundance and occurrence in unsampled locations. The reliability of such predictions depends on a number of factors, including sample size, how far prediction locations are from the observed data, and similarity of predictive covariates in locations where data are gathered to locations where predictions are desired. In this paper, we propose extending Cook's notion of an independent variable hull (IVH, developed originally for application with linear regression models, to generalized regression models as a way to help assess the potential reliability of predictions in unsampled areas. Predictions occurring inside the generalized independent variable hull (gIVH can be regarded as interpolations, while predictions occurring outside the gIVH can be regarded as extrapolations worthy of additional investigation or skepticism. We conduct a simulation study to demonstrate the usefulness of this metric for limiting the scope of spatial inference when conducting model-based abundance estimation from survey counts. In this case, limiting inference to the gIVH substantially reduces bias, especially when survey designs are spatially imbalanced. We also demonstrate the utility of the gIVH in diagnosing problematic extrapolations when estimating the relative abundance of ribbon seals in the Bering Sea as a function of predictive covariates. We suggest that ecologists routinely use diagnostics such as the gIVH to help gauge the reliability of predictions from statistical models (such as generalized linear, generalized additive, and spatio-temporal regression models.

  11. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-08-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  12. Video error concealment using block matching and frequency selective extrapolation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. K., Rajani; Khaparde, Arti

    2017-06-01

    Error Concealment (EC) is a technique at the decoder side to hide the transmission errors. It is done by analyzing the spatial or temporal information from available video frames. It is very important to recover distorted video because they are used for various applications such as video-telephone, video-conference, TV, DVD, internet video streaming, video games etc .Retransmission-based and resilient-based methods, are also used for error removal. But these methods add delay and redundant data. So error concealment is the best option for error hiding. In this paper, the error concealment methods such as Block Matching error concealment algorithm is compared with Frequency Selective Extrapolation algorithm. Both the works are based on concealment of manually error video frames as input. The parameter used for objective quality measurement was PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and SSIM(Structural Similarity Index). The original video frames along with error video frames are compared with both the Error concealment algorithms. According to simulation results, Frequency Selective Extrapolation is showing better quality measures such as 48% improved PSNR and 94% increased SSIM than Block Matching Algorithm.

  13. The use of natural analogues in the long-term extrapolation of glass corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Grambow, B.; Ewing, R.C.; Jercinovic, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most critical aspects of nuclear waste management is the extrapolation of materials and systems behavior from short term experiments, typically on the order of one year, over comparatively very long periods of time. Safety and risk analyses have to rely on extrapolations and the respective findings have to be evaluated in the frame of licensing procedures. In this unique situation, any source of information that can lend support to the credibility of predicted behavior, should be exploited and investigated with great care. There are natural systems, e.g. the Oklo reactor, which can provide evidence of radionuclide migration over very long periods of time and thus help to answer specific questions of interest. Natural glasses and minerals can serve as analogues for both glass and crystalline nuclear waste forms, and the alteration of the natural materials can be studied to infer information on the behavior of the man-made products in geologic environments. This paper reviews most of the work performed by the authors and their colleagues in this field together with information available from literature and discusses the extent to which natural glasses can be used to validate or verify predictions. (author)

  14. General extrapolation model for an important chemical dose-rate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1984-12-01

    In order to extrapolate material accelerated aging data, methodologies must be developed based on sufficient understanding of the processes leading to material degradation. One of the most important mechanisms leading to chemical dose-rate effects in polymers involves the breakdown of intermediate hydroperoxide species. A general model for this mechanism is derived based on the underlying chemical steps. The results lead to a general formalism for understanding dose rate and sequential aging effects when hydroperoxide breakdown is important. We apply the model to combined radiation/temperature aging data for a PVC material and show that this data is consistent with the model and that model extrapolations are in excellent agreement with 12-year real-time aging results from an actual nuclear plant. This model and other techniques discussed in this report can aid in the selection of appropriate accelerated aging methods and can also be used to compare and select materials for use in safety-related components. This will result in increased assurance that equipment qualification procedures are adequate

  15. Atmospheric modeling of Mars CH4 subsurface clathrates releases mimicking SAM and 2003 Earth-based detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to establish the amount of mixing during all martian seasons to test whether CH4 releases inside or outside of Gale crater are consistent with MSL-SAM observations. Several modeling scenarios were configured, including instantaneous and steady releases, both inside and outside the crater. A simulation to mimic the 2003 Earth-based detections (Mumma et al. 2009 or M09) was also performed. In the instantaneous release inside Gale experiments, Ls270 was shown to be the faster mixing season when air within and outside the crater was well mixed: all tracer mass inside the crater is diluted after just 8 hours. The mixing of near surface crater air with the external environment in the rest of the year is potentially rapid but slower than Ls270.In the instantaneous release outside Gale (NW) experiment, in just 12 hours the CH4 that makes it to the MSL landing location is diluted by six orders of magnitude. The timescale of mixing in MRAMS experiments is on the order of 1 sol regardless of season. The duration of the CH4 peak observed by SAM is 100 sols. Therefore there is a steady release inside the crater, or there is a very large magnitude steady release outside the crater. In the steady release Gale experiments, CH4 flux rate from ground is 1.8 kg m-2 s-1 (derived from Gloesener et al. 2017 clathrates fluxes) and it is not predictive. In these experiments, 200 times lower CH4 values detected by SAM are modeled around MSL location. There are CH4 concentration variations of orders of magnitude depending on the hour, so timing of SAM measurements is important. With a larger (but further away) outside crater release area compared to inside, similar CH4 values around MSL are modeled, so distance to source is important. In the steady experiments mimicking M09 detection release area, only 12 times lower CH4 values detected by SAM are modeled around MSL. The highest value in the M09 modeled scenario (0.6 ppbv) is reached in Ls270. This value is the

  16. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  17. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  18. Noncommutativity from spectral flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-27

    We investigate the transition from second- to first-order systems. Quantum mechanically, this transforms configuration space into phase space and hence introduces noncommutativity in the former. This transition may be described in terms of spectral flow. Gaps in the energy or mass spectrum may become large which effectively truncates the available state space. Using both operator and path integral languages we explicitly discuss examples in quantum mechanics (light-front) quantum field theory and string theory.

  19. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  20. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  1. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...

  2. CT image construction of a totally deflated lung using deformable model extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi Naini, Ali; Pierce, Greg; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung from a free-breathing 4D-CT image sequence acquired preoperatively. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in performing tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy. Tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders preoperative images ineffective for targeting the tumor. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intraoperative ultrasound (U.S.) images because U.S. images are very sensitive to small residual amount of air remaining in the deflated lung. One possible solution to address these issues is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intraoperative U.S. images. However, given that such preoperative images correspond to an inflated lung, such CT images need to be processed to construct CT images pertaining to the lung's deflated state. Methods: To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, we present a novel image construction technique using extrapolated deformable registration to predict the deformation the lung undergoes during full deflation. The proposed construction technique involves estimating the lung's air volume in each preoperative image automatically in order to track the respiration phase of each 4D-CT image throughout a respiratory cycle; i.e., the technique does not need any external marker to form a respiratory signal in the process of curve fitting and extrapolation. The extrapolated deformation field is then applied on a preoperative reference image in order to construct the totally deflated lung's CT image. The technique was evaluated experimentally using ex vivo porcine lung. Results: The ex vivo lung experiments led to very encouraging results. In comparison with the CT image of the deflated lung we acquired for the purpose of validation, the constructed CT image was very similar. The

  3. A visual basic program to generate sediment grain-size statistics and to extrapolate particle distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.; Hastings, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Measures that describe and summarize sediment grain-size distributions are important to geologists because of the large amount of information contained in textural data sets. Statistical methods are usually employed to simplify the necessary comparisons among samples and quantify the observed differences. The two statistical methods most commonly used by sedimentologists to describe particle distributions are mathematical moments (Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938) and inclusive graphics (Folk, 1974). The choice of which of these statistical measures to use is typically governed by the amount of data available (Royse, 1970). If the entire distribution is known, the method of moments may be used; if the next to last accumulated percent is greater than 95, inclusive graphics statistics can be generated. Unfortunately, earlier programs designed to describe sediment grain-size distributions statistically do not run in a Windows environment, do not allow extrapolation of the distribution's tails, or do not generate both moment and graphic statistics (Kane and Hubert, 1963; Collias et al., 1963; Schlee and Webster, 1967; Poppe et al., 2000)1.Owing to analytical limitations, electro-resistance multichannel particle-size analyzers, such as Coulter Counters, commonly truncate the tails of the fine-fraction part of grain-size distributions. These devices do not detect fine clay in the 0.6–0.1 μm range (part of the 11-phi and all of the 12-phi and 13-phi fractions). Although size analyses performed down to 0.6 μm microns are adequate for most freshwater and near shore marine sediments, samples from many deeper water marine environments (e.g. rise and abyssal plain) may contain significant material in the fine clay fraction, and these analyses benefit from extrapolation.The program (GSSTAT) described herein generates statistics to characterize sediment grain-size distributions and can extrapolate the fine-grained end of the particle distribution. It is written in Microsoft

  4. Processing radioactive effluents with ion-exchanging resins: study of result extrapolation; Traitement des effluents radioactifs par resines echangeuses d'ions: etude de l'extrapolation des resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G.

    1960-05-03

    As a previous study showed the ion-exchanging resins could be used in Saclay for the treatment of radioactive effluents, the author reports a study which aimed at investigating to which extent thus obtained results could be extrapolated to the case of higher industrial columns. The author reports experiments which aimed at determining extrapolation modes which could be used for columns of organic resin used for radioactive effluent decontamination. He notably studied whether the Hiester and Vermeulen extrapolation law could be applied. Experiments are performed at constant percolation flow rate, at varying flow rate, and at constant flow rate [French] Plusieurs etudes ont ete faites dans le but d'examiner les possibilites d'emploi des resines echangeuses d'ions pour le traitement des effluents radioactifs. Dans un rapport preliminaire, nous avons montre dans quelles limites un tel procede pouvait etre utilise au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Les essais ont ete effectues sur des petites colonnes de resine au laboratoire; il est apparu ensuite necessaire de prevoir dans quelle mesure les resultats ainsi obtenus peuvent etre extrapoles a des colonnes industrielles, de plus grande hauteur. Les experiences dont les resultats sont exposes dans ce rapport, ont pour but de determiner les modes d'extrapolation qui pourraient etre employes pour des colonnes de resine organique utilisees pour la decontamination d'effluents radioactifs. Nous avons en particulier recherche si la loi d'extrapolation de Hiester et Vermeulen qui donne de bons resultats dans le cas de fixation d'ions radioactifs en presence d'un ion macrocomposant sur des terres, pouvait etre appliquee. Les experiences, en nombre limite, ont montre que la loi d'extrapolation de Hiester et Vermeulen pouvait s'appliquer dans le cas de l'effluent considere quand les debits de percolation sont tres faibles; quand ils sont plus forts, les volumes de liquide percoles, a fixation egale, sont proportionnels aux

  5. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurements of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E max values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value of the dose rate. (Author)

  6. Transient heat loads in current fusion experiments, extrapolation to ITER and consequences for its operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loarte, A; Saibene, G; Sartori, R; Riccardo, V; Andrew, P; Paley, J; Fundamenski, W; Eich, T; Herrmann, A; Pautasso, G; Kirk, A; Counsell, G; Federici, G; Strohmayer, G; Whyte, D; Leonard, A; Pitts, R A; Landman, I; Bazylev, B; Pestchanyi, S

    2007-01-01

    New experimental results on transient loads during ELMs and disruptions in present divertor tokamaks are described and used to carry out a extrapolation to ITER reference conditions and to draw consequences for its operation. In particular, the achievement of low energy/convective type I edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER-like plasma conditions seems the only way to obtain transient loads which may be compatible with an acceptable erosion lifetime of plasma facing components (PFCs) in ITER. Power loads during disruptions, on the contrary, seem to lead in most cases to an acceptable divertor lifetime because of the relatively small plasma thermal energy remaining at the thermal quench and the large broadening of the power flux footprint during this phase. These conclusions are reinforced by calculations of the expected erosion lifetime, under these load conditions, which take into account a realistic temporal dependence of the power fluxes on PFCs during ELMs and disruptions

  7. Methodology Of PACS Effectiveness Evaluation As Part Of A Technology Assessment. The Dutch PACS Project Extrapolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, J. H. T. H.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I. E.; ter Haar Romeny, B. M.

    1989-05-01

    The present phase of the clinical evaluation within the Dutch PACS project mainly focuses on the development and evaluation of a PACSystem for a few departments in the Utrecht University hospital (UUH). A report on the first clinical experiences and a detailed cost/savings analysis of the PACSystem in the UUH are presented elsewhere. However, an assessment of the wider fmancial and organizational implications for hospitals and for the health sector is also needed. To this end a model for (financial) cost assessment of PACSystems is being developed by BAZIS. Learning from the actual pilot implementation in UUH we realized that general Technology Assessment (TA) also calls for an extra-polation of the medical and organizational effects. After a short excursion into the various approaches towards TA, this paper discusses the (inter) organizational dimensions relevant to the development of the necessary exttapolationmodels.

  8. Extrapolation of extreme response for different mooring line systems of floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Sterndorff, Martin; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto...... measurements from lab-scaled WEPTOS WEC are taken. Different catenary anchor leg mooring (CALM) systems as well as single anchor legmooring (SALM)mooring systemsare implemented for a dynamic simulation with different number of mooring lines. Extreme tension loads with a return period of 50 years are assessed...... for the hawser as well as at the different mooring lines. Furthermore, the extreme load impact given failure of one mooring line is assessed and compared with extreme loads given no system failure....

  9. Statistical validation of engineering and scientific models : bounds, calibration, and extrapolation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2005-04-01

    Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.

  10. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal LTE radio base station exposure estimation: test and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Gati, Azeddine; Varsier, Nadège; Flach, Björn; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on downlink band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders.

  11. Extrapolation procedures for calculating high-temperature gibbs free energies of aqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for calculating high-temprature Gibbs free energies of mononuclear cations and anions from room-temperature data are reviewed. Emphasis is given to species required for oxide solubility calculations relevant to mass transport situations in the nuclear industry. Free energies predicted by each method are compared to selected values calculated from recently reported solubility studies and other literature data. Values for monatomic ions estimated using the assumption anti C 0 p(T) = anti C 0 p(298) agree best with experiment to 423 K. From 423 K to 523 K, free energies from an electrostatic model for ion hydration are more accurate. Extrapolations for hydrolyzed species are limited by a lack of room-temperature entropy data and expressions for estimating these entropies are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs

  13. Modeling of systematic retention of beryllium in rats. Extrapolation to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and other animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with other previously published

  14. Quantifying regional changes in terrestrial carbon storage by extrapolation from local ecosystem models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A W

    1991-12-31

    A general procedure for quantifying regional carbon dynamics by spatial extrapolation of local ecosystem models is presented Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the expected value of one or more local models, explicitly integrating the spatial heterogeneity of variables that influence ecosystem carbon flux and storage. These variables are described by empirically derived probability distributions that are input to the Monte Carlo process. The procedure provides large-scale regional estimates based explicitly on information and understanding acquired at smaller and more accessible scales.Results are presented from an earlier application to seasonal atmosphere-biosphere CO{sub 2} exchange for circumpolar ``subarctic`` latitudes (64{degree}N-90{degree}N). Results suggest that, under certain climatic conditions, these high northern ecosystems could collectively release 0.2 Gt of carbon per year to the atmosphere. I interpret these results with respect to questions about global biospheric sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2} .

  15. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal lte radio base station exposure estimation: Test and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloock, L.; Joseph, W.; Gati, A.; Varsier, N.; Flach, B.; Wiart, J.; Martens, L.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on down-link band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders. (authors)

  16. Hematological responses after inhaling 238PuO2: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ( 238 Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to 238 PuO 2 have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of 238 Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled 238 PuO 2 on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting 238 PuO 2 particles and to extrapolate results to humans

  17. Extrapolating cetacean densities to quantitatively assess human impacts on populations in the high seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Laura; Roberts, Jason J; Miller, David L; Halpin, Patrick N

    2017-06-01

    As human activities expand beyond national jurisdictions to the high seas, there is an increasing need to consider anthropogenic impacts to species inhabiting these waters. The current scarcity of scientific observations of cetaceans in the high seas impedes the assessment of population-level impacts of these activities. We developed plausible density estimates to facilitate a quantitative assessment of anthropogenic impacts on cetacean populations in these waters. Our study region extended from a well-surveyed region within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone into a large region of the western North Atlantic sparsely surveyed for cetaceans. We modeled densities of 15 cetacean taxa with available line transect survey data and habitat covariates and extrapolated predictions to sparsely surveyed regions. We formulated models to reduce the extent of extrapolation beyond covariate ranges, and constrained them to model simple and generalizable relationships. To evaluate confidence in the predictions, we mapped where predictions were made outside sampled covariate ranges, examined alternate models, and compared predicted densities with maps of sightings from sources that could not be integrated into our models. Confidence levels in model results depended on the taxon and geographic area and highlighted the need for additional surveying in environmentally distinct areas. With application of necessary caution, our density estimates can inform management needs in the high seas, such as the quantification of potential cetacean interactions with military training exercises, shipping, fisheries, and deep-sea mining and be used to delineate areas of special biological significance in international waters. Our approach is generally applicable to other marine taxa and geographic regions for which management will be implemented but data are sparse. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. A new mini-extrapolation chamber for beta source uniformity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    According to recent international recommendations, beta particle sources should be specified in terms of absorbed dose rates to water at the reference point. However, because of the clinical use of these sources, additional information should be supplied in the calibration reports. This additional information include the source uniformity. A new small volume extrapolation chamber was designed and constructed at the Calibration Laboratory at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, Brazil, for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y ophthalmic plaques. This chamber can be used as a primary standard for the calibration of this type of source. Recent additional studies showed the feasibility of the utilization of this chamber to perform source uniformity measurements. Because of the small effective electrode area, it is possible to perform independent measurements by varying the chamber position by small steps. The aim of the present work was to study the uniformity of a 90 Sr+ 90 Y plane ophthalmic plaque utilizing the mini extrapolation chamber developed at IPEN. The uniformity measurements were performed by varying the chamber position by steps of 2 mm in the source central axis (x-and y-directions) and by varying the chamber position off-axis by 3 mm steps. The results obtained showed that this small volume chamber can be used for this purpose with a great advantage: it is a direct method, being unnecessary a previously calibration of the measurement device in relation to a reference instrument, and it provides real -time results, reducing the time necessary for the study and the determination of the uncertainties related to the measurements. (authors)

  19. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  20. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  1. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  2. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  3. Results of Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Momary, T.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Bolton, S.; Levin, S.; Adriani, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Hansen, C. J.; Janssen, M.

    2017-09-01

    Well over sixty investigator/instrument investigations are actively engaged in the support of the Juno mission. These observations range from X-ray to the radio wavelengths and involve both space- and ground-based astronomical facilities. These observations enhance and expand Juno measurements by (1) providing a context that expands the area covered by often narrow spatial coverage of Juno's instruments, (2) providing a temporal context that shows how phenomena evolve over Juno's 53-day orbit period, (3) providing observations in spectral ranges not covered by Juno's instruments, and (4) monitoring the behavior of external influences to Jupiter's magnetosphere. Intercommunication between the Juno scientists and the support program is maintained by reference to a Google table that describes the observation and its current status, as well as by occasional group emails. A non-interactive version of this invitation-only site is mirrored in a public site. Several sets of these supporting observations are described at this meeting.

  4. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  5. Extrapolated experimental critical parameters of unreflected and steel-reflected massive enriched uranium metal spherical and hemispherical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-12-01

    Sixty-nine critical configurations of up to 186 kg of uranium are reported from very early experiments (1960s) performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory near Denver, Colorado. Enriched (93%) uranium metal spherical and hemispherical configurations were studied. All were thick-walled shells except for two solid hemispheres. Experiments were essentially unreflected; or they included central and/or external regions of mild steel. No liquids were involved. Critical parameters are derived from extrapolations beyond subcritical data. Extrapolations, rather than more precise interpolations between slightly supercritical and slightly subcritical configurations, were necessary because experiments involved manually assembled configurations. Many extrapolations were quite long; but the general lack of curvature in the subcritical region lends credibility to their validity. In addition to delayed critical parameters, a procedure is offered which might permit the determination of prompt critical parameters as well for the same cases. This conjectured procedure is not based on any strong physical arguments

  6. Ultrasonic computerized tomography (CT) for temperature measurements with limited projection data based on extrapolated filtered back projection (FBP) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ning; Jiang Yong; Kato, Seizo

    2005-01-01

    This study uses ultrasound in combination with tomography to obtain three-dimensional temperature measurements using projection data obtained from limited projection angle. The main feature of the new computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm is to employ extrapolation scheme to make up for the incomplete projection data, it is based on the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) method while on top of that taking into account the correlation between the projection data and Fourier transform-based extrapolation. Computer simulation is conducted to verify the above algorithm. An experimental 3D temperature distribution measurement is also carried out to validate the proposed algorithm. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the extrapolated FBP CT algorithm is highly effective in dealing with projection data from limited projection angle

  7. Spectral implementation of full waveform inversion based on reflections

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2014-01-01

    Using the reflection imaging process as a source to model reflections for full waveform inversion (FWI), referred to as reflection FWI (RFWI), allows us to update the background component of the model, and avoid using the relatively costly migration velocity analysis (MVA), which usually relies on extended images. However, RFWI requires a good image to represent the current reflectivity, as well as, some effort to obtain good smooth gradients. We develop a spectral implementation of RFWI where the wavefield extrapolations and gradient evaluation are performed in the wavenumber domain, obtaining clean dispersion free and fast extrapolations. The gradient, in this case, yields three terms, two of which provide us with each side of the rabbit ear kernel, and the third, often ignored, provides a normalization of the reflectivity within the kernel, which can be used to obtain a reflectivity free background update. Since the image is imperfect (it is an adjoint, not an inverse), an optimization process for the third term scaling is implemented to achieve the smoothest gradient update. A rare application of RFWI on the reflectivity infested Marmousi model shows some of the potential of the approach.

  8. Comparison of various state equations for approximation and extrapolation of experimental hydrogen molar volumes in wide temperature and pressure intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Altynov, V.A.; Wisniewski, R.

    2009-01-01

    The numerical analysis of practically all existing formulae such as expansion series, Tait, logarithm, Van der Waals and virial equations for interpolation of experimental molar volumes versus high pressure was carried out. One can conclude that extrapolating dependences of molar volumes versus pressure and temperature can be valid. It was shown that virial equations can be used for fitting experimental data at relatively low pressures P<3 kbar too in distinction to other equations. Direct solving of a linear equation of the third order relatively to volume using extrapolated virial coefficients allows us to obtain good agreement between existing experimental data for high pressure and calculated values

  9. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.

    2015-02-06

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  10. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    1989-01-01

    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  11. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  12. Hybrid superconducting a.c. current limiter extrapolation 63 kV-1 250 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.; Levêque, J.; Brunet, Y.; Pham, V. D.

    1994-04-01

    Following the developement of a.c. superconducting wires a.c. current superconducting limiters have emerged. These limiters limit the fault currents nearly instantaneously, without detection nor order giver and may be suitable for high voltages. They are based on the natural transition from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state by overstepping the critical current of a superconducting coil which limits or triggers the limitation. Our limiter device consists essentially of two copper windings coupled through a saturable magnetic circuit and of a non inductively wound superconducting coil with a reduced current compared to the line current. This design allows a simple superconducting cable and reduced cryogenic losses but the dielectric stresses are high during faults. A small model (150 V/50 A) has experimentally validated our design. An industrial scale current limiter is designed and the comparisons between this design and other superconducting current limiters are given. Les courants de court-circuit sur les grands réseaux électriques ne cessent d'augmenter. Dans ce contexte sont apparus les limiteurs supraconducteurs de courant suite au développement des brins supraconducteurs alternatifs. Ces limiteurs peuvent limiter les courants de défaut presque instantanément, sans détection de défaut ni donneur d'ordre et ils sont extrapolables aux hautes tensions. Ils sont fondés sur la transition naturelle de l'état supraconducteur à l'état normal très résistif par dépassement du courant critique d'un enroulement supraconducteur qui limite ou déclenche la limitation. Notre limiteur est composé de deux enroulements en cuivre couplés par un circuit magnétique saturable et d'une bobine supraconductrice à courant réduit par rapport au courant de la ligne. Cette conception permet un câble supraconducteur simple et des pertes cryogéniques réduites mais les contraintes diélectriques en régime de défaut sont importantes. Une maquette

  13. Improving Predictions with Reliable Extrapolation Schemes and Better Understanding of Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sushant N.

    New insights into the inter-nucleon interactions, developments in many-body technology, and the surge in computational capabilities has led to phenomenal progress in low-energy nuclear physics in the past few years. Nonetheless, many calculations still lack a robust uncertainty quantification which is essential for making reliable predictions. In this work we investigate two distinct sources of uncertainty and develop ways to account for them. Harmonic oscillator basis expansions are widely used in ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. Finite computational resources usually require that the basis be truncated before observables are fully converged, necessitating reliable extrapolation schemes. It has been demonstrated recently that errors introduced from basis truncation can be taken into account by focusing on the infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs induced by a truncated basis. We show that a finite oscillator basis effectively imposes a hard-wall boundary condition in coordinate space. We accurately determine the position of the hard-wall as a function of oscillator space parameters, derive infrared extrapolation formulas for the energy and other observables, and discuss the extension of this approach to higher angular momentum and to other localized bases. We exploit the duality of the harmonic oscillator to account for the errors introduced by a finite ultraviolet cutoff. Nucleon knockout reactions have been widely used to study and understand nuclear properties. Such an analysis implicitly assumes that the effects of the probe can be separated from the physics of the target nucleus. This factorization between nuclear structure and reaction components depends on the renormalization scale and scheme, and has not been well understood. But it is potentially critical for interpreting experiments and for extracting process-independent nuclear properties. We use a class of unitary transformations called the similarity renormalization group (SRG) transformations to

  14. Top-down workforce demand extrapolation based on an EC energy road-map scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Von Estorff, U.

    2014-01-01

    The EHRO-N team of JRC-IET provides the EC with essential data related to supply and demand for nuclear experts based on bottom-up information from the nuclear industry. The current paper deals with an alternative approach to derive figures for the demand side information of the nuclear workforce. Complementary to the bottom-up approach, a top-down modelling approach extrapolation of an EC Energy road-map nuclear energy demand scenario is followed here in addition to the survey information. In this top-down modelling approach, the number of nuclear power plants that are in operation and under construction is derived as a function of time from 2010 up to 2050 assuming that the current reactor park will be replaced by generic third generation reactors of 1400 MWe or 1000 MWe. Depending on the size of new build reactors, the analysis shows the number of new reactors required to fulfil the demand for nuclear energy. Based on workforce models for operation and construction of nuclear power plants, the model allows an extrapolation of these respective work-forces. Using the nuclear skills pyramid, the total workforce employed at a plant is broken down in a nuclear (experts), nuclearized, and nuclear aware workforce. With retirement profiles for nuclear power plants derived from the bottom-up EHRO-N survey, the replacement of the current workforce is taken into account. The peak of the new workforce (partly replacing the retiring workforce and additionally keeping up with the growing total workforce demand) for nuclear experts and nuclearized employees is to be expected at the end of the considered period (2050). However, the peak workforce for nuclear aware employees is to be expected around 2020. When comparing to historical data for the nuclear capacity being installed at the same time in Europe, it is clear that the expected future capacity to be installed at the same time in Europe is significantly lower (factor of 2) than in the early 1980's. However, it should

  15. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.; Zimmerman, C.J.; Taylor, G.N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

  16. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  17. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  18. Preparation of high crystalline nanoparticles of rare-earth based complex pervoskites and comparison of their structural and magnetic properties with bulk counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basith, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Ahmmad, Bashir

    2017-01-01

    of crystalline and amorphous phases. FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanoparticles with average particle size in the range of 50–100 nm for both ultrasonication and 4 h (h) of ball milling. The bulk materials and nanoparticles synthesized by both ultrasonication and 4 h ball milling exhibit...... of the nanoparticles due to ball milling particularly for milling time exceeding 8 h. This investigation demonstrates the potential of ultrasonication as a simple route to prepare high crystalline rare-earth based manganite nanoparticles with improved control compared to the traditional ball milling technique....

  19. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Wave function antisymmetry in the aggregate atomic spectral-product basis is enforced by unitary transformation performed subsequent to formation of the Hamiltonian matrix, greatly simplifying its construction...

  20. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  1. Addressing Early Life Sensitivity Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Miyoung; Clewell, Harvey J

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can provide an effective way to utilize in vitro and in silico based information in modern risk assessment for children and other potentially sensitive populations. In this review, we describe the process of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) to develop PBPK models for a chemical in different ages in order to predict the target tissue exposure at the age of concern in humans. We present our on-going studies on pyrethroids as a proof of concept to guide the readers through the IVIVE steps using the metabolism data collected either from age-specific liver donors or expressed enzymes in conjunction with enzyme ontogeny information to provide age-appropriate metabolism parameters in the PBPK model in the rat and human, respectively. The approach we present here is readily applicable to not just to other pyrethroids, but also to other environmental chemicals and drugs. Establishment of an in vitro and in silico-based evaluation strategy in conjunction with relevant exposure information in humans is of great importance in risk assessment for potentially vulnerable populations like early ages where the necessary information for decision making is limited.

  2. Extrapolation of experimental data on late effects of low-dose radionuclides in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalistratova, V.S.; Nisimov, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    The situation of living of population on radionuclide contamination areas was simulated in the experimental study using white strainless rats of different ages. The significance of age for late stochastic effects of internal radionuclide contamination with low doses of 131 I, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 106 Ru was studied. Some common regularities and differences in late effects formation depending on age were found. Results of the study showed that the number of tumors developed increased in groups of animals exposed at the youngest age. The younger animal at the moment of internal radionuclide contamination, the higher percentage of malignant tumors appeared. It was especially so for tumors of endocrine glands (pituitary, suprarenal,- and thyroid). Differences in late effects formation related to different type of radionuclide distribution within the body were estimated. On the base of extrapolation the conclusion was made that human organism being exposed at early postnatal or pubertal period could be the most radiosensitive (1.5-2.0 or sometimes even 3-5 times higher than adults). Data confirmed the opinion that children are the most critical part of population even in case of low dose radiation exposure. (author)

  3. Quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation in a high-throughput environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetmore, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput in vitro toxicity screening provides an efficient way to identify potential biological targets for environmental and industrial chemicals while conserving limited testing resources. However, reliance on the nominal chemical concentrations in these in vitro assays as an indicator of bioactivity may misrepresent potential in vivo effects of these chemicals due to differences in clearance, protein binding, bioavailability, and other pharmacokinetic factors. Development of high-throughput in vitro hepatic clearance and protein binding assays and refinement of quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE) methods have provided key tools to predict xenobiotic steady state pharmacokinetics. Using a process known as reverse dosimetry, knowledge of the chemical steady state behavior can be incorporated with HTS data to determine the external in vivo oral exposure needed to achieve internal blood concentrations equivalent to those eliciting bioactivity in the assays. These daily oral doses, known as oral equivalents, can be compared to chronic human exposure estimates to assess whether in vitro bioactivity would be expected at the dose-equivalent level of human exposure. This review will describe the use of QIVIVE methods in a high-throughput environment and the promise they hold in shaping chemical testing priorities and, potentially, high-throughput risk assessment strategies

  4. Extrapolation of plasma clearance to understand species differences in toxicokinetics of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka; Hays, Sean

    2017-10-13

    1. Understanding species differences in the toxicokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) is central to setting acceptable exposure limits for human exposures to BPA. BPA toxicokinetics have been well studied, with controlled oral dosing studies in several species and across a wide dose range. 2. We analyzed the available toxicokinetic data for BPA following oral dosing to assess potential species differences and dose dependencies. BPA is rapidly conjugated and detoxified in all species. The toxicokinetics of BPA can be well described using non-compartmental analyses. 3. Several studies measured free (unconjugated) BPA in blood and reported area under the curve (AUC) of free BPA in blood of mice, rats, monkeys, chimpanzees and humans following controlled oral doses. Extrinsic clearance was calculated and analyzed across species and dose using allometric scaling. 4. The results indicate free BPA clearance is well described using allometric scaling with high correlation coefficients across all species and doses up to 10 mg/kg. The results indicate a human equivalent dose factor (HEDf) of 0.9 is appropriate for extrapolating a point of departure from mice and rats to a human equivalent dose (HED), thereby replacing default uncertainty factors for animal to human toxicokinetics.

  5. Use of a probabilistic PBPK/PD model to calculate Data Derived Extrapolation Factors for chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka S; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, Michael J; Smith, Jordan N; McDougal, Robin; Juberg, Daland R; Price, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model combined with Monte Carlo analysis of inter-individual variation was used to assess the effects of the insecticide, chlorpyrifos and its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon in humans. The PBPK/PD model has previously been validated and used to describe physiological changes in typical individuals as they grow from birth to adulthood. This model was updated to include physiological and metabolic changes that occur with pregnancy. The model was then used to assess the impact of inter-individual variability in physiology and biochemistry on predictions of internal dose metrics and quantitatively assess the impact of major sources of parameter uncertainty and biological diversity on the pharmacodynamics of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase inhibition. These metrics were determined in potentially sensitive populations of infants, adult women, pregnant women, and a combined population of adult men and women. The parameters primarily responsible for inter-individual variation in RBC acetylcholinesterase inhibition were related to metabolic clearance of CPF and CPF-oxon. Data Derived Extrapolation Factors that address intra-species physiology and biochemistry to replace uncertainty factors with quantitative differences in metrics were developed in these same populations. The DDEFs were less than 4 for all populations. These data and modeling approach will be useful in ongoing and future human health risk assessments for CPF and could be used for other chemicals with potential human exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu

    Full Text Available The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22 were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils.

  7. Flow Forecasting in Drainage Systems with Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data and Auto Calibration on Flow Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Grum, M.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting of flows, overflow volumes, water levels, etc. in drainage systems can be applied in real time control of drainage systems in the future climate in order to fully utilize system capacity and thus save possible construction costs. An online system for forecasting flows and water levels......-calibrated on flow measurements in order to produce the best possible forecast for the drainage system at all times. The system shows great potential for the implementation of real time control in drainage systems and forecasting flows and water levels.......Forecasting of flows, overflow volumes, water levels, etc. in drainage systems can be applied in real time control of drainage systems in the future climate in order to fully utilize system capacity and thus save possible construction costs. An online system for forecasting flows and water levels...... in a small urban catchment has been developed. The forecast is based on application of radar rainfall data, which by a correlation based technique, is extrapolated with a lead time up to two hours. The runoff forecast in the drainage system is based on a fully distributed MOUSE model which is auto...

  8. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  9. Standardization of reference radiation field of beta for 85Kr using extrapolation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Fendinugroho

    2013-01-01

    Standardization of reference radiation field of beta for 85 Kr in PTKMR-BATAN Laboratory has been performed at the SDD's 30 cm by using extrapolation chamber detector, coupled with Uni dose electrometer. The result was : (8.98±3 %) mGy/h, at 95 % confidence level. The aim of standardization of reference radiation field is to support radiation protection and safety program, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency to its Member States, included BATAN-Indonesia, especially, PTKMR. The aim of radiation protection program and safety program is to promote an internationally harmonized approach for radiation measurement in protection level, besides for calibration of radiation measuring instrument, which users spread across Indonesia, with the number of about 795 firms in the year of 2012. These benefits can be felt by workers, communities and the environment, because by calibration, measurement survey meter, pocket dosimeter and TLD to be more accurate so that the radiation dose received by radiation workers is accurate and can be ascertained in a specified period, not to exceed a predetermined NBD by BAPETEN. The aim of this calibration is appropriate with the primary objective of calibration on IAEA/TRS16:2000. (author)

  10. Beyond the plot: technology extrapolation domains for scaling out agronomic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattalino Edreira, Juan I.; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Hochman, Zvi; van Ittersum, Martin K.; van Bussel, Lenny; Claessens, Lieven; Grassini, Patricio

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an adequate food supply in systems that protect environmental quality and conserve natural resources requires productive and resource-efficient cropping systems on existing farmland. Meeting this challenge will be difficult without a robust spatial framework that facilitates rapid evaluation and scaling-out of currently available and emerging technologies. Here we develop a global spatial framework to delineate ‘technology extrapolation domains’ based on key climate and soil factors that govern crop yields and yield stability in rainfed crop production. The proposed framework adequately represents the spatial pattern of crop yields and stability when evaluated over the data-rich US Corn Belt. It also facilitates evaluation of cropping system performance across continents, which can improve efficiency of agricultural research that seeks to intensify production on existing farmland. Populating this biophysical spatial framework with appropriate socio-economic attributes provides the potential to amplify the return on investments in agricultural research and development by improving the effectiveness of research prioritization and impact assessment.

  11. COMPARISON OF CORONAL EXTRAPOLATION METHODS FOR CYCLE 24 USING HMI DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arden, William M. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Norton, Aimee A.; Sun, Xudong; Zhao, Xuepu [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Two extrapolation models of the solar coronal magnetic field are compared using magnetogram data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument. The two models, a horizontal current–current sheet–source surface (HCCSSS) model and a potential field–source surface (PFSS) model, differ in their treatment of coronal currents. Each model has its own critical variable, respectively, the radius of a cusp surface and a source surface, and it is found that adjusting these heights over the period studied allows for a better fit between the models and the solar open flux at 1 au as calculated from the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The HCCSSS model provides the better fit for the overall period from 2010 November to 2015 May as well as for two subsets of the period: the minimum/rising part of the solar cycle and the recently identified peak in the IMF from mid-2014 to mid-2015 just after solar maximum. It is found that an HCCSSS cusp surface height of 1.7 R {sub ⊙} provides the best fit to the IMF for the overall period, while 1.7 and 1.9 R {sub ⊙} give the best fits for the two subsets. The corresponding values for the PFSS source surface height are 2.1, 2.2, and 2.0 R {sub ⊙} respectively. This means that the HCCSSS cusp surface rises as the solar cycle progresses while the PFSS source surface falls.

  12. A thermal extrapolation method for the effective temperatures and internal energies of activated ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meot-Ner (Mautner), Michael; Somogyi, Árpád

    2007-11-01

    The internal energies of dissociating ions, activated chemically or collisionally, can be estimated using the kinetics of thermal dissociation. The thermal Arrhenius parameters can be combined with the observed dissociation rate of the activated ions using kdiss = Athermalexp(-Ea,thermal/RTeff). This Arrhenius-type relation yields the effective temperature, Teff, at which the ions would dissociate thermally at the same rate, or yield the same product distributions, as the activated ions. In turn, Teff is used to calculate the internal energy of the ions and the energy deposited by the activation process. The method yields an energy deposition efficiency of 10% for a chemical ionization proton transfer reaction and 8-26% for the surface collisions of various peptide ions. Internal energies of ions activated by chemical ionization or by gas phase collisions, and of ions produced by desorption methods such as fast atom bombardment, can be also evaluated. Thermal extrapolation is especially useful for ion-molecule reaction products and for biological ions, where other methods to evaluate internal energies are laborious or unavailable.

  13. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing : Application of a generic PBK modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at

  14. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing: Application of a generic PBK modelling approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at

  15. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity

  16. The importance of inclusion of kinetic information in the extrapolation of high-to-low concentrations for human limit setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Bos, Peter M J

    2018-01-01

    Human health risk assessment of inhalation exposures generally includes a high-to-low concentration extrapolation. Although this is a common step in human risk assessment, it introduces various uncertainties. One of these uncertainties is related to the toxicokinetics. Many kinetic processes such as

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of water ice porosity: extrapolations of deposition parameters from the laboratory to interstellar space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Aspen R.; Berk, Brandon; Cooke, Ilsa R.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2018-02-01

    Using an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo model we reproduce experimental laboratory trends in the density of amorphous solid water (ASW) for varied deposition angle, rate and surface temperature. Extrapolation of the model to conditions appropriate to protoplanetary disks and interstellar dark clouds indicate that these ices may be less porous than laboratory ices.

  18. Combining extrapolation with ghost interaction correction in range-separated ensemble density functional theory for excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mehboob; Deur, Killian; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    The extrapolation technique of Savin [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A509 (2014)], which was initially applied to range-separated ground-state-density-functional Hamiltonians, is adapted in this work to ghost-interaction-corrected (GIC) range-separated ensemble density-functional theory (eDFT) for excited states. While standard extrapolations rely on energies that decay as μ-2 in the large range-separation-parameter μ limit, we show analytically that (approximate) range-separated GIC ensemble energies converge more rapidly (as μ-3) towards their pure wavefunction theory values (μ → +∞ limit), thus requiring a different extrapolation correction. The purpose of such a correction is to further improve on the convergence and, consequently, to obtain more accurate excitation energies for a finite (and, in practice, relatively small) μ value. As a proof of concept, we apply the extrapolation method to He and small molecular systems (viz., H2, HeH+, and LiH), thus considering different types of excitations such as Rydberg, charge transfer, and double excitations. Potential energy profiles of the first three and four singlet Σ+ excitation energies in HeH+ and H2, respectively, are studied with a particular focus on avoided crossings for the latter. Finally, the extraction of individual state energies from the ensemble energy is discussed in the context of range-separated eDFT, as a perspective.

  19. Extrapolation of the FOM 1 MW free-electron maser to a multi-megawatt millimeter microwave source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplan, M.; Valentini, M.; Verhoeven, A.; Urbanus, W.; Tulupov, A.

    1997-01-01

    A Free-Electron Maser is now under test at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen, Netherlands) with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130-250 GHz with wall plug efficiencies of 60%. An extrapolated version of this device is proposed, which by scaling up beam current

  20. Extrapolated surface dose measurements using a NdFeB magnetic deflector for 6 MV x-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongkijudom, N; Butson, M; Rosenfeld, A

    2007-03-01

    Extrapolated surface dose measurements have been performed using radiographic film to measure 2-Dimensional maps of skin and surface dose with and without a magnetic deflector device aimed at reducing surface dose. Experiments are also performed using an Attix parallel plate ionisation chamber for comparison to radiographic film extrapolation surface dose analysis. Extrapolated percentage surface dose assessments from radiographic film at the central axis of a 6 MV x-ray beam with magnetic deflector for field size 10 x 10 cm2, 15 x 15 cm2 and 20 x 20 cm2 are 9 +/- 3%, 13 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 3%, these compared to 14 +/- 3%, 19 +/- 3%, and 27 +/- 3% for open fields, respectively. Results from Attix chamber for the same field size are 12 +/- 1%, 15 +/- 1% and 18 +/- 1%, these compared to 16 +/- 1%, 21 +/- 1% and 27 +/- 1% for open fields, respectively. Results are also shown for profiles measured in-plane and cross-plane to the magnetic deflector and compared to open field data. Results have shown that the surface dose is reduced at all sites within the treatment field with larger reductions seen on one side of the field due to the sweeping nature of the designed magnetic field. Radiographic film extrapolation provides an advanced surface dose assessment and has matched well with Attix chamber results. Film measurement allows for easy 2 dimensional dose assessments.

  1. Direct activity determination of Mn-54 and Zn-65 by a non-extrapolation liquid scintillation method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available . The simple decay scheme exhibited by these radionuclides, with the emission of an energetic gamma ray, allows the absolute activity to be determined from 4pie-gamma data by direct calculation without the need for efficiency extrapolation. The method, which...

  2. Depth dose distribution in the water for clinical applicators of 90Sr + 90Y, with a extrapolation mini chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia de Lara; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2009-01-01

    This work determines the depth dose in the water for clinical applicators of 90 Sr + 90 Y, using a extrapolation mini chamber developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and different thickness acrylic plates. The obtained results were compared with the international recommendations and were considered satisfactory

  3. Acceleration of nodal diffusion code by Chebychev polynomial extrapolation method; Ubrzanje spoljasnjih iteracija difuzionog nodalnog proracuna Chebisevijevom ekstrapolacionom metodom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmijarevic, I; Tomashevic, Dj [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    This paper presents Chebychev acceleration of outer iterations of a nodal diffusion code of high accuracy. Extrapolation parameters, unique for all moments are calculated using the node integrated distribution of fission source. Sample calculations are presented indicating the efficiency of method. (author)

  4. Towards a measurement of the spectral runnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc; Silk, Joseph, E-mail: julianmunoz@jhu.edu, E-mail: ekovetz1@jhu.edu, E-mail: alvise@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: mkamion1@jhu.edu, E-mail: joseph.silk@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Single-field slow-roll inflation predicts a nearly scale-free power spectrum of perturbations, as observed at the scales accessible to current cosmological experiments. This spectrum is slightly red, showing a tilt (1− n {sub s} )∼ 0.04. A direct consequence of this tilt are nonvanishing runnings α {sub s} = d n {sub s} / dlog k , and β {sub s} = dα {sub s} / dlog k , which in the minimal inflationary scenario should reach absolute values of 10{sup −3} and 10{sup −5}, respectively. In this work we calculate how well future surveys can measure these two runnings. We consider a Stage-4 (S4) CMB experiment and show that it will be able to detect significant deviations from the inflationary prediction for α {sub s} , although not for β {sub s} . Adding to the S4 CMB experiment the information from a WFIRST-like or a DESI-like survey improves the sensitivity to the runnings by ∼ 20%, and 30%, respectively. A spectroscopic survey with a billion objects, such as the SKA, will add enough information to the S4 measurements to allow a detection of α {sub s} =10{sup −3}, required to probe the single-field slow-roll inflationary paradigm. We show that only a very-futuristic interferometer targeting the dark ages will be capable of measuring the minimal inflationary prediction for β {sub s} . The results of other probes, such as a stochastic background of gravitational waves observable by LIGO, the Ly-α forest, and spectral distortions, are shown for comparison. Finally, we study the claims that large values of β {sub s} , if extrapolated to the smallest scales, can produce primordial black holes of tens of solar masses, which we show to be easily testable by the S4 CMB experiment.

  5. Rare earth-based quaternary Heusler compounds MCoVZ (M = Lu, Y; Z = Si, Ge with tunable band characteristics for potential spintronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Heusler compounds (MHCs have recently attracted great attention since these types of material provide novel functionalities in spintronic and magneto-electronic devices. Among the MHCs, some compounds have been predicted to be spin-filter semiconductors [also called magnetic semiconductors (MSs], spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs or half-metals (HMs. In this work, by means of first-principles calculations, it is demonstrated that rare earth-based equiatomic quaternary Heusler (EQH compounds with the formula MCoVZ (M = Lu, Y; Z = Si, Ge are new spin-filter semiconductors with total magnetic moments of 3 µB. Furthermore, under uniform strain, there are physical transitions from spin-filter semiconductor (MS → SGS → HM for EQH compounds with the formula LuCoVZ, and from HM → SGS → MS → SGS → HM for EQH compounds with the formula YCoVZ. Remarkably, for YCoVZ EQH compounds there are not only diverse physical transitions, but also different types of spin-gapless feature that can be observed with changing lattice constants. The structural stability of these four EQH compounds is also examined from the points of view of formation energy, cohesive energy and mechanical behaviour. This work is likely to inspire consideration of rare earth-based EQH compounds for application in future spintronic and magneto-electronic devices.

  6. Elemental and mineralogical study of earth-based pigments using particle induced X-ray emission and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nel, P.; Lynch, P.A.; Laird, J.S.; Casey, H.M.; Goodall, L.J.; Ryan, C.G.; Sloggett, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Artwork and precious artefacts demand non-destructive analytical methodologies for art authentication, attribution and provenance assessment. However, structural and chemical characterisation represents a challenging problem with existing analytical techniques. A recent authentication case based on an Australian Aboriginal artwork, indicate there is substantial benefit in the ability of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), coupled with dynamic analysis (DA) to characterise pigments through trace element analysis. However, this information alone is insufficient for characterising the mineralogical residence of trace elements. For this reason a combined methodology based on PIXE and X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been performed to explore the benefits of a more comprehensive data set. Many Aboriginal paintings and artefacts are predominantly earth pigment based. This makes these cultural heritage materials an ideal case study for testing the above combined methodological approach on earth-based pigments. Samples of synthetic and naturally occurring earth-based pigments were obtained from a range of sources, which include Indigenous communities within Australia's Kimberley region. PIXE analyses using a 3 MeV focussed proton beam at the CSIRO nuclear microprobe, as well as laboratory-based XRD was carried out on the above samples. Elemental signature spectra as well as mineralogical data were used to assess issues regarding synthetic and naturally occurring earth pigments with the ultimate aim of establishing provenance.

  7. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  8. Extrapolation of rate constants of reactions producing H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} in radiolysis of water at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, R.; Ghandi, K.; Hackman, B.; Liu, G. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville, NB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    One target of our research is to extrapolate known data on the rate constants of reactions and add corrections to estimate the rate constants at the higher temperatures reached by the SCWR reactors. The focus of this work was to extrapolate known data on the rate constants of reactions that produce Hydrogen or Oxygen with a rate constant below 10{sup 10} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1} at room temperature. The extrapolation is done taking into account the change in the diffusion rate of the interacting species and the cage effect with thermodynamic conditions. The extrapolations are done over a wide temperature range and under isobaric conditions. (author)

  9. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  10. Accelerated aging embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steel: Activation energy for extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.

    1989-05-01

    Cast duplex stainless steels, used extensively in LWR systems for primary pressure boundary components such as primary coolant pipes, valves, and pumps, are susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating or higher temperatures. Since a realistic aging embrittlement for end-of-life or life-extension conditions (i.e., 32--50 yr of aging at 280--320 degree C) cannot be produced, it is customary to simulate the metallurgical structure by accelerated aging at ∼400 degree C. Over the past several years, extensive data on accelerated aging have been reported from a number of laboratories. The most important information from these studies is the activation energy, namely, the temperature dependence of the aging kinetics between 280 and 400 degree C, which is used to extrapolate the aging characteristics to reactor operating conditions. The activation energies (in the range of 18--50 kcal/mole) are, in general, sensitive to material grade, chemical composition, and fabrication process, and a few empirical correlations, obtained as a function of bulk chemical composition, have been reported. In this paper, a mechanistic understanding of the activation energy is described on the basis of the results of microstructural characterization of various heats of CF-3, -8, and -8M grades that were used in aging studies at different laboratories. The primary mechanism of aging embrittlement at temperatures between 280 and 400 degree C is the spinodal decomposition of the ferrite phase, and M 23 C 6 carbide precipitation on the ferrite/austenite boundaries is the secondary mechanism for high-carbon CF-8 grade. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Deposition of inhaled radionuclides in bronchial airways: Implications for extrapolation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Hofmann, W.; Heistracher, T.

    1996-01-01

    The laboratory rat has frequently been used as a human surrogate to estimate potential health effects following the inhalation of radioactive aerosol particles. Interspecies differences in biological response are commonly related to interspecies differences in particle deposition efficiencies. In addition, the documented site selectivity of bronchial carcinomas suggests that localized particle deposition patterns within bronchial airway bifurcations may have important implications for inhalation risk assessments. Interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns may be related primarily to differences in airway morphometries. Thus the validity of extrapolating rat deposition data to human inhalation conditions depends on their morphometric similarities and differences. It is well known that there are significant structural differences between the human - rather symmetric - and the rat - monopodial - airway systems. In the present approach, we focus on localized deposition patterns and deposition efficiencies in selected asymmetric bronchial airway bifurcations, whose diameters, lengths and branching angles were derived from the stochastic airway models of human and rat lungs (Koblinger and Hofmann, 1985;1988), which are based on the morphometric data of Raabe et al. (1976). The effects of interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns are explored in this study for two asymmetric bifurcation geometries in segmental bronchi and terminal bronchioles of both the human and rat lungs at different particle sizes. In order to examine the effect of flow rate on particle deposition in the human lung, we selected two different minute volumes, i.e., 10 and 60 1 min -1 , which are representative of low and heavy physical activity breathing conditions. In the case of the rat we used a minute volume of 0.234 1 min -1 (Hofmann et al., 1993)

  12. Skeletal 212Pb retention following 224Ra injection: extrapolation of animal data to adult humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods of interspecies extrapolation, one based on a correlation of skeletal 212 Pb/ 224 Ra with body weight, the other based on the mechanistic relationship between skeletal 212 Pb/ 224 Ra and reciprocal bone surface-to-volume ratio, lead to the conclusion that the retention of 212 Pb in the adult human skeleton is approximately complete a few days after injection. The correlation-based method gives most probable values for 212 Pb/ 224 Ra of 1.0 and 1.1 at 2 d and 7 d after injection, compared with values of 1.05 and 1.27 expected at these same times if the retention of 212 Pb were complete from the time of injection and if no 212 Pb were in the injection solution. The range of values corresponding to one geometric standard error on either side of the most probable value is 0.87 to 1.21 at 2 d post-injection. With the method based on the reciprocal bone surface-to-volume ratio, the best estimate of 212 Pb/ 224 Ra at 2 d after injection is 0.88, equal to the value observed in young adult beagles. An alternative interpretation of the results of this latter method leads to the conclusion that retention is complete, with 212 Pb/ 224 Ra equal to 1.0 for a 212 Pb-free injection solution and 1.1 for a solution containing 212 Pb in secular equilibrium with 224 Ra. This work, which uses 224 Ra daughter product retention data from mice, rats and dogs following 224Ra injection, provides a scientific foundation for retention assumptions made in the calculation of mean skeletal dose for adult humans. There now appear to be few uncertainties in these latter dose values, stemming from inaccurate retention assumptions; but substantial uncertainties remain in the mean skeletal dose values for juveniles and in the endosteal tissue doses regardless of age

  13. Measurement of absorbed dose with a bone-equivalent extrapolation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBlois, Francois; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan P.; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water trade mark sign and bone-equivalent material was used for determining absorbed dose in a bone-equivalent phantom irradiated with clinical radiation beams (cobalt-60 gamma rays; 6 and 18 MV x rays; and 9 and 15 MeV electrons). The dose was determined with the Spencer-Attix cavity theory, using ionization gradient measurements and an indirect determination of the chamber air-mass through measurements of chamber capacitance. The collected charge was corrected for ionic recombination and diffusion in the chamber air volume following the standard two-voltage technique. Due to the hybrid chamber design, correction factors accounting for scatter deficit and electrode composition were determined and applied in the dose equation to obtain absorbed dose in bone for the equivalent homogeneous bone phantom. Correction factors for graphite electrodes were calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and the calculated results were verified through relative air cavity dose measurements for three different polarizing electrode materials: graphite, steel, and brass in conjunction with a graphite collecting electrode. Scatter deficit, due mainly to loss of lateral scatter in the hybrid chamber, reduces the dose to the air cavity in the hybrid PEEC in comparison with full bone PEEC by 0.7% to ∼2% depending on beam quality and energy. In megavoltage photon and electron beams, graphite electrodes do not affect the dose measurement in the Solid Water trade mark sign PEEC but decrease the cavity dose by up to 5% in the bone-equivalent PEEC even for very thin graphite electrodes (<0.0025 cm). In conjunction with appropriate correction factors determined with Monte Carlo techniques, the uncalibrated hybrid PEEC can be used for measuring absorbed dose in bone material to within 2% for high-energy photon and electron beams

  14. Efficacy and Safety Extrapolation Analyses for Atomoxetine in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Kratochvil, Christopher; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Camporeale, Angelo; Lipsius, Sarah; D'Souza, Deborah; Tanaka, Yoko

    2015-12-01

    This extrapolation analysis qualitatively compared the efficacy and safety profile of atomoxetine from Lilly clinical trial data in 6-7-year-old patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of published literature in 4-5-year-old patients with ADHD (two open-label [4-5-year-old patients] and one placebo-controlled study [5-year-old patients]). The main efficacy analyses included placebo-controlled Lilly data and the placebo-controlled external study (5-year-old patients) data. The primary efficacy variables used in these studies were the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parent Version, Investigator Administered (ADHD-RS-IV-Parent:Inv) total score, or the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV) scale score. Safety analyses included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs. Descriptive statistics (means, percentages) are presented. Acute atomoxetine treatment improved core ADHD symptoms in both 6-7-year-old patients (n=565) and 5-year-old patients (n=37) (treatment effect: -10.16 and -7.42). In an analysis of placebo-controlled groups, the mean duration of exposure to atomoxetine was ∼ 7 weeks for 6-7-year-old patients and 9 weeks for 5-year-old patients. Decreased appetite was the most common TEAE in atomoxetine-treated patients. The TEAEs observed at a higher rate in 5-year-old versus 6-7-year-old patients were irritability (36.8% vs. 3.6%) and other mood-related events (6.9% each vs. atomoxetine may improve ADHD symptoms, but possibly to a lesser extent than in older children, with some adverse events occurring at a higher rate in 5-year-old patients.

  15. The cerebellum and visual perceptual learning: evidence from a motion extrapolation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, Cristina; Golzar, Ashkan; Santandrea, Elisa; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Eštočinová, Jana; Moretto, Giuseppe; Fiaschi, Antonio; Panzeri, Marta; Mariotti, Caterina; Tinazzi, Michele; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2014-09-01

    Visual perceptual learning is widely assumed to reflect plastic changes occurring along the cerebro-cortical visual pathways, including at the earliest stages of processing, though increasing evidence indicates that higher-level brain areas are also involved. Here we addressed the possibility that the cerebellum plays an important role in visual perceptual learning. Within the realm of motor control, the cerebellum supports learning of new skills and recalibration of motor commands when movement execution is consistently perturbed (adaptation). Growing evidence indicates that the cerebellum is also involved in cognition and mediates forms of cognitive learning. Therefore, the obvious question arises whether the cerebellum might play a similar role in learning and adaptation within the perceptual domain. We explored a possible deficit in visual perceptual learning (and adaptation) in patients with cerebellar damage using variants of a novel motion extrapolation, psychophysical paradigm. Compared to their age- and gender-matched controls, patients with focal damage to the posterior (but not the anterior) cerebellum showed strongly diminished learning, in terms of both rate and amount of improvement over time. Consistent with a double-dissociation pattern, patients with focal damage to the anterior cerebellum instead showed more severe clinical motor deficits, indicative of a distinct role of the anterior cerebellum in the motor domain. The collected evidence demonstrates that a pure form of slow-incremental visual perceptual learning is crucially dependent on the intact cerebellum, bearing the notion that the human cerebellum acts as a learning device for motor, cognitive and perceptual functions. We interpret the deficit in terms of an inability to fine-tune predictive models of the incoming flow of visual perceptual input over time. Moreover, our results suggest a strong dissociation between the role of different portions of the cerebellum in motor versus

  16. Extrapolation of animal radionuclide retention data to man: Use of similarity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A major problem in toxicology is the need for testing a myriad possible substances on several animal species as an aid in establishing standards for man. Particular interest in the problem of extrapolation to man is linked to a need for a method of obtaining transfer coefficients in food-chain models of ecosystems. Such a method could circumvent the necessity to test many species and compounds. Because of their particular interest in radioecology, the authors' studies were initiated using radionuclide retention data available in the literature. Since radionuclide retention should be a function of metabolism it follows that direct or indirect measures could be described by a ''power law'' based on body weight of the organism(s). However, when such power laws have been extended to interspecies comparisons the resulting power coefficients are usually substantially less than the value anticipated and seem to be different for each radionuclide. This paper proposes that interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the proportionality coefficient rather than the power parameter of the power function model and have called pairwise comparisons amongst species ''similarity ratios''. Retention data were examined from five non-ruminant species (including man) where several radionuclides with different physical properties were fed. Subsequently an expression was devised whereby an estimate of biological equilibrium level in man could be calculated using similar estimates from experiments using mice, rats or dogs. There are some statistical questions to resolve which have to do with the assumed frequency distribution for estimates of the proportionality coefficient. In addition, repeated use was made of the same data sets. (author)

  17. Does the Brain Extrapolate the Position of a Transient Moving Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinet, Julie; Goffart, Laurent

    2015-08-26

    , we provide results that are critical for investigating and understanding the neural basis of motion extrapolation and prediction. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511780-11$15.00/0.

  18. Diagnostic extrapolation of gross primary production from flux tower sites to the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christian; Reichstein, Markus; Tomelleri, Enrico; Ciais, Philippe; Jung, Martin; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Baldocchi, Dennis; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    The uptake of atmospheric CO2 by plant photosynthesis is the largest global carbon flux and is thought of driving most terrestrial carbon cycle processes. While the photosynthesis processes at the leaf and canopy levels are quite well understood, so far only very crude estimates of its global integral, the Gross Primary Production (GPP) can be found in the literature. Existing estimates have been lacking sound empirical basis. Reasons for such limitations lie in the absence of direct estimates of ecosystem-level GPP and methodological difficulties in scaling local carbon flux measurements to global scale across heterogeneous vegetation. Here, we present global estimates of GPP based on different diagnostic approaches. These up-scaling schemes integrated high-resolution remote sensing products, such as land cover, the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and leaf-area index, with carbon flux measurements from the global network of eddy covariance stations (FLUXNET). In addition, meteorological datasets from diverse sources and river runoff observations were used. All the above-mentioned approaches were also capable of estimating uncertainties. With six novel or newly parameterized and highly diverse up-scaling schemes we consistently estimated a global GPP of 122 Pg C y-1. In the quantification of the total uncertainties, we considered uncertainties arising from the measurement technique and data processing (i.e. partitioning into GPP and respiration). Furthermore, we accounted for the uncertainties of drivers and the structural uncertainties of the extrapolation approach. The total propagation led to a global uncertainty of 15 % of the mean value. Although our mean GPP estimate of 122 Pg C y-1 is similar to the previous postulate by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2001, we estimated a different variability among ecoregions. The tropics accounted for 32 % of GPP showing a greater importance of tropical ecosystems for the global carbon

  19. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  20. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  1. Characterization of a extrapolation chamber in standard X-ray beam, radiodiagnosis level; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao em feixes padroes de raios X, nivel radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric A.B. da; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: ebrito@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The extrapolation chamber is a ionization chamber used for detection low energy radiation and can be used as an standard instrument for beta radiation beams. This type of ionization chamber have as main characteristic the variation of sensible volume. This paper performs a study of characterization of a PTW commercial extrapolation chamber, in the energy interval of the qualities of conventional radiodiagnostic

  2. Standardization of I-125 solution by extrapolation of an efficiency wave obtained by coincidence X-(X-γ) counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.

    1989-01-01

    The activity concentration of 125 I was determined by X-(X-α) coincidence counting method and efficiency extrapolation curve. The measurement system consists of 2 thin NaI(T1) scintillation detectors which are horizontally movable on a track. The efficiency curve is obtained by symmetricaly changing the distance between the source and the detectors and the activity is determined by applying a linear efficiency extrapolation curve. All sum-coincidence events are included between 10 and 100 KeV window counting and the main source of uncertainty is coming from poor counting statistic around zero efficiency. The consistence of results with other methods shows that this technique can be applied to photon cascade emitters and are not discriminating by the detectors. It has been also determined the 35,5 KeV gamma-ray emission probability of 125 I by using a Gamma-X type high purity germanium detector. (author) [pt

  3. Bulk rock elastic moduli at high pressures, derived from the mineral textures and from extrapolated laboratory data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullemeyer, K; Keppler, R; Lokajíček, T; Vasin, R N; Behrmann, J H

    2015-01-01

    The elastic anisotropy of bulk rock depends on the mineral textures, the crack fabric and external parameters like, e.g., confining pressure. The texture-related contribution to elastic anisotropy can be predicted from the mineral textures, the largely sample-dependent contribution of the other parameters must be determined experimentally. Laboratory measurements of the elastic wave velocities are mostly limited to pressures of the intermediate crust. We describe a method, how the elastic wave velocity trends and, by this means, the elastic constants can be extrapolated to the pressure conditions of the lower crust. The extrapolated elastic constants are compared to the texture-derived ones. Pronounced elastic anisotropy is evident for phyllosilicate minerals, hence, the approach is demonstrated for two phyllosilicate-rich gneisses with approximately identical volume fractions of the phyllosilicates but different texture types. (paper)

  4. Comparison of extrapolation methods for creep rupture stresses of 12Cr and 18Cr10NiTi steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivarsson, B.

    1979-01-01

    As a part of a Soviet-Swedish research programme the creep rupture properties of two heat resisting steels namely a 12% Cr steel and an 18% Cr12% Ni titanium stabilized steel have been studied. One heat from each country of both steels were creep tested. The strength of the 12% Cr steels was similar to earlier reported strength values, the Soviet steel being some-what stronger due to a higher tungsten content. The strength of the Swedish 18/12 Ti steel agreed with earlier results, while the properties of the Soviet steel were inferior to those reported from earlier Soviet creep testings. Three extrapolation methods were compared on creep rupture data collected in both countries. Isothermal extrapolation and an algebraic method of Soviet origin gave in many cases rather similar results, while the parameter method recommended by ISO resulted in higher rupture strength values at longer times. (author)

  5. Determination of the bulk melting temperature of nickel using Monte Carlo simulations: Inaccuracy of extrapolation from cluster melting temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, J. H.; Pellenq, R. J. M.

    2010-02-01

    We have determined the bulk melting temperature Tm of nickel according to a recent interatomic interaction model via Monte Carlo simulation by two methods: extrapolation from cluster melting temperatures based on the Pavlov model (a variant of the Gibbs-Thompson model) and by calculation of the liquid and solid Gibbs free energies via thermodynamic integration. The result of the latter, which is the most reliable method, gives Tm=2010±35K , to be compared to the experimental value of 1726 K. The cluster extrapolation method, however, gives a 325° higher value of Tm=2335K . This remarkable result is shown to be due to a barrier for melting, which is associated with a nonwetting behavior.

  6. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Storm Water Runoff in Real-Time using Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel onl....... The radar rainfall extrapolation (nowcast) limits the lead time of the system to two hours. In this paper, the model set-up is tested on a small urban catchment for a period of 1.5 years. The 50 largest events are presented....... online system, which forecasts flows and water levels in real-time with inputs from extrapolated radar rainfall data, has been developed. The fully distributed urban drainage model includes auto-calibration using online in-sewer measurements which is seen to improve forecast skills significantly...

  7. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  8. Direct observations of the viscosity of Earth's outer core and extrapolation of measurements of the viscosity of liquid iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smylie, D E; Brazhkin, Vadim V; Palmer, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Estimates vary widely as to the viscosity of Earth's outer fluid core. Directly observed viscosity is usually orders of magnitude higher than the values extrapolated from high-pressure high-temperature laboratory experiments, which are close to those for liquid iron at atmospheric pressure. It turned out that this discrepancy can be removed by extrapolating via the widely known Arrhenius activation model modified by lifting the commonly used assumption of pressure-independent activation volume (which is possible due to the discovery that at high pressures the activation volume increases strongly with pressure, resulting in 10 2 Pa s at the top of the fluid core, and in 10 11 Pa s at its bottom). There are of course many uncertainties affecting this extrapolation process. This paper reviews two viscosity determination methods, one for the top and the other for the bottom of the outer core, the former of which relies on the decay of free core nutations and yields 2371 ± 1530 Pa s, while the other relies on the reduction in the rotational splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of the solid inner core oscillations and yields an average of 1.247 ± 0.035 Pa s. Encouraged by the good performance of the Arrhenius extrapolation, a differential form of the Arrhenius activation model is used to interpolate along the melting temperature curve and to find the viscosity profile across the entire outer core. The viscosity variation is found to be nearly log-linear between the measured boundary values. (methodological notes)

  9. A comparison between progressive extension method (PEM) and iterative method (IM) for magnetic field extrapolations in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Sun, M. T.; Sakurai, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between two numerical methods for the extrapolation of nonlinear force-free magnetic fields, viz the Iterative Method (IM) and the Progressive Extension Method (PEM). The advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are summarized, and the accuracy and numerical instability are discussed. On the basis of this investigation, it is claimed that the two methods do resemble each other qualitatively.

  10. L2-Error Estimates of the Extrapolated Crank-Nicolson Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations for Nonlinear Sobolev Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Young Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal ℓ∞(L2 error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.

  11. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Jhonny Antonio Benavente

    2011-01-01

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 85 Kr and 147 Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 85 Kr and 147 Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta radiation field mappings with

  12. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  13. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Luo, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE) reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE) model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D) unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  14. Comparison among creep rupture strength extrapolation methods with application to data for AISI 316 SS from Italy, France, U.K. and F.R.G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunori, G.; Cappellato, S.; Vacchiano, S.; Guglielmi, F.

    1982-01-01

    Inside Activity 3 ''Materials'' of WGCS, the member states UK and FRG have developed a work regarding extrapolation methods for creep data. This work has been done by comparising extrapolation methods in use in their countries by applying them to creep rupture strength data on AISI 316 SS obtained in UK and FRG. This work has been issued on April 1978 and the Community has dealed it to all Activity 3 Members. Italy, in the figure of NIRA S.p.A., has received, from the European Community a contract to extend the work to Italian and French data, using extrapolation methods currently in use in Italy. The work should deal with the following points: - Collect of Italian experimental data; - Chemical analysis on Italian Specimen; - Comparison among Italian experimental data with French, FRG and UK data; - Description of extrapolation methods in use in Italy; - Application of these extrapolation methods to Italian, French, British and Germany data; - Extensions of a Final Report

  15. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  16. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov–Démoulin magnetic flux rope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov and Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints. (paper)

  17. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber for low-energy X-rays: Experimental and Monte Carlo preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Lucio P., E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Eric A.B., E-mail: ebrito@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Perini, Ana P., E-mail: aperini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maidana, Nora L., E-mail: nmaidana@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel-plate ionization chamber that allows variation of its air-cavity volume. In this work, an experimental study and MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code simulations of an ionization chamber designed and constructed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN to be used as a secondary dosimetry standard for low-energy X-rays are reported. The results obtained were within the international recommendations, and the simulations showed that the components of the extrapolation chamber may influence its response up to 11.0%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A homemade extrapolation chamber was studied experimentally and with Monte Carlo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was characterized as a secondary dosimetry standard, for low energy X-rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several characterization tests were performed and the results were satisfactory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation showed that its components may influence the response up to 11.0%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This chamber may be used as a secondary standard at our laboratory.

  18. Straightening the Hierarchical Staircase for Basis Set Extrapolations: A Low-Cost Approach to High-Accuracy Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varandas, António J. C.

    2018-04-01

    Because the one-electron basis set limit is difficult to reach in correlated post-Hartree-Fock ab initio calculations, the low-cost route of using methods that extrapolate to the estimated basis set limit attracts immediate interest. The situation is somewhat more satisfactory at the Hartree-Fock level because numerical calculation of the energy is often affordable at nearly converged basis set levels. Still, extrapolation schemes for the Hartree-Fock energy are addressed here, although the focus is on the more slowly convergent and computationally demanding correlation energy. Because they are frequently based on the gold-standard coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)], correlated calculations are often affordable only with the smallest basis sets, and hence single-level extrapolations from one raw energy could attain maximum usefulness. This possibility is examined. Whenever possible, this review uses raw data from second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, as well as CCSD, CCSD(T), and multireference configuration interaction methods. Inescapably, the emphasis is on work done by the author's research group. Certain issues in need of further research or review are pinpointed.

  19. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo, S. R.; Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 85 Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the 90 Sr/ 90 Y and -0.3% for the 85 Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  20. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  1. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by incorporating toxicokinetic measurements: A case study of lindane-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croom, Edward L.; Shafer, Timothy J.; Evans, Marina V.; Mundy, William R.; Eklund, Chris R.; Johnstone, Andrew F.M.; Mack, Cina M.; Pegram, Rex A., E-mail: pegram.rex@epa.gov

    2015-02-15

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC{sub 50} for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC{sub 50} were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC{sub 50} dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC

  2. LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2007-01-01

    Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6 m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H 2 O and CO 2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are

  3. Onboard spectral imager data processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Franklin, Abraham J.; Sears, Robert D.; Robison, Mark W.; Rafert, J. Bruce; Fronterhouse, Donald C.; Grotbeck, Ronald L.

    1999-10-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite's Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, the design for the spectral imaging payload, and its initial qualification testing. This paper discusses the on board data processing designed to reduce the amount of downloaded data by an order of magnitude and provide a demonstration of a smart spaceborne spectral imaging sensor. Two custom components, a spectral imager interface 6U VME card that moves data at over 30 MByte/sec, and four TI C-40 processors mounted to a second 6U VME and daughter card, are used to adapt the sensor to the spacecraft and provide the necessary high speed processing. A system architecture that offers both on board real time image processing and high-speed post data collection analysis of the spectral data has been developed. In addition to the on board processing of the raw data into a usable spectral data volume, one feature extraction technique has been incorporated. This algorithm operates on the basic interferometric data. The algorithm is integrated within the data compression process to search for uploadable feature descriptions.

  4. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  5. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  6. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  7. Spectral Imaging of Portolan Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Fenella G.; Wilson, Meghan A.; Ghez, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Spectral imaging of Portolan Charts, early nautical charts, provided extensive new information about their construction and creation. The origins of the portolan chart style have been a continual source of perplexity to numerous generations of cartographic historians. The spectral imaging system utilized incorporates a 50 megapixel mono-chrome camera with light emitting diode (LED) illumination panels that cover the range from 365 nm to 1050 nm to capture visible and non-visible information. There is little known about how portolan charts evolved, and what influenced their creation. These early nautical charts began as working navigational tools of medieval mariners, initially made in the 1300s in Italy, Portugal and Spain; however the origin and development of the portolan chart remained shrouded in mystery. Questions about these early navigational charts included whether colorants were commensurate with the time period and geographical location, and if different, did that give insight into trade routes, or possible later additions to the charts? For example; spectral data showed the red pigment on both the 1320 portolan chart and the 1565 Galapagos Islands matched vermillion, an opaque red pigment used since antiquity. The construction of these charts was also of great interest. Spectral imaging with a range of illumination modes revealed the presence of a "hidden circle" often referred to in relation to their construction. This paper will present in-depth analysis of how spectral imaging of the Portolans revealed similarities and differences, new hidden information and shed new light on construction and composition.

  8. H/V spectral ratios technique application in the city of Bucharest: Can we get rid of source effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecu, B.; Radulian, M.; Mandrescu, N.; Panza, G.F.

    2006-06-01

    The main issue of this paper is to show that, contrary to many examples of monitored strong earthquakes in different urban areas, the intensity and spectral characteristics of the strong ground motion induced in the Bucharest area, by Vrancea intermediate- depth earthquakes, is controlled by the coupled source-site properties rather than by the local site conditions alone. Our results have important implications on the strategy to follow when assessing the seismic microzoning for Bucharest city: we recommend the application of deterministic approaches rather than empirical techniques, like H/V spectral ratios. However, when applied to noise data, the H/V spectral technique succeeds in reproducing the predominant frequency response characteristic for the sedimentary cover beneath the city and the relatively uniform distribution of this structure over the city area. Our results strongly disagree with any strategy of extrapolation from small and moderate earthquakes to strong earthquakes for microzoning purposes. (author)

  9. Examination of Spectral Transformations on Spectral Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wu, C.

    2018-04-01

    While many spectral transformation techniques have been applied on spectral mixture analysis (SMA), few study examined their necessity and applicability. This paper focused on exploring the difference between spectrally transformed schemes and untransformed scheme to find out which transformed scheme performed better in SMA. In particular, nine spectrally transformed schemes as well as untransformed scheme were examined in two study areas. Each transformed scheme was tested 100 times using different endmember classes' spectra under the endmember model of vegetation- high albedo impervious surface area-low albedo impervious surface area-soil (V-ISAh-ISAl-S). Performance of each scheme was assessed based on mean absolute error (MAE). Statistical analysis technique, Paired-Samples T test, was applied to test the significance of mean MAEs' difference between transformed and untransformed schemes. Results demonstrated that only NSMA could exceed the untransformed scheme in all study areas. Some transformed schemes showed unstable performance since they outperformed the untransformed scheme in one area but weakened the SMA result in another region.

  10. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  11. Spectral ellipsometry of nanodiamond composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebov, S.G.; Ivanov-Omskij, V.I.; Gordeev, S.K.; Garriga, M.; Alonso, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Methods of spectral ellipsometry were applied for analysis of optical properties of nanodiamond based composite in spectral region 1.4-5 eV. The nanocomposite was synthesized by molding of ultradispersed nanodiamond powder in the course of heterogeneous chemical reaction of decomposition of methane, forming pyrocarbon interconnecting nanodiamond grains. The energy of σ + π plasmon of pyrocarbon component of nanodiamond composite was restored which proves to be ∼ 24 eV; using this value, an estimation was done of pyrocarbon matrix density, which occurs to be 2 g/cm 3 [ru

  12. Is the climate right for pleistocene rewilding? Using species distribution models to extrapolate climatic suitability for mammals across continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orien M W Richmond

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly used for extrapolation, or predicting suitable regions for species under new geographic or temporal scenarios. However, SDM predictions may be prone to errors if species are not at equilibrium with climatic conditions in the current range and if training samples are not representative. Here the controversial "Pleistocene rewilding" proposal was used as a novel example to address some of the challenges of extrapolating modeled species-climate relationships outside of current ranges. Climatic suitability for three proposed proxy species (Asian elephant, African cheetah and African lion was extrapolated to the American southwest and Great Plains using Maxent, a machine-learning species distribution model. Similar models were fit for Oryx gazella, a species native to Africa that has naturalized in North America, to test model predictions. To overcome biases introduced by contracted modern ranges and limited occurrence data, random pseudo-presence points generated from modern and historical ranges were used for model training. For all species except the oryx, models of climatic suitability fit to training data from historical ranges produced larger areas of predicted suitability in North America than models fit to training data from modern ranges. Four naturalized oryx populations in the American southwest were correctly predicted with a generous model threshold, but none of these locations were predicted with a more stringent threshold. In general, the northern Great Plains had low climatic suitability for all focal species and scenarios considered, while portions of the southern Great Plains and American southwest had low to intermediate suitability for some species in some scenarios. The results suggest that the use of historical, in addition to modern, range information and randomly sampled pseudo-presence points may improve model accuracy. This has implications for modeling range shifts of

  13. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  14. Effect of heterogeneity of human population in cell radiosensitivity on the extrapolation of dose-response relationships to low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filyushkin, I.V.; Bragin, Yu.N.; Khandogina, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the results of an investigation of the dose-response relationship for the yield of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of persons with some hereditary diseases which represent the high risk group with respect to the increased incidence of malignant tumors and decreased life span. Despite substantially different absolute radiosensitivities of chromosomes, the variations of the alpha/beta ratio determining the extrapolation of experimental dose-response relationships to low doses did not prove to be too high, the mean deviation from the control being 15%. This points to the possible practical use of the dose-response relationships averaged over the human population as a whole

  15. Observed spectral features of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author concentrates on the observed properties of dust spectral features. Identifications, based on laboratory data, are given whenever plausible ones exist. There are a very large number of papers in the literature of even such a young field as infrared spectroscopy, and therefore the author refers only to the most recent paper on a topic or to another review. (Auth.)

  16. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  17. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  18. Spectral ansatz in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.; Slim, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    An ansatz of Delbourgo and Salam for the spectral representation of the vertex function in quantum electrodynamics. The Ward-Takahashi identity is respected, and the electron propagator does not have a ghost. The infra-red and ultraviolet behaviours of the electron propagator in this theory are considered, and a rigorous existence theorem for the propagator in the Yennie gauge is presented

  19. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  20. Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-23

    G. Sowa, H. H. Mantsch, National Research Council Canada; S. L. Zhang, Unilever Research (USA) 85 Brain tissue charcterization using spectral imaging...image registration and of the expert staff of Hill Top Research in Winnipeg for hosting the hydration study. Financial assistance from Unilever Research

  1. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: III. Minimum datasets, core parameters, and application of the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene

    2017-03-01

    In Part 2 of these articles, an extensive analysis of pinning-force curves and raw scaling data was used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE). This is a parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) that has the extrapolation capability of fundamental unified scaling, coupled with the application ease of a simple fitting equation. Here in Part 3, the accuracy of the ESE relation to interpolate and extrapolate limited critical-current data to obtain complete I c(B,T,ɛ) datasets is evaluated and compared with present fitting equations. Accuracy is analyzed in terms of root mean square (RMS) error and fractional deviation statistics. Highlights from 92 test cases are condensed and summarized, covering most fitting protocols and proposed parameterizations of the USL. The results show that ESE reliably extrapolates critical currents at fields B, temperatures T, and strains ɛ that are remarkably different from the fitted minimum dataset. Depending on whether the conductor is moderate-J c or high-J c, effective RMS extrapolation errors for ESE are in the range 2-5 A at 12 T, which approaches the I c measurement error (1-2%). The minimum dataset for extrapolating full I c(B,T,ɛ) characteristics is also determined from raw scaling data. It consists of one set of I c(B,ɛ) data at a fixed temperature (e.g., liquid helium temperature), and one set of I c(B,T) data at a fixed strain (e.g., zero applied strain). Error analysis of extrapolations from the minimum dataset with different fitting equations shows that ESE reduces the percentage extrapolation errors at individual data points at high fields, temperatures, and compressive strains down to 1/10th to 1/40th the size of those for extrapolations with present fitting equations. Depending on the conductor, percentage fitting errors for interpolations are also reduced to as little as 1/15th the size. The extrapolation accuracy of the ESE relation offers the prospect of straightforward implementation of

  2. submitter Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: II. Parameter testing, scaling constants, and the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Ekin, Jack W; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2016-01-01

    A scaling study of several thousand Nb$_{3}$Sn critical-current $(I_c)$ measurements is used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE), a relation that can quickly and accurately extrapolate limited datasets to obtain full three-dimensional dependences of I c on magnetic field (B), temperature (T), and mechanical strain (ε). The relation has the advantage of being easy to implement, and offers significant savings in sample characterization time and a useful tool for magnet design. Thorough data-based analysis of the general parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) shows the existence of three universal scaling constants for practical Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors. The study also identifies the scaling parameters that are conductor specific and need to be fitted to each conductor. This investigation includes two new, rare, and very large I c(B,T,ε) datasets (each with nearly a thousand I c measurements spanning magnetic fields from 1 to 16 T, temperatures from ~2.26 to 14 K, and intrinsic strain...

  3. Application of the largest Lyapunov exponent and non-linear fractal extrapolation algorithm to short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianzhou; Jia Ruiling; Zhao Weigang; Wu Jie; Dong Yao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The maximal predictive step size is determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent. ► A proper forecasting step size is applied to load demand forecasting. ► The improved approach is validated by the actual load demand data. ► Non-linear fractal extrapolation method is compared with three forecasting models. ► Performance of the models is evaluated by three different error measures. - Abstract: Precise short-term load forecasting (STLF) plays a key role in unit commitment, maintenance and economic dispatch problems. Employing a subjective and arbitrary predictive step size is one of the most important factors causing the low forecasting accuracy. To solve this problem, the largest Lyapunov exponent is adopted to estimate the maximal predictive step size so that the step size in the forecasting is no more than this maximal one. In addition, in this paper a seldom used forecasting model, which is based on the non-linear fractal extrapolation (NLFE) algorithm, is considered to develop the accuracy of predictions. The suitability and superiority of the two solutions are illustrated through an application to real load forecasting using New South Wales electricity load data from the Australian National Electricity Market. Meanwhile, three forecasting models: the gray model, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average approach and the support vector machine method, which received high approval in STLF, are selected to compare with the NLFE algorithm. Comparison results also show that the NLFE model is outstanding, effective, practical and feasible.

  4. Determination of the most appropriate method for extrapolating overall survival data from a placebo-controlled clinical trial of lenvatinib for progressive, radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Livings, Christopher; Crowe, Lydia; Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness models for the treatment of long-term conditions often require information on survival beyond the period of available data. This paper aims to identify a robust and reliable method for the extrapolation of overall survival (OS) in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer receiving lenvatinib or placebo. Data from 392 patients (lenvatinib: 261, placebo: 131) from the SELECT trial are used over a 34-month period of follow-up. A previously published criterion-based approach is employed to ascertain credible estimates of OS beyond the trial data. Parametric models with and without a treatment covariate and piecewise models are used to extrapolate OS, and a holistic approach, where a series of statistical and visual tests are considered collectively, is taken in determining the most appropriate extrapolation model. A piecewise model, in which the Kaplan-Meier survivor function is used over the trial period and an extrapolated tail is based on the Exponential distribution, is identified as the optimal model. In the absence of long-term survival estimates from clinical trials, survival estimates often need to be extrapolated from the available data. The use of a systematic method based on a priori determined selection criteria provides a transparent approach and reduces the risk of bias. The extrapolated OS estimates will be used to investigate the potential long-term benefits of lenvatinib in the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer patients and populate future cost-effectiveness analyses.

  5. Extrapolation in the development of paediatric medicines: examples from approvals for biological treatments for paediatric chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, Anna M; Distlerová, Dorota; Musaus, Joachim; Olski, Thorsten M; Dunder, Kristina; Salmonson, Tomas; Mentzer, Dirk; Müller-Berghaus, Jan; Hemmings, Robert; Veselý, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The European Union (EU) Paediatric Regulation requires that all new medicinal products applying for a marketing authorisation (MA) in the EU provide a paediatric investigation plan (PIP) covering a clinical and non-clinical trial programme relating to the use in the paediatric population, unless a waiver applies. Conducting trials in children is challenging on many levels, including ethical and practical issues, which may affect the availability of the clinical evidence. In scientifically justified cases, extrapolation of data from other populations can be an option to gather evidence supporting the benefit-risk assessment of the medicinal product for paediatric use. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is working on providing a framework for extrapolation that is scientifically valid, reliable and adequate to support MA of medicines for children. It is expected that the extrapolation framework together with therapeutic area guidelines and individual case studies will support future PIPs. Extrapolation has already been employed in several paediatric development programmes including biological treatment for immune-mediated diseases. This article reviews extrapolation strategies from MA applications for products for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, paediatric psoriasis and paediatric inflammatory bowel disease. It also provides a summary of extrapolation advice expressed in relevant EMA guidelines and initiatives supporting the use of alternative approaches in paediatric medicine development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of He{_2}^+ Using Rydberg-Series Extrapolation and Zeeman-Decelerated Supersonic Beams of Metastable He_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Paul; Semeria, Luca; Merkt, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    Having only three electrons, He{_2}^+ represents a system for which highly accurate ab initio calculations are possible. The latest calculations of rovibrational energies in He{_2}^+ do not include relativistic or QED corrections but claim an accuracy of 120 MHz We have performed high-resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of metastable He_2 molecules and employed multichannel-quantum-defect-theory extrapolation techniques to determine the rotational energy-level structure in the He{_2}^+ ion. To this end, we have produced samples of metastable helium molecules in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The metastable He_2 molecules are excited to np Rydberg states using the frequency-doubled output of a pulse-amplified ring dye laser. Although the bandwidth of the laser system is too large to observe the reduction of the Doppler width resulting from deceleration, the deceleration greatly simplifies the spectral assignments because of its spin-rotational state selectivity. Our approach enabled us to determine the rotational structure of He_2 with an unprecedented accuracy of 18 MHz, to quantify the size of the relativistic and QED corrections by comparison with the results of Tung et al. and to precisely measure the rotational structure of the metastable state for comparison with the results of Focsa et al. Here, we present an extension of these measurements in which we have measured higher rotational intervals of He{_2}^+. In addition, we have replaced the pulsed UV laser by a cw UV laser and improved the resolution of the spectra by a factor of more than five. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello and L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). P. Jansen, L. Semeria, L. Esteban Hofer, S. Scheidegger, J.A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133202 (2015). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M

  7. Spectral synchronicity in brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    de Jesus Euan Campos, Carolina; Ombao, Hernando; Ortega, Joaquí n

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying brain regions with similar oscillatory patterns detected from electroencephalograms. We introduce the hierarchical spectral merger (HSM) clustering method where the feature of interest is the spectral curve and the similarity metric used is the total variance distance. The HSM method is compared with clustering using features derived from independent-component analysis. Moreover, the HSM method is applied to 2 different electroencephalogram datasets. The first was recorded at resting state where the participant was not engaged in any cognitive task; the second was recorded during a spontaneous epileptic seizure. The results of the analyses using the HSM method demonstrate that clustering could evolve over the duration of the resting state and during epileptic seizure.

  8. Spectral synchronicity in brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    de Jesus Euan Campos, Carolina

    2018-05-04

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying brain regions with similar oscillatory patterns detected from electroencephalograms. We introduce the hierarchical spectral merger (HSM) clustering method where the feature of interest is the spectral curve and the similarity metric used is the total variance distance. The HSM method is compared with clustering using features derived from independent-component analysis. Moreover, the HSM method is applied to 2 different electroencephalogram datasets. The first was recorded at resting state where the participant was not engaged in any cognitive task; the second was recorded during a spontaneous epileptic seizure. The results of the analyses using the HSM method demonstrate that clustering could evolve over the duration of the resting state and during epileptic seizure.

  9. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  10. Modal planes are spectral triples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayral, Victor; Iochum, Bruno; Schuecker, Thomas; Gracia-Bondia, Jose M.; Varilly, Joseph C.

    2003-09-01

    Axioms for nonunital spectral triples, extending those introduced in the unital case by Connes, are proposed. As a guide, and for the sake of their importance in noncommutative quantum field theory, the spaces R 2N endowed with Moyal products are intensively investigated. Some physical applications, such as the construction of noncommutative Wick monomials and the computation of the Connes-Lott functional action, are given for these noncommutative hyperplanes. (author)

  11. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, John P

    2001-01-01

    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.

  12. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  13. Hybrid Image Fusion for Sharpness Enhancement of Multi-Spectral Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awumah, Anna; Mahanti, Prasun; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Image fusion enhances the sharpness of a multi-spectral (MS) image by incorporating spatial details from a higher-resolution panchromatic (Pan) image [1,2]. Known applications of image fusion for planetary images are rare, although image fusion is well-known for its applications to Earth-based remote sensing. In a recent work [3], six different image fusion algorithms were implemented and their performances were verified with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera. The image fusion procedure obtained a high-resolution multi-spectral (HRMS) product from the LRO Narrow Angle Camera (used as Pan) and LRO Wide Angle Camera (used as MS) images. The results showed that the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) algorithm results in a high-spatial quality product while the Wavelet-based image fusion algorithm best preserves spectral quality among all the algorithms. In this work we show the results of a hybrid IHS-Wavelet image fusion algorithm when applied to LROC MS images. The hybrid method provides the best HRMS product - both in terms of spatial resolution and preservation of spectral details. Results from hybrid image fusion can enable new science and increase the science return from existing LROC images.[1] Pohl, Cle, and John L. Van Genderen. "Review article multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications." International journal of remote sensing 19.5 (1998): 823-854.[2] Zhang, Yun. "Understanding image fusion." Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 70.6 (2004): 657-661.[3] Mahanti, Prasun et al. "Enhancement of spatial resolution of the LROC Wide Angle Camera images." Archives, XXIII ISPRS Congress Archives (2016).

  14. Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....

  15. SU-F-T-64: An Alternative Approach to Determining the Reference Air-Kerma Rate from Extrapolation Chamber Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Since 2008 the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been offering the calibration of "1"2"5I-brachytherapy sources in terms of the reference air-kerma rate (RAKR). The primary standard is a large air-filled parallel-plate extrapolation chamber. The measurement principle is based on the fact that the air-kerma rate is proportional to the increment of ionization per increment of chamber volume at chamber depths greater than the range of secondary electrons originating from the electrode x_0. Methods: Two methods for deriving the RAKR from the measured ionization charges are: (1) to determine the RAKR from the slope of the linear fit to the so-called ’extrapolation curve’, the measured ionization charges Q vs. plate separations x or (2) to differentiate Q(x) and to derive the RAKR by a linear extrapolation towards zero plate separation. For both methods, correcting the measured data for all known influencing effects before the evaluation method is applied is a precondition. However, the discrepancy of their results is larger than the uncertainty given for the determination of the RAKR with both methods. Results: A new approach to derive the RAKR from the measurements is investigated as an alternative. The method was developed from the ground up, based on radiation transport theory. A conversion factor C(x_1, x_2) is applied to the difference of charges measured at the two plate separations x_1 and x_2. This factor is composed of quotients of three air-kerma values calculated for different plate separations in the chamber: the air kerma Ka(0) for plate separation zero, and the mean air kermas at the plate separations x_1 and x_2, respectively. The RAKR determined with method (1) yields 4.877 µGy/h, and with method (2) 4.596 µGy/h. The application of the alternative approach results in 4.810 µGy/h. Conclusion: The alternative method shall be established in the future.

  16. USGS Spectral Library Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.

    2017-04-10

    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  17. Spectral properties of generalized eigenparameter dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jost function, spectrum, the spectral singularities, and the properties of the principal vectors corresponding to the spectral singularities of L, if. ∞Σn=1 n(∣1 - an∣ + ∣bnl) < ∞. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 34L05, 34L40, 39A70, 47A10, 47A75. Key words: Discrete equations, eigenparameter, spectral analysis, ...

  18. Calibrating spectral images using penalized likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Glasbey, C.

    2003-01-01

    A new method is presented for automatic correction of distortions and for spectral calibration (which band corresponds to which wavelength) of spectral images recorded by means of a spectrograph. The method consists of recording a bar-like pattern with an illumination source with spectral bands

  19. Adinkras, Dessins, Origami, and Supersymmetry Spectral Triples

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolli, Matilde; Zolman, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spectral geometry and spectral action functionals associated to 1D Supersymmetry Algebras, using the classification of these superalgebras in terms of Adinkra graphs and the construction of associated dessin d'enfant and origami curves. The resulting spectral action functionals are computed in terms of the Selberg (super) trace formula.

  20. WE-DE-201-05: Evaluation of a Windowless Extrapolation Chamber Design and Monte Carlo Based Corrections for the Calibration of Ophthalmic Applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L [University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Soares, C [NIST (retired), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test the validity of a windowless extrapolation chamber used to measure surface dose rate from planar ophthalmic applicators and to compare different Monte Carlo based codes for deriving correction factors. Methods: Dose rate measurements were performed using a windowless, planar extrapolation chamber with a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y Tracerlab RA-1 ophthalmic applicator previously calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Capacitance measurements were performed to estimate the initial air gap width between the source face and collecting electrode. Current was measured as a function of air gap, and Bragg-Gray cavity theory was used to calculate the absorbed dose rate to water. To determine correction factors for backscatter, divergence, and attenuation from the Mylar entrance window found in the NIST extrapolation chamber, both EGSnrc Monte Carlo user code and Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were utilized. Simulation results were compared with experimental current readings from the windowless extrapolation chamber as a function of air gap. Additionally, measured dose rate values were compared with the expected result from the NIST source calibration to test the validity of the windowless chamber design. Results: Better agreement was seen between EGSnrc simulated dose results and experimental current readings at very small air gaps (<100 µm) for the windowless extrapolation chamber, while MCNP results demonstrated divergence at these small gap widths. Three separate dose rate measurements were performed with the RA-1 applicator. The average observed difference from the expected result based on the NIST calibration was −1.88% with a statistical standard deviation of 0.39% (k=1). Conclusion: EGSnrc user code will be used during future work to derive correction factors for extrapolation chamber measurements. Additionally, experiment results suggest that an entrance window is not needed in order for an extrapolation

  1. Determination of the most appropriate method for extrapolating overall survival data from a placebo-controlled clinical trial of lenvatinib for progressive, radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Tremblay,1 Christopher Livings,2 Lydia Crowe,2 Venediktos Kapetanakis,2 Andrew Briggs3 1Global Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment, Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USA; 2Health Economics, Decision Resources Group, Bicester, Oxfordshire, 3Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK Background: Cost-effectiveness models for the treatment of long-term conditions often require information on survival beyond the period of available data. Objectives: This paper aims to identify a robust and reliable method for the extrapolation of overall survival (OS in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer receiving lenvatinib or placebo. Methods: Data from 392 patients (lenvatinib: 261, placebo: 131 from the SELECT trial are used over a 34-month period of follow-up. A previously published criterion-based approach is employed to ascertain credible estimates of OS beyond the trial data. Parametric models with and without a treatment covariate and piecewise models are used to extrapolate OS, and a holistic approach, where a series of statistical and visual tests are considered collectively, is taken in determining the most appropriate extrapolation model. Results: A piecewise model, in which the Kaplan–Meier survivor function is used over the trial period and an extrapolated tail is based on the Exponential distribution, is identified as the optimal model. Conclusion: In the absence of long-term survival estimates from clinical trials, survival estimates often need to be extrapolated from the available data. The use of a systematic method based on a priori determined selection criteria provides a transparent approach and reduces the risk of bias. The extrapolated OS estimates will be used to investigate the potential long-term benefits of lenvatinib in the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer patients and

  2. The effects of different expansions of the exit distribution on the extrapolation length for linearly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, S.; Guelecyuez, M.C.; Kaskas, A.; Tezcan, C.

    2007-01-01

    H N and singular eigenfunction methods are used to determine the neutron distribution everywhere in a source-free half space with zero incident flux for a linearly anisotropic scattering kernel. The singular eigenfunction expansion of the method of elementary solutions is used. The orthogonality relations of the discrete and continuous eigenfunctions for linearly anisotropic scattering provides the determination of the expansion coefficients. Different expansions of the exit distribution are used: the expansion in powers of μ, the expansion in terms of Legendre polynomials and the expansion in powers of 1/(1+μ). The results are compared to each other. In the second part of our work, the transport equation and the infinite medium Green function are used. The numerical results of the extrapolation length obtained for the different expansions is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Propagation of internal errors in explicit Runge–Kutta methods and internal stability of SSP and extrapolation methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-04-11

    In practical computation with Runge--Kutta methods, the stage equations are not satisfied exactly, due to roundoff errors, algebraic solver errors, and so forth. We show by example that propagation of such errors within a single step can have catastrophic effects for otherwise practical and well-known methods. We perform a general analysis of internal error propagation, emphasizing that it depends significantly on how the method is implemented. We show that for a fixed method, essentially any set of internal stability polynomials can be obtained by modifying the implementation details. We provide bounds on the internal error amplification constants for some classes of methods with many stages, including strong stability preserving methods and extrapolation methods. These results are used to prove error bounds in the presence of roundoff or other internal errors.

  4. The application of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT scans for radiation oncology by monoenergetic extrapolation with a DECT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwahofer, Andrea [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Clinical Center Vivantes, Neukoelln (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology; Baer, Esther [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Kachelriess, Marc [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiology; Grossmann, J. Guenter [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Sterzing, Florian [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2015-07-01

    Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (ρ{sub Al} = 2.7 g/cm{sup 3}), titanium (ρ{sub Ti} = 4.5 g/cm{sup 3}), steel (ρ{sub steel} = 7.9 g/cm{sup 3}) and tungsten (ρ{sub W} = 19.3 g/cm{sup 3}) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100 kV and 140 kV (Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ρ = 10 g/cm{sup 3}) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105 keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7 cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105 ke

  5. A comparison between highly resolved S-component observations and model calculations using force-free magnetic field extrapolations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seehafer, N.; Hildebrandt, J.; Krueger, A.; Akhmedov, Sh.; Gel'frejkh, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive model calculations of solar radio emission features were presented for the complex of solar active regions Hale No 16862, 16863, and 16864 on May 27, 1980 using force-free extrapolated magnetic fields with constant α and a treatment of radiative transfer of S-component emission. The photospheric magnetic field data were taken from magnetographic measurements whereas the required height distribution of temperature and electron density have been adopted from semi-empirical sunspot models based on recent X-, EUV-, optical, and radio observations. In contrast to the simpler magnetic field structure used in other studies, the complex source structure of the S-component emission is clearly represented by other characteristics. The results of the calculations are compared with the observations of the WRST (6 cm) and RATAN-600 (3.2 cm). (author)

  6. The application of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT scans for radiation oncology by monoenergetic extrapolation with a DECT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwahofer, Andrea; Clinical Center Vivantes, Neukoelln; Baer, Esther; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Kachelriess, Marc; Grossmann, J. Guenter; Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach; Sterzing, Florian; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg

    2015-01-01

    Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (ρ Al = 2.7 g/cm 3 ), titanium (ρ Ti = 4.5 g/cm 3 ), steel (ρ steel = 7.9 g/cm 3 ) and tungsten (ρ W = 19.3 g/cm 3 ) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100 kV and 140 kV (Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ρ = 10 g/cm 3 ) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105 keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7 cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105 keV. However, the dose uncertainty remains of the

  7. Standardization of low energy beta and beta-gamma complex emitters by the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute standardization of radioactive solutions of low energy beta emitters and beta-gamma emitters with a high probability of disintegration to the ground state is described; the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods were used. Both types of radionuclides were mathematically and physically treated in an unified manner. The theoretical relations between different beta spectra were calculated according to Williams' model and experimentally verified for: 35 S + 60 Co, 35 S + 95 Nb, 147 Pm + 60 Co, 14 C + 95 Nb and two beta branches of 99 Mo. The optimum range of beta efficiency variation was indicated. The basic supposition that all beta efficieny tend to unity in the same time was experimentally verified, using two 192 Ir beta branches. Four computer programs, written in the FORTRAN IV language, were elaborated, for the adequate processing of the experimental data. Good precision coefficients according to international standards were obtained in the absolute standardization of 35 S, 147 Pm, 99 Mo solutions. (author)

  8. Chiral Extrapolations of the $\\boldsymbol{ρ(770)}$ Meson in $\\mathbf{N_f=2+1}$ Lattice QCD Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Raquel [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hu, Bitao [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Doering, Michael [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Mai, Maxim [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Alexandru, Andrei [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Several lattice QCD simulations of meson-meson scattering in p-wave and Isospin = 1 in Nf = 2 + 1 flavours have been carried out recently. Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory is used to perform extrapolations to the physical point. In contrast to previous findings on the analyses of Nf = 2 lattice data, where most of the data seems to be in agreement, some discrepancies are detected in the Nf = 2 + 1 lattice data analyses, which could be due to different masses of the strange quark, meson decay constants, initial constraints in the simulation, or other lattice artifacts. In addition, the low-energy constants are compared to the ones from a recent analysis of Nf = 2 lattice data.

  9. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  10. Quantitative Cross-Species Extrapolation between Humans and Fish: The Case of the Anti-Depressant Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Owen, Stewart F.; Cumming, Rob I.; de Polo, Anna; Winter, Matthew J.; Panter, Grace H.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; Sumpter, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE) based on the hypothesis that similar plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals cause comparable target-mediated effects in both humans and fish at similar level of biological organization (Read-Across Hypothesis). To validate this hypothesis, the behavioural effects of the anti-depressant drug fluoxetine on the fish model fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were used as test case. Fish were exposed for 28 days to a range of measured water concentrations of fluoxetine (0.1, 1.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64 µg/L) to produce plasma concentrations below, equal and above the range of Human Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations (HTPCs). Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, were quantified in the plasma of individual fish and linked to behavioural anxiety-related endpoints. The minimum drug plasma concentrations that elicited anxiolytic responses in fish were above the upper value of the HTPC range, whereas no effects were observed at plasma concentrations below the HTPCs. In vivo metabolism of fluoxetine in humans and fish was similar, and displayed bi-phasic concentration-dependent kinetics driven by the auto-inhibitory dynamics and saturation of the enzymes that convert fluoxetine into norfluoxetine. The sensitivity of fish to fluoxetine was not so dissimilar from that of patients affected by general anxiety disorders. These results represent the first direct evidence of measured internal dose response effect of a pharmaceutical in fish, hence validating the Read-Across hypothesis applied to fluoxetine. Overall, this study demonstrates that the qCSE approach, anchored to internal drug concentrations, is a powerful tool to guide the

  11. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of biotransformation rates for assessing bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Shan; Lo, Justin C; Otton, S Victoria; Moore, Margo M; Kennedy, Chris J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2017-07-01

    Incorporating biotransformation in bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic chemicals in both aquatic and terrestrial organisms in a simple, rapid, and cost-effective manner is urgently needed to improve bioaccumulation assessments of potentially bioaccumulative substances. One approach to estimate whole-animal biotransformation rate constants is to combine in vitro measurements of hepatic biotransformation kinetics with in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and bioaccumulation modeling. An established IVIVE modeling approach exists for pharmaceuticals (referred to in the present study as IVIVE-Ph) and has recently been adapted for chemical bioaccumulation assessments in fish. The present study proposes and tests an alternative IVIVE-B technique to support bioaccumulation assessment of hydrophobic chemicals with a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) ≥ 4 in mammals. The IVIVE-B approach requires fewer physiological and physiochemical parameters than the IVIVE-Ph approach and does not involve interconversions between clearance and rate constants in the extrapolation. Using in vitro depletion rates, the results show that the IVIVE-B and IVIVE-Ph models yield similar estimates of rat whole-organism biotransformation rate constants for hypothetical chemicals with log K OW  ≥ 4. The IVIVE-B approach generated in vivo biotransformation rate constants and biomagnification factors (BMFs) for benzo[a]pyrene that are within the range of empirical observations. The proposed IVIVE-B technique may be a useful tool for assessing BMFs of hydrophobic organic chemicals in mammals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1934-1946. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The importance of inclusion of kinetic information in the extrapolation of high-to-low concentrations for human limit setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Bos, Peter M J

    2018-01-05

    Human health risk assessment of inhalation exposures generally includes a high-to-low concentration extrapolation. Although this is a common step in human risk assessment, it introduces various uncertainties. One of these uncertainties is related to the toxicokinetics. Many kinetic processes such as absorption, metabolism or excretion can be subject to saturation at high concentration levels. In the presence of saturable kinetic processes of the parent compound or metabolites, disproportionate increases in internal blood or tissue concentration relative to the external concentration administered may occur resulting in nonlinear kinetics. The present paper critically reviews human health risk assessment of inhalation exposure. More specific, it emphasizes the importance of kinetic information for the determination of a safe exposure in human risk assessment of inhalation exposures assessed by conversion from a high animal exposure to a low exposure in humans. For two selected chemicals, i.e. methyl tert-butyl ether and 1,2-dichloroethane, PBTK-modelling was used, for illustrative purposes, to follow the extrapolation and conversion steps as performed in existing risk assessments for these chemicals. Human health-based limit values based on an external dose metric without sufficient knowledge on kinetics might be too high to be sufficiently protective. Insight in the actual internal exposure, the toxic agent, the appropriate dose metric, and whether an effect is related to internal concentration or dose is important. Without this, application of assessment factors on an external dose metric and the conversion to continuous exposure results in an uncertain human health risk assessment of inhalation exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectral multitude and spectral dynamics reflect changing conjugation length in single molecules of oligophenylenevinylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Ogino, Kenji; Vacha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule study of phenylenevinylene oligomers revealed distinct spectral forms due to different conjugation lengths which are determined by torsional defects. Large spectral jumps between different spectral forms were ascribed to torsional flips of a single phenylene ring. These spectral changes reflect the dynamic nature of electron delocalization in oligophenylenevinylenes and enable estimation of the phenylene torsional barriers. © 2012 The Owner Societies.

  15. Spectral methods. Fundamentals in single domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, C.

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of ''Spectral Methods in Fluid Dynamics'' 1988, spectral methods have become firmly established as a mainstream tool for scientific and engineering computation. The authors of that book have incorporated into this new edition the many improvements in the algorithms and the theory of spectral methods that have been made since then. This latest book retains the tight integration between the theoretical and practical aspects of spectral methods, and the chapters are enhanced with material on the Galerkin with numerical integration version of spectral methods. The discussion of direct and iterative solution methods is also greatly expanded. (orig.)

  16. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  17. Spectral representation in stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi.

    1988-10-01

    A spectral representation of stationary 2-point functions is investigated based on the operator formalism in stochastic quantization. Assuming the existence of asymptotic non-interacting fields, we can diagonalize the total Hamiltonian in terms of asymptotic fields and show that the correlation length along the fictious time is proportional to the physical mass expected in the usual field theory. A relation between renormalization factors in the operator formalism is derived as a byproduct and its validity is checked with the perturbative results calculated in this formalism. (orig.)

  18. Spectral Tensor-Train Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Marzouk, Youssef M.

    2016-01-01

    The accurate approximation of high-dimensional functions is an essential task in uncertainty quantification and many other fields. We propose a new function approximation scheme based on a spectral extension of the tensor-train (TT) decomposition. We first define a functional version of the TT...... adaptive Smolyak approach. The method is also used to approximate the solution of an elliptic PDE with random input data. The open source software and examples presented in this work are available online (http://pypi.python.org/pypi/TensorToolbox/)....

  19. Rietveld refinement and dielectric relaxation of a new rare earth based double perovskite oxide: BaPrCoNbO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Chandrahas, E-mail: bharti.chandrahas@gmail.com [Sensor and Actuator Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja SC Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Das, Mrinmoy K.; Sen, A. [Sensor and Actuator Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja SC Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chanda, Sadhan; Sinha, T.P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700009 (India)

    2014-02-15

    A new rare earth based double perovskite oxide barium praseodymium cobalt niobate, BaPrCoNbO{sub 6} (BPCN) is synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data shows that the compound crystallizes in a perovskite like tetragonal structure which belongs to the I4/mmm space group with lattice parameters a=b=5.6828(9) Å, c=8.063(2) Å. Structural analysis reveals 1:1 ordered arrangement for the Co{sup 2+} and Nb{sup 5+} cations over the six-coordinate B-sites of BPCN. The superlattice line (1 0 1) at 2θ=19.10° arising from the alternate ordering of Co{sup 2+} and Nb{sup 5+} sites is observed in the XRD pattern which confirms the presence of cation ordering in BPCN. Fourier transform infrared spectrum shows two phonon modes of the sample due to the antisymmetric NbO{sub 6} stretching vibration. The relaxation dynamics of the conductive process in BPCN is investigated in the temperature range 303 to 503 K and in the frequency range 100 Hz to 1 MHz using impedance spectroscopy. The relaxation mechanism of the sample in the framework of electric modulus formalism is modeled by Davidson–Cole model (DCM). The values of α (distribution of relaxation time) for the DCM varies from 0.1 to 0.3 which suggests the asymmetric distribution of relaxation time for BPCN. The activation energy of the sample, calculated from both conductivity and modulus spectra, are found to be almost the same ∼0.4 eV, which indicates that the conduction mechanism for BPCN is polaron hopping. The scaling behaviour of the imaginary part of electric modulus suggests that the relaxation follows the same mechanism at various temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Rietveld refinement plot for BPCN. Inset shows the schematic presentation of the BPCN tetragonal unit cell. The Co{sup 2+} atoms are located at the centers of the CoO{sub 6} (blue) octahedra. The Nb{sup 5+} atoms are located at the centers of the NbO{sub 6} (green) octahedra. Display Omitted

  20. Numerical and experimental results on the spectral wave transfer in finite depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Determination of the form of the one-dimensional surface gravity wave spectrum in water of finite depth is important for many scientific and engineering applications. Spectral parameters of deep water and intermediate depth waves serve as input data for the design of all coastal structures and for the description of many coastal processes. Moreover, the wave spectra are given as an input for the response and seakeeping calculations of high speed vessels in extreme sea conditions and for reliable calculations of the amount of energy to be extracted by wave energy converters (WEC). Available data on finite depth spectral form is generally extrapolated from parametric forms applicable in deep water (e.g., JONSWAP) [Hasselmann et al., 1973; Mitsuyasu et al., 1980; Kahma, 1981; Donelan et al., 1992; Zakharov, 2005). The present paper gives a contribution in this field through the validation of the offshore energy spectra transfer from given spectral forms through the measurement of inshore wave heights and spectra. The wave spectra on deep water were recorded offshore Ponza by the Wave Measurement Network (Piscopia et al.,2002). The field regressions between the spectral parameters, fp and the nondimensional energy with the fetch length were evaluated for fetch-limited sea conditions. These regressions gave the values of the spectral parameters for the site of interest. The offshore wave spectra were transfered from the measurement station offshore Ponza to a site located offshore the Gulf of Salerno. The offshore local wave spectra so obtained were transfered on the coastline with the TMA model (Bouws et al., 1985). Finally the numerical results, in terms of significant wave heights, were compared with the wave data recorded by a meteo-oceanographic station owned by Naples Hydrographic Office on the coastline of Salerno in 9m depth. Some considerations about the wave energy to be potentially extracted by Wave Energy Converters were done and the results were discussed.

  1. Curvature Effect and the Spectral Softening Phenomenon Detected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    soft spectral evolution, indicating that this spectral softening is not a rare phenomenon .... of time, there exists a temporal steep decay phase accompanied by spectral softening. (d) In most cases, the temporal power law index α and the spectral.

  2. Extrapolation of bulk rock elastic moduli of different rock types to high pressure conditions and comparison with texture-derived elastic moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullemeyer, Klaus; Lokajíček, Tomás; Vasin, Roman N.; Keppler, Ruth; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2018-02-01

    In this study elastic moduli of three different rock types of simple (calcite marble) and more complex (amphibolite, micaschist) mineralogical compositions were determined by modeling of elastic moduli using texture (crystallographic preferred orientation; CPO) data, experimental investigation and extrapolation. 3D models were calculated using single crystal elastic moduli, and CPO measured using time-of-flight neutron diffraction at the SKAT diffractometer in Dubna (Russia) and subsequently analyzed using Rietveld Texture Analysis. To define extrinsic factors influencing elastic behaviour, P-wave and S-wave velocity anisotropies were experimentally determined at 200, 400 and 600 MPa confining pressure. Functions describing variations of the elastic moduli with confining pressure were then used to predict elastic properties at 1000 MPa, revealing anisotropies in a supposedly crack-free medium. In the calcite marble elastic anisotropy is dominated by the CPO. Velocities continuously increase, while anisotropies decrease from measured, over extrapolated to CPO derived data. Differences in velocity patterns with sample orientation suggest that the foliation forms an important mechanical anisotropy. The amphibolite sample shows similar magnitudes of extrapolated and CPO derived velocities, however the pattern of CPO derived velocity is closer to that measured at 200 MPa. Anisotropy decreases from the extrapolated to the CPO derived data. In the micaschist, velocities are higher and anisotropies are lower in the extrapolated data, in comparison to the data from measurements at lower pressures. Generally our results show that predictions for the elastic behavior of rocks at great depths are possible based on experimental data and those computed from CPO. The elastic properties of the lower crust can, thus, be characterized with an improved degree of confidence using extrapolations. Anisotropically distributed spherical micro-pores are likely to be preserved, affecting

  3. Time extrapolation aspects in the performance assessment of high and medium level radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay at Mol (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volckaert, G.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN is studying the disposal of high and long-lived medium level waste in the Boom Clay at Mol, Belgium. In the performance assessment for such a repository time extrapolation is an inherent problem due to the extremely long half-life of some important radionuclides. To increase the confidence in these time extrapolations SCK-CEN applies a combination of different experimental and modelling approaches including laboratory and in situ experiments, natural analogue studies, deterministic (or mechanistic) models and stochastical models. An overview is given of these approaches and some examples of applications to the different repository system components are given. (author)

  4. Quantitative cross-species extrapolation between humans and fish: the case of the anti-depressant fluoxetine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci

    Full Text Available Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE based on the hypothesis that similar plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals cause comparable target-mediated effects in both humans and fish at similar level of biological organization (Read-Across Hypothesis. To validate this hypothesis, the behavioural effects of the anti-depressant drug fluoxetine on the fish model fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas were used as test case. Fish were exposed for 28 days to a range of measured water concentrations of fluoxetine (0.1, 1.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64 µg/L to produce plasma concentrations below, equal and above the range of Human Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations (H(TPCs. Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, were quantified in the plasma of individual fish and linked to behavioural anxiety-related endpoints. The minimum drug plasma concentrations that elicited anxiolytic responses in fish were above the upper value of the H(TPC range, whereas no effects were observed at plasma concentrations below the H(TPCs. In vivo metabolism of fluoxetine in humans and fish was similar, and displayed bi-phasic concentration-dependent kinetics driven by the auto-inhibitory dynamics and saturation of the enzymes that convert fluoxetine into norfluoxetine. The sensitivity of fish to fluoxetine was not so dissimilar from that of patients affected by general anxiety disorders. These results represent the first direct evidence of measured internal dose response effect of a pharmaceutical in fish, hence validating the Read-Across hypothesis applied to fluoxetine. Overall, this study demonstrates that the qCSE approach, anchored to internal drug concentrations, is a powerful tool

  5. J-85 jet engine noise measured in the ONERA S1 wind tunnel and extrapolated to far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Julienne, Alain; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Noise from a J-85 turbojet with a conical, convergent nozzle was measured in simulated flight in the ONERA S1 Wind Tunnel. Data are presented for several flight speeds up to 130 m/sec and for radiation angles of 40 to 160 degrees relative to the upstream direction. The jet was operated with subsonic and sonic exhaust speeds. A moving microphone on a 2 m sideline was used to survey the radiated sound field in the acoustically treated, closed test section. The data were extrapolated to a 122 m sideline by means of a multiple-sideline source-location method, which was used to identify the acoustic source regions, directivity patterns, and near field effects. The source-location method is described along with its advantages and disadvantages. Results indicate that the effects of simulated flight on J-85 noise are significant. At the maximum forward speed of 130 m/sec, the peak overall sound levels in the aft quadrant were attentuated approximately 10 dB relative to sound levels of the engine operated statically. As expected, the simulated flight and static data tended to merge in the forward quadrant as the radiation angle approached 40 degrees. There is evidence that internal engine or shock noise was important in the forward quadrant. The data are compared with published predictions for flight effects on pure jet noise and internal engine noise. A new empirical prediction is presented that relates the variation of internally generated engine noise or broadband shock noise to forward speed. Measured near field noise extrapolated to far field agrees reasonably well with data from similar engines tested statically outdoors, in flyover, in a wind tunnel, and on the Bertin Aerotrain. Anomalies in the results for the forward quadrant and for angles above 140 degrees are discussed. The multiple-sideline method proved to be cumbersome in this application, and it did not resolve all of the uncertainties associated with measurements of jet noise close to the jet. The

  6. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Rothe, Helga [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany); Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A. [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Hewitt, Nicola J. [SWS, Erzhausen (Germany); Goebel, Carsten [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  7. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A.; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K m and V max values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C max was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and

  8. Extrapolating an Euler class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kallen, Wilberd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/117156108

    2015-01-01

    Let R be a noetherian ring of dimension d and let n be an integer so that n≤d≤2n-3. Let (a1,..., an+1) be a unimodular row so that the ideal J=(a1,..., an) has height n. Jean Fasel has associated to this row an element [(J, ωJ)] in the Euler

  9. Excessive extrapolations in cosmology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), s. 270-280 ISSN 0202-2893 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : cosmology * friedmann equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0202289316030105

  10. Spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Mizera, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity by simulating random walks on causal sets. In contrast to other approaches to quantum gravity, we find an increasing spectral dimension at small scales. This observation can be connected to the nonlocality of causal set theory that is deeply rooted in its fundamentally Lorentzian nature. Based on its large-scale behaviour, we conjecture that the spectral dimension can serve as a tool to distinguish causal sets that approximate manifolds from those that do not. As a new tool to probe quantum spacetime in different quantum gravity approaches, we introduce a novel dimensional estimator, the causal spectral dimension, based on the meeting probability of two random walkers, which respect the causal structure of the quantum spacetime. We discuss a causal-set example, where the spectral dimension and the causal spectral dimension differ, due to the existence of a preferred foliation. (paper)

  11. Spectral measurements of loess TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendell, H.M.; Mann, S.J.; Townsend, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are reported for two loess samples when examined with broad band filters in the range 275-650 nm. Samples show striking differences in bleaching behaviour, when their TL emissions are observed in the u.v., blue, green and yellow spectral regions. The age estimates, given by the equivalent dose (ED) values, differ by up to a factor of two for analyses using the green and u.v. TL signals. These ED values also vary with prolonged room temperature storage between the bleaching and irradiation steps. The anomalies in the bleaching behaviour are interpreted in terms of changes in TL efficiency. The results have major implications for the regeneration method of TL dating for these fine-grained sediments and suggest that reliable dates obtained by it may be fortuitous. (author)

  12. Spectral properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P

    2006-01-01

    We review self-consistent spectral methods for nuclear matter calculations. The in-medium T-matrix approach is conserving and thermodynamically consistent. It gives both the global and the single-particle properties the system. The T-matrix approximation allows to address the pairing phenomenon in cold nuclear matter. A generalization of nuclear matter calculations to the super.uid phase is discussed and numerical results are presented for this case. The linear response of a correlated system going beyond the Hartree-Fock+ Random-Phase-Approximation (RPA) scheme is studied. The polarization is obtained by solving a consistent Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the coupling of dressed nucleons to an external field. We find that multipair contributions are important for the spin(isospin) response when the interaction is spin(isospin) dependent

  13. Elementary principles of spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    It is a common observation that as we add particles, one by one, to a simple system, things get steadily more and more complicated. For example if the system is describable in shell-model terms, i.e., with a model space in which m particles are distributed over N single-particle states, then as long as m << N, the dimensionality increases rapidly with particle number. On the other hand, for the usual (1 + 2)-body Hamiltonian, the (m greater than or equal to 2)-particle spectrum and wave functions are determined by operators defined in the one-particle space (for the single-particle energies) and the two-particle space (for the interactions). We may say then that the input information becomes more and more fragmented as the particle number increases, the fixed amount of information being distributed over more and more matrix elements. On the other hand there arise also new simplicities whose origin is connected with the operation of statistical laws. There is a macroscopic simplicity corresponding to the fact that the smoothed spectrum takes on a characteristic shape defined by a few parameters (low-order moments) of the spectrum. There is a microscopic simplicity corresponding to a remarkable spectral rigidity which extends over the entire spectrum and guarantees us that the fluctuations from uniformity in the spectrum are small and in many cases carry little information. The purpose of spectral-distribution theory, as applied to these problems, is to deal with the complexities by taking advantage of the simplicities

  14. Spectral monitoring of AB Aur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Díaz, L. F.; Oostra, B.

    2017-07-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia, did a spectral monitoring during 2014 and 2015 to AB Aurigae, the brightest Herbig Ae/be star in the northern hemisphere. The aim of this project is applying spectral techniques, in order to identify specific features that could help us not only to understand how this star is forming, but also to establish a pattern to explain general star formation processes. We have recorded 19 legible spectra with a resolving power of R = 11,0000, using a 40 cm Meade telescope with an eShel spectrograph, coupled by a 50-micron optical fiber. We looked for the prominent absorption lines, the Sodium doublet at 5890Å and 5896Å, respectively and Magnesium II at 4481Å; to measure radial velocities of the star, but, we did not find a constant value. Instead, it ranges from 15 km/s to 32 km/s. This variability could be explained by means of an oscillation or pulsation of the external layers of the star. Other variabilities are observed in some emission lines: Hα, Hβ, He I at 5876Å and Fe II at 5018Å. It seems this phenomenon could be typical in stars that are forming and have a circumstellar disk around themselves. This variability is associated with the nonhomogeneous surface of the star and the interaction that it has with its disk. Results of this interaction could be seen also in the stellar wind ejected by the star. More data are required in order to look for a possible period in the changes of radial velocity of the star, the same for the variability of He I and Fe II, and phenomena present in Hα. We plan to take new data in January of 2017.

  15. Buckling feedback of the spectral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xingqing; Shan Wenzhi; Luo Jingyu

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the problems about buckling feedback of spectral calculations in physical calculations of the reactor and presents a useful method by which the buckling feedback of spectral calculations is implemented. The effect of the buckling feedback in spectra and the broad group cross section, convergence of buckling feedback iteration and the effect of the spectral zones dividing are discussed in the calculations. This method has been used for the physical design of HTR-10 MW Test Module

  16. A six-hour extrapolated sampling strategy for monitoring mycophenolic acid in renal transplant patients in the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Therapeutic drug monitoring for mycophenolic acid (MPA is increasingly being advocated. Thepresent therapeutic range relates to the 12-hour area under the serum concentration time profile (AUC.However, this is a cumbersome, tedious, cost restricting procedure. Is it possible to reduce this samplingperiod? Aim : To compare the AUC from a reduced sampling strategy with the full 12-hour profile for MPA. Settings and Design : Clinical Pharmacology Unit of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Retrospective, paireddata. Materials and Methods : Thirty-four 12-hour profiles from post-renal transplant patients on Cellcept ® wereevaluated. Profiles were grouped according to steroid and immunosuppressant co-medication and the timeafter transplant. MPA was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. From the12-hour profiles the AUC up to only six hours was calculated by the trapezoidal rule and a correction factorapplied. These two AUCs were then compared. Statistical Analysis : Linear regression, intra-class correlations (ICC and a two-tailed paired t-test were appliedto the data. Results : Comparing the 12-hour AUC with the paired 6-hour extrapolated AUC, the ICC and linear regression(r2 were very good for all three groups. No statistical difference was found by a two-tailed paired t-test. Nobias was seen with a Bland Altman plot or by calculation. Conclusion : For patients on Cellcept ® with prednisolone ± cyclosporine the 6-hour corrected is an accuratemeasure of the full 12-hour AUC.

  17. Enhanced Confinement Scenarios Without Large Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks: Control, Performance, and Extrapolability Issues for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R [PPPL

    2014-07-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. The two baseline strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R & D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely Quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and Enhanced Pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  18. Application of the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM) to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducasse, Q.; Jurado, B.; Mathieu, L.; Marini, P.; Morillon, B.; Aiche, M.; Tsekhanovich, I.

    2016-01-01

    The study of transfer-induced gamma-decay probabilities is very useful for understanding the surrogate-reaction method and, more generally, for constraining statistical-model calculations. One of the main difficulties in the measurement of gamma-decay probabilities is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. In Boutoux et al. (2013) [10] we developed the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM), a new method to measure this quantity. In this work, we have applied, for the first time, the EXEM to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region. In particular, we have considered the "2"3"8U(d,p)"2"3"9U and "2"3"8U("3He,d)"2"3"9Np reactions. We have performed Hauser–Feshbach calculations to interpret our results and to verify the hypothesis on which the EXEM is based. The determination of fission and gamma-decay probabilities of "2"3"9Np below the neutron separation energy allowed us to validate the EXEM.

  19. Correlation and extrapolation scheme for the compostition and temperature dependence of viscosity of binary gaseous mixtures: Carbon dioxide + ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendl, S.; Vogel, E.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental viscosity data of ethane, carbon dioxide, and three mole fractions of the binary system carbon dioxide + ethane in the temperature range 293.15≤T≤633.15 K and in the density range 0.01≤p≤0.05 mol · L -1 reported earlier were evaluated simultaneously to find out a useful correlation and extrapolation scheme for the viscosity of binary systems in the range of moderate densities. A procedure based on the ideas of the modified Enskog theory has been found to give the best results. Dependent on temperature, the collision diameters related to the equilibrium radial distribution function at contact are fitted to viscosity values of the pure substances and of at least one mixture. The results are compared with experimental data from the literature. A recommendation is given concerning the density range in which the first density contribution to the viscosity coefficient of the system carbon dioxide + ethane is sufficient to be included

  20. Méthodologie de l'extrapolation des réacteurs chimiques Methodology for Scaling Up Chemical Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trambouze P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après un exposé général relatif à la méthodologie du développement des procédés, applicable à l'extrapolation des réacteurs, est présenté un rapide examen critique des deux principales techniques mises en oeuvre, à savoir : - la théorie de la similitude ; - l'élaboration de modèles mathématiques. Deux exemples pratiques, relatifs aux réacteurs homogènes et aux réacteurs catalytiques à lit fixe et deux phases fluides, sont ensuite examinés à la lumière des considérations générales précédentes. After giving a general description of process-development methodology applicable to scaling up reactors, this article makes a quick critical examination of the two main techniques involved, i. e. : (a the theory of similarity, and (b the compiling of mathematical models. Two practical examples relating to homogeneous reactors and trickle-bed catalytic reactors are then examined in the light of the preceding general considerations.

  1. Application of the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM) to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducasse, Q. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); CEA-Cadarache, DEN/DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Jurado, B., E-mail: jurado@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L.; Marini, P. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Morillon, B. [CEA DAM DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Aiche, M.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2016-08-01

    The study of transfer-induced gamma-decay probabilities is very useful for understanding the surrogate-reaction method and, more generally, for constraining statistical-model calculations. One of the main difficulties in the measurement of gamma-decay probabilities is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. In Boutoux et al. (2013) [10] we developed the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM), a new method to measure this quantity. In this work, we have applied, for the first time, the EXEM to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region. In particular, we have considered the {sup 238}U(d,p){sup 239}U and {sup 238}U({sup 3}He,d){sup 239}Np reactions. We have performed Hauser–Feshbach calculations to interpret our results and to verify the hypothesis on which the EXEM is based. The determination of fission and gamma-decay probabilities of {sup 239}Np below the neutron separation energy allowed us to validate the EXEM.

  2. Spectrally-engineered solar thermal photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David; Chan, Walker; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.; Nam, Young Suk; McEnaney, Kenneth; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-27

    A solar thermal photovoltaic device, and method of forming same, includes a solar absorber and a spectrally selective emitter formed on either side of a thermally conductive substrate. The solar absorber is configured to absorb incident solar radiation. The solar absorber and the spectrally selective emitter are configured with an optimized emitter-to-absorber area ratio. The solar thermal photovoltaic device also includes a photovoltaic cell in thermal communication with the spectrally selective emitter. The spectrally selective emitter is configured to permit high emittance for energies above a bandgap of the photovoltaic cell and configured to permit low emittance for energies below the bandgap.

  3. Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin FEM: Spectral Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, R; Omidi, O; Clarke, P L

    2014-01-01

    Materials in nature demonstrate certain spectral shapes in terms of their material properties. Since successful experimental demonstrations in 2000, metamaterials have provided a means to engineer materials with desired spectral shapes for their material properties. Computational tools are employed in two different aspects for metamaterial modeling: 1. Mircoscale unit cell analysis to derive and possibly optimize material's spectral response; 2. macroscale to analyze their interaction with conventional material. We compare two different approaches of Time-Domain (TD) and Frequency Domain (FD) methods for metamaterial applications. Finally, we discuss advantages of the TD method of Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (FEM) for spectral analysis of metamaterials

  4. Spectral features in the cosmic ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy distributions contain spectral features, that is narrow energy regions where the slope of the spectrum changes rapidly. The identification and study of these features is of great importance to understand the astrophysical mechanisms of acceleration and propagation that form the spectra. In first approximation a spectral feature is often described as a discontinuous change in slope, however very valuable information is also contained in its width, that is the length of the energy interval where the change in spectral index develops. In this work we discuss the best way to define and parameterize the width a spectral feature, and for illustration discuss some of the most prominent known structures.

  5. Physical Properties and Seasonal Behavior of H2O, HDO, CO2 and Trace Gases on Mars: Quantitative Mapping from Earth-Based Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Robert E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997, we have used high-resolution (R greater than 40000) spectrometers on ground based-telescopes to study molecules that have astrobiological significance in Mars' atmosphere. We have used the NASA-IRTF, Keck II, and VLT telescopes in the 1.0-5.0 micron range. The spectrometer is set at a wavelength to detect specific molecules. Spectral/spatial images are produced. Extracts from these images provide column densities centered at latitude/longitude locations (resolution 400km at sub-Earth point). We have mapped the O2 singlet-Delta emission (a proxy for ozone), HDO, and H2O for seasonal dates throughout the Martian year. Previously undiscovered isotopic bands of CO2 have been identified along with isotopic forms of CO. We are searching for other molecules that have astrobiological importance and have successfully measured methane in Mars' atmosphere.

  6. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  7. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  8. NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATION OF A CORONAL MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE SUPPORTING A LARGE-SCALE SOLAR FILAMENT FROM A PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Feng, Xueshang, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: wus@uah.edu, E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-10

    Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength ≲ 100 G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both sides of the PIL and the transverse field has a low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, extrapolating a large-scale FR in such a case represents a far more difficult challenge. We demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code is sufficient for the challenge. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the extrapolated FR match observations of the filament and its barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

  9. Human risk assessment of dermal and inhalation exposures to chemicals assessed by route-to-route extrapolation: the necessity of kinetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Bessems, Jos G M; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Bos, Peter M J

    2014-10-01

    In toxicity testing the oral route is in general the first choice. Often, appropriate inhalation and dermal toxicity data are absent. Risk assessment for these latter routes usually has to rely on route-to-route extrapolation starting from oral toxicity data. Although it is generally recognized that the uncertainties involved are (too) large, route-to-route extrapolation is applied in many cases because of a strong need of an assessment of risks linked to a given exposure scenario. For an adequate route-to-route extrapolation the availability of at least some basic toxicokinetic data is a pre-requisite. These toxicokinetic data include all phases of kinetics, from absorption (both absorbed fraction and absorption rate for both the starting route and route of interest) via distribution and biotransformation to excretion. However, in practice only differences in absorption between the different routes are accounted for. The present paper demonstrates the necessity of route-specific absorption data by showing the impact of its absence on the uncertainty of the human health risk assessment using route-to-route extrapolation. Quantification of the absorption (by in vivo, in vitro or in silico methods), particularly for the starting route, is considered essential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of long chain free fatty acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DW...

  11. Spectral evolution of GRBs with negative spectral lag using Fermi GBM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arundhati; Chaudhury, Kishor; Sarkar, Samir K.; Bhadra, Arunava

    2018-06-01

    The positive spectral lag of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) is often explained in terms of hard-to-soft spectral evolution of GRB pulses. While positive lags of GRBs is very common, there are few GRB pulses that exhibits negative spectral lags. In the present work we examine whether negative lags of GRBs also can be interpreted in terms of spectral evolution of GRB pulses or not. Using Fermi-GBM data, we identify two GRBs, GRB 090426C and GRB 150213A, with clean pulses that exhibit negative spectral lag. An indication of soft to hard transition has been noticed for the negative spectral lag events from the spectral evolution study. The implication of the present findings on the models of GRB spectral lags are discussed.

  12. Spectral affinity in protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodski, Konstantin; Teng, Shang-Hua; Xia, Yu

    2009-11-29

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to quickly find nodes closest to a queried vertex in any protein

  13. Spectral affinity in protein networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shang-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. Results We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. Conclusion We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to

  14. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  15. Microwave, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far Infrared Spectral Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, H. M.; Drouin, B. J.; Chen, P.; Cohen, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of most known astrophysical molecules is derived from transitions between a few hundred to a few hundred thousand energy levels populated at room temperature. In the microwave and millimeter wave regions. spectroscopy is almost always performed with traditional microwave techniques. In the submillimeter and far infrared microwave technique becomes progressively more technologically challenging and infrared techniques become more widely employed as the wavelength gets shorter. Infrared techniques are typically one to two orders of magnitude less precise but they do generate all the strong features in the spectrum. With microwave technique, it is generally impossible and rarely necessary to measure every single transition of a molecular species, so careful fitting of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians to the transitions measured are required to produce the complete spectral picture of the molecule required by astronomers. The fitting process produces the most precise data possible and is required in the interpret heterodyne observations. The drawback of traditional microwave technique is that precise knowledge of the band origins of low lying excited states is rarely gained. The fitting of data interpolates well for the range of quantum numbers where there is laboratory data, but extrapolation is almost never precise. The majority of high resolution spectroscopic data is millimeter or longer in wavelength and a very limited number of molecules have ever been studied with microwave techniques at wavelengths shorter than 0.3 millimeters. The situation with infrared technique is similarly dire in the submillimeter and far infrared because the black body sources used are competing with a very significant thermal background making the signal to noise poor. Regardless of the technique used the data must be archived in a way useful for the interpretation of observations.

  16. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  17. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, Boguslaw [University of Lodz, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Lodz (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances). (orig.)

  18. Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....

  19. The X-Shooter spectral library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y. P.; Trager, S. C.; Peletier, R. F.; Lançon, A.; Prugniel, Ph.; Koleva, M.

    2012-01-01

    We are building a new spectral library with the X-Shooter instrument on ESO's VLT: XSL, the X-Shooter Spectral Library. We present our progress in building XSL, which covers the wavelength range from the near-UV to the near-IR with a resolution of R˜10000. As of now we have collected spectra for

  20. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...

  1. A Spectral Emissivity Library of Spoil Substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivovarník, Marek; Pikl, Miroslav; Frouz, J.; Zemek, František; Kopačková, V.; Notesco, G.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016) E-ISSN 2306-5729 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : post-mining sites * spectral emissivity * spectral library * spoil substrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  2. Spectral Methods in Numerical Plasma Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Hansen, F.R.; Huld, T.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the use of spectral methods in numerical plasma simulation. As examples of the use of spectral methods, solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations in both a simple, doubly periodic region, and on an annulus will be shown. In the first case, the solution is expanded...

  3. Spectral Compressive Sensing with Polar Interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Dadkhahi, Hamid; F. Duarte, Marco

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, we introduce a greedy recovery algorithm that leverages a band-exclusion function and a polar interpolation function to address these two issues in spectral compressive sensing. Our algorithm is geared towards line spectral estimation from compressive measurements and outperforms most existing...

  4. Spectral concentration in the nonrelativistic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Grosse, H.; Thaller, B.

    1982-01-01

    First order relativistic corrections to the Schroedinger operator according to Foldy and Wouthuysen are rigorously discussed in the framework of singular perturbation theory. For Coulomb plus short-range interactions we investigate the corresponding spectral properties and prove spectral concentration and existence of first order pseudoeigenvalues in the nonrelativistic limit. (Author)

  5. Spectral functions of hadrons in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Y.; Asakawa, M.; Hatsuda, T.

    2000-01-01

    Using the maximum entropy method, spectral functions of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons are extracted from lattice Monte Carlo data of the imaginary time Green's functions. The resonance and continuum structures as well as the ground state peaks are successfully obtained. Error analysis of the resultant spectral functions is also given on the basis of the Bayes probability theory. (author)

  6. Spectral Learning for Supervised Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yining; Zhu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Supervised topic models simultaneously model the latent topic structure of large collections of documents and a response variable associated with each document. Existing inference methods are based on variational approximation or Monte Carlo sampling, which often suffers from the local minimum defect. Spectral methods have been applied to learn unsupervised topic models, such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), with provable guarantees. This paper investigates the possibility of applying spectral methods to recover the parameters of supervised LDA (sLDA). We first present a two-stage spectral method, which recovers the parameters of LDA followed by a power update method to recover the regression model parameters. Then, we further present a single-phase spectral algorithm to jointly recover the topic distribution matrix as well as the regression weights. Our spectral algorithms are provably correct and computationally efficient. We prove a sample complexity bound for each algorithm and subsequently derive a sufficient condition for the identifiability of sLDA. Thorough experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets verify the theory and demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the spectral algorithms. In fact, our results on a large-scale review rating dataset demonstrate that our single-phase spectral algorithm alone gets comparable or even better performance than state-of-the-art methods, while previous work on spectral methods has rarely reported such promising performance.

  7. Extrapolation of creep behavior of high-density polyethylene liner in the Catch Basin of grout vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    Testing was performed to determine if gravel particles will creep into and puncture the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner in the catch basin of a grout vault over a nominal 30-year period. Testing was performed to support a design without a protective geotextile cover after the geotextile was removed from the design. Recently, a protective geotextile cover over the liner was put back into the design. The data indicate that the geotextile has an insignificant effect on the creep of gravel into the liner. However, the geotextile may help to protect the liner during construction. Two types of tests were performed to evaluate the potential for creep-related puncture. In the first type of test, a very sensitive instrument measured the rate at which a probe crept into HDPE over a 20-minute period at temperatures of 176 degrees F to 212 degrees F (80 degrees C to 100 degrees C). The second type of test consisted of placing the liner between gravel and mortar at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) and 45.1 psi overburden pressure for periods up to 1 year. By combining data from the two tests, the long-term behavior of the creep was extrapolated to 30 years of service. After 30 years of service, the liner will be in a nearly steady condition and further creep will be extremely small. The results indicate that the creep of gravel into the liner will not create a puncture during service at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C). The estimated creep over 30 years is expected to be less than 25 mils out of the total initial thickness of 60 mils. The test temperature of 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) corresponds to the design basis temperature of the vault. Lower temperatures are expected at the liner, which makes the test conservative. Only the potential for failure of the liner resulting from creep of gravel is addressed in this report

  8. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation: estimation of human serum concentrations of chemicals equivalent to cytotoxic concentrations in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelden, Michael; Seibert, Hasso

    2003-01-01

    In the present study an extrapolation model for estimating serum concentrations of chemicals equivalent to in vitro effective concentrations is developed and applied to median cytotoxic concentrations (EC 50 ) determined in vitro. Nominal concentrations of a chemical in serum and in vitro are regarded as equivalent, if they result in the same aqueous concentration of the unbound form. The algorithm used is based on equilibrium distribution and requires albumin binding data, the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ), and the albumin concentrations and lipid volume fractions in vitro and in serum. The chemicals studied cover wide ranges of cytotoxic potency (EC 50 : 2.5-530000 μM) and lipophilicity (log K ow : -5 to 7). Their albumin binding characteristics have been determined by means of an in vitro cytotoxicity test as described previously. The equivalent serum concentrations of 19 of the 33 compounds investigated, having high protein binding and/or lipophilicity, were substantially higher than the EC 50 -values, by factors of 2.5-58. Prominent deviations between the equivalent nominal concentrations in serum and in vitro were largely restricted to chemicals with higher cytotoxic potency (EC 50 ≤1000 μM). The results suggest that estimates of equivalent serum concentrations based on in vitro data are robust for chemicals with low lipophilicity (log K ow ≤2) and low potency (EC 50 >1000 μM). With more potent chemicals or those with higher lipophilicity partitioning into lipids and/or binding to serum proteins have to be taken into account when estimating in vivo serum concentrations equivalent to in vitro effective concentrations

  9. Spectral analysis of bedform dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Noormets, Riko

    Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods for the an....... The proposed method overcomes the above mentioned problems of common descriptive analysis as it is an objective and straightforward mathematical process. The spectral decomposition of superimposed dunes allows a detailed description and analysis of dune patterns and migration.......Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods...... allows the application of a procedure, which has been a standard for the analysis of water waves for long times: The bathymetric signal of a cross-section of subaquatic compound dunes is approximated by the sum of a set of harmonic functions, derived by Fourier transformation. If the wavelength...

  10. Spectral statistics of 'cellular' billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    For a bounded domain Ω 0 subset of R 2 whose boundary contains a number of flat pieces Γ i , i = 1, ..., l we consider a family of non-symmetric billiards Ω constructed by patching several copies of Ω 0 along Γ i s. It is demonstrated that the length spectrum of the periodic orbits in Ω is degenerate with the multiplicities determined by a matrix group G. We study the energy spectrum of the corresponding quantum billiard problem in Ω and show that it can be split into a number of uncorrelated subspectra corresponding to a set of irreducible representations α of G. Assuming that the classical dynamics in Ω 0 are chaotic, we derive a semiclassical trace formula for each spectral component and show that their energy level statistics are the same as in standard random matrix ensembles. Depending on whether α is real, pseudo-real or complex, the spectrum has either Gaussian orthogonal, Gaussian symplectic or Gaussian unitary types of statistics, respectively

  11. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  12. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.

    2001-10-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)

  13. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature

  14. Extracting attosecond delays from spectrally overlapping interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2018-02-01

    Attosecond interferometry is becoming an increasingly popular technique for measuring the dynamics of photoionization in real time. Whereas early measurements focused on atomic systems with very simple photoelectron spectra, the technique is now being applied to more complex systems including isolated molecules and solids. The increase in complexity translates into an augmented spectral congestion, unavoidably resulting in spectral overlap in attosecond interferograms. Here, we discuss currently used methods for phase retrieval and introduce two new approaches for determining attosecond photoemission delays from spectrally overlapping photoelectron spectra. We show that the previously used technique, consisting in the spectral integration of the areas of interest, does in general not provide reliable results. Our methods resolve this problem, thereby opening the technique of attosecond interferometry to complex systems and fully exploiting its specific advantages in terms of spectral resolution compared to attosecond streaking.

  15. Light distribution system comprising spectral conversion means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , longer wavelength,a spectral conversion characteristics of the spectral conversion fibre being essentially determined by the spectral absorption and emission properties of the photoluminescent agent, the amount of photo- luminescent agent,and the distribution of the photoluminescent agent in the spectral......System (200, 300) for the distribution of white light, having a supply side (201, 301, 401) and a delivery side (202, 302, 402), the system being configured for guiding light with a multitude of visible wavelengths in a propagation direction P from the supply side to the distribution side...... of providing a light distribution system and a method of correcting the spectral transmission characteristics of a light distribution system are disclosed....

  16. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S

    2002-03-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature.

  17. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2001-10-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)

  18. SPECTRAL SMILE CORRECTION IN CRISM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceamanos, X.; Doute, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is affected by a common artifact in "push-broom" sensors, the so-called "spectral smile". As a consequence, both central wavelength and spectral width of the spectral response vary along the across-track dimension, thus giving rise to a shifting and smoothing of spectra (see Fig. 1 (left)). In fact, both effects are greater for spectra on the edges, while they are minimum for data acquired by central detectors, the so-called "sweet spot". The prior artifacts become particularly critical for Martian observations which contain steep spectra such as CO2 ice-rich polar images. Fig. 1 (right) shows the horizontal brightness gradient which appears in every band corresponding to a steep portion of spectra. The correction of CRISM spectral smile is addressed using a two-step method which aims at modifying data sensibly in order to mimic the optimal CRISM response. First, all spectra, which are previously interpolated by cubic splines, are resampled to the "sweet spot" wavelengths in order to overcome the spectra shift. Secondly, the non-uniform spectral width is overcome by mimicking an increase of spectral resolution thanks to a spectral sharpening. In order to minimize noise, only bands particularly suffering from smile are selected. First, bands corresponding to the outliers of the Minimum Noise Transformation (MNF) eigenvector, which corresponds to the MNF band related to smile (MNF-smile), are selected. Then, a spectral neighborhood Θi, which takes into account the local spectral convexity or concavity, is defined for every selected band in order to maximize spectral shape preservation. The proposed sharpening technique takes into account both the instrument parameters and the observed spectra. First, every reflectance value belonging to a Θi is reevaluated by a sharpening which depends on a ratio of the spectral width of the current detector and the "sweet spot" one. Then, the optimal degree of

  19. Development of Response Spectral Ground Motion Prediction Equations from Empirical Models for Fourier Spectra and Duration of Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, S. S.; Scherbaum, F.; Kuehn, N. M.; Stafford, P.; Edwards, B.

    2014-12-01

    In a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) framework, it still remains a challenge to adjust ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for application in different seismological environments. In this context, this study presents a complete framework for the development of a response spectral GMPE easily adjustable to different seismological conditions; and which does not suffer from the technical problems associated with the adjustment in response spectral domain. Essentially, the approach consists of an empirical FAS (Fourier Amplitude Spectrum) model and a duration model for ground motion which are combined within the random vibration theory (RVT) framework to obtain the full response spectral ordinates. Additionally, FAS corresponding to individual acceleration records are extrapolated beyond the frequency range defined by the data using the stochastic FAS model, obtained by inversion as described in Edwards & Faeh, (2013). To that end, an empirical model for a duration, which is tuned to optimize the fit between RVT based and observed response spectral ordinate, at each oscillator frequency is derived. Although, the main motive of the presented approach was to address the adjustability issues of response spectral GMPEs; comparison, of median predicted response spectra with the other regional models indicate that presented approach can also be used as a stand-alone model. Besides that, a significantly lower aleatory variability (σbrands it to a potentially viable alternative to the classical regression (on response spectral ordinates) based GMPEs for seismic hazard studies in the near future. The dataset used for the presented analysis is a subset of the recently compiled database RESORCE-2012 across Europe, Middle East and the Mediterranean region.

  20. Spectrally selective solar energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and properties of spectrally selective materials are considered and, in particular, the selective absorption of solar radiation by free electrons is discussed, both in a homogeneous material in which these electrons are strongly scattered, and in a composite material consisting of small metal particles in a dielectric host. Such materials can be used as selective absorbers if they are deposited as a thin film onto a metal substrate, the latter providing the required low emittance. This type of selective surfaces is produced by reactive sputtering of Ni in an Ar/CH 4 gas mixture. This method can yield Ni films with a considerable carbon concentration. The carbon concentration can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the partial methane pressure. The associated experimental techniques are discussed. As the carbon concentration increases, the structure of the films changes from a Ni phase in which carbon is dissolved, via an intermediate Ni 3 C phase into an amorphous carbon phase with a high electrical resistivity in which small nickel particles are embedded. Both mechanisms of selective absorption by free electrons are observed and are found to be well described by rather simple models. The best selectivity is obtained at high carbon concentrations where the films consist of nickel particles in carbon. Depending on the film thickness and the substrate material, the solar absorptance varies between 0.78 and 0.90, while the thermal emittance varies between 0.025 and 0.04. Since the films are found to be stable at 400 0 C in vacuum, it appears that these films are good candidates for application in photothermal solar energy conversion at temperature levels around 200 0 C and higher. (Auth.)