WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraordinarily earth-like world

  1. Giant Impacts on Earth-Like Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Earth has experienced a large number of impacts, from the cratering events that may have caused mass extinctions to the enormous impact believed to have formed the Moon. A new study examines whether our planets impact history is typical for Earth-like worlds.N-Body ChallengesTimeline placing the authors simulations in context of the history of our solar system (click for a closer look). [Quintana et al. 2016]The final stages of terrestrial planet formation are thought to be dominated by giant impacts of bodies in the protoplanetary disk. During this stage, protoplanets smash into one another and accrete, greatly influencing the growth, composition, and habitability of the final planets.There are two major challenges when simulating this N-body planet formation. The first is fragmentation: since computational time scales as N^2, simulating lots of bodies that split into many more bodies is very computationally intensive. For this reason, fragmentation is usually ignored; simulations instead assume perfect accretion during collisions.Total number of bodies remaining within the authors simulations over time, with fragmentation included (grey) and ignored (red). Both simulations result in the same final number of bodies, but the ones that include fragmentation take more time to reach that final number. [Quintana et al. 2016]The second challengeis that many-body systems are chaotic, which means its necessary to do a large number of simulations to make statistical statements about outcomes.Adding FragmentationA team of scientists led by Elisa Quintana (NASA NPP Senior Fellow at the Ames Research Center) has recently pushed at these challenges by modeling inner-planet formation using a code that does include fragmentation. The team ran 140 simulations with and 140 without the effects of fragmentation using similar initial conditions to understand how including fragmentation affects the outcome.Quintana and collaborators then used the fragmentation-inclusive simulations to

  2. Climate of an Earth-Like World with Changing Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Having a giant planet like Jupiter next door can really wreak havoc on your orbit! A new study examines what such a bad neighbor might mean for the long-term climate of an Earth-like planet.Influence of a Bad NeighborThe presence of a Jupiter-like giant planet in a nearby orbit can significantly affect how terrestrial planets evolve dynamically, causing elements like the planets orbital eccentricities and axial tilts to change over time. Earth is saved this inconvenience Jupiter isnt close enough to significantly influence us, and our large moon stabilizes our orbit against Jupiters tugs.Top panels: Authors simulationoutcomes for Case1, in which the planets eccentricity varies from 0 to 0.283 over 6500 years. Bottom panels: Outcomes for Case 2, in which the planets eccentricity varies from 0 to 0.066 over 4500 years. The highereccentricities reached in Case 1 causes the climate parameters to vary more widely. Click for a better look! [Way Georgakarakos 2017]Mars, on the other hand, isnt as lucky: its possible that Jupiters gravitational pull causes Marss axial tilt, for instance, to evolve through a range as large as 0 to 60 degrees on timescales of millions of years! Marss orbital eccentricity is similarly thought to vary due to Jupiters influence, and both of these factors play a major role in determining Marss climate.As exoplanet missions discover more planets many of which are Earth-like we must carefully consider which among these are most likely to be capable of sustaining life. If having a nearby neighbor like a Jupiter can tug an Earth-like world into an orbit with varying eccentricity, how does this affect the planets climate? Will the planet remain temperate? Or will it develop a runaway heating or cooling effect as it orbits, rendering it uninhabitable?Oceans and OrbitsTo examine these questions, two scientists have built the first ever 3D global climate model simulations of an Earth-like world using a fully coupled ocean (necessary for understanding

  3. The New Worlds Observer: An Optimal Path to Direct Study of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Webster C., Jr.; New Worlds Study Team

    2009-01-01

    Direct detection and spectroscopic study of the planets around the nearby stars is generally recognized as a prime goal of astronomy. The New Worlds Observer mission concept is being studied as an Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for this purpose. NWO features two spacecraft: a general purpose 4m telescope that operates from the UV to the Near IR, and a starshade, a flower-shaped occulter about 50m in diameter flying in alignment about 70,000km away. Our study shows this is the most effective way to map nearby planetary systems. In this poster we will show that NWO can return much more science than any of the competing approaches at any given price point. Images will show dust and debris down to a fraction of our zodiacal light level. Planets fainter than the Earth can be seen from the Habitable Zone outward, at distances up to 20pc. High throughput and low noise enable immediate follow-up spectroscopy of discovered planets. NWO can discover many more Earth-like planets than all competing approaches including astrometric, interferometric, and internal coronagraphic. Within hours of discovery, a high quality spectrum can determine the true nature of the exoplanet and open the search for biomarkers and life. Over half of the time will be spent with the starshade in transit to the next target. During those times the telescope will be available to for general astrophysics purposes. Operating from the ultraviolet to the near infrared, this will be a true HST follow-on. The study shows all needed technologies already exist. The cost scales primarily with telescope size. The mission is definitely within the financial and technical reach of NASA for the coming decade.

  4. Positron collisions with helium and alkaline earth-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.P.

    1998-09-01

    This doctoral thesis is subdivided into: 1. Theory of positron collisions with helium and alkaline earth-like atoms, 2. Positron collisions with helium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, 3. Intercomparison of positron scattering by all those elements. The appendix of this work gives details of the numerical calculations and expands on the wavefunctions used

  5. Spectral fingerprints of Earth-like planets around FGK stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugheimer, Sarah; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Zsom, Andras; Segura, Antígona; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2013-03-01

    We present model atmospheres for an Earth-like planet orbiting the entire grid of main sequence FGK stars with effective temperatures ranging from Teff=4250 K to Teff=7000 K in 250 K intervals. We have modeled the remotely detectable spectra of Earth-like planets for clear and cloudy atmospheres at the 1 AU equivalent distance from the VIS to IR (0.4 to 20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges in accordance with the James Webb Space Telescope and future design concepts to characterize exo-Earths. We have also explored the effect of the stellar UV levels as well as spectral energy distribution on a terrestrial atmosphere, concentrating on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl. The increase in UV dominates changes of O3, OH, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl, whereas the increase in stellar temperature dominates changes in H2O. The overall effect as stellar effective temperatures and corresponding UV increase is a lower surface temperature of the planet due to a bigger part of the stellar flux being reflected at short wavelengths, as well as increased photolysis. Earth-like atmosphere models show more O3 and OH but less stratospheric CH4, N2O, CH3Cl, and tropospheric H2O (but more stratospheric H2O) with increasing effective temperature of main sequence stars. The corresponding detectable spectral features, on the other hand, show different detectability depending on the wavelength observed. We concentrate on directly imaged planets here as a framework to interpret future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone at varying orbital positions.

  6. Extrasolar Giant Planet in Earth-like Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    companion . iota Hor b has an orbital period of 320 days. From this period, the known mass of the central star (1.03 solar masses) and the amplitude of the velocity changes, a mass of at least 2.26 times that of planet Jupiter is deduced for the planet. It revolves around the host star in a somewhat elongated orbit (the eccentricity is 0.16). If it were located in our own solar system, this orbit would stretch from just outside the orbit of Venus (at 117 million km or 0.78 Astronomical Units from the Sun) to just outside the orbit of the Earth (the point farthest from the Sun, at 162 million km or 1.08 Astronomical Units) The new giant planet is thus moving in an orbit not unlike that of the Earth. In fact, of all the planets discovered so far, the orbit of iota Hor b is the most Earth-like. Also, with a spectral type of G0 V , its host star is quite similar to the Sun (G2 V). iota Hor b is, however, at least 720 times more massive than the Earth and it is probably more similar to planet Jupiter in our own solar system. While the radial velocity technique described above only determines a minimum value for the planet's mass, an analysis of the velocity with which the star turns around its own axis suggests that the true mass of iota Hor b is unlikely to be much higher. A difficult case Natural phenomena with periods near one solar year always present a particular challenge to astronomers. This is one of the reasons why it has been necessary to observe the iota Hor system for such a long time to be absolutely sure about the present result. First, special care must be taken to verify that the radial velocity variations found in the data are not an artefact of the Earth's movement around the Sun. In any case, the effect of this movement on the measurements must be accurately accounted for; it reaches about ± 30 km/sec over one year, i.e. much larger than the effect of the new planet. In the present case of iota Hor , this was thoroughly tested and any residual influence of

  7. Atmospheric dynamics of Earth-like tidally locked aquaplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present simulations of atmospheres of Earth-like aquaplanets that are tidally locked to their star, that is, planets whose orbital period is equal to the rotation period about their spin axis, so that one side always faces the star and the other side is always dark. Such simulations are of interest in the study of tidally locked terrestrial exoplanets and as illustrations of how planetary rotation and the insolation distribution shape climate. As extreme cases illustrating the effects of slow and rapid rotation, we consider planets with rotation periods equal to one current Earth year and one current Earth day. The dynamics responsible for the surface climate (e.g., winds, temperature, precipitation and the general circulation of the atmosphere are discussed in light of existing theories of atmospheric circulations. For example, as expected from the increasing importance of Coriolis accelerations relative to inertial accelerations as the rotation rate increases, the winds are approximately isotropic and divergent at leading order in the slowly rotating atmosphere but are predominantly zonal and rotational in the rapidly rotating atmosphere. Free-atmospheric horizontal temperature variations in the slowly rotating atmosphere are generally weaker than in the rapidly rotating atmosphere. Interestingly, the surface temperature on the night side of the planets does not fall below ~240 K in either the rapidly or slowly rotating atmosphere; that is, heat transport from the day side to the night side of the planets efficiently reduces temperature contrasts in either case. Rotational waves and eddies shape the distribution of winds, temperature, and precipitation in the rapidly rotating atmosphere; in the slowly rotating atmosphere, these distributions are controlled by simpler divergent circulations. Both the slowly and rapidly rotating atmospheres exhibit equatorial superrotation. Systematic variation of the planetary rotation rate shows that the

  8. Constraints on Climate and Habitability for Earth-like Exoplanets Determined from a General Circulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Eric T.; Toon, Owen B.; Shields, Aomawa L.; Kopparapu, Ravi K.; Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Conventional definitions of habitability require abundant liquid surface water to exist continuously over geologic timescales. Water in each of its thermodynamic phases interacts with solar and thermal radiation and is the cause for strong climatic feedbacks. Thus, assessments of the habitable zone require models to include a complete treatment of the hydrological cycle over geologic time. Here, we use the Community Atmosphere Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research to study the evolution of climate for an Earth-like planet at constant CO 2 , under a wide range of stellar fluxes from F-, G-, and K-dwarf main sequence stars. Around each star we find four stable climate states defined by mutually exclusive global mean surface temperatures ( T s ); snowball ( T s ≤ 235 K), waterbelt (235 K ≤ T s ≤ 250 K), temperate (275 K ≤ T s ≤ 315 K), and moist greenhouse ( T s ≥ 330 K). Each is separated by abrupt climatic transitions. Waterbelt, temperate, and cooler moist greenhouse climates can maintain open-ocean against both sea ice albedo and hydrogen escape processes respectively, and thus constitute habitable worlds. We consider the warmest possible habitable planet as having T s ∼ 355 K, at which point diffusion limited water-loss could remove an Earth ocean in ∼1 Gyr. Without long timescale regulation of non-condensable greenhouse species at Earth-like temperatures and pressures, such as CO 2 , habitability can be maintained for an upper limit of ∼2.2, ∼2.4, and ∼4.7 Gyr around F-, G-, and K-dwarf stars respectively, due to main sequence brightening.

  9. Constraints on Climate and Habitability for Earth-like Exoplanets Determined from a General Circulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Eric T.; Toon, Owen B. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Shields, Aomawa L. [University of California, Irvine, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kopparapu, Ravi K.; Haqq-Misra, Jacob, E-mail: eric.wolf@colorado.edu [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Conventional definitions of habitability require abundant liquid surface water to exist continuously over geologic timescales. Water in each of its thermodynamic phases interacts with solar and thermal radiation and is the cause for strong climatic feedbacks. Thus, assessments of the habitable zone require models to include a complete treatment of the hydrological cycle over geologic time. Here, we use the Community Atmosphere Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research to study the evolution of climate for an Earth-like planet at constant CO{sub 2}, under a wide range of stellar fluxes from F-, G-, and K-dwarf main sequence stars. Around each star we find four stable climate states defined by mutually exclusive global mean surface temperatures ( T {sub s}); snowball ( T {sub s} ≤ 235 K), waterbelt (235 K ≤ T {sub s} ≤ 250 K), temperate (275 K ≤ T {sub s} ≤ 315 K), and moist greenhouse ( T {sub s} ≥ 330 K). Each is separated by abrupt climatic transitions. Waterbelt, temperate, and cooler moist greenhouse climates can maintain open-ocean against both sea ice albedo and hydrogen escape processes respectively, and thus constitute habitable worlds. We consider the warmest possible habitable planet as having T {sub s} ∼ 355 K, at which point diffusion limited water-loss could remove an Earth ocean in ∼1 Gyr. Without long timescale regulation of non-condensable greenhouse species at Earth-like temperatures and pressures, such as CO{sub 2}, habitability can be maintained for an upper limit of ∼2.2, ∼2.4, and ∼4.7 Gyr around F-, G-, and K-dwarf stars respectively, due to main sequence brightening.

  10. Organic Haze as a Biosignature in Anoxic Earth-like Atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S

    2018-03-01

    Early Earth may have hosted a biologically mediated global organic haze during the Archean eon (3.8-2.5 billion years ago). This haze would have significantly impacted multiple aspects of our planet, including its potential for habitability and its spectral appearance. Here, we model worlds with Archean-like levels of carbon dioxide orbiting the ancient Sun and an M4V dwarf (GJ 876) and show that organic haze formation requires methane fluxes consistent with estimated Earth-like biological production rates. On planets with high fluxes of biogenic organic sulfur gases (CS 2 , OCS, CH 3 SH, and CH 3 SCH 3 ), photochemistry involving these gases can drive haze formation at lower CH 4 /CO 2 ratios than methane photochemistry alone. For a planet orbiting the Sun, at 30× the modern organic sulfur gas flux, haze forms at a CH 4 /CO 2 ratio 20% lower than at 1× the modern organic sulfur flux. For a planet orbiting the M4V star, the impact of organic sulfur gases is more pronounced: at 1× the modern Earth organic sulfur flux, a substantial haze forms at CH 4 /CO 2 ∼ 0.2, but at 30× the organic sulfur flux, the CH 4 /CO 2 ratio needed to form haze decreases by a full order of magnitude. Detection of haze at an anomalously low CH 4 /CO 2 ratio could suggest the influence of these biogenic sulfur gases and therefore imply biological activity on an exoplanet. When these organic sulfur gases are not readily detectable in the spectrum of an Earth-like exoplanet, the thick organic haze they can help produce creates a very strong absorption feature at UV-blue wavelengths detectable in reflected light at a spectral resolution as low as 10. In direct imaging, constraining CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations will require higher spectral resolution, and R > 170 is needed to accurately resolve the structure of the CO 2 feature at 1.57 μm, likely the most accessible CO 2 feature on an Archean-like exoplanet. Key Words: Organic haze-Organic sulfur gases-Biosignatures-Archean Earth

  11. Spectra of Earth-like Planets through Geological Evolution around FGKM Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2018-02-01

    Future observations of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres will occur for planets at different stages of geological evolution. We expect to observe a wide variety of atmospheres and planets with alternative evolutionary paths, with some planets resembling Earth at different epochs. For an Earth-like atmospheric time trajectory, we simulate planets from the prebiotic to the current atmosphere based on geological data. We use a stellar grid F0V to M8V ({T}{eff}=7000–2400 K) to model four geological epochs of Earth's history corresponding to a prebiotic world (3.9 Ga), the rise of oxygen at 2.0 Ga and at 0.8 Ga, and the modern Earth. We show the VIS–IR spectral features, with a focus on biosignatures through geological time for this grid of Sun-like host stars and the effect of clouds on their spectra. We find that the observability of biosignature gases reduces with increasing cloud cover and increases with planetary age. The observability of the visible O2 feature for lower concentrations will partly depend on clouds, which, while slightly reducing the feature, increase the overall reflectivity, and thus the detectable flux of a planet. The depth of the IR ozone feature contributes substantially to the opacity at lower oxygen concentrations, especially for the high near-UV stellar environments around F stars. Our results are a grid of model spectra for atmospheres representative of Earth's geological history to inform future observations and instrument design and are available online at http://carlsaganinstitute.org/data/.

  12. Correcting Estimates of the Occurrence Rate of Earth-like Exoplanets for Stellar Multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Elliot; Dressing, Courtney D.; Ciardi, David R.; Christiansen, Jessie

    2018-06-01

    One of the most prominent questions in the exoplanet field has been determining the true occurrence rate of potentially habitable Earth-like planets. NASA’s Kepler mission has been instrumental in answering this question by searching for transiting exoplanets, but follow-up observations of Kepler target stars are needed to determine whether or not the surveyed Kepler targets are in multi-star systems. While many researchers have searched for companions to Kepler planet host stars, few studies have investigated the larger target sample. Regardless of physical association, the presence of nearby stellar companions biases our measurements of a system’s planetary parameters and reduces our sensitivity to small planets. Assuming that all Kepler target stars are single (as is done in many occurrence rate calculations) would overestimate our search completeness and result in an underestimate of the frequency of potentially habitable Earth-like planets. We aim to correct for this bias by characterizing the set of targets for which Kepler could have detected Earth-like planets. We are using adaptive optics (AO) imaging to reveal potential stellar companions and near-infrared spectroscopy to refine stellar parameters for a subset of the Kepler targets that are most amenable to the detection of Earth-like planets. We will then derive correction factors to correct for the biases in the larger set of target stars and determine the true frequency of systems with Earth-like planets. Due to the prevalence of stellar multiples, we expect to calculate an occurrence rate for Earth-like exoplanets that is higher than current figures.

  13. EFFECT OF UV RADIATION ON THE SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING M STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugheimer, S. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kaltenegger, L. [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Segura, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Linsky, J. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Mohanty, S. [Imperial College London, 1010 Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-10

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with T{sub eff} = 2300 K to T{sub eff} = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4–20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 3}Cl. To observe signatures of life—O{sub 2}/O{sub 3} in combination with reducing species like CH{sub 4}—we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O{sub 2} spectral feature at 0.76 μm is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N{sub 2}O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH{sub 3}Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N{sub 2}O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities.

  14. EFFECT OF UV RADIATION ON THE SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING M STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Segura, A.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2015-01-01

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with T eff = 2300 K to T eff = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4–20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H 2 O, O 3 , CH 4 , N 2 O, and CH 3 Cl. To observe signatures of life—O 2 /O 3 in combination with reducing species like CH 4 —we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O 2 spectral feature at 0.76 μm is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N 2 O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH 3 Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N 2 O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities

  15. Particle-in-cell simulations of Earth-like magnetosphere during a magnetic field reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M. V. G.; Alves, M. V.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Schmitz, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic record shows that hundreds of pole reversals have occurred throughout Earth's history. The mean interval between the poles reversals is roughly 200 to 300 thousand years and the last reversal occurred around 780 thousand years ago. Pole reversal is a slow process, during which the strength of the magnetic field decreases, become more complex, with the appearance of more than two poles for some time and then the field strength increases, changing polarity. Along the process, the magnetic field configuration changes, leaving the Earth-like planet vulnerable to the harmful effects of the Sun. Understanding what happens with the magnetosphere during these pole reversals is an open topic of investigation. Only recently PIC codes are used to modeling magnetospheres. Here we use the particle code iPIC3D [Markidis et al, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 2010] to simulate an Earth-like magnetosphere at three different times along the pole reversal process. The code was modified, so the Earth-like magnetic field is generated using an expansion in spherical harmonics with the Gauss coefficients given by a MHD simulation of the Earth's core [Glatzmaier et al, Nature, 1995; 1999; private communication to L.E.A.V.]. Simulations show the qualitative behavior of the magnetosphere, such as the current structures. Only the planet magnetic field was changed in the runs. The solar wind is the same for all runs. Preliminary results show the formation of the Chapman-Ferraro current in the front of the magnetosphere in all the cases. Run for the middle of the reversal process, the low intensity magnetic field and its asymmetrical configuration the current structure changes and the presence of multiple poles can be observed. In all simulations, a structure similar to the radiation belts was found. Simulations of more severe solar wind conditions are necessary to determine the real impact of the reversal in the magnetosphere.

  16. Two drastically different climate states on an Earth-like land planet with overland water recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidindi, S.; Reick, C. H.; Raddatz, T.; Claussen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that habitable areas on low-obliquity land planets are confined to the edges of frozen ice caps. Whether such dry planets can maintain long-lived liquid water is unclear. Leconte et al. 2013 argue that on such planets mechanisms like gravity driven ice flows and geothermal flux can maintain liquid water at the edges of thick ice caps and this water may flow back to the lower latitudes through rivers. However, there exists no modelling study which investigates the climate of an Earth-like land planet with an overland recycling mechanism bringing fresh water back from higher to lower latitudes. In our study, by using a comprehensive climate model ICON, we find that an Earth-like land planet with an overland recycling mechanism can exist in two drastically different climate states for the same set of boundary conditions and parameter values: A Cold and Wet (CW) state with dominant low-latitude precipitation and, a Hot and Dry (HD) state with only high-latitude precipitation. For perpetual equinox conditions, both climate states are stable below a certain threshold value of background soil albedo (α) while above that only the CW state is stable. Starting from the HD state and increasing α above the threshold causes an abrupt shift from the HD state to the CW state resulting in a sudden cooling of about 35°C globally which is of the order of the temperature difference between the present-day and the Snowball Earth state. In contrast to the Snowball Earth instability, we find that the sudden cooling in our study is driven by the cloud albedo feedback rather than the snow-albedo feedback. Also, when α in the CW state is reduced back to zero the land planet does not display a closed hysteresis. Our study also has implications for the habitability of Earth-like land planets. At the inner edge of the habitable zone, the higher cloud cover in the CW state cools the planet and may prevent the onset of a runaway greenhouse state. At the outer

  17. Extrusive and Intrusive Magmatism Greatly Influence the Tectonic Mode of Earth-Like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, D.; Tackley, P. J.; Rozel, A.; Ballmer, M.

    2017-09-01

    Plate tectonics on Earth-like planets is typically modelling using a strongly temperature-dependent visco-plastic rheology. Previous analyses have generally focussed on purely thermal convection. However, we have shown that the influence of compositional heterogeneity in the form of continental or oceanic crust can greatly influence plate tectonics by making it easier (i.e. it occurs at a lower yield stress or friction coefficient). Here we present detailed results on this topic, in particular focussing on the influence of intrusive vs. extrusive magmatism on the tectonic mode.

  18. Chances for earth-like planets and life around metal-poor stars

    OpenAIRE

    Zinnecker, Hans

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the difficulties of forming earth-like planets in metal-poor environments, such as those prevailing in the Galactic halo (Pop II), the Magellanic Clouds, and the early universe. We suggest that, with less heavy elements available, terrestrial planets will be smaller size and lower mass than in our solar system (solar metallicity). Such planets may not be able to sustain life as we know it. Therefore, the chances of very old lifeforms in the universe are slim, and a threshold metall...

  19. GLOBAL MAPPING OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS FROM SCATTERED LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka

    2010-01-01

    Scattered lights from terrestrial exoplanets provide valuable information about their planetary surface. Applying the surface reconstruction method proposed by Fujii et al. to both diurnal and annual variations of scattered light, we develop a reconstruction method of land distribution with both longitudinal and latitudinal resolutions. We find that one can recover a global map of an idealized Earth-like planet on the following assumptions: (1) cloudlessness, (2) a face-on circular orbit, (3) known surface types and their reflectance spectra, (4) lack of atmospheric absorption, (5) known rotation rate, (6) a static map, and (7) the absence of a moon. Using the dependence of light curves on planetary obliquity, we also show that the obliquity can be measured by adopting the χ 2 minimization or the extended information criterion. We demonstrate the feasibility of our methodology by applying it to a multi-band photometry of a cloudless model Earth with future space missions such as the occulting ozone observatory (O3). We conclude that future space missions can estimate both the surface distribution and the obliquity at least for cloudless Earth-like planets within 5 pc.

  20. Atmospheric dynamics and habitability range in Earth-like aquaplanets obliquity simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowajewski, Priscilla; Rojas, M.; Rojo, P.; Kimeswenger, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present the evolution of the atmospheric variables that affect planetary climate by increasing the obliquity by using a general circulation model (PlaSim) coupled to a slab ocean with mixed layer flux correction. We increase the obliquity between 30° and 90° in 16 aquaplanets with liquid sea surface and perform the simulation allowing the sea ice cover formation to be a consequence of its atmospheric dynamics. Insolation is maintained constant in each experiment, but changing the obliquity affects the radiation budget and the large scale circulation. Earth-like atmospheric dynamics is observed for planets with obliquity under 54°. Above this value, the latitudinal temperature gradient is reversed giving place to a new regime of jet streams, affecting the shape of Hadley and Ferrel cells and changing the position of the InterTropical Convergence Zone. As humidity and high temperatures determine Earth's habitability, we introduce the wet bulb temperature as an atmospheric index of habitability for Earth-like aquaplanets with above freezing temperatures. The aquaplanets are habitable all year round at all latitudes for values under 54°; above this value habitability decreases toward the poles due to high temperatures.

  1. Two drastically different climate states on an Earth-like terra-planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalidindi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We study an Earth-like terra-planet (water-limited terrestrial planet with an overland recycling mechanism bringing fresh water back from the high latitudes to the low latitudes. By performing model simulations for such a planet we find two drastically different climate states for the same set of boundary conditions and parameter values: a cold and wet (CW state with dominant low-latitude precipitation and a hot and dry (HD state with only high-latitude precipitation. We notice that for perpetual equinox conditions, both climate states are stable below a certain threshold value of background soil albedo while above the threshold only the CW state is stable. Starting from the HD state and increasing background soil albedo above the threshold causes an abrupt shift from the HD state to the CW state resulting in a sudden cooling of about 35 °C globally, which is of the order of the temperature difference between present day and the Snowball Earth state. When albedo starting from the CW state is reduced down to zero the terra-planet does not shift back to the HD state (no closed hysteresis. This is due to the high cloud cover in the CW state hiding the surface from solar irradiation so that surface albedo has only a minor effect on the top of the atmosphere radiation balance. Additional simulations with present-day Earth's obliquity all lead to the CW state, suggesting a similar abrupt transition from the HD state to the CW state when increasing obliquity from zero. Our study also has implications for the habitability of Earth-like terra-planets. At the inner edge of the habitable zone, the higher cloud cover in the CW state cools the planet and may prevent the onset of a runaway greenhouse state. At the outer edge, the resupply of water at low latitudes stabilizes the greenhouse effect and keeps the planet in the HD state and may prevent water from getting trapped at high latitudes in frozen form. Overall, the existence of bistability in the

  2. Topological Fractional Pumping with Alkaline-Earth-Like Atoms in Synthetic Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, Luca; Cornfeld, Eyal; Rossini, Davide; Mazza, Leonardo; Sela, Eran; Fazio, Rosario

    2017-06-01

    Alkaline-earth(-like) atoms, trapped in optical lattices and in the presence of an external gauge field, can form insulating states at given fractional fillings. We will show that, by exploiting these properties, it is possible to realize a topological fractional pump. Our analysis is based on a many-body adiabatic expansion, on simulations with time-dependent matrix product states, and, for a specific form of atom-atom interaction, on an exactly solvable model of fractional pump. The numerical simulations allow us to consider a realistic setup amenable of an experimental realization. As a further consequence, the measure of the center-of-mass shift of the atomic cloud would constitute the first measurement of a many-body Chern number in a cold-atom experiment.

  3. The Effect of Varying Atmospheric Pressure upon Habitability and Biosignatures of Earth-like Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Engin; Grenfell, John Lee; Godolt, Mareike; Stracke, Barbara; Rauer, Heike

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the possible climatic conditions on rocky extrasolar planets, and thereby their potential habitability, is one of the major subjects of exoplanet research. Determining how the climate, as well as potential atmospheric biosignatures, changes under different conditions is a key aspect when studying Earth-like exoplanets. One important property is the atmospheric mass, hence pressure and its influence on the climatic conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to understand the influence of atmospheric mass on climate, hence habitability, and the spectral appearance of planets with Earth-like, that is, N 2 -O 2 dominated, atmospheres orbiting the Sun at 1 AU. This work utilizes a 1D coupled, cloud-free, climate-photochemical atmospheric column model; varies atmospheric surface pressure from 0.5 to 30 bar; and investigates temperature and key species profiles, as well as emission and brightness temperature spectra in a range between 2 and 20 μm. Increasing the surface pressure up to 4 bar leads to an increase in the surface temperature due to increased greenhouse warming. Above this point, Rayleigh scattering dominates, and the surface temperature decreases, reaching surface temperatures below 273 K (approximately at ∼34 bar surface pressure). For ozone, nitrous oxide, water, methane, and carbon dioxide, the spectral response either increases with surface temperature or pressure depending on the species. Masking effects occur, for example, for the bands of the biosignatures ozone and nitrous oxide by carbon dioxide, which could be visible in low carbon dioxide atmospheres. Key Words: Planetary habitability and biosignatures-Atmospheres-Radiative transfer. Astrobiology 18, 116-132.

  4. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, S; Grenfell, J L; Stock, J W; Lehmann, R; Godolt, M; von Paris, P; Rauer, H

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O 2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O 2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O 2 , whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O 2 is formed abiotically via CO 2 photolysis. The O 2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. ( 2006 ) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH 4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH 4 with increasing O 2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O 2 is unique. Mixing, CH 4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O 2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O 2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases

  5. Global warming as a detectable thermodynamic marker of Earth-like extrasolar civilizations: the case for a telescope like Colossus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jeff R.; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.

    2015-07-01

    Earth-like civilizations generate heat from the energy that they utilize. The thermal radiation from this heat can be a thermodynamic marker for civilizations. Here we model such planetary radiation on Earth-like planets and propose a strategy for detecting such an alien unintentional thermodynamic electromagnetic biomarker. We show that astronomical infrared (IR) civilization biomarkers may be detected within an interestingly large cosmic volume using a 70 m-class or larger telescope. In particular, the Colossus telescope with achievable coronagraphic and adaptive optics performance may reveal Earth-like civilizations from visible and IR photometry timeseries' taken during an exoplanetary orbit period. The detection of an alien heat signature will have far-ranging implications, but even a null result, given 70 m aperture sensitivity, could also have broad social implications.

  6. THE HABITABILITY AND DETECTION OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING COOL WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Patel, M. R.; Busuttil, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bagnulo, S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Kowalski, P. M. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Sterzik, M. F., E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: M.R.Patel@open.ac.uk, E-mail: r.busuttil@open.ac.uk, E-mail: sba@arm.ac.uk, E-mail: kowalski@gfz-potsdam.de, E-mail: denis.shulyak@gmail.com, E-mail: msterzik@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2012-09-20

    Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for {approx}8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, and hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarization due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 10{sup 2} (10{sup 4}) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow us to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterization. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf will be distorted by Roche geometry, and a Kepler-11d analog would overfill its Roche lobe. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue.

  7. UV SURFACE ENVIRONMENT OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING FGKM STARS THROUGH GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugheimer, S.; Sasselov, D. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden st., 02138 MA Cambridge (United States); Segura, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Kaltenegger, L., E-mail: srugheimer@cfa.harvard.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  8. Science Parametrics for Missions to Search for Earth-like Exoplanets by Direct Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We use Nt , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various "27-vectors" of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate Nt . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ~4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ~1300 unique stars observed in ~2600 observations, of which ~1300 are revisits, and it produces N 1 ~ 50 exoplanets after one year and N 5 ~ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N.

  9. Control of Earth-like magnetic fields on the transformation of ferrihydrite to hematite and goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Dekkers, Mark J; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José; Roberts, Andrew P

    2016-07-26

    Hematite and goethite are the two most abundant iron oxides in natural environments. Their formation is controlled by multiple environmental factors; therefore, their relative concentration has been used widely to indicate climatic variations. In this study, we aimed to test whether hematite and goethite growth is influenced by ambient magnetic fields of Earth-like values. Ferrihydrite was aged at 95 °C in magnetic fields ranging from ~0 to ~100 μT. Our results indicate a large influence of the applied magnetic field on hematite and goethite growth from ferrihydrite. The synthesized products are a mixture of hematite and goethite for field intensities fields favour hematite formation by accelerating ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite aggregation. Additionally, hematite particles growing in a controlled magnetic field of ~100 μT appear to be arranged in chains, which may be reduced to magnetite keeping its original configuration, therefore, the presence of magnetic particles in chains in natural sediments cannot be used as an exclusive indicator of biogenic magnetite. Hematite vs. goethite formation in our experiments is influenced by field intensity values within the range of geomagnetic field variability. Thus, geomagnetic field intensity could be a source of variation when using iron (oxyhydr-)oxide concentrations in environmental magnetism.

  10. THE HABITABILITY AND DETECTION OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING COOL WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Patel, M. R.; Busuttil, R.; Bagnulo, S.; Kowalski, P. M.; Shulyak, D. V.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for ∼8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, and hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarization due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 10 2 (10 4 ) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow us to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterization. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M ☉ white dwarf will be distorted by Roche geometry, and a Kepler-11d analog would overfill its Roche lobe. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue.

  11. UV SURFACE ENVIRONMENT OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING FGKM STARS THROUGH GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Sasselov, D.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2015-01-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments

  12. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF THE CLIMATE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS AROUND DIFFERENT MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E., E-mail: kadoya@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tajika@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1 #711, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-07-10

    The climatic evolution of the Earth depends strongly on the evolution of the insolation from the Sun and the amount of the greenhouse gasses, especially CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the evolution of the climate of hypothetical Earths around stars whose masses are different from the solar mass with a luminosity evolution model of the stars, a mantle degassing model coupled with a parameterized convection model of the planetary interiors, and an energy balance climate model of the planetary surface. In the habitable zone (HZ), the climate of the planets is initially warm or hot, depending on the orbital semimajor axes. We found that, in the inner HZ, the climate of the planets becomes hotter with time owing to the increase in the luminosity of the central stars, while, in the outer HZ, it becomes colder and eventually globally ice-covered owing to the decrease in the CO{sub 2} degassing rate of the planets. The orbital condition for maintaining the warm climate similar to the present Earth becomes very limited, and more interestingly, the planet orbiting in the outer HZ becomes globally ice-covered after a certain critical age (∼3 Gyr for the hypothetical Earth with standard parameters), irrespective of the mass of the central star. This is because the critical age depends on the evolution of the planets and planetary factors, rather than on the stellar mass. The habitability of the Earth-like planet is shown to be limited with age even though it is orbiting within the HZ.

  13. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura [INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Trieste (Italy); Provenzale, Antonello [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-CNR, Torino (Italy); Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio, E-mail: vladilo@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  14. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura; Provenzale, Antonello; Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  15. SCIENCE PARAMETRICS FOR MISSIONS TO SEARCH FOR EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS BY DIRECT IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We use N t , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various ''27-vectors'' of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate N t . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ∼4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ∼1300 unique stars observed in ∼2600 observations, of which ∼1300 are revisits, and it produces N 1 ∼ 50 exoplanets after one year and N 5 ∼ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z < 50 zodis, end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ < 10 –10 . We find that observational overheads, completeness recovery and revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N

  16. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-12

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars.

  17. The Stability of Hydrogen-Rich Atmospheres of Earth-Like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding hydrogen escape is essential to understanding the limits to habitability, both for liquid water where the Sun is bright, but also to assess the true potential of H2 as a greenhouse gas where the Sun is faint. Hydrogen-rich primary atmospheres of Earth-like planets can result either from gravitational capture of solar nebular gases (with helium), or from impact shock processing of a wide variety of volatile-rich planetesimals (typically accompanied by H2O, CO2, and under the right circumstances, CH4). Most studies of hydrogen escape from planets focus on determining how fast the hydrogen escapes. In general this requires solving hydro- dynamic equations that take into account the acceleration of hydrogen through a critical transonic point and an energy budget that should include radiative heating and cooling, thermal conduction, the work done in lifting the hydrogen against gravity, and the residual heat carried by the hydrogen as it leaves. But for planets from which hydrogen escape is modest or insignificant, the atmosphere can be approximated as hydrostatic, which is much simpler, and for which a relatively full-featured treatment of radiative cooling by embedded molecules, atoms, and ions such as CO2 and H3+ is straightforward. Previous work has overlooked the fact that the H2 molecule is extremely efficient at exciting non-LTE CO2 15 micron emission, and thus that radiative cooling can be markedly more efficient when H2 is abundant. We map out the region of phase space in which terrestrial planets keep hydrogen-rich atmospheres, which is what we actually want to know for habitability. We will use this framework to reassess Tian et al's hypothesis that H2-rich atmospheres may have been rather long-lived on Earth itself. Finally, we will address the empirical observation that rocky planets with thin or negligible atmospheres are rarely or never bigger than 1.6 Earth radii.

  18. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF THE CLIMATE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS AROUND DIFFERENT MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E.

    2016-01-01

    The climatic evolution of the Earth depends strongly on the evolution of the insolation from the Sun and the amount of the greenhouse gasses, especially CO_2 in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the evolution of the climate of hypothetical Earths around stars whose masses are different from the solar mass with a luminosity evolution model of the stars, a mantle degassing model coupled with a parameterized convection model of the planetary interiors, and an energy balance climate model of the planetary surface. In the habitable zone (HZ), the climate of the planets is initially warm or hot, depending on the orbital semimajor axes. We found that, in the inner HZ, the climate of the planets becomes hotter with time owing to the increase in the luminosity of the central stars, while, in the outer HZ, it becomes colder and eventually globally ice-covered owing to the decrease in the CO_2 degassing rate of the planets. The orbital condition for maintaining the warm climate similar to the present Earth becomes very limited, and more interestingly, the planet orbiting in the outer HZ becomes globally ice-covered after a certain critical age (∼3 Gyr for the hypothetical Earth with standard parameters), irrespective of the mass of the central star. This is because the critical age depends on the evolution of the planets and planetary factors, rather than on the stellar mass. The habitability of the Earth-like planet is shown to be limited with age even though it is orbiting within the HZ.

  19. GEODYNAMICS AND RATE OF VOLCANISM ON MASSIVE EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kite, E. S.; Manga, M.; Gaidos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We provide estimates of volcanism versus time for planets with Earth-like composition and masses 0.25-25 M + , as a step toward predicting atmospheric mass on extrasolar rocky planets. Volcanism requires melting of the silicate mantle. We use a thermal evolution model, calibrated against Earth, in combination with standard melting models, to explore the dependence of convection-driven decompression mantle melting on planet mass. We show that (1) volcanism is likely to proceed on massive planets with plate tectonics over the main-sequence lifetime of the parent star; (2) crustal thickness (and melting rate normalized to planet mass) is weakly dependent on planet mass; (3) stagnant lid planets live fast (they have higher rates of melting than their plate tectonic counterparts early in their thermal evolution), but die young (melting shuts down after a few Gyr); (4) plate tectonics may not operate on high-mass planets because of the production of buoyant crust which is difficult to subduct; and (5) melting is necessary but insufficient for efficient volcanic degassing-volatiles partition into the earliest, deepest melts, which may be denser than the residue and sink to the base of the mantle on young, massive planets. Magma must also crystallize at or near the surface, and the pressure of overlying volatiles must be fairly low, if volatiles are to reach the surface. If volcanism is detected in the 10 Gyr-old τ Ceti system, and tidal forcing can be shown to be weak, this would be evidence for plate tectonics.

  20. Conditions for oceans on Earth-like planets orbiting within the habitable zone: importance of volcanic CO2 degassing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E.

    2014-01-01

    Earth-like planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been considered to have warm climates and liquid water on their surfaces if the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working as on Earth. However, it is known that even the present Earth may be globally ice-covered when the rate of CO 2 degassing via volcanism becomes low. Here we discuss the climates of Earth-like planets in which the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working, with focusing particularly on insolation and the CO 2 degassing rate. The climate of Earth-like planets within the HZ can be classified into three climate modes (hot, warm, and snowball climate modes). We found that the conditions for the existence of liquid water should be largely restricted even when the planet is orbiting within the HZ and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working. We show that these conditions should depend strongly on the rate of CO 2 degassing via volcanism. It is, therefore, suggested that thermal evolution of the planetary interiors will be a controlling factor for Earth-like planets to have liquid water on their surface.

  1. The Earth as a Distant Planet A Rosetta Stone for the Search of Earth-Like Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez, M; Montañés Rodríguez, P

    2010-01-01

    Is the Earth, in some way, special? Or is our planet but one of the millions of other inhabited planets within our galaxy? This is an exciting time to be asking this old question, because for the first time in history, the answer is within reach. In The Earth as a Distant Planet, the authors set themselves as external observers of our Solar System from an astronomical distance. From that perspective, the authors describe how the Earth, the third planet in distance to the central star, can be catalogued as having its own unique features and as capable of sustaining life. The knowledge gained from this original perspective is then applied to the ongoing search for planets outside the solar system, or exoplanets. Since the discovery in 1992 of the first exoplanet, the number of known planets has increased exponentially. Ambitious space missions are already being designed for the characterization of their atmospheres and to explore the possibility that they host life. The exploration of Earth and the rest of the ...

  2. Characterising the three-dimensional ozone distribution of a tidally locked Earth-like planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proedrou, Elisavet; Hocke, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    We simulate the 3D ozone distribution of a tidally locked Earth-like exoplanet using the high-resolution, 3D chemistry-climate model CESM1(WACCM) and study how the ozone layer of a tidally locked Earth (TLE) (Ω _{TLE}= 1/365 days) differs from that of our present-day Earth (PDE) (Ω _{PDE}= 1/1 day). The middle atmosphere reaches a steady state asymptotically within the first 80 days of the simulation. An upwelling, centred on the subsolar point, is present on the day side while a downwelling, centred on the antisolar point, is present on the night side. In the mesosphere, we find similar global ozone distributions for the TLE and the PDE, with decreased ozone on the day side and enhanced ozone on the night side. In the lower mesosphere, a jet stream transitions into a large-scale vortex around a low-pressure system, located at low latitudes of the TLE night side. In the middle stratosphere, the concentration of odd oxygen is approximately equal to that of the ozone [({O}x) ≈ ({O}3)]. At these altitudes, the lifetime of odd oxygen is ˜16 h and the transport processes significantly contribute to the global distribution of stratospheric ozone. Compared to the PDE, where the strong Coriolis force acts as a mixing barrier between low and high latitudes, the transport processes of the TLE are governed by jet streams variable in the zonal and meridional directions. In the middle stratosphere of the TLE, we find high ozone values on the day side, due to the increased production of atomic oxygen on the day side, where it immediately recombines with molecular oxygen to form ozone. In contrast, the ozone is depleted on the night side, due to changes in the solar radiation distribution and the presence of a downwelling. As a result of the reduced Coriolis force, the tropical and extratropical air masses are well mixed and the global temperature distribution of the TLE stratosphere has smaller horizontal gradients than the PDE. Compared to the PDE, the total ozone column

  3. THERMAL PHASES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS: ESTIMATING THERMAL INERTIA FROM ECCENTRICITY, OBLIQUITY, AND DIURNAL FORCING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: n-cowan@nortwestern.edu [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3 Multiplication-Sign the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A

  4. THERMAL PHASES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS: ESTIMATING THERMAL INERTIA FROM ECCENTRICITY, OBLIQUITY, AND DIURNAL FORCING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Voigt, Aiko; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3× the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A pole-on observer

  5. The Universe Going Green: Extraordinarily Strong [OIII]5007 in Typical Dwarf Galaxies at z~3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Cohen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We constructed the average SEDs of U-dropout galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. This sample contains more than 5000 Lyman-break galaxies at z~3. Their average near- and mid-IR colors were obtained by stacking JHK and IRAC imaging, in bins of stellar mass. At the lowest mass bins an increasingly strong excess flux is seen in the K filter. This excess can reach 1 magnitude in the broadband filter, and we attribute it to strong \\OIII $\\lambda{5007}$ line emission. The equivalent width is extraordinarily high, reaching almost 1000\\Ang\\ for the average z=3 galaxy at an i magnitude of 27. Such extreme [OIII] emission is very rare in the current epoch, only seen in a handful of metal-deficient dwarf starbursts sometimes referred to as ''Green Peas". In contrast, extreme [OIII]--strong enough to dominate the entire broad-band SED--was evidently the norm for faint galaxies at high redshift. We present evidence that these small but numerous galaxies were primarily responsible for the reionization of the Universe.

  6. Biomarker response to galactic cosmic ray-induced NOx and the methane greenhouse effect in the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet orbiting an M dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, John Lee; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Patzer, Beate; Rauer, Heike; Segura, Antigona; Stadelmann, Anja; Stracke, Barbara; Titz, Ruth; Von Paris, Philip

    2007-02-01

    Planets orbiting in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars are subject to high levels of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), which produce nitrogen oxides (NOx) in Earth-like atmospheres. We investigate to what extent these NO(Mx) species may modify biomarker compounds such as ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as related compounds such as water (H2O) (essential for life) and methane (CH4) (which has both abiotic and biotic sources). Our model results suggest that such signals are robust, changing in the M star world atmospheric column due to GCR NOx effects by up to 20% compared to an M star run without GCR effects, and can therefore survive at least the effects of GCRs. We have not, however, investigated stellar cosmic rays here. CH4 levels are about 10 times higher on M star worlds than on Earth because of a lowering in hydroxyl (OH) in response to changes in the ultraviolet. The higher levels of CH4 are less than reported in previous studies. This difference arose partly because we used different biogenic input. For example, we employed 23% lower CH4 fluxes compared to those studies. Unlike on Earth, relatively modest changes in these fluxes can lead to larger changes in the concentrations of biomarker and related species on the M star world. We calculate a CH4 greenhouse heating effect of up to 4K. O3 photochemistry in terms of the smog mechanism and the catalytic loss cycles on the M star world differs considerably compared with that of Earth.

  7. Climate of Earth-Like Planets With and Without Ocean Heat Transport Orbiting a Range of M and K Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Jablonski, Emma R.; Way, Michael J.; Del Genio, Anthony; Roberge, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The mean surface temperature of a planet is now acknowledged as insufficient to surmise its full potential habitability. Advancing our understanding requires exploration with 3D general circulation models (GCMs), which can take into account how gradients and fluxes across a planet's surface influence the distribution of heat, clouds, and the potential for heterogeneous distribution of liquid water. Here we present 3D GCM simulations of the effects of alternative stellar spectra, instellation, model resolution, and ocean heat transport, on the simulated distribution of heat and moisture of an Earth-like planet (ELP).

  8. Development of a model to compute the extension of life supporting zones for Earth-like exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, David; Vrtala, Aron; Leitner, Johannes J; Firneis, Maria G; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2011-12-01

    A radiative convective model to calculate the width and the location of the life supporting zone (LSZ) for different, alternative solvents (i.e. other than water) is presented. This model can be applied to the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in the solar system as well as (hypothetical, Earth-like) terrestrial exoplanets. Cloud droplet formation and growth are investigated using a cloud parcel model. Clouds can be incorporated into the radiative transfer calculations. Test runs for Earth, Mars and Titan show a good agreement of model results with observations.

  9. DETECTABILITY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS IN CIRCUMSTELLAR HABITABLE ZONES OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS WITH SUN-LIKE COMPONENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Given the considerable percentage of stars that are members of binaries or stellar multiples in the solar neighborhood, it is expected that many of these binaries host planets, possibly even habitable ones. The discovery of a terrestrial planet in the α Centauri system supports this notion. Due to the potentially strong gravitational interaction that an Earth-like planet may experience in such systems, classical approaches to determining habitable zones (HZ), especially in close S-type binary systems, can be rather inaccurate. Recent progress in this field, however, allows us to identify regions around the star permitting permanent habitability. While the discovery of α Cen Bb has shown that terrestrial planets can be detected in solar-type binary stars using current observational facilities, it remains to be shown whether this is also the case for Earth analogs in HZs. We provide analytical expressions for the maximum and rms values of radial velocity and astrometric signals, as well as transit probabilities of terrestrial planets in such systems, showing that the dynamical interaction of the second star with the planet may indeed facilitate the planets' detection. As an example, we discuss the detectability of additional Earth-like planets in the averaged, extended, and permanent HZs around both stars of the α Centauri system.

  10. DETECTABILITY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS IN CIRCUMSTELLAR HABITABLE ZONES OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS WITH SUN-LIKE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke [University of Vienna, Institute for Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: siegfried.eggl@univie.ac.at [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Given the considerable percentage of stars that are members of binaries or stellar multiples in the solar neighborhood, it is expected that many of these binaries host planets, possibly even habitable ones. The discovery of a terrestrial planet in the {alpha} Centauri system supports this notion. Due to the potentially strong gravitational interaction that an Earth-like planet may experience in such systems, classical approaches to determining habitable zones (HZ), especially in close S-type binary systems, can be rather inaccurate. Recent progress in this field, however, allows us to identify regions around the star permitting permanent habitability. While the discovery of {alpha} Cen Bb has shown that terrestrial planets can be detected in solar-type binary stars using current observational facilities, it remains to be shown whether this is also the case for Earth analogs in HZs. We provide analytical expressions for the maximum and rms values of radial velocity and astrometric signals, as well as transit probabilities of terrestrial planets in such systems, showing that the dynamical interaction of the second star with the planet may indeed facilitate the planets' detection. As an example, we discuss the detectability of additional Earth-like planets in the averaged, extended, and permanent HZs around both stars of the {alpha} Centauri system.

  11. Understanding the Role of Air-Sea Interaction on Extreme Rainfall in Aquaplanet and Earth-like CESM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, J. J.; Clement, A. C.; Medeiros, B.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events are associated with anomalous, latitudinally dependent dynamical and convective weather systems. For example, plumes of excessive poleward water vapor transport and topographical effects drive extreme precipitation events in the midlatitudes, while intense tropical precipitation is associated with organized convective systems. In both cases, air-sea fluxes have the potential to contribute significantly to the moisture budget of these storms, but the roles of surface fluxes and upper-ocean processes and their impact on precipitation extremes have yet to be explored in sufficient detail. To examine such mechanisms, we implement a climate model hierarchy that encompasses a spectrum of ocean models, from prescribed-SST to fully dynamic, as well as both aquaplanet and Earth-like lower boundary types within version 2 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM2). Using the CESM2 hierarchy and comparing to observations, we identify key moisture processes and related air-sea interactions that drive extreme precipitation events across different latitudes in Earth-like models and then generalize the analyses in aquaplanet configurations to highlight the most salient features. The analyses are applied to both present-day and global warming conditions to investigate how these fundamental mechanisms might change extreme precipitation events in the future climate.

  12. Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M ⊙ planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M ⊙  < M < 1.64 M ⊙ . Key Words: Habitability-Habitable zone-Anthropic-Red dwarfs-Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61-77.

  13. On the feasibility of studying the exospheres of Earth-like exoplanets by Lyman- α monitoring. Detectability constraints for nearby M stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana I. Gómez de; Beitia-Antero, Leire; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2018-04-01

    Observations of the Earth's exosphere have unveiled an extended envelope of hydrogen reaching further than 10 Earth radii composed of atoms orbiting around the Earth. This large envelope increases significantly the opacity of the Earth to Lyman α (Ly α) photons coming from the Sun, to the point of making feasible the detection of the Earth's transit signature from 1.35 pc if pointing with an 8 meter primary mirror space telescope through a clean line of sight ( N H flux variability. We show that, in spite of the interstellar, heliospheric and astrospheric absorption, the transit signature in M5 V type stars would be detectable with a dedicated Ly α flux monitor implemented in a 4-8 m class space telescope. Such monitoring programs would enable measuring the robustness of planetary atmospheres under heavy space weather conditions like those produced by M-type stars. A 2-m class telescope, such as the World Space Observatory, would suffice to detect an Earth-like planet orbiting around Proxima Centauri, if there was such a planet or nearby M5 type stars.

  14. The O2 A-Band in the Fluxes and Polarization of Starlight Reflected by Earth-Like Exoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchez, Thomas; Rossi, Loic; Stam, Daphne M.

    2017-01-01

    Earth-like, potentially habitable exoplanets are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life. Information about their atmospheres and surfaces can be derived by analyzing the light of the parent star reflected by the planet. We investigate the influence of the surface albedo A s , the optical thickness b cloud , the altitude of water clouds, and the mixing ratio of biosignature O 2 on the strength of the O 2 A-band (around 760 nm) in the flux and polarization spectra of starlight reflected by Earth-like exoplanets. Our computations for horizontally homogeneous planets show that small mixing ratios ( η < 0.4) will yield moderately deep bands in flux and moderate-to-small band strengths in polarization, and that clouds will usually decrease the band depth in flux and the band strength in polarization. However, cloud influence will be strongly dependent on properties such as optical thickness, top altitude, particle phase, coverage fraction, and horizontal distribution. Depending on the surface albedo and cloud properties, different O 2 mixing ratios η can give similar absorption-band depths in flux and band strengths in polarization, especially if the clouds have moderate-to-high optical thicknesses. Measuring both the flux and the polarization is essential to reduce the degeneracies, although it will not solve them, especially not for horizontally inhomogeneous planets. Observations at a wide range of phase angles and with a high temporal resolution could help to derive cloud properties and, once those are known, the mixing ratio of O 2 or any other absorbing gas.

  15. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  16. Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, Timothy A; Deming, L Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Meadows, Victoria S; Robinson, Tyler D; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-11-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission observed the disc-integrated Earth and Moon to test techniques for reconnoitering extrasolar terrestrial planets, using the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to observe Earth at the beginning and end of Northern Hemisphere spring, 2008, from a range of ∼1/6 to 1/3 AU. These observations furnish high-precision and high-cadence empirical photometry and spectroscopy of Earth, suitable as "ground truth" for numerically simulating realistic observational scenarios for an Earth-like exoplanet with finite signal-to-noise ratio. Earth was observed at near-equatorial sub-spacecraft latitude on 18-19 March, 28-29 May, and 4-5 June (UT), in the range of 372-4540 nm wavelength with low visible resolving power (λ/Δλ=5-13) and moderate IR resolving power (λ/Δλ=215-730). Spectrophotometry in seven filters yields light curves at ∼372-948 nm filter-averaged wavelength, modulated by Earth's rotation with peak-to-peak amplitude of ≤20%. The spatially resolved Sun glint is a minor contributor to disc-integrated reflectance. Spectroscopy at 1100-4540 nm reveals gaseous water and carbon dioxide, with minor features of molecular oxygen, methane, and nitrous oxide. One-day changes in global cloud cover resulted in differences between the light curve beginning and end of ≤5%. The light curve of a lunar transit of Earth on 29 May is color-dependent due to the Moon's red spectrum partially occulting Earth's relatively blue spectrum. The "vegetation red edge" spectral contrast observed between two long-wavelength visible/near-IR bands is ambiguous, not clearly distinguishing between the verdant Earth diluted by cloud cover versus the desolate mineral regolith of the Moon. Spectrophotometry in at least one other comparison band at short wavelength is required to distinguish between Earth-like and Moon-like surfaces in reconnaissance observations. However, measurements at 850 nm alone, the high-reflectance side of the red edge, could be sufficient to

  17. COLORS OF A SECOND EARTH: ESTIMATING THE FRACTIONAL AREAS OF OCEAN, LAND, AND VEGETATION OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, Hajime; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Fukuda, Satoru; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Turner, Edwin L.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the surfaces of rocky exoplanets via their scattered light will be an essential challenge in investigating their habitability and the possible existence of life on their surfaces. We present a reconstruction method for fractional areas of different surface types from the colors of an Earth-like exoplanet. We create mock light curves for Earth without clouds using empirical data. These light curves are fitted to an isotropic scattering model consisting of four surface types: ocean, soil, snow, and vegetation. In an idealized situation where the photometric errors are only photon shot noise, we are able to reproduce the fractional areas of those components fairly well. The results offer some hope for detection of vegetation via the distinct spectral feature of photosynthesis on Earth, known as the red edge. In our reconstruction method, Rayleigh scattering due to the atmosphere plays an important role, and for terrestrial exoplanets with an atmosphere similar to our Earth, it is possible to estimate the presence of oceans and an atmosphere simultaneously.

  18. The Carbonate-Silicate Cycle on Earth-like Planets Near The End Of Their Habitable Lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, A. J.; Mills, B.; Johnson, M.; Claire, M.

    2016-12-01

    The terrestrial cycle of silicate weathering and metamorphic outgassing buffers atmospheric CO2 and global climate over geological time on Earth. To first order, the operation of this cycle is assumed to occur on Earth-like planets in the orbit of other main-sequence stars in the galaxy that exhibit similar continent/ocean configurations. This has important implications for studies of planetary habitability, atmospheric and climatic evolution, and our understanding of the potential distribution of life in the Universe. We present results from a simple biogeochemical carbon cycle model developed to investigate the operation of the carbonate-silicate cycle under conditions of differing planet mass and position within the radiative habitable zone. An active carbonate-silicate cycle does extend the length of a planet's habitable period through the regulation of the CO2 greenhouse. However, the breakdown of the negative feedback between temperature, pCO2, and weathering rates towards the end of a planet's habitable lifespan results in a transitory regime of `carbon starvation' that would inhibit the ability of oxygenic photoautotrophs to metabolize, and result in the collapse of any putative biosphere supported by these organisms, suggesting an earlier limit for the initiation of inhabitable conditions than when considering temperature alone. This conclusion stresses the importance of considering the full suite of planetary properties when determining potential habitability. A small sample of exoplanets was tested using this model, and the length of their habitable periods were found to be significantly longer than that of the Earth, primarily as a function of the differential rates of stellar evolution expected from their host stars. Furthermore, we carried out statistical analysis of a series of model input parameters, determining that both the mass of the planet and the sensitivity of seafloor weathering processes to dissolved CO2 exhibit significant controls on the

  19. Conditions for oceans on Earth-like planets orbiting within the habitable zone: importance of volcanic CO{sub 2} degassing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Kiban Bldg. 408, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Tajika, E., E-mail: kadoya@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tajika@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kiban Bldg. 409, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Earth-like planets in the habitable zone (HZ) have been considered to have warm climates and liquid water on their surfaces if the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working as on Earth. However, it is known that even the present Earth may be globally ice-covered when the rate of CO{sub 2} degassing via volcanism becomes low. Here we discuss the climates of Earth-like planets in which the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working, with focusing particularly on insolation and the CO{sub 2} degassing rate. The climate of Earth-like planets within the HZ can be classified into three climate modes (hot, warm, and snowball climate modes). We found that the conditions for the existence of liquid water should be largely restricted even when the planet is orbiting within the HZ and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle is working. We show that these conditions should depend strongly on the rate of CO{sub 2} degassing via volcanism. It is, therefore, suggested that thermal evolution of the planetary interiors will be a controlling factor for Earth-like planets to have liquid water on their surface.

  20. The Sustainability of Habitability on Terrestrial Planets: Insights, Questions, and Needed Measurements from Mars for Understanding the Evolution of Earth-Like Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Anderson, F. S.; Andrews-Hanna, J.; Catling, D. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Cohen, B. A.; Dressing, C. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Farley, K. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    What allows a planet to be both within a potentially habitable zone and sustain habitability over long geologic time? With the advent of exoplanetary astronomy and the ongoing discovery of terrestrial-type planets around other stars, our own solar system becomes a key testing ground for ideas about what factors control planetary evolution. Mars provides the solar systems longest record of the interplay of the physical and chemical processes relevant to habitability on an accessible rocky planet with an atmosphere and hydrosphere. Here we review current understanding and update the timeline of key processes in early Mars history. We then draw on knowledge of exoplanets and the other solar system terrestrial planets to identify six broad questions of high importance to the development and sustaining of habitability (unprioritized): (1) Is small planetary size fatal? (2) How do magnetic fields influence atmospheric evolution? (3) To what extent does starting composition dictate subsequent evolution, including redox processes and the availability of water and organics? (4) Does early impact bombardment have a net deleterious or beneficial influence? (5) How do planetary climates respond to stellar evolution, e.g., sustaining early liquid water in spite of a faint young Sun? (6) How important are the timescales of climate forcing and their dynamical drivers? Finally, we suggest crucial types of Mars measurements (unprioritized) to address these questions: (1) in situ petrology at multiple units/sites; (2) continued quantification of volatile reservoirs and new isotopic measurements of H, C, N, O, S, Cl, and noble gases in rocks that sample multiple stratigraphic sections; (3) radiometric age dating of units in stratigraphic sections and from key volcanic and impact units; (4) higher-resolution measurements of heat flux, subsurface structure, and magnetic field anomalies coupled with absolute age dating. Understanding the evolution of early Mars will feed forward to understanding the factors driving the divergent evolutionary paths of the Earth, Venus, and thousands of small rocky extra solar planets yet to be discovered.

  1. Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: Composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Chopra, Nidhi; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2017-10-01

    Hard wheat (HW), medium-hard wheat (MHW) and extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex-SW) varieties with grain hardness index (GHI) of 83 to 95, 72 to 80, 17 to 29 were evaluated for pasting, protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, dough rheology and baking properties. Flours from varieties with higher GHI had more protein content, ash content and paste viscosities. Ex-SW had more glutenins proportion as compared to HW and MHW. Flours from Ex-SW varieties showed lower NaSRC, WA and mixographic parameters as compared to HW and MHW. Dough from flours milled from Ex-SW had higher Intermolecular-β-sheets (IM-β-sheets) than those from MHW and HW. Muffins volume increased with decrease in GHI, Ex-SW varieties had more muffin volume and less air space. The accumulation of polypeptides (PPs) varied significantly in different varieties. Ex-SW variety (QBP12-10) showed accumulation of 98, 90, 81 and 79kDa PPs, which was unique and was different from other varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatigue and Use of Go/Nogo Pills in F-16 Pilots Subjected to Extraordinarily Long Combat Sorties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Darlene

    2004-01-01

    We lack knowledge of real world pilot fatigue and use of GO/NOGO pills. To analyze this, a forward-deployed flight surgeon studied fighter pilots subjected to combat sorties often longer than 8 hours in duration. Methods...

  3. The O{sub 2} A-Band in the Fluxes and Polarization of Starlight Reflected by Earth-Like Exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchez, Thomas [Laboratoire d’Optique Atmosphèrique (LOA), UMR 8518, Université Lille 1, Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Rossi, Loic; Stam, Daphne M. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2017-06-10

    Earth-like, potentially habitable exoplanets are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life. Information about their atmospheres and surfaces can be derived by analyzing the light of the parent star reflected by the planet. We investigate the influence of the surface albedo A {sub s}, the optical thickness b {sub cloud}, the altitude of water clouds, and the mixing ratio of biosignature O{sub 2} on the strength of the O{sub 2} A-band (around 760 nm) in the flux and polarization spectra of starlight reflected by Earth-like exoplanets. Our computations for horizontally homogeneous planets show that small mixing ratios ( η < 0.4) will yield moderately deep bands in flux and moderate-to-small band strengths in polarization, and that clouds will usually decrease the band depth in flux and the band strength in polarization. However, cloud influence will be strongly dependent on properties such as optical thickness, top altitude, particle phase, coverage fraction, and horizontal distribution. Depending on the surface albedo and cloud properties, different O{sub 2} mixing ratios η can give similar absorption-band depths in flux and band strengths in polarization, especially if the clouds have moderate-to-high optical thicknesses. Measuring both the flux and the polarization is essential to reduce the degeneracies, although it will not solve them, especially not for horizontally inhomogeneous planets. Observations at a wide range of phase angles and with a high temporal resolution could help to derive cloud properties and, once those are known, the mixing ratio of O{sub 2} or any other absorbing gas.

  4. Abiotic production of nitrous oxide by lightning. Implications for a false positive identification of life on Earth-Like Planets around quiescent M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.

    Nitrous oxide (N _{2}O) is uniformly mixed in the troposphere with a concentration of about 310 ppb but disappears in the stratosphere (Prinn et al., 1990); N _{2}O is mostly emitted at a rate of 1x10 (13) g yr (-1) as a byproduct of microbial activity in soils and in the ocean by two processes: a) denitrification (reduction of nitrate and nitrite), and b) nitrification (oxidation of ammonia) (Maag and Vinther, 1996). The abiotic emission of N _{2}O in the contemporaneous Earth is small, mostly arising from lightning activity (2x10 (9) g yr (-1) , Hill et al., 1984) and by reduction of nitrite by Fe(II)-minerals in soils in Antarctica (Samarkin et al., 2010). Since N _{2}O has absorption bands in the mid-IR (7.8, 8.5, and 17 mumm) that makes it detectable by remote sensing (Topfer et al., 1997; Des Marais et al., 2002), it has been suggested as a potential biosignature in the search for life in extrasolar planets (Churchill and Kasting, 2000). However, the minimum required concentration for positive identification is 10,000 ppb with missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin (Churchill and Kasting, 2000). Therefore, it is not a suitable biomarker for extrasolar Earth-like planets orbiting stars similar to the Sun. Because N _{2}O is protected in the troposphere from UV photolysis by the stratospheric ozone layer, its concentration would decrease with decreasing oxygen (O _{2}) concentrations, if the biological source strength remains constant (Kasting and Donahue, 1980). For a primitive Earth-like (Hadean) atmosphere dominated by CO _{2}, and no free O _{2}, the expected N _{2}O concentration would be about 3 ppb with the current microbial N _{2}O flux (Churchill and Kasting, 2000). The resulting N _{2}O spectral signature of this atmosphere would be undetectable unless the N _{2}O microbial flux would be 10 (4) greater than its present value (Churchill and Kasting, 2000). Since this flux is unlikely, it is impossible to use it as a biomarker in anoxic CO

  5. Never Marry a Woman with Big Feet : Women in Proverbs from Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Mineke

    2006-01-01

    Winner of the Dutch 2005 Eureka! prize for best non-fiction title The jury about the book: "A revealing and at the same time extraordinarily funny book" In cultures all over the globe, sex and gender issues have been expressed in proverbs, the world's smallest literary genre. This irresistible book

  6. The effect of a strong stellar flare on the atmospheric chemistry of an earth-like planet orbiting an M dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Antígona; Walkowicz, Lucianne M; Meadows, Victoria; Kasting, James; Hawley, Suzanne

    2010-09-01

    Main sequence M stars pose an interesting problem for astrobiology: their abundance in our galaxy makes them likely targets in the hunt for habitable planets, but their strong chromospheric activity produces high-energy radiation and charged particles that may be detrimental to life. We studied the impact of the 1985 April 12 flare from the M dwarf AD Leonis (AD Leo), simulating the effects from both UV radiation and protons on the atmospheric chemistry of a hypothetical, Earth-like planet located within its habitable zone. Based on observations of solar proton events and the Neupert effect, we estimated a proton flux associated with the flare of 5.9 × 10⁸ protons cm⁻² sr⁻¹ s⁻¹ for particles with energies >10 MeV. Then we calculated the abundance of nitrogen oxides produced by the flare by scaling the production of these compounds during a large solar proton event called the Carrington event. The simulations were performed with a 1-D photochemical model coupled to a 1-D radiative/convective model. Our results indicate that the UV radiation emitted during the flare does not produce a significant change in the ozone column depth of the planet. When the action of protons is included, the ozone depletion reaches a maximum of 94% two years after the flare for a planet with no magnetic field. At the peak of the flare, the calculated UV fluxes that reach the surface, in the wavelength ranges that are damaging for life, exceed those received on Earth during less than 100 s. Therefore, flares may not present a direct hazard for life on the surface of an orbiting habitable planet. Given that AD Leo is one of the most magnetically active M dwarfs known, this conclusion should apply to planets around other M dwarfs with lower levels of chromospheric activity.

  7. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M; Harman, Chester E

    2014-09-02

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, S(eff), the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus--1.78; runaway greenhouse--1.04; moist greenhouse--1.01; maximum greenhouse--0.35; and early Mars--0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

  8. Response of atmospheric biomarkers to NO(x)-induced photochemistry generated by stellar cosmic rays for earth-like planets in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, John Lee; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; von Paris, Philip; Patzer, A Beate C; Lammer, Helmut; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Schreier, Franz; Rauer, Heike

    2012-12-01

    Understanding whether M dwarf stars may host habitable planets with Earth-like atmospheres and biospheres is a major goal in exoplanet research. If such planets exist, the question remains as to whether they could be identified via spectral signatures of biomarkers. Such planets may be exposed to extreme intensities of cosmic rays that could perturb their atmospheric photochemistry. Here, we consider stellar activity of M dwarfs ranging from quiet up to strong flaring conditions and investigate one particular effect upon biomarkers, namely, the ability of secondary electrons caused by stellar cosmic rays to break up atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which leads to production of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) in the planetary atmosphere, hence affecting biomarkers such as ozone (O(3)). We apply a stationary model, that is, without a time dependence; hence we are calculating the limiting case where the atmospheric chemistry response time of the biomarkers is assumed to be slow and remains constant compared with rapid forcing by the impinging stellar flares. This point should be further explored in future work with time-dependent models. We estimate the NO(x) production using an air shower approach and evaluate the implications using a climate-chemical model of the planetary atmosphere. O(3) formation proceeds via the reaction O+O(2)+M→O(3)+M. At high NO(x) abundances, the O atoms arise mainly from NO(2) photolysis, whereas on Earth this occurs via the photolysis of molecular oxygen (O(2)). For the flaring case, O(3) is mainly destroyed via direct titration, NO+O(3)→NO(2)+O(2), and not via the familiar catalytic cycle photochemistry, which occurs on Earth. For scenarios with low O(3), Rayleigh scattering by the main atmospheric gases (O(2), N(2), and CO(2)) became more important for shielding the planetary surface from UV radiation. A major result of this work is that the biomarker O(3) survived all the stellar-activity scenarios considered except for the strong

  9. Response of Atmospheric Biomarkers to NOx-Induced Photochemistry Generated by Stellar Cosmic Rays for Earth-like Planets in the Habitable Zone of M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; von Paris, Philip; Patzer, A. Beate C.; Lammer, Helmut; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Schreier, Franz; Rauer, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Understanding whether M dwarf stars may host habitable planets with Earth-like atmospheres and biospheres is a major goal in exoplanet research. If such planets exist, the question remains as to whether they could be identified via spectral signatures of biomarkers. Such planets may be exposed to extreme intensities of cosmic rays that could perturb their atmospheric photochemistry. Here, we consider stellar activity of M dwarfs ranging from quiet up to strong flaring conditions and investigate one particular effect upon biomarkers, namely, the ability of secondary electrons caused by stellar cosmic rays to break up atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N2), which leads to production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the planetary atmosphere, hence affecting biomarkers such as ozone (O3). We apply a stationary model, that is, without a time dependence; hence we are calculating the limiting case where the atmospheric chemistry response time of the biomarkers is assumed to be slow and remains constant compared with rapid forcing by the impinging stellar flares. This point should be further explored in future work with time-dependent models. We estimate the NOx production using an air shower approach and evaluate the implications using a climate-chemical model of the planetary atmosphere. O3 formation proceeds via the reaction O+O2+M→O3+M. At high NOx abundances, the O atoms arise mainly from NO2 photolysis, whereas on Earth this occurs via the photolysis of molecular oxygen (O2). For the flaring case, O3 is mainly destroyed via direct titration, NO+O3→NO2+O2, and not via the familiar catalytic cycle photochemistry, which occurs on Earth. For scenarios with low O3, Rayleigh scattering by the main atmospheric gases (O2, N2, and CO2) became more important for shielding the planetary surface from UV radiation. A major result of this work is that the biomarker O3 survived all the stellar-activity scenarios considered except for the strong case, whereas the biomarker

  10. Light and shadow from distant worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara

    2009-11-19

    Exoplanets are distant worlds that orbit stars other than our Sun. More than 370 such planets are known, and a growing fraction of them are discovered because they transit their star as seen from Earth. The special transit geometry enables us to measure masses and radii for dozens of planets, and we have identified gases in the atmospheres of several giant ones. Within the next decade, we expect to find and study a 'habitable' rocky planet transiting a cool red dwarf star close to our Sun. Eventually, we will be able to image the light from an Earth-like world orbiting a nearby solar-type star.

  11. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  12. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  13. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  14. Titan the earth-like moon

    CERN Document Server

    Coustenis, Athena

    1999-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with Titan, one of the most mysterious bodies in the solar system. The largest satellite of the giant planet Saturn, Titan is itself larger than the planet Mercury, and is unique in being the only known moon with a thick atmosphere. In addition, its atmosphere bears a startling resemblance to the Earth's, but is much colder.The American and European space agencies, NASA and ESA, have recently combined efforts to send a huge robot spacecraft to orbit Saturn and land on Titan. This book provides the background to this, the greatest deep space venture of our time, a

  15. A small trip in the quantum world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, E.

    2004-01-01

    In 1905 a new physics was born: quantum mechanics that opened the way to the infinitely small made of atoms, particles and their interactions. For the first time in the history of sciences a discipline has required a thorough work of interpretation before being understood and applied. The author reviews the different interpretations and their inferences that have been postulated since the very beginning of quantum physics. Despite endless discussions about the true nature of quantum physics, this branch of physics remains an extraordinarily efficient tool to explain the world and has produced promising applications from laser to cryptography and to computers. The author describes all the challenges that have faced physicists concerning quantum physics among them: the wave-particle duality, the concept of reality, the significance of measuring or the collapse of the wave packet. (A.C.)

  16. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  17. Command World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leah Y; Lange, Douglas S; Sebastyn, Jerome T; Roof, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The Command World scenario was expressly designed as a crisis action planning exercise in order to replicate the communications, collaboration, and information requirements inherent in a military...

  18. Extraordinarily Egyptian Jewelry Fit for a Pharaoh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Berniece

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for sixth-grade students in which the students study the Egyptians' jewelry techniques and designs and create their own amulets. Provides background information on the importance of life after death to the Egyptians and how religion influenced the designing of their amulets. Describes the jewelry-making procedure. (CMK)

  19. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  20. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  1. World energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Three major concerns face mankind's future: the impending energy crisis as caused by the depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves, world atmospheric pollution as caused by the burning of these fuels, and mankind's destruction if the vast energy contained in nuclear weapons stockpiles is released in a global conflict. This paper describes an ambitious, combined solution to these problems by the use of deep underground detonations of thermonuclear devices/bombs to provide a virtually pollution free, world energy source into the far distant future, while achieving a significant increase in mutual trust between the superpowers and all nations. The key is believed to be thermonuclear geothermal stimulation to produce the electrical power needed for a hydrogen economy

  2. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, H.

    1977-01-01

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP) [de

  3. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  4. Quantum Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Barrett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p45 Because of the conceptual difficulties it faces, quantum mechanics provides a salient example of how alternative metaphysical commitments may clarify our understanding of a physical theory and the explanations it provides. Here we will consider how postulating alternative quantum worlds in the context of Hugh Everett III’s pure wave mechanics may serve to explain determinate measurement records and the standard quantum statistics. We will focus on the properties of such worlds, then briefly consider other metaphysical options available for interpreting pure wave mechanics. These reflections will serve to illustrate both the nature and the limits of naturalized metaphysics.

  5. Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K, Peng K

    1980-12-01

    The disparity between the consumption patterns of industrialized and Third World countries reflects an increase in the numbers of people living in poverty who have yet to achieve basic needs. Third World planning, encouraged by transnational companies, too often model their development goals on importing artificial life styles. This exploits poor nations by creating unrealistic demands as well as by creating a market for products that are unacceptable elsewhere. The health and environmental effects of these practices prompted the formation of consumers' association of Penang (CAP), which is trying to make people aware of the need to give basic needs the highest priority. The CAP handles complaints, tests products, and studies the socio-economic-environmental implications of development as well as conducting a far-ranging educational program. Its procedures can be adapted by any country to examine consumer awareness and to press for social reform. (DCK)

  6. 14. Policies and Institutions - Nongovernmental organizations: A growing force in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.; Paden, M.

    1992-01-01

    An extraordinarily diverse and growing body of private organizations now dot the world's institutional landscape, working in a variety of areas such as small-scale local development, the conservation of tropical forests, and sustainable agriculture. Working at many levels, through example or advocacy these groups are influencing the direction of environment and development policy around the world. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are extraordinarily diverse. This chapter provides a few examples to capture some of that diversity, but focuses mainly on the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs, on the relationship between governments and NGOs, and on some emerging trends. The chapter primarily concerns the newly emerging grassroots and service NGOs in developing countries and those Northern NGOs that work extensively in developing countries. Topics discussed are: origins and regional differences (northern NGOs with a mission in the south, Asia, Latin America, Africa); strengths and weaknesses; key organizational factors (getting started, getting bigger, the impact of leadership, the role of women); government-NGO relations; emerging trends (evolving North-South relations, networks and associations - forging larger alliances, the information explosion global networking, new roles for policy research and legal defense)

  7. Recreating the World(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli do Prado Siqueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Created in 2007 , the project extension Itinerant Workshops : recreating the world ( s of the Catholic University of Minas Gerais , Campus Poços de Caldas is an inseparable experience in research of teaching and extension. With this title " recreating worlds " seek to express the experience that has been possible for us to live over the years of execution of this project . Our experience is theoretically referenced by understanding that German thinkers Meister Eckhart (1260-1327 and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976 shows us about what is the man in they on existence. Such an understanding is expressed in the phenomenon of serenity ( Gelassenheit , let it be understood as simply what we are . Our research on this phenomenon Gelassenheit (Serenity , guide the relationships we establish with the external community , where we understand that the existence of man in his essential condition , is a shared existence. The other is imposed on us and we never fail to be sympathetic to their fears and anxieties , because these same fears and anxieties are also ours possibilities . This relationship of consideration makes us all ( teachers , students , community solidarity in our existential angst before the unexpected, the unknown . It is when we can see ourselves through another , in what we truly are and can be.

  8. The search for worlds like our own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; White, Glenn J; Absil, Olivier; Defrère, Denis; Hanot, C; Stam, Daphne; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna; Karlsson, Anders; Gondoin, Phillipe; den Hartog, Roland; D'Arcio, Luigi; Stankov, Anna-Maria; Kilter, Mikael; Erd, Christian; Beichman, Charles; Coulter, Daniel; Danchi, William; Devirian, Michael; Johnston, Kenneth J; Lawson, Peter; Lay, Oliver P; Lunine, Jonathan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets-particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life-constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as stated by Epicurus approximately 300 BC: "Other worlds, with plants and other living things, some of them similar and some of them different from ours, must exist." Demokritos from Abdera (460-370 BC), the man who invented the concept of indivisible small parts-atoms-also held the belief that other worlds exist around the stars and that some of these worlds may be inhabited by life-forms. The idea of the plurality of worlds and of life on them has since been held by scientists like Johannes Kepler and William Herschel, among many others. Here, one must also mention Giordano Bruno. Born in 1548, Bruno studied in France and came into contact with the teachings of Nicolas Copernicus. He wrote the book De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi in 1584, in which he claimed that the Universe was infinite, that it contained an infinite amount of worlds like Earth, and that these worlds were inhabited by intelligent beings. At the time, this was extremely controversial, and eventually Bruno was arrested by the church and burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, as a heretic, for promoting this and other equally confrontational issues (though it is unclear exactly which idea was the one that ultimately brought him to his end). In all the aforementioned cases, the opinions and results were arrived at through reasoning-not by experiment. We have only recently acquired the technological capability to observe planets orbiting stars other than 6 our Sun; acquisition of this capability has been a remarkable feat of our time. We show in this introduction to the Habitability Primer that mankind is at the dawning of an age when, by way of the

  9. The Academic Life: Small Worlds, Different Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, William

    2010-01-01

    "The Academic Life: Small Worlds, Different Worlds" represented an impressive investigation of the largest and most complex national academic community in the world, which seriously attempted a detailed representation of the variations in its form. Its ethnographic orientation to understanding the internal academic life through exploratory…

  10. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  11. Astronomy: A small star with an Earth-like planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    2015-11-01

    A rocky planet close in size to Earth has been discovered in the cosmic vicinity of our Sun. The small size and proximity of the associated star bode well for studies of the planet's atmosphere. See Letter p.204

  12. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  13. Selections from 2017: Atmosphere Around an Earth-Like Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.Detection of the Atmosphere of the 1.6 M Exoplanet GJ 1132 bPublished March2017Main takeaway:An atmosphere was detected around the roughly Earth-size exoplanet GJ 1132 b using a telescope at the European Southern Observatory in Chile. A team of scientists led byJohn Southworth (Keele University) found features indicating the presence of an atmosphere in theobservationsof this 1.6-Earth-mass planet as it transits an M-dwarf host star. This is the lowest-mass planet with a detected atmosphere thus far.Why its interesting:M dwarfs are among the most common stars in our galaxy, and weve found manyEarth-sizeexoplanets in or near the habitable zones around M-dwarf hosts. But M dwarfs are also more magnetically active than stars like our Sun, suggesting that the planets in M-dwarfhabitable zones may not be able to support life due to stellar activity eroding their atmospheres. The detection of an atmosphere around GJ 1132 b suggests that some planets orbiting M dwarfsare able to retain their atmospheres which meansthat these planetsmay be an interesting place to search for life after all.How the atmosphere was detected:The measured planetary radius for GJ 1132 b as a function of the wavelength used to observe it. [Southworth et al. 2017]When measuring the radius of GJ 1132 b based on its transits, the authors noticed that the planet appeared to be largerwhen observed in some wavelengths than in others. This can beexplained if the planet has asurface radius of 1.4 Earth radii, overlaid by an atmosphere that extends out another few tenths of an Earth radius. The atmosphere, which may consist of water vapor or methane, is transparent to some wavelengths and absorbs others which is why the apparent size of the planet changes acrosswavelength bands.CitationJohn Southworth et al 2017 AJ 153 191. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa6477

  14. A Direct Path to Finding Earth-Like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Linder, Don J.

    2009-01-01

    As envisaged by the 2000 astrophysics decadal survey panel: The main goal of Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is nothing less than to search for evidence of life on terrestrial planets around nearby stars . Here, we consider how an optical telescope paired with a free-flying occulter blocking light from the star can reach this goal directly, without knowledge of results from prior astrometric, doppler, or transit exoplanet observations. Using design reference missions and other simulations, we explore the potential of TPF-O to find planets in the habitable zone around their central stars, to spectrally characterize the atmospheres of detected planets, and to obtain rudimentary information about their orbits. We emphasize the importance of ozone absorption in the UV spectrum of a planet as a marker of photosynthesis by plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.

  15. Fluvial geomorphology on Earth-like planetary surfaces: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R; Hamilton, Christopher W; Burr, Devon M; Gulick, Virginia C; Komatsu, Goro; Luo, Wei; Rice, James W; Rodriguez, J A P

    2015-09-15

    Morphological evidence for ancient channelized flows (fluvial and fluvial-like landforms) exists on the surfaces of all of the inner planets and on some of the satellites of the Solar System. In some cases, the relevant fluid flows are related to a planetary evolution that involves the global cycling of a volatile component (water for Earth and Mars; methane for Saturn's moon Titan). In other cases, as on Mercury, Venus, Earth's moon, and Jupiter's moon Io, the flows were of highly fluid lava. The discovery, in 1972, of what are now known to be fluvial channels and valleys on Mars sparked a major controversy over the role of water in shaping the surface of that planet. The recognition of the fluvial character of these features has opened unresolved fundamental questions about the geological history of water on Mars, including the presence of an ancient ocean and the operation of a hydrological cycle during the earliest phases of planetary history. Other fundamental questions posed by fluvial and fluvial-like features on planetary bodies include the possible erosive action of large-scale outpourings of very fluid lavas, such as those that may have produced the remarkable canali forms on Venus; the ability of exotic fluids, such as methane, to create fluvial-like landforms, as observed on Saturn's moon, Titan; and the nature of sedimentation and erosion under different conditions of planetary surface gravity. Planetary fluvial geomorphology also illustrates fundamental epistemological and methodological issues, including the role of analogy in geomorphological/geological inquiry.

  16. The New World Observer: Scientific rationale for detecting biomarkers between the UV and near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, S.; Wilkinson, E.; Cash, W.

    2003-12-01

    The New World Observer(NWO) is a distributed instrument concept designed for UV/visible wavelength spectroscopy of extrasolar planets and was submitted in response to the NASA "Vision Mission" announcement of opportunity. NWO is essentially a pinhole camera where the "pinhole" and the "detector" are separate, formation flying spacecraft separated by ˜180,000 km. The size of the "pinhole" and distance from the "detector" spacecraft are optimized for isolating the image of an Earth-like planet from it's parent star at the focal plane and minimizing the time necessary to acquire a low-resolution spectrum of the planet. We present the scientific rationale behind observing in the UV/visible/near-IR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and simulations of potential spectra. We discuss the biomarkers that exist from UV wavelengths through 2 microns, including, but not limited to, water, oxygen, ozone, nitrous oxide, and methane, and possible interpretations that can be derived from detections of these biomarkers. Also discussed are the effects of vegetation, weather, and planetary rotation. Simulations of observed spectra assume different instrument configurations and explore the sensitivity of NWO to a variety of biomarkers. Ultimately, the simulations demonstrate the power of the NWO concept for acquiring high quality spectra of Earth-like planets out to tens of parsecs.

  17. World Hunger: Teaching about World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of world hunger in the classroom. Controversial questions and map skills for students are discussed as well as activities for home economics and science classes. A list of resource materials is included. (AM)

  18. World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... introduce large-scale mDiabetes services using mobile phones. World Diabetes Day 2017 Feature: Senegal mobile phone project Fact sheet: diabetes World Antibiotic Awareness Week 13 November 2017 – Antibiotic resistance ...

  19. The World Airpower Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Mark

    1996-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world a current, accurate, and easily accessible data base of all the world's airpower assets is valuable to military students, educators, and war gaming professionals alike...

  20. The Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, John Sears

    1981-01-01

    Relates personal experiences about what constitutes the "real world." Shows how experiences from philosophy, history, literature, art, and the movies add meaning to "reality." Stresses a compromise of imagination and sensation to make the real world palatable. (RL)

  1. The World of Nothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery A. Kayukov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of knowledge about the world of nothingness. J. Boehme pointed to the fact that the world of Nothing is everlasting emptiness, where and wherein the material world could emerge. But the thing is that the world of absolute emptiness did not vanish at the moment of beginning of the world, quite the reverse, it has somehow been permanently enlarging. What will happen next is still a question. Perhaps our world will begin to be moving back on a new spiral of development, perhaps a real transition to the world of nothing will have appeared in this subtle place. For the present it is clear that these two worlds have not touched each other in mutually beneficial communication so far, and everything from our world passes into the world of nothing, and in general, the world of nothing ontologically appears to be much more existential than the world of apparent reality. What can give us some kind of key point at least, be some kind of organon in interaction with these two worlds - with the world of Nothing in which there is no matter and which cannot be perceived by any senses, and with the world of matter in which all senses are unstable and changeable? In our opinion, the only beacon and the instrument of knowledge can be the mind. To understand this phenomenon, by benefiting from a comparative methodology, this study investigates opinions of a number of philosophers, J. Boehme, G.V.F. Hegel, M. Heidegger, and J.P. Sartre, on the existence of the world of nothing.

  2. Semantic Game Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutenel, T.

    2012-01-01

    The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different

  3. The Dehydration of Water Worlds via Atmospheric Losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Huang, Zhenguang; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: dcfy@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present a three-species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model (H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and e {sup −}), endowed with the requisite atmospheric chemistry, that is capable of accurately quantifying the magnitude of water ion losses from exoplanets. We apply this model to a water world with Earth-like parameters orbiting a Sun-like star for three cases: (i) current normal solar wind conditions, (ii) ancient normal solar wind conditions, and (iii) one extreme “Carrington-type” space weather event. We demonstrate that the ion escape rate for (ii), with a value of 6.0 × 10{sup 26} s{sup −1}, is about an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value of 6.7 × 10{sup 25} s{sup −1} for (i). Studies of ion losses induced by space weather events, where the ion escape rates can reach ∼10{sup 28} s{sup −1}, are crucial for understanding how an active, early solar-type star (e.g., with frequent coronal mass ejections) could have accelerated the depletion of the exoplanet’s atmosphere. We briefly explore the ramifications arising from the loss of water ions, especially for planets orbiting M-dwarfs where such effects are likely to be significant.

  4. The Dehydration of Water Worlds via Atmospheric Losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Huang, Zhenguang; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas; Lingam, Manasvi

    2017-01-01

    We present a three-species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model (H"+, H_2O"+, and e "−), endowed with the requisite atmospheric chemistry, that is capable of accurately quantifying the magnitude of water ion losses from exoplanets. We apply this model to a water world with Earth-like parameters orbiting a Sun-like star for three cases: (i) current normal solar wind conditions, (ii) ancient normal solar wind conditions, and (iii) one extreme “Carrington-type” space weather event. We demonstrate that the ion escape rate for (ii), with a value of 6.0 × 10"2"6 s"−"1, is about an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value of 6.7 × 10"2"5 s"−"1 for (i). Studies of ion losses induced by space weather events, where the ion escape rates can reach ∼10"2"8 s"−"1, are crucial for understanding how an active, early solar-type star (e.g., with frequent coronal mass ejections) could have accelerated the depletion of the exoplanet’s atmosphere. We briefly explore the ramifications arising from the loss of water ions, especially for planets orbiting M-dwarfs where such effects are likely to be significant.

  5. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  6. Magnetic brane-worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D; Hervik, Sigbjorn

    2002-01-01

    We investigate brane-worlds with a pure magnetic field and a perfect fluid. We extend earlier work to brane-worlds and find new properties of the Bianchi type I brane-world. We find new asymptotic behaviours on approach to singularity and classify the critical points of the dynamical phase space. It is known that the Einstein equations for the magnetic Bianchi type I models are in general oscillatory and are believed to be chaotic, but in the brane-world model this chaotic behaviour does not seem to be possible

  7. World History Workshop (1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    history appeared tenuous. While the study of American history was viewed as necessary to "indoctrinate kids ," world history is unable to make such a...world" which is hard to avoid in world history, where one examines China in 1500, China in 1800, and so on. A pedagogical goal in the new course was to...the historian to make intelligent decisions about what information he is going to talk about. Viewing world history as a scenario also has a pedagogic

  8. Extraordinarily Adaptive Properties of the Genetically Encoded Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves II, H. James

    2015-01-01

    Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or “chemistry space.” Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set. PMID:25802223

  9. Extraordinarily Stretchable All-Carbon Collaborative Nanoarchitectures for Epidermal Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yichen

    2017-06-16

    Multifunctional microelectronic components featuring large stretchability, high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and broad sensing range have attracted a huge surge of interest with the fast developing epidermal electronic systems. Here, the epidermal sensors based on all-carbon collaborative percolation network are demonstrated, which consist 3D graphene foam and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained by two-step chemical vapor deposition processes. The nanoscaled CNT networks largely enhance the stretchability and SNR of the 3D microarchitectural graphene foams, endowing the strain sensor with a gauge factor as high as 35, a wide reliable sensing range up to 85%, and excellent cyclic stability (>5000 cycles). The flexible and reversible strain sensor can be easily mounted on human skin as a wearable electronic device for real-time and high accuracy detecting of electrophysiological stimuli and even for acoustic vibration recognition. The rationally designed all-carbon nanoarchitectures are scalable, low cost, and promising in practical applications requiring extraordinary stretchability and ultrahigh SNRs.

  10. Extraordinarily adaptive properties of the genetically encoded amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves, H James

    2015-03-24

    Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or "chemistry space." Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set.

  11. Extraordinarily Stretchable All-Carbon Collaborative Nanoarchitectures for Epidermal Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yichen; Shen, Jie; Dai, Ziyang; Zang, Xiaoxian; Dong, Qiuchun; Guan, Guofeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional microelectronic components featuring large stretchability, high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and broad sensing range have attracted a huge surge of interest with the fast developing epidermal electronic systems. Here, the epidermal sensors based on all-carbon collaborative percolation network are demonstrated, which consist 3D graphene foam and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained by two-step chemical vapor deposition processes. The nanoscaled CNT networks largely enhance the stretchability and SNR of the 3D microarchitectural graphene foams, endowing the strain sensor with a gauge factor as high as 35, a wide reliable sensing range up to 85%, and excellent cyclic stability (>5000 cycles). The flexible and reversible strain sensor can be easily mounted on human skin as a wearable electronic device for real-time and high accuracy detecting of electrophysiological stimuli and even for acoustic vibration recognition. The rationally designed all-carbon nanoarchitectures are scalable, low cost, and promising in practical applications requiring extraordinary stretchability and ultrahigh SNRs.

  12. [Tl(III)(dota)](-): An Extraordinarily Robust Macrocyclic Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Tamás; Bányai, István; Bényei, Attila; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Purgel, Mihály; Horváth, Gábor L; Zékány, László; Tircsó, Gyula; Tóth, Imre

    2015-06-01

    The X-ray structure of {C(NH2)3}[Tl(dota)]·H2O shows that the Tl(3+) ion is deeply buried in the macrocyclic cavity of the dota(4-) ligand (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate) with average Tl-N and Tl-O distances of 2.464 and 2.365 Å, respectively. The metal ion is directly coordinated to the eight donor atoms of the ligand, which results in a twisted square antiprismatic (TSAP') coordination around Tl(3+). A multinuclear (1)H, (13)C, and (205)Tl NMR study combined with DFT calculations confirmed the TSAP' structure of the complex in aqueous solution, which exists as the Λ(λλλλ)/Δ(δδδδ) enantiomeric pair. (205)Tl NMR spectroscopy allowed the protonation constant associated with the protonation of the complex according to [Tl(dota)](-) + H(+) ⇆ [Tl(Hdota)] to be determined, which turned out to be pK(H)Tl(dota) = 1.4 ± 0.1. [Tl(dota)](-) does not react with Br(-), even when using an excess of the anion, but it forms a weak mixed complex with cyanide, [Tl(dota)](-) + CN(-) ⇆ [Tl(dota)(CN)](2-), with an equilibrium constant of Kmix = 6.0 ± 0.8. The dissociation of the [Tl(dota)](-) complex was determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry under acidic conditions using a large excess of Br(-), and it was found to follow proton-assisted kinetics and to take place very slowly (∼10 days), even in 1 M HClO4, with the estimated half-life of the process being in the 10(9) h range at neutral pH. The solution dynamics of [Tl(dota)](-) were investigated using (13)C NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The (13)C NMR spectra recorded at low temperature (272 K) point to C4 symmetry of the complex in solution, which averages to C4v as the temperature increases. This dynamic behavior was attributed to the Λ(λλλλ) ↔ Δ(δδδδ) enantiomerization process, which involves both the inversion of the macrocyclic unit and the rotation of the pendant arms. According to our calculations, the arm-rotation process limits the Λ(λλλλ) ↔ Δ(δδδδ) interconversion.

  13. Fermentation. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  14. The Two World Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    In the arenas where the two world histories have taken shape, educators vigorously debate among themselves intellectual, pedagogical, and policy issues surrounding world history as a school subject. The people in each arena tend to share, despite internal disagreements, a common set of premises and assumptions for ordering the discussion of world…

  15. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  16. World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.; Schilling, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    After making some general remarks about goals, tasks, and works of the World Energy Conference the topics and the frame of the 11th World Energy Conference which will take place in Munich from 8th to 12th September 1980 are outlined. This conference is held under the general topic 'energy for our world' and deals with the reciprocal relation between energy supply, environment, and society. The main part of the publication presented here is the German version of the most important sections of the investigation 'World Energy-Looking Ahead to 2020' by the Conservation Commission (CC) of the World Energy Conference. Added to this is the German original brief version of a report by the Mining-Research Company (Bergbau-Forschung GmbH) to the CC which deals with the estimation of the world's coal resources and their future availability. This report was presented on the 10th World Energy Conference in Istanbul together with the corresponding reports concerning the other energy sources. Finally, an introduction to the technical programme for the 11th World Energy Conference 1980 is given. (UA) [de

  17. World Society and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…

  18. China in World Industrialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, Yi; van Leeuwen, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Combining the sectoral accounting method of the System of National Accounts (SNA) with new statistical materials from the United Nations, as well as historical research into various countries around the world, this paper arrives at an estimate of value added of Chinese and world industries between

  19. Scriptures of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of "Research and Creative Activity" features 10 articles on Indiana University faculty members whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about "Scriptures of the World" and their meaning in human life. The articles are as follows: "Why Scriptures of the World Still Matter…

  20. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  1. Representing Large Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, T.R.

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquity of large virtual worlds and their growing complexity in computer graphics require efficient representations. This means that we need smart solutions for the underlying storage of these complex environments, but also for their visualization. How the virtual world is best stored and how

  2. World-Class Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…

  3. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  5. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  6. World Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Van der Linde, C.; Nicola, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the section World Energy Future of this magazine two articles, two interviews and one column are presented. The article 'A green example to the world' refers briefly to the second World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, which was held from 18-21 January, 2009. The second article, 'Green Utopia in the desert' attention is paid to the Abu Dhabi government-driven Masdar Initiative. The two interviews concern an interview with BP Alternative Energy ceo Vivienne Cox, and an interview with the founder and CEO of New Energy Finance Michael Liebreich. The column ('An efficient response') focuses on the impact of the economic crisis on energy policy

  7. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  8. Detecting Exoplanets with the New Worlds Observer: The Problem of Exozodiacal Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, A.; Noecker, M. C.; Glassman, T. M.; Oakley, P.; Turnbull, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Dust coming from asteroids and comets will strongly affect direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial planets in the Habitable Zones of nearby stars. Such dust in the Solar System is called the zodiacal dust (or 'zodi' for short). Higher levels of similar dust are seen around many nearby stars, confined in disks called debris disks. Future high-contrast images of an Earth-like exoplanet will very likely be background-limited by light scattered of both the local Solar System zodi and the circumstellar dust in the extrasolar system (the exozodiacal dust). Clumps in the exozodiacal dust, which are expected in planet-hosting systems, may also be a source of confusion. Here we discuss the problems associated with imaging an Earth-like planet in the presence of unknown levels of exozodiacal dust. Basic formulae for the exoplanet imaging exposure time as function of star, exoplanet, zodi, exozodi, and telescope parameters will be presented. To examine the behavior of these formulae, we apply them to the New Worlds Observer (NWO) mission. NWO is a proposed 4-meter UV/optical/near-IR telescope, with a free flying starshade to suppress the light from a nearby star and achieve the high contrast needed for detection and characterization of a terrestrial planet in the star's Habitable Zone. We find that NWO can accomplish its science goals even if exozodiacal dust levels are typically much higher than the Solar System zodi level. Finally, we highlight a few additional problems relating to exozodiacal dust that have yet to be solved.

  9. World Magnetic Model 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  10. World Magnetic Model 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  11. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  12. ELEVENm WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of malaria, followed by smallpox, tuberculosis, syphilis and yaws, permitting WHO ... the world, and the initiation of eradication programmes in certain communicable .... Guatemala, India, Iran, Italy, Liberia, Mexico, Tunisia, USSR,'. United Arab ...

  13. Tomorrow's solar world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch, Meg.

    1996-01-01

    The largest privately funded solar power installation in the world is at the Florida Walt Disney World. It is the Universe of Energy exhibit at the Experimental Prototype Community of the World. The Universe of Energy shows the development and exploitation of energy sources and how energy is used and includes a recreation of the primeval world from which coal and oil deposits were formed. Visitors travel through two giant theatres in electrically powered cars. Most of the ride system is powered by a solar cell array on the roof of the building. The array is composed of 2,200 modules each made up of 36 cells and can generate 70kW of DC power which is fed through an inverter to convert it to AC. (UK)

  14. World energy outlook 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The World Energy Outlook is the most complete and authoritative energy publication and has received several prestigious awards from government and industry in recognition of its analytical excellence. The new edition offers: - Analysis: Over 550 pages of detailed analysis with 150 graphs and tables. - Projections: Supply and demand projections to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections of energy related CO 2 emissions. -World Alternative Policy Scenario:A detailed assessment of the impact of possible climate change policies and energy efficient technologies. -Russia: An in-depth study of the 'most important energy country'. - Energy and Development: An analysis of energy's role in overcoming world poverty. - Reserves: A detailed analysis of world oil and gas reserves and of the problems involved in measuring them

  15. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  16. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  17. Virtual-World Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reynolds

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes a player will stray from the path described by a game, moving into new spaces, developing new possible modes of interaction, and often discovering the rougher edges of the game world, where physics models break down, textures become incongruous, and the pieces don’t quite fit together. Gameplay that seeks out these spaces and these phenomena, that searches for such clues to the underlying construction of the virtual environment, is a kind of virtual-world naturalism, at once a return to an investigative urge that has been subsumed to the exhaustive mapping and description of the real world and a form of resistance to the very idea of pre-defined paths of action, of externally imposed limits, in virtual worlds as well as in our own.

  18. The subnuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Lagos, R.

    1996-01-01

    The subnuclear world studies the fundamental constituents of the matter, traditionally nominated fundamental particles and their interactions. The author studies the history and standard models of fundamental particles: Leptons, quarks, and gauge bosons. (Author)

  19. The world's biggest experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregson, Liz

    2008-01-01

    According to CERN, our understanding of the Universe is about the change. Meet the Imperial alumni and staff who are involved in CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the world's biggest experiment. (3 pages)

  20. World of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.

    1998-01-01

    Every particle in nature has an antimatter partner in a curious world. when the two meet, they vanish in a flash of radiation. Physicists create antiparticles for their experiments, and can even build antimatter atoms. (author). 4 Figs

  1. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  2. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  3. Rethinking the World's energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wilson da

    2012-01-01

    Can we really shift the world completely away from fossil fuels in the next 20 years? In June 2011 at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Canada, forty physicists from around the world came together for the Equinox Summit: 2030. They discussed how to power modern civilisation this century without warming the planet to catastrophic levels, by using science. Five key solutions, dubbed 'exemplar pathways' emerged; large-scale storage, enhanced geothermal, advanced nuclear, off-grid electricity and smart urbanization.

  4. Systems astrobiology for a reliable biomarker on exo-worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela Flores, Julian

    2013-04-01

    Although astrobiology is a science midway between biology and astrophysics, it has surprisingly remained largely disconnected from recent trends in certain branches of both of these disciplines. Aiming at discovering how systems properties emerge has proved valuable in chemistry and in biology and should also yield insights into astrobiology. This is feasible since new large data banks in the case of astrobiology are of a geophysical/astronomical kind, rather than the also large molecular biology data that are used for questions related firstly, to genetics in a systems context and secondly, to biochemistry. The application of systems biology is illustrated for our own planetary system, where 3 Earth-like planets are within the habitable zone of a G2V star and where the process of photosynthesis has led to a single oxygenic atmosphere that was triggered during the Great Oxidation Event some 2,5 billion years before the present. The significance of the biogenic origin of a considerable fraction of our atmosphere has been discussed earlier (Kiang et al., 2007). Bonding of O2 ensures that it is stable enough to accumulate in a world's atmosphere if triggered by a living process. The reduction of F and Cl deliver energy release per e+-transfer, but unlike O2 the weaker bonding properties inhibit large atmospheric accumulation (Catling et al., 2005). The evolution of O2-producing photosynthesis is very likely on exo-worlds (Wolstencroft and Raven, 2002). With our simplifying assumption of evolutionary convergence, we show how to probe for a reliable biomarker in the exo-atmospheres of planets, or their satellites, orbiting stars of different luminosities and ages (Chela-Flores, 2013). We treat the living process as a system of exo-environments capable of radically modifying their geology and atmospheres, both for exo-planets, and especially for exo-moons, the presence of which can be extracted from the Kepler data (Kipping et al., 2012). What we are learning about the

  5. Why the world is a quantum world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, A.

    1976-01-01

    According to Einstein (1934) the supreme task of the theoretical physicist is to search for those most general and elementary laws from which the world picture can be obtained by pure deduction. However, there is no logical way leading to the elementary laws but only intuition and sound appraisal of general experience. Einstein here takes sides in the perennial dispute about induction or deduction as the principal method of science. In this paper the author illustrates the I-could-have-told-you-so story of deduction in two examples. The one describes a simple game of chance; it is quite trivial but, just because of its simplicity, exposes essential points in the raw and thereby offers an important lesson about the ultimate untenability of the doctrine of determinism. The other example deals with the sophisticated game of chance known as quantum mechanics. (Auth.)

  6. World nuclear energy paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand

  7. Withdrawn Amidst the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mette Birkedal; Nørgaard, Lars Cyril; Nagelsmit, Eelco

    2017-01-01

    The pious Élisabeth d'Orléans, Mme de Guise, had a vivid correspondence with Armand-Jean de Rancé, abbot of the Cistercian abbey of La Trappe in Normandy. Rancé was considered a champion of unconditional isolation from the world by his contemporaries, but in fact he recommended quite diverse form...... horizon of Gaston d'Orléans's daughter and the pastoral practice of the abbot of La Trappe. Above all, it shows the intricacies and modulations of the withdrawal from the world prescribed to late seventeenth-century aristocratic dévots and, especially, dévotes.......The pious Élisabeth d'Orléans, Mme de Guise, had a vivid correspondence with Armand-Jean de Rancé, abbot of the Cistercian abbey of La Trappe in Normandy. Rancé was considered a champion of unconditional isolation from the world by his contemporaries, but in fact he recommended quite diverse forms...... in remarkable detail how the Duchess should balance her obligations to God and human beings by being a model of withdrawal. To this end she must constantly, in action and demeanour, display to the world her withdrawal from the world. Rancé's spiritual advice to Mme de Guise throws new light on the devotional...

  8. When Virtual Worlds Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

  9. The Emerging World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER COLLECOTT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common ground amongst almost all commentators that the world has changed radically over the past 25 years – the 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall heralded the ending of the Cold War, the reunification of a tragically divided Europe, and the acceleration of the process of globalisation which has its only comparable period in the decades leading up to the First World War in 1914. When analyzing the Emerging World Order it is important to cover more than Brazil economy or any other individual BRICs or other Emerging Powers. Instead, our analysis will provide a global view about the economic and political global power structures which are evolving and forming before our eyes, and then to talk about the challenges these emerging realities pose for us in Europe, and in the West in general.

  10. Surfing the quantum world

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

  11. Designing Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates

    2014-01-01

    The online social platforms known as virtual worlds present their users various affordances for avatar based co-presence, social interaction and provide tools for collaborative content creation, including objects, textures and animations. The users of these worlds navigate their avatars as personal...... the audio-visual characteristics of designing in multi-user virtual environments generate experiential, interpersonal and textual meaning potentials....... mediators in 3D virtual space to collaborate and co-design the digital content. These co-designers are also the residents of these worlds, as they socialize by building inworld friendships. This article presents a social semiotic analysis of the three-dimensional virtual places and artifacts in the virtual...

  12. World Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.; Van der Linde, C.; Nicola, S.

    2009-03-15

    In the section World Energy Future of this magazine two articles, two interviews and one column are presented. The article 'A green example to the world' refers briefly to the second World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, which was held from 18-21 January, 2009. The second article, 'Green Utopia in the desert' attention is paid to the Abu Dhabi government-driven Masdar Initiative. The two interviews concern an interview with BP Alternative Energy ceo Vivienne Cox, and an interview with the founder and CEO of New Energy Finance Michael Liebreich. The column ('An efficient response') focuses on the impact of the economic crisis on energy policy.

  13. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  14. The world energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The oil and gas resources of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will be critical to meeting the world's growing appetite for energy. The greater part of the world's remaining reserves lie in that region. They are relatively under-exploited and are sufficient to meet rising global demand for the next quarter century and beyond. The export revenues they would generate would help sustain the region's economic development. But there is considerable uncertainty about the pace at which investment in the region's upstream industry will occur, how quickly production capacity will expand and, given rising domestic energy needs, how much of the expected increase in supply will be available for export. The implications for both MENA producers and consuming countries are profound. The World Energy Outlook, published by the International Energy Agency (IEA), seeks to shed light on these very complex issues

  15. The world food problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A

    1974-07-01

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  16. The new world disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder.

  17. The world food problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  18. The world review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A world-wide review of hydrocarbon processing is presented. Following a general introduction discussing issues such as the crisis in Asia, the mergers between the oil giants, the concern over carbon dioxide emissions in Europe, the expected decline in output of oil in the USA and the attraction of Latin America in terms of natural gas, the article goes on to review the situations and prospects in various parts of the world. Fifty-one countries are discussed individually in this 34-page article. The focus throughout is very much on the activities of individual companies and contracts rather than on technical details. (UK)

  19. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  20. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  1. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    -down model of feeding back research findings to subjects” (Roberts and Sarangi 2003, 340) although, arguably, making results applicable to a real-world context ought to be an essential goal of researcher-practitioner studies. This issue forms the background of the presentation, in which it will be discussed...... how the dissemination of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners (cf. e.g. Nørreklit et al. 1987; Puchta & Potter 2004). The presentation will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross...

  2. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  3. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1.

  4. Confronting World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The idea that food should be a universally accepted human right has been the focus of worldwide attention aimed primarily at increasing production at the national level and on reducing price fluctuations in world markets. However, the problem of individual human needs must be simultaneously addressed. The largest number of hungry people live in…

  5. Mapping World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Lucille W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to involve students in grades 6 through 8 in learning how geography was affected the problem of world hunger. Emphasis is placed on using maps, globes, atlases, and geographic dictionaries, as well as books, magazines, and other resources. (MES)

  6. World Hunger Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Activities help high school students become aware of the extent of world hunger and the place of population control in the fight against hunger. The materials offer the student background information and a variety of viewpoints. The aim of each activity is to increase the student's own informed decision making. (CS)

  7. What Is World History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  8. World Class Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rosalita

    1998-01-01

    School communities are challenged to find ways to identify good teachers and give other teachers a chance to learn from them. The New Mexico World Class Teacher Project is encouraging teachers to pursue certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. This process sharpens teachers' student assessment skills and encourages…

  9. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  10. Clashing world views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagassa, G.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines how politics, economics, and an increasing awareness of environmental and societal impacts are affecting the market for new hydroelectric projects. The topics of the article include border conflicts, new opposition, resettlement issues, the problems and benefits of hydroelectric projects, taking action, and a clash of world views

  11. Tenable world strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, D.L. (New Hampshire Univ. (USA). Inst. for Policy and Social Science Research)

    1991-10-01

    The Author presents several arguments explaining and backing the mechanics of a world strategy of zero growth. First, attention is brought to Aurelio Peccei's concerns regarding the short-sightedness of the energy and economic policies of industrialized nations. In his book (entitled 'Verso l'Abisso'), written almost 25 years ago, he correctly predicted the severity and timing of current global environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect and acid rain. Urgent and concerted action by world governments is recommended to contain and and remedy damage being caused by a diverse mix of integrated factors - over-population, uncontrolled food production, pollution, over-production by industry, and the improper use of energy and other natural resources. The Author sets guidelines for the creation of a world of steady-state growth in which an equilibrium is reached between overall standards of living and population dynamics. To meet this goal of global man/environment peaceful coexistence, he strongly urges the creation and instillation of a new set of values through the placing of emphasis on the research and development of cultural, psychological, institutional and moral philosophies which, in the last century, have been almost entirely supplanted world-wide by growing materialistic ideals and the pursuit of technological perfection.

  12. 11 World power conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented to the 11 World power conference ''Power for our peace'' held in Munich in September, 1980 are shortly surveyed. A few papers were devoted to nuclear power, that represents its present- state-of-the-art in the world. Except for the paper presented by experts of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a number of others, there is carefulness and realism with respect to nuclear power in the most part of the papers; its forecasted growth rates are rather moderate. Even in the IEA paper the total world nuclear installed capacity in 1985 is evaluated about 550 GW, that is substantially smaller earlier evaluations. It is acknowledged that the primary energy production almost in all countries will increase mainly due to nuclear power and coal. But there are no answers to the problems related to management of the nuclear power development and to the public opinion in many countries. It is underlined that the problems of world power supply can be solved only on an international basis [ru

  13. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  14. Withdrawn Amidst the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mette Birkedal; Nørgaard, Lars Cyril; Nagelsmit, Eelco

    2017-01-01

    The pious Élisabeth d'Orléans, Mme de Guise, had a vivid correspondence with Armand-Jean de Rancé, abbot of the Cistercian abbey of La Trappe in Normandy. Rancé was considered a champion of unconditional isolation from the world by his contemporaries, but in fact he recommended quite diverse forms...... in remarkable detail how the Duchess should balance her obligations to God and human beings by being a model of withdrawal. To this end she must constantly, in action and demeanour, display to the world her withdrawal from the world. Rancé's spiritual advice to Mme de Guise throws new light on the devotional...... horizon of Gaston d'Orléans's daughter and the pastoral practice of the abbot of La Trappe. Above all, it shows the intricacies and modulations of the withdrawal from the world prescribed to late seventeenth-century aristocratic dévots and, especially, dévotes....

  15. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  16. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  17. Entertaining the whole world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheok, Adrian David; Romão, Teresa; Nijholt, Anton; Yu, Gino; Cheok, Adrian David; Nijholt, Anton; Romão, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Entertainment media are entertainment products and services that rely on digital technology. Mostly the digital entertainment industry is focused on the developed world such as USA, Europe, and Japan. However, due to the decreasing cost of computer and programming technologies, developing countries

  18. Searching for world domination

    CERN Multimedia

    Quillen, E

    2004-01-01

    "Optimists might believe Microsoft suffered a setback last week that will impede its progress toward world domination, but I suspect the company has already found a way to prevail. At issue before the European Union was Microsoft's bundling of its Windows Media Player with its operating system" (1 page)

  19. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  20. World Heart Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    For World Heart Day, learn more about what heart-healthy steps you can take in the workplace.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  1. One World: Service Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Bees are a vital part of the ecology. People of conscience are a vital part of society. In Nina Frenkel's "One World" poster, the bee is also a metaphor for the role of the individual in a diverse society. This article presents a lesson that uses Frenkel's poster to help early-grades students connect these ideas and explore both the importance of…

  2. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  3. Engaged World-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Maria Louise Bønnelykke; Rubow, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in Kiribati and the Cook Islands, this chapter shows how atoll islands and tropical lagoons, considered highly vulnerable to present and future sea level rise, are extraordinary malleable socio-natural worlds. Revolving around sacred islands submerged by sea water, ancient fi...

  4. Third world campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, P

    1988-10-22

    Your readers may be interested in knowing that VSO will be holding a publicity campaign in Scotland in November and December. The campaign is a chance for people to come and talk to us about the opportunities available to them to work in Third World countries. We have a wide range of interesting and challenging jobs in long-term development in health work.

  5. Exploring world art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venbrux, H.J.M.; Rosi, P.; Welsch, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    The contemporary visual arts of non-Western peoples are increasingly part of a capitalistic, global art world with diverse gatekeepers, tastes, venues, individuation of artists, and hybrid sources of inspiration. In this collection, ethnographic case studies from around the globe are used to examine

  6. World distribution of Owlaholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimo Mikkola

    1997-01-01

    Owlaholics are people who collect anything with an owl on it. This paper gives the most common reasons how and why people become addicted to owls and shows their known distribution. Although thousands of owl collectors and enthusiasts reside all over the world, the majority live in Europe and the United States. While no evidence exists of owl collecting clubs in Latin...

  7. World beyond Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Marlowe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    What happens when a hardened criminal on the run for his life gets mixed up with an all-girl symphony traveling between lesser-populated planets in a futile attempt to bring culture to their rowdy inhabitants? Well, to put it mildly, hijinks ensue. Read Stephen Marlowe's thoroughly entertaining World Beyond Pluto to find out the rest.

  8. The World Science Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, J.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) New York City in the late 20th century rose to be a planetary capital for the sciences, not just astronomy. This growth was mainly in the academic sector but a parallel growth occurred in the public and home field. With the millennium crossing, scientists in New York agitated for a celebration of the City as a place for a thriving science culture. In 2008 they began World Science Festival. 2011 is the fourth running, on June 1-5, following the AAVSO/AAS meetings. World Science Festival was founded by Dr. Brian Greene, Columbia University, and is operated through the World Science Foundation. The Festival is "saturation science" all over Manhattan in a series of lectures, shows, exhibits, performances. It is staged in "science" venues like colleges and musea, but also in off-science spaces like theaters and galleries. It is a blend from hard science, with lectures like those by us astronomers, to science-themed works of art, dance, music. Events are fitted for the public, either for free or a modest fee. While almost all events are on Manhattan, effort has been made to geographically disperse them, even to the outer boroughs. The grand finale of World Science Festival is a street fair in Washington Square. Science centers in booths, tents, and pavilions highlight their work. In past years this fair drew 100,000 to 150,000 visitors. The entire Festival attracts about a quarter-million attendees. NYSkies is a proud participant at the Washington Square fair. It interprets the "Earth to the Universe" display, debuting during IYA-2009. Attendance at "Earth..." on just the day of the fair plausibly is half of all visitors in America. The presentation shows the scale and scope of World Science Festival, its relation to the City, and how our astronomers work with it.

  9. Wind around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackstraw, K.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of cost reductions and progressive policies in key markets kept the world wind market percolating in 1997 with a record 1510 MW of new wind capacity installed, representing annual sales of more than $1.5 billion. This new record surpasses last year''s total by 24 percent, about the average annual rate of growth for the last three years. Worldwide utility-scale wind installations at the end of 1997 totaled 7763 MW. Most activity occurred in Europe, which accounted for over 75 percent of 1997 installations. Germany was again the world''s leading single market, this time by quite a large margin, accounting for more than one-third of the annual total by itself at 532 MW in 1997. The end of 1997 also marked the time at which Germany officially passed the US as the largest total single market with over 2079 MW in total installations versus about 1805 MW for the US, although the US had actually lost the lead by mid-year. Spain is the new addition to the top echelon of world wind markets, installing 215 MW in 1997 that more than doubles their total installed capacity over the previous year and ranks them number three in the world for the year. Denmark''s 1997 total of 300 MW is also a record, although this estimate could go up as the official count is finalized. India, the second largest wind market in 1995 and 1996, slipped several notches because of a variety of factors, including a change in government and a slowdown in the economy. The US wind market continues to stagnate as it has for the last several years, largely because of the uncertainty surrounding restructuring of US electric utilities. The US market is poised for a big comeback in 1998, however

  10. Learning Experience with Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Virtual worlds create a new opportunity to enrich the educational experience through media-rich immersive learning. Virtual worlds have gained notoriety in games such as World of Warcraft (WoW), which has become the most successful online game ever, and in "general purpose" worlds, such as Second Life (SL), whose participation levels (more than 10…

  11. World trends from 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Issue of prognosis, analyses of future trends is companion to statecraft, political, economic and military planning. How we plan, what does IR says about scientific prognosis. Jankovic starts with this set of issues in order to pass into prognosis itself based on observable world trends. He claims that European Union has entered its climax comparing it foreign policy situation with that of war situation of Third Reich in 1943. Article is divided in five parts. After presenting and criticizing Anglo-American approach in prognosis, he starts with analysis of the world order changes, of EU trends, Middle, Far East and some trends regarding Africa. Author presents macro trends in North - West Pacific, in Israel-Palestine, in Syria, Iraq, in Europe.

  12. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  13. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  14. Changing the World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Carl; Wright, Christopher; Pullen, Alison

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the political differences between academic activism and the recently emerged research impact agenda. While both claim that academic work can and should engage with and influence the world beyond the academic ‘ivory tower’, their political meaning and practice are radically...... different. Following the distinction made by Jacques Rancière, we argue that research impact performs a policing function which, despite its own rhetoric, is arranged as an attempt to ensure that academic work maintains a neoliberal status quo by actually having no real political impact. Academic activism......, in contrast, serves to politicize scholarly work by democratically disrupting political consensus in the name of equality. Being an academic activist in an era of research impact rests in a twofold movement: that of both acting in the name of equality in an effort (using Marx’s terms) to ‘change the world...

  15. The world of Edgerank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Hjalmar Alexander Bang; Birkbak, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Web algorithms like Facebook’s so-called Edgerank algorithm play an increasingly important role in everyday life. The recent surge of research in such algorithms often emphasizes algorithmic orderings as powerful but opaque. In this essay, we propose an alternative reading of the Edgerank algorithm...... marketing blogs about how to handle the algorithm in practice. Based on these events, we construct an ‘internalistic’ account of the rhetoric of Edgerank, opening for an exploration of its moral grammar and the world or dwelling place it assumes and enacts. We find that the world of Edgerank is ordered....... In the rhetoric that comes with Edgerank, this tension is not something to be overcome, but rather a self-justifying hybrid, which points to a potential displacement of moral grammars in an age of computational valuation....

  16. World energy insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 21st World Energy Congress offers a unique opportunity for all stake-holders of the energy sector to meet and exchange visions, strategies and practices, during four days of very intensive and interesting sessions, round-tables and exhibitions. More than 3,000 energy leaders gather from around the world from both developed and developing countries, from all types of energy, from public and private companies and government organisations, in order to think together about how to bring about a sustainable and acceptable energy future. The truth is that nobody has the choice any longer. All energy leaders have to take decisions every day, and they need to have a clear analysis of what is at stake, what the risks are, and what the solutions can be.

  17. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  18. World spinors revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijacki, Dj.

    1998-01-01

    World spinors are objects that transform w.r.t. double covering group Diff(4, R) of the Group of General Coordinate Transformations. The basic mathematical results and the corresponding physical interpretation concerning these, infinite-dimensional, spinorial representations are reviewed. The role of groups Diff(4, R), GA(4, R), GL(4, R), SL(4, R), SO(3,1) and the corresponding covering groups is pointed out. New results on the infinite dimensionality of spinorial representations, explicit construction of the SL(4, R) representations in the basis of finite-dimensional non-unitary SL(2, C) representations, SL(4, R) representation regrouping of tonsorial and spinorial fields of an arbitrary spin Lagrangian field theory, as well as its SL(5, R) generalization in the case of infinite-component world spinor and tensor field theories are presented. (author)

  19. The world energy status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, S.

    2010-01-01

    As energy consumption increased by a factor 20 during the 20. century, energy has not only an economic, but also a political role, and its management involves diplomatic, social, and now environmental issues. The author discusses the primary role still hold by fossil energies (coal, gas and oil) in the world energy consumption, comments the energy reserve assessments, outlines the financial needs for a renewable energy development, and questions the future evolution of reserves and consumption, as well as the consequences of climate change or the uncertainty about economic growth. The world energy assessment shows important differences between inhabitants: a US citizen consumes more than eight times more than a Chinese one. The shares of the different energy sources are also different from one country to another. In order to decrease the demand in energy, energy efficiency must be improved and user behaviour must evolve

  20. WORLD TRAINING SAILING BOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Yeroshkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In scientific article is researched tendencies, which took place in historical process of the world segmentation of sailing tall ships and their influence on modern composition on whole word’s training sailing boats. By variety parameters modern composition of ships was done the estimation of most biggest tall sailing ships. Complete technical description of the powerful sailing tall ships was done on the present day. Identified and given the technical possibilities for further exploitation of  Ukrainian training sailing boats. Assesses the current state of the sailing fleet in terms of economic costs and expenses of Crimea’s occupation and continuous war on eastern region of Ukraine.Key words: training sailing boats, world segment of sailing boats, sailing boats. JEL: L 92

  1. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  2. Miss World going deshi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

      In November 1996 the South Indian metropolis Bangalore hosted the annual Miss World show. The live event and its televisualisation became a prominent symbol for the India's economic liberalisation and for the immanent globalizing dimensions of this development. As such, the highly prestigious......, the pageant's contestation, which gave rise to a series of vehement protests and a broad public debate about the country's cultural alienation, marked a crucial point in time and trend towards the (re)localisation of the Indian television landscape. In consequence, the 1996 Miss World show and its...... their vision and politics of gender, nation and modernity on the larger Indian public, over the last two decades. Engaging the Indian population increasingly by way of the new electronic, c&s distributed media, competing discourses of gender and sexuality were projected, basically as a necessary, effective...

  3. World trends from 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Issue of prognosis, analyses of future trends is companion to statecraft, political, economic and military planning. How we plan, what does IR says about scientific prognosis. Jankovic starts with this set of issues in order to pass into prognosis itself based on observable world trends. He claims that European Union has entered its climax comparing it foreign policy situation with that of war situation of Third Reich in 1943. Article is divided in five parts. After presenting and criticizing...

  4. Uranium - the world picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.; Wright, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The world resources of uranium and the future demand for uranium are discussed. The amount of uranium available depends on the price which users are prepared to pay for its recovery. As the price is increased, there is an incentive to recover uranium from lower grade or more difficult deposits. In view of this, attention is drawn to the development of the uranium industry in Australias

  5. World Presidents Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour speaks to members of the World Presidents' Organization during the group's visit to NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 26. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site. Barbour visited with group members during a morning session in StenniSphere, the center's visitors center and museum.

  6. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role o...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  7. Entertaining the whole world

    OpenAIRE

    Cheok, Adrian David; Nijholt, Anton; Romão, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Entertainment media are entertainment products and services that rely on digital technology. Mostly the digital entertainment industry is focused on the developed world such as USA, Europe, and Japan. However, due to the decreasing cost of computer and programming technologies, developing countries can greatly benefit from entertainment media in two ways: as creators and producers of games and entertainment for the global market and as a way to increase creativity and learning among developin...

  8. World water day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The symposium on world water day for the year 2005 was held on 22nd March by the Pakistan Engineering congress in collaboration with Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). Six technical papers by engineers/experts presented on the diverse fields from large dams to drinking water and public hygiene. Paper published in this volume are open for written discussion. (orig./A.B.)

  9. The World Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2009-01-01

    The world financial crisis of 2008 is a consequence of new financial technologies, new accounting methods and new international linkages. These developments have come at a time when governments have returned to an old-fashioned freemarket philosophy. This paper links the systemic financial/economic crisis of 2008 to the new economy developments, globalisation and policy philosophy perspectives of recent decades. It raises the question of how to re-establish confidence once traditional thinkin...

  10. View on world market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  11. World data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Alan H.; Hart, Pembroke J.

    One of the lasting heritages of the International Geophysical Year (1957-58) is the system of world data centers (WDC) through which there has been international exchange of a wide variety of geophysical data on a continuing basis. This voluntary exchange mechanism has been remarkably successful. The basic operating costs of the centers are provided by the host country. The international exchanges are mainly by barter. The data providers number in the thousands and the users in the tens of thousands.

  12. Antinuclear and third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Haegu

    1986-02-01

    The first part of this book is about antinuclear, which describes nuclear and nuclear war, the lesson out of history, an idea of neutron bomb and antinuclear through life and thoughts. The second part of this book includes the relationship between human and antinuclear, threat of nuclear, third world and popular literature, for conversion of Japan, an atomic experience and literature and experience and testimony in Nagasaki.

  13. World status - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1984-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power are not so much anti-nuclear public opinion, but more the decrease of electricity consumption growth rate and the high cost of building reactors. Because of these factors, forecasts of world nuclear capacity have had to be reduced considerably over the last three years. The performance of reactors is considered. The CANDU reactor remains the world's best performer and overall tends to out-perform larger reactors. The nuclear plant due to come on line in 1984 are listed by country; this shows that nuclear capacity will increase substantially over a short period. At a time of stagnant demand this will make nuclear energy an important factor in the world energy balance. Nuclear power stations in operation and under construction in 1983 are listed and major developments in commercial nuclear power in 1983 are taken country by country. In most, the report is the same; national reactor ordering cut back because the expected increase in energy demand has not happened. Also the cost-benefit of nuclear over other forms of energy is no longer as favourable. The export opportunities have also declined as many of the less developed countries are unable to afford reactors. (U.K.)

  14. The world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Lambda Power Supply Group, with headquarters in Melville, Long Island owned by UNITECH PLC, based in Reading in the United Kingdom. The Group forms the greatest Power Supply manufacturing and marketing organization in the world, with sales for 1989/90 in excess of $300 million. World markets have distinct trends which need to be recognized in the years ahead. In general, these trends are now commercially driven and center around: The globalization of world markets and the need to service the same customer in the Far East, North America and Europe. The drive to reduce physical size, improve performance and quality and the need to reduce costs. This requires significant investment in research and development to maintain technological leadership. The increasing speed of new product introductions requires power supply companies to work hand-in-hand with their customers as a partner, or even as an extension of the OEM's own development department. A significant trend within Europe is the perception by Far Eastern equipment manufacturers that, by 1992, trade barriers will be erected, and these large manufacturers are increasingly establishing factories within Europe, where they will need local content in their products. Whilst addressing a Global Market with products which are suitable for worldwide sale, it is important to note that local presence is vital, not only to service the customer, but also to monitor the customers needs which have significant differences in certain markets

  15. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies will be

  16. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies

  17. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  18. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is possi...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries.......We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  19. World LNG outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    1999-01-01

    CEDIGAZ proposes this new survey about LNG in view of the main changes which have occurred on this market during the past few years. Several projects under construction or planned three years ago are now commissioned (Qatargas) or on the verge of starting to export this year (Trinidad LNG, RasGas, Nigeria LNG) or next years (Oman LNG). The Asian crisis, which had major impacts on both short-term demand in Asia and LNG prices, has brought about new uncertainties to the long-term prospects. At the same time, it now seems more and more certain that firstly India and then China will import LNG in the next decade. It remains to be seen at what level and when this will occur. LNG growth in Europe has now become a reality, and new potential markets, for example in South America (Brazil), are also being considered as real opportunities in the near future. Considering these 'new' trends, an updated study about LNG appeared necessary. This survey 'World LNG Outlook - 99 Edition' is organised as the previous one: a historical record since 1964 (Chapter 1) followed by a description of the infrastructures existing in 1998 (Chapter 2). The analysis continues with world trade prospects by the year 2010 (Chapters 3 to 5). Chapter 6 describes the future LNG chain and the last Chapter (7) focuses on economic matters (LNG price trends, cost reductions). The study 'World LNG Outlook - 99 Edition' offers hence a comprehensive panorama of this sector from a short and long-term point of view. (author)

  20. World population in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, T W

    1986-04-01

    The world's population growth rate peaked at slightly over 2%/year in the late 1960s and in 1986 is down to 1.7% and falling. Annual numbers added continue to rise because these rates apply to a very large base, 4.9 billion in 1986. According to UN medium variant projections, world population growth will peak at 89 million/year in the late 1990s and then taper off until world population stabilizes in the late decade of the 21st century at about 10.2 billion. Close to 95% of this growth is occurring in less developed countries (LDCs) of Africa, Asia (minus Japan), and Latin America. LDC fertility rates are declining, except in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Latin America and South Asia, but most have far to go to reach the replacement level of 2.1 births/woman. Fertility is below replacement in virtually all more developed countries. For LDCs, large numbers will be added before stabilization even after attainment of replacement level fertility because of the demographic momentum built into their large and young population bases. This complicates efforts to bridge gaps between living standards in LDCs and industrialized countries. From a new debate about whether rapid population growth deters or stimulates economic growth, a more integrated view has emerged. This view recognizes the complementary relationship between efforts to slow population growth and other development efforts; e.g., to improve health and education, upgrade women's status, increase productivity. Most effective in the increased contraceptive prevalence and fertility declines seen in many LDCs has been the combination of organized programs to increase access to family planning information and supplies with socioeconomic development that enhances the desire for smaller families.

  1. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  2. Iqbal and Malay World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ʿUthman EI-Muhammady

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Allāmah Dr. Muhammad Iqbal has attracted the attention of the Malay World as well as the Muslims in Southeast Asia. His prose works like The Reconstruction and his poetic compositions like Asrar-i-Khudi, Shikwah wa Jawab-i-Shikwah and others have been read and translated into Bahasa Melayu and Bahasa Indonesia. Most Indonesian and Malay front ranking leaders were influenced by his ideal of serving the cause of the Ummah. They used Iqbal's argument to mobilize the Muslims for reforms of their respective societies in particular in Malaysia and Indonesia.

  3. News from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    News from the world in relation with nuclear power and fuel cycle are given: Dismantling of the research reactor of the Pasteur Institute, Areva gets the contract to replace the vessel caps for the nuclear power plant of Diablo Canyon, the United Kingdom chooses the renewal of the nuclear park and an increase in the use of renewable energy sources, The united states launches a call to projects for the building of new generation nuclear power plants, in Argentina the government develops its nuclear industry, the Russian federation proposes the creation of an international center for the fuel cycle are the principal points that are developed in this issue. (N.C.)

  4. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  5. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  6. World helicopter market study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  7. World Energy Outlook 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-10

    What will the credit crunch and economic recession mean for energy markets? Will investment cutbacks lead us towards a supply crunch a few years down the line? How could the transition to a clean global energy system be financed? These are just three of the questions that World Energy Outlook 2009 addresses. Incorporating recent developments in energy and environmental policy, this year's Outlook draws on the latest data reflecting the impact of the global financial and economic crisis and takes into account ongoing gyrations in energy prices. The resulting analysis presents a full update of energy projections through to 2030, fuel by fuel, and with more country-level detail than ever before. WEO-2009 puts the spotlight on three special topics: (1) Financing energy investment under a post-2012 climate framework: What policy action is needed to increase deployment of new energy technologies? Where are the most cost-effective opportunities for carbon mitigation? This ground-breaking analysis, which zooms in on the crucial period through to 2020, provides a robust quantitative basis for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations in the lead-up to the crucial climate meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009. (2) Prospects for global natural gas markets: How hard will the credit crisis and economic recession hit gas demand and investment in gas supply? How will geology and geopolitics affect future gas supplies? Through field-by-field analysis of production trends of the world's key gas fields and a bottom-up analysis of upstream costs and investment, WEO-2009 takes a hard look at future global gas supply. (3) Energy trends in Southeast Asia: In recognition of the growing influence Southeast Asia is having on global energy markets, WEO-2009 includes an in-depth analysis of this fast-growing region. The annual WEO report -- the flagship publication of the IEA -- is widely recognised as the most authoritative source of global energy

  8. Legitimation Crises in Premodern Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Peregrine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars employing world-system theory have tended to examine how world-systemsdevelop and expand, while few have addressed the fragmentation or collapse of world-systems. This paper explores the conditions of world-system collapse using Habermas's concept of legitimation crisis as a starting point. The paper posits that legitimation crises are a recurring problem in world-systems and have led to collapse in a number of cases. Prehistoric North American and Pacific world-systems are used as examples.

  9. A World Nuclear University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the mission and tasks of the World Nuclear University (WNU) established to build worldwide knowledge and support the effective use of nuclear techniques for solving the global human and environmental problems of 21 century and thereby support the global sustainable development. In this respect the WNU would build Human resources, Technical knowledge and Public Support. A Network of educational and research institutions with strong programmes in nuclear science and engineering will be created. The WNU Head quarters and Regional Centers will: 1) Facilitate agreement on curriculum and WNU certification curriculum 2) Develop and administer scholarships; 3) Foster educational exchanges within WNU family institutions; 4) Build core faculty for summer 1/2 year Masters degrees; 5) Co-ordinate research, grants and knowledge management research; 6) Operate think tank and public information service; 7) Emphasise key areas such as safeguards systems and the nuclear-renewable-hydrogen economy; 8) Oversee world-wide human resources pool; 9) Orchestrate alumni support for nuclear technology. The possible participants and possible location of the Regional Centres are given

  10. ICPES World Congress 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Pak Lau

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The XII World Congress on Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology is co-organised by the International Cardiac Pacing & Electrophysiology Society (ICPES and the Hong Kong College of Cardiology (HKCC. It will take place at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre on February 19-22, 2003. The World Congress has been organized in various countries, including USA, France, The Netherlands, Japan, Canada, Austria, Israel, Argentina and Germany. The coming Congress is going to be held in the centre of Asia where East meets West – Hong Kong, which is now a Special Administrative Region of China since 1997. Hong Kong continues to enjoy a high degree of autonomy, and has remained an important center of finance, information technology, tourism, trade and exchange in Asia. In addition, it enjoys increasing interaction with the rapidly developing Mainland China. Developed with the assistance of a broadly represented International Scientific Advisory Committee, the scientific programme will feature 11 major topics - “Electrophysiology”, “Catheter Ablation”, “Pacing”, “Defibrillation”, “Pharmacology”, “Hybrid Therapy”, “Pediatric Arrhythmias”, “Arrhythmias for Allied Professionals”, “Genetics & Gene Therapy”, “ECG, Noninvasive Evaluation & Risk Stratification” and “Implantable Monitoring Devices”. It includes Plenary Sessions, Core Sessions, Expert Sessions, Featured Symposia, Live Demonstration, Teaching Courses, Abstract Presentations and Poster Sessions.

  11. The world in scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, A.; Roodenburg, H.

    1992-01-01

    As an introduction to this special issue 'Worlds of difference: Scenarios's for the economy, energy and the environment 1990-2015', an outline is given of the future of the world and the Netherlands, based on four scenarios. These scenarios are published in 'Scanning the future' in May 1992 by the CPB, the Dutch Central Planning Bureau. The Global Shift (GS) scenario is characterized by a very dynamic technological development, the free market perspective, strong economic growth in the Asian economies, and a relative economic regression in Western Europe. In the European Renaissance (ER) scenario the technological development is less dynamic and more gradual than in the GS scenario. The Balanced Growth (BG) scenario is dominated by a sustainable economic development and a strong technological dynamic development. The Global Crisis (GC) scenario shows a downward spiral in many areas, stagnating developments and fragile economies as results of the trends in the eighties. The first three scenarios are elaborated for the Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the aims and meaning of long-term scenarios. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  12. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  13. World oil market simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive simulation model of the world oil market - the World Oil Market Simulation Model (WOMS). The objective was to construct a computationally simple model which provides a transparent view of the workings of the oil market. In the event WOMS has a number of features which distinguish it from other published models: the effect of exchange rate movements is incorporated in the supply and demand functions; both demand and supply functions are dynamic; the non-OPEC supply functions account for the geological as well as the economic aspects of supply; oil prices can be determined either by OPEC setting prices (as normally included in this type of model) or by OPEC setting volumes and market forces determining the price; and consistency checks on consumers' and producers' behaviour are incorporated to confirm the plausibility of model projections. The paper commences with an outline of the model structure followed by an examination of the choice of the appropriate data. The main sections of the paper discuss the estimation of the demand and non-OPEC supply functions. Finally the modelling of OPEC's behaviour is addressed. Comparisons are made throughout with other published work. As the model was estimated using data covering 1960 to 1985, brief comments are also made comparing the events of 1986 with model determined values. (author)

  14. World coking coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. A world's waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Kevin; Rugg, Judith; Palmer, Roger

    1987-01-01

    A World's Waste·An Exhibition that challenges a number of preconceptions about the nuclear industry and the environment while at the same time pushing back the limits of conventional uses of photography and the visual arts. Drawing on a variety of disciplines and utilising means of visual presentation beyond the scope of many exhibitions, this in-depth look at the impact of Sellafield and the nuclear industry on life in Cumbria and beyond attempts through a variety of media from painting through photography to video, performance and installation work, to picture the invisible: radiation and its consequences for the world. Through varied approaches the work selected for exhibition adds a number of voices to a discussion divided between knowledge based on over complex information pitted against opinion reacting from emotion. The catalogue to the exhibition adds a series of articles which go with the art work. The anti-nuclear articles are balanced by BNFLs contributions which put forward the pro-nuclear viewpoint. (author)

  16. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO 2 as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe

  17. World energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed: - to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy; -to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and - to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations. The original Member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became Members subsequently through accession at the dates indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994) and the Czech Republic (21st December 1995). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention). (author)

  18. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  19. In-World Behaviors and Learning in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Larysa; Childs, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Educational virtual worlds can give students opportunities that would not otherwise be possible in face-to-face settings. The SciEthics Interactive simulations allow learners to conduct scientific research and practice ethical decision-making within a virtual world. This study examined the in-world behaviors that identify students who perceive…

  20. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  1. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  2. Nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The chapter reports the nuclear energy beginning in the world including a chronology of the atomic bomb birth, the annual growth rate of electronuclear energy in the world, a comparison of energy production in thermoelectric bases

  3. Constructing public worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2013-01-01

    : This paper explores how children in different cultures and socio-economic contexts develop representations about the public sphere. It addresses how contexts of representation shape the form and content of children’s thinking while expressing the two-way transactions between the child...... world. In affluent or individualistic public spheres we recognise the classical developmental pathway proposed by Piaget, with a clear increase in the separation between self and society as children grow. Children’s representations are flexible semiotic systems whose form and content interact...... productively with the context in which they develop. These results reject conceptions of children’s knowledge as a prototype of adult knowledge, suggesting that children’s societal knowledge evolves through adaptive strategies to specific socio-cultural environments....

  4. ARABELLE - A world record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, F.

    1998-01-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1500 MW turbine started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It reached full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR programme. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work, which started in the 1980s. The main characteristics and design features of ARABELLE are described in this paper

  5. The Africana world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It is 127 years since the Scramble for Africa divided up the continent, imposing borders that have led to conflict rather than peace and stability. It is 100 years since the African National Congress (ANC) was founded as the first African liberation movement with pan-African roots. It is nearly 50...... engagements with Africa's rich cultural heritage, its lingering contemporary challenges, its multifaceted systems of knowledge and its future in the exciting context of the twenty-first century. Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance is put together in order to help develop the study...... and knowledge of African liberation across the continent and the diaspora. This first volume launches a new book series, following the Scramble for Africa conferences held every May to commemorate the founding of the OAU, which will be published annually to support the scholarly study of African unity...

  6. Many worlds in one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    A generic prediction of inflation is that the thermalized region we inhabit is spatially infinite. Thus, it contains an infinite number of regions of the same size as our observable universe, which we shall denote as O regions. We argue that the number of possible histories which may take place inside of an O region, from the time of recombination up to the present time, is finite. Hence, there are an infinite number of O regions with identical histories up to the present, but which need not be identical in the future. Moreover, all histories which are not forbidden by conservation laws will occur in a finite fraction of all O regions. The ensemble of O regions is reminiscent of the ensemble of universes in the many-world picture of quantum mechanics. An important difference, however, is that other O regions are unquestionably real

  7. World energy outlook 2014

    CERN Document Server

    International Energy Agency. Paris

    2014-01-01

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

  8. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    for negotiation pedagogy.These benefits include: the high level of student commitment generated by participation in a competition, which enhances the quality of negotiation; the opportunity that the competitions give students to experience authentic cultural diversity; and the networking opportunities......The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...... for students and instructors that the competitions create.This article focuses on the role that negotiation competitions can play in negotiation pedagogy. We first present an overview of the currently most important international negotiation competitions.This is followed by an outline of the specific benefits...

  9. News from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese government has given its final approval to build the nuclear power plant in Taishan, which must be equipped with two Areva reactors in Guangdong. Areva delivers two steam generators at T.M.I.. The United arab emirates have approved a law establishing the legal framework for their development programme in civil nuclear energy, a step required before the award of a contract estimated at 41 million dollars. The emirates government undertakes to waive the local enrichment of uranium. Armenia wants to produce 40% of its electric power by nuclear energy in 2025. The Osiris reactor restarted production of radioisotopes for medical use. It ensures the provision of 7% of world production. (N.C.)

  10. Building online worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    The fantasy genre has proven to be extremely durable in creating blockbuster successes across multiple media platforms, such as books, films, tabletop and especially online computer games. Currently 85 % of all Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are situated in fantasy...... universes (Van Geel, 2012). This paper will focus on the far most popular fantasy-MMORPG to date, namely World of Warcraft (Blizzard, 2004) as a lens to examine the different potentials of the fantasy genre spanning across various media platforms. Using the concept of “worldness”, traditionally understood...... as a specific textual quality (Klastrup, 2009; Krzywinska, 2008; Pearce, 2009), I argue that understanding it as an experiential quality of the engagement with and reception of a fantasy media text, opens up for a boarder understanding of the fantasy function as a blockbuster genre: The fantasy media matrix...

  11. ARABELLE - A world record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarque, F [Steam Turbine Group, GEC AIsthom Power Generation, Newbold Road, Rugby, Warwickshire CV2I 2NH (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1500 MW turbine started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It reached full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR programme. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work, which started in the 1980s. The main characteristics and design features of ARABELLE are described in this paper.

  12. World energy scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondi, H

    1980-01-01

    Coal will have an increasing role in world energy in the next three decades. The coming dependence on coal as the major fuel will radically affect international cooperation, as the US, USSR, and China account for approx. 85% of the known geological resources, and coal's likely economic marginality poses questions as to which producer will be capable of a profitable export trade. Energy transportability is becoming more important, as people can no longer move near to the sources. Also discussed are the uncompetitiveness of wasteful energy expenditure; the crucial relation of energy consumption to a country's gross national product; the energy intensities of selected industries; the necessity of elasticity in responding to changing energy supplies; the need for increased energy consumption in building up the developing countries; and good control, made achievable via advances in solid-state electronics, as the deciding factor in proper energy management.

  13. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  14. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  15. Seminar 'World CTL 2008'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, B.

    2008-01-01

    'Coal to liquid' (CTL) is a well known technic used since years especially by the Germans during the last world war and South Africa during the oil embargo. The combination of coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis allows the production of synthetic diesel and gasoline. Nice alternative for those countries with large reserves of coal (China, South Africa, USA) which want to be more 'oil-free' in the long term, it faces however quite a lot of challenges: Very sophisticated technic, not yet proven for large scale of unit, high investment costs, necessity to add up CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) due to climate change constraints... In any cases this process seems more adequate and competitive to produce electricity and power than to focus on transportation fuels which are more easily manufactured from oil. (author)

  16. World nuclear outlook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries

  17. The world of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myeong Jae

    2000-12-01

    This book deals with the world of radiation with the first meeting discovery of the rays, meeting between radiation and human body, illusion and truth of radiation and philosophy of management for radiation. These are the titles of the stories ; predictor, unforgettable Hiroshima, nude photo, radiation and radioactivity, living in the radiation, people make radiation, too, mysteries in human body, gene, DNA and cell, when radiation meets human body, the first victim in the atomic accident in Japan. The fact of Chernobyl accident, is radiation in the plutonium fatal? body without brain and a deformed calf, management on radiation in the nuclear power plant, ideal and reality is really radiation dangerous? and the good news.

  18. News from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers a series of brief news concerning nuclear industry throughout the world. Russia and Venezuela have signed an agreement for the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Venezuela. Russia and Ukraine have signed an agreement for the construction of a nuclear fuel plant in Ukraine, this plant will produce fuel assemblies for VVER reactors. The Italian authorities have stated that the come back of nuclear energy will allow Italy to comply with the Kyoto protocol. The French consortium Novarka is constructing the new sarcophagus for the Chernobyl reactor whose cost will reach 870.10 6 euros. The Socatri company has been discharged on the count of environment pollution in the accident that occurred in July 2008 on the Tricastin plant but the company was fined for not reporting in due delay the accident. (A.C.)

  19. World nuclear outlook 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries

  20. WORLD HEALTH DAY THEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1970 - Early Detection of Cancer Saves Life. 1971- A Full Life Despite Diabetes. 1972 - Your Heart is Your Health. 1973 - Health Begins at Home. 1974- Better Food for a Healthier World. 1975 - Small Pox - Point of no Return. 1976 - Foresight Prevents Blindness. 1977 - Immunise and Protect Your Child. 1978 - Down With High Blood Pressure. 1979     - A Health Child-A Sure Future. 1980     - Smoking or Health - The Choice is Yours. 1981     - Health for all for by the Year 2000. 1982     - Add Years to Life. 1983     - Health for all by 2000 - The Count Down has Begun 1984     - Children’s Health: Tomorrows Wealth. 1985     - Health Youth : Our best Resource. 1986     - Health Living - Everyone a Winner. 1987     - Immunisation - A Chance for Every Child. 1988     - Health For All - All for Health. 1989-Let’s Talk Health. 1990    - Our Planet - Ourhealth; Think Globally, Act Locally. 1991    - Should Disaster Strike - Be Prepared. 1992    - Health Beat - The Rhythm of Life. 1993    - Handle Life with Care - Prevent Violence and Negligence. 1994    - Our Health for a Healthy Life. 1995    - Target - 2000 - A World Without Polio. 1996    - Healthy Cities for Better Life. 1997    - Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998    - Safe Motherhood. 1999 - Active Ageing Makes the Difference. 2000 - Be a Life Saver, Be a Blood Doner; Blood Saves Life. 2001- Stop Exclusion, Dare to Care. 2002 - Move for Health. - Shape the Future of Life, Healthy Environments for Children

  1. World Energy Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-09

    The world appears to be emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades. Many countries have made pledges under the Copenhagen Accord to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Commitments have also been made by the G-20 and APEC to phase out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. Are we, at last, on the path to a secure, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy system? Updated projections of energy demand, production, trade and investment, fuel by fuel and region by region to 2035 are provided in the 2010 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO). It includes, for the first time, a new scenario that anticipates future actions by governments to meet the commitments they have made to tackle climate change and growing energy insecurity. WEO-2010 shows: what more must be done and spent to achieve the goal of the Copenhagen Accord to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. C and how these actions would impact on oil markets; how emerging economies -- led by China and India -- will increasingly shape the global energy landscape; what role renewables can play in a clean and secure energy future; what removing fossil-fuel subsidies would mean for energy markets, climate change and state budgets; the trends in Caspian energy markets and the implications for global energy supply; the prospects for unconventional oil; and how to give the entire global population access to modern energy services. With extensive data, projections and analysis, this publication provides invaluable insights into how the energy system could evolve over the next quarter of a century. The book is essential reading for anyone with a stake in the energy sector.

  2. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  3. IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN'S WORLD SYSTEM THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed, among others by the Immanuel Wallerstein. Professor Wallerstein writes in three domains of world-systems analysis: the historical development of the modern world-system; the contemporary crisis of the capitalist world-economy; the structures of knowledge. The American anlyst rejects the notion of a "Third World", claiming there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic exchange relationship. Our world system is characterized by mechanisms which bring about a redistribution of resources from the periphery to the core. His analytical approach has made a significant impact and established an institutional base devoted to the general approach.

  4. World news; Actualite international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-06-01

    The 21. of April 2005, was held in Paris the 6. international petroleum meeting whose main theme was: the supply and demand. The participants of this summit have in majority argued for a greater opening of the productive countries to the international investments which are indispensable to face with a world demand of oil in full expansion. Total has announced the approval by the British authorities of the development of the gas and condensates deposit of north Forvie, located at about 440 km at the nord-east of Aberdeen. Technip and Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corp., have received the prestigious price of the Offshore Technology Conference 2005. The Norway and the United Kingdom have signed a cooperation treaty for stimulating the development of petroleum and natural gas deposits in North sea. The petroleum groups Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil think to sale their shares in three fields in the North sea. Total and Lubrifin, one of the main manufacturers and distributors of lubricants and greases on the Romanian market, have just finalize an agreement for the establishment of a common firm: Total Lubrifin. The IEA has published a study for the governments to rapidly reduce the petroleum consumption in transports in the case of crisis or breakdown of the supply. In order to avoid an accident risk which could have disastrous environmental consequences, by the important transit in the Bosphore pass, a plan (dating from 1995) provides that the petroleum of the Caspian sea transiting by the Russian harbour of Novorossiisk, on North sea, be conveyed by sea way to the Bulgarian harbour of Bourgas, to be transported by pipeline on 320 km to the Alexandroupolis harbour. Vladimir Poutine has received last April to the Kremlin John Browne, general director of the British firm BP, came ask for its investment in Russia in the common firm: TNK-BP. The Algerian petroleum firm Sonatrach is in the 12. world place among the hundred first petroleum firms in the world. Shell Ivory Coast

  5. WORLD HEALTH DAY THEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1970     - Early Detection of Cancer Saves Life.1971     - A Full Life Despite Diabetes.1972     - Your Heart is Your Health.1973     - Health Begins at Home.1974     - Better Food for a Healthier World.1975     - Small Pox - Point of no Return.1976     - Foresight Prevents Blindness.1977     - Immunise and Protect Your Child.1978     - Down With High Blood Pressure.1979     - A Health Child-A Sure Future.1980     - Smoking or Health - The Choice is Yours.1981     - Health for all for by the Year 2000.1982     - Add Years to Life.1983     - Health for all by 2000 - The Count Down has Begun1984     - Children’s Health: Tomorrows Wealth.1985     - Health Youth : Our best Resource.1986     - Health Living - Everyone a Winner.1987     - Immunisation - A Chance for Every Child.1988     - Health For All - All for Health.1989-Let’s Talk Health.1990    - Our Planet - Ourhealth; Think Globally, Act Locally.1991    - Should Disaster Strike - Be Prepared.1992    - Health Beat - The Rhythm of Life.1993    - Handle Life with Care - Prevent Violence and Negligence.1994    - Our Health for a Healthy Life.1995    - Target - 2000 - A World Without Polio.1996    - Healthy Cities for Better Life.1997    - Emerging Infectious Diseases.1998    - Safe Motherhood.1999    - Active Ageing Makes the Difference.2000     - Be a Life Saver, Be a Blood Doner; Blood Saves Life.2001     - Stop Exclusion, Dare to Care.2002     - Move for Health.- Shape the Future of Life, Healthy Environments for Children

  6. News of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers short pieces of news from nuclear industry throughout the world. The most relevant are the following. A micro-crack has been detected in the bottom head instrumentation penetration during the ten-yearly inspection of the unit 1 of the Gravelines nuclear power station. Poland is expected before the end of 2012 to launch a bid of tender for the construction of 2 nuclear power plants of 3000 MW each. The cost of this program is estimated to near 23 billions euros. The Spanish government has allowed the 2 reactors of the Asco plant to operate 10 years more. The Russian company 'Atomstroyexport' will supply the 2 nuclear islands of the 2 new reactors at the Tianwan nuclear power plant (China). Russia is going to build the first nuclear power plant in Bangladesh. Areva has recently discovered 12300 tonnes of uranium in central Jordan. The IAEA experts recommend the Japanese Authorities to decontaminate first the inhabited areas contaminated by the Fukushima accident. It is more important to focus on the real radiation dose received by the population than on the contamination levels of the environment. (A.C.)

  7. News of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers information from nuclear industry throughout the world. The most relevant follows. Electrabel (Belgium) wishes to modulate (up to 50%) the power output of its nuclear reactors in order to integrate more easily renewable electricity in the grid. BKW has decided to decommission the Muehleberg nuclear plant (Switzerland) in 2019, the decision has been taken because the long-term operation of the plant would have required too important investment. Byelorussian authorities have issued the construction permit for the first unit of the first nuclear power plant in the country, the reactor will be of Russian design (VVER-type reactor) with a power output of 1200 MW and is expected to be commissioned in 2018. Jordanian authorities have announced that the Russian company Rosatom is in charge of constructing the first nuclear power plant in the country in the Amra region. AREVA will provide the EPZ company (the Netherlands) with MOX fuel for the Borssele nuclear power plant. The Netherlands are the seventh country to use MOX fuel in its nuclear reactors. The SUSI technology, designed by AREVA in Germany, uses a submarine robot able to inspect the primary cooling system of nuclear power plants. The SUSI robot has recently been used in the USA in the framework of the life extension of nuclear reactors. (A.C.)

  8. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  9. News from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information from around the world concerning the nuclear sector. Among which were the following. Saudi-Arabia projects to build 16 nuclear reactors till 2020. In Pakistan the third reactor has entered into service, this reactor (Chashma-2, 330 MW) is a PWR-type reactor designed by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation). Areva Newport News LLC has postponed to a later date the construction of a plant dedicated to manufacturing big components like reactor vessels or vessel heads. Areva and Rhodia have signed an agreement for a better valorization of deposits involving uranium and rare earth elements. Bulgaria has inaugurated a new storage center for nuclear wastes. Areva has launched the construction of a plant dedicated to the production of Pb-212, an isotope used in the treatment of some cancers. A worker died of a fall on the building site of Flamanville-3. According to COMARE (Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment) there is no relationship between the child leukemia and the presence of nuclear power plants in U.K. Siemens has been condemned to pay 0.648 billion euros to Areva as a compensation for the breach of the shareholder pact. Rosatom has created Rosatom Overseas that will be in charge of financing, building, operating and even owning nuclear power plants on foreign soil. 'Electricite de France' has presented its trends for the next decade. (A.C.)

  10. News from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers a series of very short articles concerning nuclear industry around the world. Areva company is investing 30 million euros in its Chalon-Saint-Marcel plant, it is the consequence of the extension of service life of nuclear power plants in the Usa. Areva holds 40% of the American market concerning the replacement of steam generators and 50% of that concerning the replacement of closure heads. The Obrigheim nuclear power plant was definitely closed down on may 2004, this decommissioning is a step forward in the German policy of progressively stepping out of nuclear energy. Chinese authorities are willing to construct 40 nuclear reactors in 15 years, despite that, the contribution of nuclear energy to the generation of electricity will reach only 4% in 2020. In 2007 Cea will begin the construction works of a new research reactor (Jules Horowitz reactor) in the Cadarache site. Prices of the yellow cake have been going up during the last years: from 9 dollar the pound in 2001 to 23 dollar today. Nuclear fuel manufacturers do not worry because far higher prices have been previously reached (70 dollars in the seventies) and uranium reserves are expected to assure 200 years of electricity generation at the same level of production as today. (A.C.)

  11. Youtubers, ethical possible worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García García

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper realyzes an inmersión into the youtubers world, relating it with the ethical needs of this digital context. After a bibliographic revision around the concepts of study, it develops an experiment with the aim of deeping in the field of creativity and the ethics within the most popular video made by four Spanish youtubers: ElRubius, Gym virtual, Dulceida y Verdeliss. Metodology consists in the analysis of each video from several parameters of the creativity, to then, through using Socratic maieutics, to formulate a battery of questions which are connected, as answers, to ethical axioms, later organized as a list in some categories. As a result, it shows the viability of this process for extracting ethical axioms susceptible to be used by users and youtubers. The most numerous axioms’ category of the study is “Social responsibility”, alludind therefore to the importance that this influencers have over their environment and, hence, to the importance of the ethics in their work.

  12. World Energy Outlook 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In a world where big differences in regional energy prices impact competitiveness, who are the potential winners and losers? Huge volumes of oil are needed to meet growing demand and offset declines in existing fields. Where will it all come from? What could trigger a rapid convergence in natural gas prices between Asia, Europe and North America, and how would it affect energy markets? Is the growth in renewable energy self-sustaining and is it sufficient to put us on track to meet global climate goals? How much progress is being made in phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies and expanding access to modern energy services to the world’s poor? The answers to these and many other questions are found in WEO-2013, which covers the prospects for all energy sources, regions and sectors to 2035. Oil is analysed in-depth: resources, production, demand, refining and international trade. Energy efficiency – a major factor in the global energy balance – is treated in much the same way as conventional fuels: Its prospects and contribution are presented in a dedicated chapter. And the report examines the outlook for Brazil's energy sector in detail and the implications for the global energy landscape.

  13. Many worlds in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päs, Heinrich

    2017-08-01

    A minimal approach to the measurement problem and the quantum-to-classical transition assumes a universally valid quantum formalism, i.e. unitary time evolution governed by a Schrödinger-type equation. As had been pointed out long ago, in this view the measurement process can be described by decoherence which results in a ”Many-Worlds” or ”Many-Minds” scenario according to Everett and Zeh. A silent assumption for decoherence to proceed is however, that there exists incomplete information about the environment our object system gets entangled with in the measurement process. This paper addresses the question where this information is traced out and - by adopting recent approaches to model consciousness in neuroscience - argues that a rigorous interpretation results in a perspectival notion of the quantum-to-classical transition. The information that is or is not available in the consciousness of the observer is crucial for the definition of the environment (i.e. the unknown degrees of freedom in the remainder of the Universe). As such the Many-Worlds-Interpretation, while being difficult or impossible to probe in physics, may become testable in psychology.

  14. World nuclear performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlheim, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    This update, which appears regularly in each issue of Nuclear Safety, surveys the operations of those power reactors in the world, which have been issued operating licenses. Table I shows the number of such reactors and their net capacities as of June 30, 1992, the end of the three-month period covered in this report Table 2 lists the unit capacity and forced outage rate for each licensed reactor for each of the three-months covered in each report and the cumulative values of these parameters at the end of the covered quarter since the beginning of commercial operation. The Maximum Dependable Capacity (MDC) Unit Capacity (in percent) is defined as follows: (Net electrical energy generated during the reporting period x 100) divided by the product of the number of hours in the reporting period and the MDC of the reactor in question. The forced outage rate (in percent) is defined as: (The total number of hours in the reporting period during which the unit was inoperable as the result of a forced outage x 100) divided by the sum (forced outage hours + operating hours)

  15. From the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information from around the world concerning nuclear industry. The most relevant ones are the following. AREVA NP and EDF have created a new society EDVANCE to combine their engineering teams in the fields of reactor core design and construction. The German Constitutional Court considers as illegal the nuclear fuel tax that was implemented in 2010 to balance public finance and fund the remediation of the Ass salt mine. In France on the Tricastin AREVA's site the ATLAS laboratory has opened its doors, it is the laboratory that will perform all the environmental and industrial analyses of this site. In Japan the reactors 3 and 4 of the Takahama power plant have resumed operations. Today 5 nuclear power reactors are operating on Japanese soil. The Indian government has announced its intention to build heavy water cooled nuclear reactors based on an Indian design. 22 reactors are operating in India representing a total of 6780 MW and 5 others are being built. According to the 'SMR Start' consortium public-private partnership contracts have to be promoted in order to launch the small modular reactor (SMR) technology. (A.C.)

  16. News of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers information from nuclear industry throughout the world. The most relevant follows. The reactor 1 of the Kudankulam site has diverged and is expected to be connected to the grid soon. This reactor is a VVER-1000 reactor whose power output will reach 1000 MW, it is the most powerful of the 21 reactors operating in India. China and Pakistan have signed an agreement for the construction of 2 reactors ACP-1000 near Karachi for a cost of 9.6 billion dollars. Ukraine and Japan have launched a common project whose purpose is the satellite-based monitoring of damaged nuclear plants Chernobyl and Fukushima. 4 countries of central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia) have created a common center for the research and development of reactors of 4. generation. The European Commission has decided to grant a loan for the construction of the Pallas high flux multi-purpose reactor on the Petten site (The Netherlands). It will replace the High Flux reactor as soon as 2023 particularly for the production of radio-isotopes. Jordan plans to build its first reactor, this reactor will be a 5 MW research reactor situated at Irbid in the promises of the Sciences and Technologies University. (A.C.)

  17. World Energy Outlook 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Industry and government decision-makers and others with a stake in the energy sector all benefit from the contents of World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2012. It presents authoritative projections of energy trends through to 2035 and insights into what they mean for energy security, environmental sustainability and economic development. Oil, coal, natural gas, renewables and nuclear power are all covered, together with an update on climate change issues. Global energy demand, production, trade, investment and carbon dioxide emissions are broken down by region or country, by fuel and by sector. Special strategic analyses cover: What unlocking the purely economic potential for energy efficiency could do, country by country and sector by sector, for energy markets, the economy and the environment; The Iraqi energy sector, examining both its importance in satisfying the country’s own needs and its crucial role in meeting global oil and gas demand; The water-energy nexus, as water resources become increasingly stressed and access more contentious; Measures of progress towards providing universal access to modern energy services. There are many uncertainties, but many decisions cannot wait. The insights of this publication are invaluable to those who must shape our energy future.

  18. From the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information concerning nuclear industry worldwide. The most relevant are the following ones. China has announced the construction between 2020 and 2025 of the biggest particle accelerator in the world. The Finn government has agreed with the project of a spent fuel storage center, it was the last administrative step before the launching of the construction works. The quality of the steel of the pressure vessel of the Olkiluoto EPR has been assessed by the Finn nuclear safety authority (STUK). The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has launched a test program for assessing the resistance of the pressure vessel of the Flamanville EPR as a consequence of the recent discovery of defects in the composition of the steel. A robot called SX1 has been designed to measure radiation in a continuous way by strolling about in a nuclear facility. As a consequence of a tense relationship with Russia, the Turkish government has stopped the construction (by Rosatom) of the Akkuyu nuclear plant. The Belgian government and the Electrabel company have signed an agreement for a 10 year extension of the operating life of the Doel 1 and 2 reactors. Chinese authorities have approved the construction of 4 new third generation reactors. (A.C.)

  19. News of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    This article gathers information concerning nuclear industry from all over the world. The most relevant information follows. AREVA has announced to have qualified a new joint for hydrodynamical shafts that can resist for 120 hours to the consequences of a total station black-out. The lithuanian parliament has given its agreement for the construction of a nuclear plant (1300 MW) by the Hitachi group. Russia and Nigeria have signed an agreement for the construction of nuclear stations, Nigeria is an oil-rich country that suffers from regular power shortages. The construction of 2 new reactors (APR-1400) has began on the Shin-Ulchin site in South-Korea. The uranium enrichment plant of EURODIF, namely Georges Besse, stopped its activity last june after 33 years of service. The Jordanian French Uranium Mining Company has announced the discovery of a potential field of 20000 tonnes of uranium. The NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency) considers sufficient and credible the safety analysis made by SKB (Swedish agency for the management of wastes and spent nuclear fuel) concerning the project of disposal of spent fuels in deep geological layers. The Tepco company has launched the construction of a shelter to protect the damaged Fukushima Daiichi 4 reactor. (A.C.)

  20. Spice and the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xin

    2017-01-01

    Around 1500 , the world experi ̄enced an explosion of exploration which greatly transformed the world for the next several hundreds of years. During this time, Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, and other seafaring entrepreneurs sought new routes to India’s Malabar Coast and the Indonesian archipelago. The objective of their ef ̄forts was mainly spice specifically pepper, cinna ̄mon, nutmeg, clove, and a few others. In the en ̄suing years, the Spanish, Portuguese, English, and Dutch would all seek to dominate the spice trade, employing an astonishing amount of blood ̄shed and brutality to achieve their aims. They were undermined only by pirates, who would occasional ̄ly plunder the spice boats, relieving them of their precious cargo. The reason behind their desire to seek spice, was not only, and in fact, not even primarily, profits. In an age that poured its commercial ener ̄gies into such un - poetical ends such as arms, oil, and mineral ores, the drive to obtain anything quite so quaintly insignificant as spice must strike us today as mystifying indeed. While historians of ̄ten point to medieval Europe’s problems with ran ̄cid meat, along with the mind -numbing repeti ̄tiveness of its diet, as the source of spice’s early popularity, the main reason for desiring spice came down to one simple thing: mystery. Spices were, in a sense, magical if not divine, arriving by un ̄known means from the vast blank spaces on the map, spaces populated by dragons, gods, and monsters. From mystery grew mystique. It was a seductive premise. This article starts by examining the rise of Europe’s economy after the first millennium and the subsequent demand for Eastern luxuries. Ginger, mace, and other exotic ingredients quickly became status symbols among noblemen—not unlike furs or jewels—as well as staples in upper -class kitch ̄ens, with nearly every dish deluged by seasonings, to the point where the medieval appetite for spice looked less like a taste

  1. [History of world neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X

    2017-05-28

    In 5000 BC, South American tribes digged the bones in the living head to seek ways to communicate with the gods, which was primitive trephination and may be the first neurosurgical behavior. In 2600 BC, Imhotep in ancient Egypt took the brain out of the head from the nose, for a better preserve of the mummy, which was a prototype of modern transsphenoidal surgery. And the development of anatomy in ancient Greek laid a solid foundation for neurosurgery. From 500 to 1500 AD, the rise of religion and the occurrence of war, prompted a large number of craniocerebral trauma, which contributed greatly to the early development of neurosurgery as a distinct specialty. In 1861, Brocca astutely localized the language function to the third left frontal convolution in a series of studies, which was considered to be of landmark importance in the understanding of cerebral localization. In 1878, William Macewen performed a successful surgery to remove an en plaque meningioma with intrathecal anesthesia, representing the first modern neurosurgical operation. However, the contributions of the Americans, starting with Harvey Cushing, exerted a definitive force. Portuguese Moritz performed the first cerebral angiogram on a living schizophrenia patient in 1926. And he established the Moniz-Lima prefrontal leucotomy for the treatment of schizophrenia, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1949. In 1968, the Swiss scholar Yassagir firstly carried out neurosurgical surgeries under the microscope. China's neurosurgery was founded by Zhao Yicheng in 1952 in Tianjin, and the gap in neurosurgery between China and the world gradually narrowed after 60 years of development.

  2. News of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    8 nuclear power plants are operating in Spain, they generate about 23% of the production of electricity in the country. A broad debate has been launched to clarify the future of nuclear energy in Spain. The 2 oldest plants in the world: Dungeness-A and Sizewell-A in U.K. have been decommissioned. In U.K. 23 nuclear power plants are operating and all except one will have to be closed by 2023 to let room for a new generation of reactors. Korean authorities wish to invest 23.5 milliard euros in the building of 39 power plants among which 8 will be nuclear. Swiss authorities have launched a public debate on the selection procedure of a site for the disposal in deep geological layers of radioactive wastes. Jordanian authorities wish to develop a civil nuclear program. French authorities have announced that a total of 6500 radioactive sources are used throughout the country for research or industrial purposes. Only 34% of the German people back a quick step out from nuclear energy and 60% of the Pole are not against the construction of a nuclear power plant. Finnish authorities consider a sixth reactor as a valid solution to face the strong energy demand of the country. Australian authorities consider the development of a nuclear energy program in Australia as an adequate measure to take benefit of the large uranium natural resource of the country and to face the growing demand for electricity. Australian authorities have signed an agreement with Chinese counterparts for exporting uranium. Russian authorities have passed a bill for reforming the nuclear industry in order to make it more competitive. (A.C.)

  3. From the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information concerning nuclear industry worldwide. The most relevant are the following ones. CGN (China General Nuclear) will launched in 2017 the construction of a prototype of a small transportable modular reactor whose purpose is to produce electricity on a remote place like an island or aboard a boat for long-term missions. The Wylfa reactor (490 MWe) was decommissioned on December 30., 2015. Wylfa was the last Magnox type reactor operating in the world. In France a campaign of information and iodine drug dispatching has been launched for people living near nuclear power plants. The global cost of the CIGEO project whose aim is the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes has been estimated to 25 billions euros including construction costs, operating costs over a 100 year period and dismantling costs. The European Commission has warned France that the financial provisions made for the dismantling of nuclear facilities and the processing of the consequent wastes are not sufficient to cover the future costs. 4 reactors with a power of 1400 MWe each, are being built on the Barakah site in Abu Dhabi, works are on time and the first unit may operate end 2016. Wikileaks has accused AREVA of not taking all necessary measures for the protection of its employees at the Bakouma mine. AREVA denies the charges and affirms that regulations and safety requirements are the same as for its French sites whatever the country. The initiative 'Nuclear for Climate' gathering pro-nuclear associations worldwide, intends to remind the international community that nuclear energy is an important tool to fight climate change. The French site for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes is facing saturation in the very short term while the volume of such wastes is expected to soar in the next decades as the dismantling programmes will gain in importance. A new policy for the management of such wastes is needed. (A.C.)

  4. World Cup Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  5. News from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    This document gathers information from around the world concerning nuclear industry. The most relevant follow. A new closure head has been installed on the Callaway reactor. For the first time in Russia, the installation of the reactor vessel of the unit 1 of the Leningrad-II plant has been made through the upper part of the containment building not yet closed. This new way of doing simplifies the installation of the reactor vessel and saves time. Florida authorities have given their consent for the construction of 2 AP1000 reactors on the Turkey Point site. The unit 2 of the Atucha plant (Argentina, 745 MW PWR) diverged for the first time on June 3, 2014. In Namibia, the Husab uranium mine came into production in May 2014. Within the framework of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, Uzbekistan has returned to Russia its whole inventory (5 kg) of ultra high enriched uranium. Chinese authorities have launched an initiative for a better international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. The draft law on energy transition provides that the French Nuclear Safety Authority will have the right to sanction any plant operator who does not comply with its decisions. The works for building the ice walls intended to block contaminated underground waters, have begun at the Fukushima nuclear plant. GDF-Suez and Toshiba have agreed to build together 3 reactors in the northwestern region of England. All the European Union members have agreed to revise the directive on nuclear safety in order to reinforce the community framework for controlling the safety standards of nuclear facilities on European soil. (A.C.)

  6. News of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of news from the nuclear industry around the world. The most relevant are the following. EDF has inaugurated a logistic hub for the supply of spare parts for its 58 operating reactors. Russia has opened a new site to store spent fuels from RBMK reactors. This site is located at Zheleznogorsk near Krasnoiarsk in Siberia. The capacity of the La Hague fuel reprocessing plant is 1700 tonnes a year but the plant processes only between 800 and 1000 tones because most of its foreign contracts have come to an end and have not been renewed. In 2012 the plant is expected to process 1003 tonnes for EDF and 12 tonnes for The Netherlands. AREVA has delivered to the CNNC Chinese company 700 fuel assemblies and 800 control rod clusters. The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) said that there was neither health nor environmental hazards on French soil due to the Fukushima accident. The French Academy of Sciences has highlighted the least sanitary impact of nuclear power compared to other energies. The American Nuclear Safety Association has stated that the American nuclear power plants are safe and that the probability of a severe accident is very low. A new study shows an excess of cases of leukemia near nuclear power stations in France. This study rests on very few statistical cases. An opinion survey in the United Kingdom shows that the construction of nuclear power stations is considered as the best investment in infrastructures. EDF has planned to recruit in 2012 about 6000 people essentially in the nuclear sector. The Netherlands government has given its consent for the construction of the high flux reactor Pallas on the Petten site, this reactor will replace the HFR whose lifetime is over 50 years. (A.C.)

  7. WHO: World Health Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, A

    1992-05-23

    1200 delegates from 175 member countries attended the 45th World Health Assembly in Geneva. Everyone at the Assembly ratified measures to prevent and control AIDS. 12 countries intended to do long term planning for community based care for AIDS patients. Further the Assembly denounced instances where countries and individuals denied the gravity of the AIDS pandemic. In fact, it expressed the importance for urgent and intensive action against HIV/AIDS. The assembly backed proposals to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases that affect AIDS patients, especially hepatitis B. For example, in countries with hepatitis B prevalence 8% (many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, Asia, the Pacific region, and South America), health officials should introduce hepatitis B vaccine into their existing immunization programs by 1995. By 1997, this vaccine should be part of all immunization programs. The Assembly was aware of the obstacles of establishing reliable cold chains for nationwide distribution, however. Delegates in Committee A objected to the fact that 50% of the populations of developing countries continued to have limited access to essential drugs. They also expressed disapproval in implementation of WHO's 1988 ethical criteria for promotion of drugs which WHO entrusted to the Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). CIOMS lacked WHO's status and thus could not effectively monitor drug advertising. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry as well as WHO provided the funds for a meeting of 25 experts to discuss principles included in the ethical criteria. At least 4 countries insisted that WHO have the ultimate authority in monitoring drug advertising. Delegates did adopt a compromise resolution on this topic which required that industry promotion methods be reported to the 1994 Assembly via the Executive Board. The Assembly requested WHO to establish an international advisory committee on nursing and midwifery and to improve the network of

  8. Corporate Training in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nebolsky

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents virtual training worlds that are relatively low-cost distributed collaborative learning environments suitable for corporate training. A virtual training world allows a facilitator, experts and trainees communicating and acting in the virtual environment for practicing skills during collaborative problem solving. Using these environments is beneficial to both trainees and corporations. Two system prototypes – the sales training and the leadership training virtual worlds – are described. The leadership training course design is discussed in details.

  9. Making “World Machines”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, Ann; Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    be combined and turned to crowd-sourcing public engagement with shared world issues - as an alternative to business-as-usual in the context of developing and deploying networked technology. We combine theoretical aspects of world machines, such as what a political entity of this kind might seek to do......The world machine is a new archetype for a socio-technical system drawing together a group of tools that combine computational powers with a social agenda of cross-world collaboration in resistance to dominant market rhetoric. Specifically, we look at how powers to connect, sense and infer can...

  10. Images of World Society: A Third World View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Sarvepalli

    1982-01-01

    Discusses conditions in the Third World which prevent the development of a harmonious world society. The effects of nationalism, nuclear proliferation, racism, political and economic inequities, and social and religious conservatism on the growth of a global outlook are considered. (AM)

  11. Managing the world's forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing

  12. Creating a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Gardner, Charles O.; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. Objective To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from mid-childhood through early adulthood. Design Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. Setting General community. Participants Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998–2004 (n=1802). Main Outcome Measure Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Results Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. Conclusions As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs

  13. Hunger: The World's Oldest Sorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

    1985-01-01

    No human problem is older than starvation. Authorities agree that poverty and unequal distribution of resources are the basic causes of hunger. The hungry are ignored by the world because they have no political power and even less economic strength. How to build a world without hunger is discussed. (RM)

  14. World Food/Hunger Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kimberley A.

    This curriculum guide is designed to encourage responsible university course development as well as extracurricular activities centered around the world food/hunger problem. Multidisciplinary and global values clarification approaches are basic to the curriculum. Part I of the guide discusses the role of universities in combatting world hunger and…

  15. The Challenge of World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Cristobal T.

    2012-01-01

    The author started teaching world history during his first year of teaching at Harlingen High School. To be given such an assignment, because of the breadth of the course, in one's first year might be considered a great misfortune. However, looking back, the author would not have preferred it any other way. World history quickly became his…

  16. Ethnography in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  17. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  18. Methane Digestors. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  19. The Indigenous Old World Passifloras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1972-01-01

    A short revision of the indigenous Old World taxa in Passifiora in the form of a key, the enumeration of synonyms, descriptions, and an index accounting for all names proposed for the area. Examined specimens, distributional areas, and some notes are given. In the Old World 20 indigenous species are

  20. The metaphors of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors.......The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors....

  1. World market of marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels John

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the total world market market research in the year 2001 was US$15,890 million, a 2.8% increase on the previous year. This is the first of several articles to be published in Research World on the results from ESOMAR's latest annual study on the market research sector worldwide

  2. Alice in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  3. World's finest tech sites immortalised

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    They may have transformed man's understanding of the universe but the monumental impact of the world's first large radio telescope and the planet's largest particle physics lab has never been fully recognised. Now both Jodrell Bank and CERN are among the technological landmarks that could be immortalised alongside the pyramids of Egypt and Taj Mahal on UNESCO's World Heritage Site (WHS) list.

  4. Rapid world modelling for robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littile, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to use an interactive world model, whether it is for robotics simulation or most other virtual graphical environments, relies on the users ability to create an accurate world model. Typically this is a tedious process, requiring many hours to create 3-D CAD models of the surfaces within a workspace. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop usable methods to rapidly build world models of real world workspaces. This brings structure to an unstructured environment and allows graphical based robotics control to be accomplished in a reasonable time frame when traditional CAD modelling is not enough. To accomplish this, 3D range sensors are deployed to capture surface data within the workspace. This data is then transformed into surface maps, or models. A 3D world model of the workspace is built quickly and accurately, without ever having to put people in the environment

  5. Atmospheric evolution on inhabited and lifeless worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Catling, David C

    2017-01-01

    As the search for Earth-like exoplanets gathers pace, in order to understand them, we need comprehensive theories for how planetary atmospheres form and evolve. Written by two well-known planetary scientists, this text explains the physical and chemical principles of atmospheric evolution and planetary atmospheres, in the context of how atmospheric composition and climate determine a planet's habitability. The authors survey our current understanding of the atmospheric evolution and climate on Earth, on other rocky planets within our Solar System, and on planets far beyond. Incorporating a rigorous mathematical treatment, they cover the concepts and equations governing a range of topics, including atmospheric chemistry, thermodynamics, radiative transfer, and atmospheric dynamics, and provide an integrated view of planetary atmospheres and their evolution. This interdisciplinary text is an invaluable one-stop resource for graduate-level students and researchers working across the fields of atmospheric science...

  6. 'Living between two worlds': who is living in whose worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Brian

    2009-08-01

    Indigenous people have often been depicted as 'living between two worlds'. They have been described as living neither in their 'Indigenous' world nor in the 'Western' world but in some middle, liminal, or in-between 'world'. People in such situations are often described as 'caught' or 'suspended' and with obvious negative social, emotional and health consequences. What is this cultural space that is often described as 'being between two worlds'? Can Indigenous people develop their identity within the demands and values of contemporary Australian society? Most people who live within the context of modernity move across a mixture of different social, spiritual and cultural 'worlds'. By projecting particular and negative meanings onto Indigenous people and their journey of identity, non-Indigenous people diminish the value of Indigenous energies and initiatives in attempting to cope with life's diverse pressures and expectations. The perpetuation of such attitudes serves to undermine the efforts that Indigenous people make to engage modernity while at the same time attempting to maintain values that are of critical importance for their health and wellbeing. Consequently, non-Indigenous people can end up diminishing the importance of their own life transitions.

  7. Towards a more equitable world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, G.

    1997-01-01

    The city od Hiroshima, which has arisen after total devastation, encourages the world to move forward in achievement of a safe and secure environment for all the mankind. If the world is becoming a global village, if its citizens develop the sense that they are sharing the same fate, then it makes sense to feel an obligation to help solving the problems that occur in the corners of the world. The beginning could be the solving of common problems like environmental degradation and the need to find alternative energy sources. Would the countries which have appropriate technologies in these areas accept their transfer to the countries that need them most?

  8. State of the world 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    The State of the World report is an annual analysis of the global environment pollutions by human activities. What to do for starting a strong world economy that does not destroy natural resources and ecological systems. This is the question of this book. The ten chapters are: a new world order, designing a viable energy system, reducing wastes and saving materials, rethinking urban transports, reforming forestry, rehabilitation of the East Europe and USSR environments, facing abortion problems, the military and environment, the happy medium, restructuring the global economy. (A.B.). 709 refs., 11 figs., 37 tabs

  9. Embodied Involvement in Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekdahl, David; Ravn, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    eSports practice designates a unique set of activities tethered to competitive, virtual environments or worlds. This correlation between eSports practitioner and virtual world, we argue, is inadequately accounted for solely in terms of something physical or intellectual. Instead, we favor...... a perspective on eSports practice to be analyzed as a perceptual and embodied phenomenon. In this article, we present the phenomenological approach and focus on the embodied sensations of eSports practitioners as they cope with and perceive within their virtual worlds. By approaching eSports phenomenologically...

  10. Tomorrow`s solar world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Meg

    1996-12-31

    The largest privately funded solar power installation in the world is at the Florida Walt Disney World. It is the Universe of Energy exhibit at the Experimental Prototype Community of the World. The Universe of Energy shows the development and exploitation of energy sources and how energy is used and includes a recreation of the primeval world from which coal and oil deposits were formed. Visitors travel through two giant theatres in electrically powered cars. Most of the ride system is powered by a solar cell array on the roof of the building. The array is composed of 2,200 modules each made up of 36 cells and can generate 70kW of DC power which is fed through an inverter to convert it to AC. (UK)

  11. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  12. The World According to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Don

    1985-01-01

    Adult guidance and discussion are two elements necessary to transform children from passive consumers into active critics of the social world presented by television. Ways in which teachers can help students scrutinize what they see on television are discussed. (CB)

  13. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  14. World uranium production in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time since the political and economic opening of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, world uranium production actually increased in 1995. Preliminary estimates for 1996 continue this trend, indicating additional (if slight) production increases over 1995 levels. Natural uranium production increased by about 5% in 1995 to 34,218 tons uranium or 89 Mlbs U3O8. This is an increase of approximately 1700 tons of uranium or 4.3 Mlbs of U3O8 over the updated 1994 quantities. Data is presented for each of the major uranium producing countries, for each of the world's largest uranium mines, for each of the world's largest corporate producers, and for major regions of the world

  15. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  16. The New World Information Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Mustapha

    1979-01-01

    Argues for a reordering of the present conception of world information transmission dominated by the developed nations and characterized by imbalances in the political, legal, and technico-financial spheres. (JMF)

  17. 'WORLD OF BIRDS' WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and activities of the 'World of Birds' Wildlife. Sanctuary, near Cape Town, are .... For the time being the benefit for school outings will be mainly visual ... feed, sing, display, build nests, incubate, feed chicks - and even fight.

  18. World energy projections to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Kouvaritakis, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the international energy projections elaborated with the POLES energy model for the purpose of analysing, in other papers of this issue, the impacts of technological change at world level and to 2030. Section 2 describes the key exogenous hypotheses on population and economic growth used for this projection, as well as the main resulting changes for the world energy system and in terms of CO 2 emissions. In Section 3 the dynamics of the energy systems are further analysed for four main world regions, while Section 4 is dedicated to the identification of the key uncertainties and of their possible impacts on future energy development. Finally, the last section presents the key messages of this outlook, which shows a rapidly growing world economy and energy consumption with increasing oil and gas prices, although this last feature remains subject to uncertainties on resource endowment estimates. (orig.)

  19. Unit 06 - Sampling the World

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 06, CC in GIS; Parson, Charles; Nyerges, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    This unit begins the section on data acquisition by looking at how the infinite complexity of the real world can be discretized and sampled. It considers sampling techniques and associated issues of accuracy and standards.

  20. ENHANCING SPIRITUALISM IN VIRTUAL WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Lata DANGWAL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in virtual World now. Technology and Spirituality together forms the material to which man can incline on to and work for the development of a globe in which war will be considered a taboo and violence a rejected dogma. Therefore there is an urgent nee to made the world a safe place to live in and the spiritual reconstruction can help us in achieving this.Spiritualism, Virtual World, Online Technology.

  1. Earthworm Collections of the World

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, Emma; Livermore, Laurence; Scott, Ben

    2013-01-01

    A poster presenting "Earthworm Collections of the World" This site provides a central hub for researchers and students to locate earthworm collections and specimens, along with useful information on the various earthworm families and species.

  2. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Simulation Exercises Info list & RSS National Disease Contingency Plans WAHIS-Wild Interface World Animal Health Official ... FOOD SAFETY ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE View more themes The OIE in brief PRESS ROOM ...

  3. QUALITY IN WORLD CLASS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Class Manufacturing (WCM is a contemporary concept that is applied by the world leaders in the business. In this concept, one of the nine pillars is directly related to the quality and the other eight are related to it indirectly. That is why is very important to investigate relations between this concept and concept of model of quality. In the end of this paper are appointed the examples of best practice.

  4. Energy independence versus world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2003-01-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  5. Realist cinema as world cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The idea that “realism” is the common denominator across the vast range of productions normally labelled as “world cinema” is widespread and seemly uncontroversial. Leaving aside oppositional binaries that define world cinema as the other of Hollywood or of classical cinema, this chapter will test the realist premise by locating it in the mode of production. It will define this mode as an ethics that engages filmmakers, at cinema’s creative peaks, with the physical and historical environment,...

  6. Natural-gas world reserves and world resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickhoff, G.; Rempel, H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas is extracted in nearly 80 countries, 12 of which have a share of four fifths in the world extraction and 15 of which have a share of four fifths in the world consumption. The natural-gas world reserves can cover the present annual demand for years beyond the middle of the coming century. According to current assessments, the resources which presently cannot be extracted economically, the expected additional resources, and the extractable share in the potential of unconventional natural gas amount to more than ten times the reliable world reserves of natural gas. From the geological and technical points of view the world natural-gas extraction will not decrease or cease in the near future. However, the more expensive development of unconventional deposits which are located far away from the end-user will have to be preferred over the medium term on account of the exhaustion of the known deposits whose exploitation is comparatively cheap. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    In march 1994 the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) in the Hague, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven and the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Amsterdam started the first phase of a joint research program aimed at creating integrated scenarios of the global economy, GHG emissions, and climate impacts. The goal of the first phase of this project was to design and test a linked version of the economic model WORLD SCAN of the former, and the climate model IMAGE 2 of the latter institute. This first phase has resulted in the planned test runs with an operational version of the linked models by May 1995. The experiences in the first year were encouraging, both in the scientific and the organizational sense. In a sense, a link was made between scientific disciplines: a coupling of disciplines concerning with global economic development and the global physical climate system is difficult and novel. The goal of the project was to integrate long-term economic developments and effects of climate change. Both the WORLD SCAN model and IMAGE 2 provide a consistent analysis of the global system, but from different perspectives. IMAGE 2 simulates climate change and its effects in a global context but treats the economic system as exogenous. WORLD SCAN covers the world economic system in a consistent manner but does not take into account the global environment. The links are constructed in the area of agriculture and energy. The basic idea is that WORLD SCAN determines demand and supply on economic principles, while IMAGE 2 provides information on changes of land area and average quality of productive land, and other damage costs based on its three sub-systems. The demand for energy is fed into IMAGE 2's Energy Industry subsystem (EIS), which in turn determines emissions of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, some additional output from WORLD SCAN on activity levels, prices and capital structure can be used to determine

  8. World uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy is under increasing scrutiny and uncertainty. None the less, there will be an increasing need for expansion of uranium supply to fuel committed reactors. Longer-term demand projections are very uncertain. Improved knowledge of the extent of world resources and their availability and economics is needed to support planning for reactor development, especially for breeder reactors, and for fuel-cycle development, especially enrichment, and reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium. Efforts to date to estimate world uranium resources have been very useful but have largely reflected the state of available knowledge for the lower cost resources in regions that have received considerable exploration efforts. The IUREP evaluation of world resources provides an initial speculative estimate of world resources, including areas not previously appraised. Projections of long-range supply from the estimated resources suggest that the high-growth nuclear cases using once-through cycle may not be supportable for very long. However, additional effort is needed to appraise and report more completely and consistently on world resources, the production levels attainable from these resources, and the economic and price characteristics of such production. (author)

  9. World green electricity, sustaining investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of the green production to the world production of electricity reached 20.2% in 2011, it means a slight increase in respect to the figure of 2010: 19.8%. Green electricity is the second source of electricity behind fossil energy (67.9%) but before nuclear power (11.7%). The decrease in nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident has automatically benefited green electricity. The figures show the importance of China, China is now the first electricity producer in the world before US and also passed US for the production of green electricity. At the world scale the production of green electricity can break down into: hydro energy (80.5%), wind energy (10.3%), biomass (6.2%), geothermal energy (1.6%) and solar energy (1.4%). The crisis has slowed down the investment in renewable energies in Europe. (A.C.)

  10. World power engineering. General review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, B.A.; Vol'fberg, D.B.; Ershevich, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    State and prospects of the world power engineering development are considered. Eelectricity production requires the greatest part of the world total energy consumption. The latter will grow and in future at the beginning of the next century it reaches 50%. The part of NPPs in 1986 constituted 12% in power and 16% in electricity production. In the middle of 1987 403 NPP units of 298 GW total power were in operation in the world; 138 units (123 GW) were under construction and 84 units (84 GW) were planed. In 1987 power units of 216 GW total power were put into operation. The largest NPPs are Fukushima (Japan) - 9.0 GW, Bruce(Canada) - 8.4 GW, Gravelines (France) - 5.56 GW

  11. Synchronization of world economic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Andreas; Ghil, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Common dynamical properties of business cycle fluctuations are studied in a sample of more than 100 countries that represent economic regions from all around the world. We apply the methodology of multivariate singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA) to identify oscillatory modes and to detect whether these modes are shared by clusters of phase- and frequency-locked oscillators. An extension of the M-SSA approach is introduced to help analyze structural changes in the cluster configuration of synchronization. With this novel technique, we are able to identify a common mode of business cycle activity across our sample, and thus point to the existence of a world business cycle. Superimposed on this mode, we further identify several major events that have markedly influenced the landscape of world economic activity in the postwar era.

  12. Understanding Online (Game)worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klastrup, Lisbeth

    With gameworlds as the prime example, this article discusses online worlds as new forms of cultural entertainment systems and presents a framework with which to analyse them. The framework takes its point of departure in a discussion of what online gameworlds are, which genres of worlds exist and how they can be understood as a new form of engaging experience similar to the type of experience we have when we are captivated by the fictional universes of novels, films and tabletop roleplaying games. The proposed framework is grounded in an aesthetic, communicative and sociological approach to online worlds as digital phenomena, with the primary objective of describing how online gameworlds are systems that create meaning through the production of the experience of “worldness”.

  13. Being in a Virtual World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads; Grimshaw, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct that funct......We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct...... that functions as a synecdoche for the nonself. Separating environment from world, we discuss the role of sound in the forming of the environment and argue that it is this environment that establishes the means for presence because it is the process behind the construction of the environment that individuates...

  14. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  15. World Culture in the Capitalist World-System in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Arnove, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    World culture theory (WCT) offers an explanatory framework for macro-level comparative analyses of systems of mass education, including their structures, accompanying policies and their curricular and pedagogical practices. WCT has contributed to broader efforts to overcome methodological nationalism in comparative research. In this paper, we…

  16. World population, world health and security: 20th century trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashford, A

    2008-03-01

    The connection between infectious disease control and national security is now firmly entrenched. This article takes a historical look at another security issue once prominent in debate on foreign policy and international relations, but now more or less absent: overpopulation. It explores the nature of the debate on population as a security question, and its complicated historical relation to the development of world health.

  17. Some inconvenient truths about biosignatures involving two chemical species on Earth-like exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Hanno; Fujii, Yuka; Spiegel, David S

    2014-05-13

    The detection of strong thermochemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet is thought to be a potential biosignature. In this article we present a previously unidentified kind of false positive that can mimic a disequilibrium or any other biosignature that involves two chemical species. We consider a scenario where the exoplanet hosts a moon that has its own atmosphere and neither of the atmospheres is in chemical disequilibrium. Our results show that the integrated spectrum of the planet and the moon closely resembles that of a single object in strong chemical disequilibrium. We derive a firm limit on the maximum spectral resolution that can be obtained for both directly imaged and transiting planets. The spectral resolution of even idealized space-based spectrographs that might be achievable in the next several decades is in general insufficient to break the degeneracy. Both chemical species can only be definitively confirmed in the same object if absorption features of both chemicals can be unambiguously identified and their combined depth exceeds 100%.

  18. Using polarimetry to retrieve the cloud coverage of Earth-like exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.C.G.; Stam, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Clouds have already been detected in exoplanetary atmospheres. They play crucial roles in a planet’s atmosphere and climate and can also create ambiguities in the determination of atmospheric parameters such as trace gas mixing ratios. Knowledge of cloud properties is required when

  19. Magnetic fields in Earth-like exoplanets and implications for habitability around M-dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Morales, Mercedes; Gómez-Pérez, Natalia; Ruedas, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    We present estimations of dipolar magnetic moments for terrestrial exoplanets using the Olson & Christiansen (EPS Lett 250:561-571, 2006) scaling law and assuming their interior structure is similar to Earth. We find that the dipolar moment of fast rotating planets (where the Coriolis force dominates convection in the core), may amount up to ~80 times the magnetic moment of Earth, M ⊕, for at least part of the planets' lifetime. For slow rotating planets (where the force of inertia dominates), the dipolar magnetic moment only reaches up to ~1.5 M [symbol in text]. Applying our calculations to confirmed rocky exoplanets, we find that CoRoT-7b, Kepler-10b and 55 Cnc e can sustain dynamos up to ~18, 15 and 13 M [symbol in text], respectively. Our results also indicate that the magnetic moment of rocky exoplanets not only depends on rotation rate, but also on their formation history, thermal state, age, composition, and the geometry of the field. These results apply to all rocky planets, but have important implications for the particular case of planets in the Habitable Zone of M-dwarfs.

  20. Retrieving the cloud coverage on Earth-like exoplanets using polarimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.C.G.; Stam, D.M.; Turbet, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyse linear polarization data of the planet at a distance, obtained with the Extreme Polarimeter (ExPo) on the William Herschel Telescope
    on La Palma. These spatially resolved, high-accuracy polarization observations of Venus show faint circular patterns centered on the

  1. Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Michel; Lovis, Christophe; Santos, Nuno C

    2014-09-18

    Doppler spectroscopy was the first technique used to reveal the existence of extrasolar planetary systems hosted by solar-type stars. Radial-velocity surveys led to the detection of a rich population of super-Earths and Neptune-type planets. The numerous detected systems revealed a remarkable diversity. Combining Doppler measurements with photometric observations of planets transiting their host stars further provides access to the planet bulk density, a first step towards comparative exoplanetology. The development of new high-precision spectrographs and space-based facilities will ultimately lead us to characterize rocky planets in the habitable zone of our close stellar neighbours.

  2. The water trail from the cradle of a young Sun to Earth-like planets

    OpenAIRE

    Podio, Linda; Codella, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    El agua es un ingrediente crucial para la vida. Una de las áreas de investigación más fascinantes en el campo de la astrobiología y la astroquímica es la del origen del agua sobre la Tierra. Sabemos que nuestros océanos contienen una cantidad de agua igual a 3 diezmilésimas de la masa terrestre. Sin embargo, si consideramos también el agua presente bajo la costra terrestre, el total podría aumentar a entre 10 y 50 veces más. Existen muchas cuestiones por resolver, como por ejemplo: ¿Cuándo y ...

  3. The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph (PIAAC): Performance for Imaging of Earth-like Exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinache, F.; Guyon, O.; Pluzhnik, E.; Ridgway, S.; Galicher, R.

    2004-12-01

    PIAA is one of the powerful applications of pupil remapping. A set of two aspheric mirrors changes the distribution of light and provides an apodized pupil, suitable for coronagraphy, without light loss on an absorbing mask. Deployed on to a space telescope with coronagraphic quality optics, it may allow planet detection from a 1.2 λ /d inner working distance and a full working field. We describe the performance of a PIAA version of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) in terms of Signal to Noise Ratio and compare it to Classical Pupil Apodization (CPA) performance. We also discuss the necessity of using different occulting masks and give an estimate of the total exposure time for the planet detection phase of the TPF mission. This study is based on realistic Monte Carlo simulations of terrestrial planets orbiting around F, G, K stars within 30 pc around the solar system and includes planet phase and angular separation probabilities. This work was carried out under JPL contract numbers 1254445 and 1257767 for Development of Technologies for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission, with the support and hospitality of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  4. INTEGRATION OF THE ROTATION OF AN EARTH-LIKE BODY AS A PERTURBED SPHERICAL ROTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Sebastian; Lara, Martin

    2010-01-01

    For rigid bodies close to a sphere, we propose an analytical solution that is free from elliptic integrals and functions, and can be fundamental for application to perturbed problems. After reordering the Hamiltonian as a perturbed spherical rotor, the Lie-series solution is generated up to an arbitrary order. Using the inertia parameters of different solar system bodies, the comparison of the approximate series solution with the exact analytical one shows that the precision reached with relatively low orders is at the same level of the observational accuracy for the Earth and Mars. Thus, for instance, the periodic errors of the mathematical solution are confined to the microarcsecond level with a simple second-order truncation for the Earth. On the contrary, higher orders are required for the mathematical solution to reach a precision at the expected level of accuracy of proposed new theories for the rotational dynamics of the Moon.

  5. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  6. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Crisp, Dave, E-mail: amit0@astro.washington.edu [NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.

  7. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Crisp, Dave

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.

  8. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K.; Chen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models

  9. Abiotic synthesis of porphyrins and other oligopyrroles on the early Earth and Earth-like planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S.; Strasdeit, H.

    2013-09-01

    It is generally accepted that abiotically formed amino acids existed on Earth in the late Hadean and early Archean (four billion years ago). They were mainly dissolved in a salty primordial ocean. At that time, volcanic islands were much more abundant than today. It is therefore reasonable to assume that, at hot volcanic coasts, amino acids could have been thermally transformed into other organic molecules. Based on this scenario, we conducted laboratory experiments that simulated the interaction between amino acid-containing sea water and hot lava. In these experiments, a large number of different volatile products were formed, among them pyrroles. It was also possible to obtain porphyrins and other oligopyrroles from pyrroles under simulated conditions of primordial volcanic islands. All experiments were conducted under plausible prebiotic conditions. Our results reveal an abiotic pathway to possible precursors of oligopyrrole-type biomolecules, such as heme and chlorophylls.

  10. An Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Francesco; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Latham, David W.

    2013-01-01

    significantly larger than the Earth. Recently, the planet Kepler-78b was discovered(8) and found to have a radius of only 1.16R(circle plus). Here we report that the mass of this planet is 1.86 Earth masses. The resulting mean density of the planet is 5.57 g cm(-3), which is similar to that of the Earth...

  11. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, P E; Barnes, R

    2015-09-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone," where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life.

  12. An Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Francesco; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Latham, David W; Molinari, Emilio; Udry, Stéphane; Bonomo, Aldo S; Buchhave, Lars A; Charbonneau, David; Cosentino, Rosario; Dressing, Courtney D; Dumusque, Xavier; Figueira, Pedro; Fiorenzano, Aldo F M; Gettel, Sara; Harutyunyan, Avet; Haywood, Raphaëlle D; Horne, Keith; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Lovis, Christophe; Malavolta, Luca; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Motalebi, Fatemeh; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Phillips, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Watson, Christopher A

    2013-11-21

    Recent analyses of data from the NASA Kepler spacecraft have established that planets with radii within 25 per cent of the Earth's (R Earth symbol) are commonplace throughout the Galaxy, orbiting at least 16.5 per cent of Sun-like stars. Because these studies were sensitive to the sizes of the planets but not their masses, the question remains whether these Earth-sized planets are indeed similar to the Earth in bulk composition. The smallest planets for which masses have been accurately determined are Kepler-10b (1.42 R Earth symbol) and Kepler-36b (1.49 R Earth symbol), which are both significantly larger than the Earth. Recently, the planet Kepler-78b was discovered and found to have a radius of only 1.16 R Earth symbol. Here we report that the mass of this planet is 1.86 Earth masses. The resulting mean density of the planet is 5.57 g cm(-3), which is similar to that of the Earth and implies a composition of iron and rock.

  13. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  14. World nuclear performance report 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    World Nuclear Association recently published the 2017 edition of the World Nuclear Performance Report. The report presents key metrics that illustrate current performance, both of reactors currently operating and those under construction. The article highlights some of the most important findings of the report. The pace of new build will need to accelerate if nuclear energy is going to make a growing contribution to the global electricity generation mix, a requirement of many projections of future scenarios that aim to meet the objective of limiting the rise average temperatures to below two degrees Celsius, while at the same time meeting the growing worldwide demand for electricity.

  15. Population and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.

  16. Thyroid Disease Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniakas, Anastasios; Davies, Louise; Zafereo, Mark E

    2018-06-01

    Thyroid disease is one of the most common pathologies in the world, with two of the most clinically important subgroups being iodine deficiency and thyroid goiter, and thyroid cancer. This review looks at the current state of thyroid disease in the world and evaluates the future direction in terms of thyroid disease treatment and prevention. Several of the most impactful epidemiologic studies are presented and analyzed, as well as a brief overview of the current socioeconomic burden of disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. World nuclear performance report 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    World Nuclear Association recently published the 2017 edition of the World Nuclear Performance Report. The report presents key metrics that illustrate current performance, both of reactors currently operating and those under construction. The article highlights some of the most important findings of the report. The pace of new build will need to accelerate if nuclear energy is going to make a growing contribution to the global electricity generation mix, a requirement of many projections of future scenarios that aim to meet the objective of limiting the rise average temperatures to below two degrees Celsius, while at the same time meeting the growing worldwide demand for electricity.

  18. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  19. Inclusion in a Polarised World

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This paper on inclusion was presented to the at the 2005 summer school of DEEEP (Development Education Exchange in Europe Project), Härnösand - Sweden, 5 - 12 June 2005. It addresses the significance of the concept of world civilisation. It assesses how meaning may be attached to the concept of inclusion in an economically polarised world. It develops a critique of the conception of economic inclusion, by means of an exploration of linguistic inclusion and the notion of ‘disability’. ‘...

  20. New frontiers for tomorrow's world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassler, P.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with new frontiers and barricades in the global economic development and their influence on fuel consumption and energy source development. Topics discussed are incremental energy supply - new frontiers, world car population - new frontiers, OPEC crude production capacity vs call on OPEC, incremental world oil demand by region 1992-2000, oil resource cost curve, progress in seismic 1983-1991, Troll picture, cost reduction in renewables, sustained growth scenario, nuclear electricity capacity - France, OECD road transport fuels - barricades, and energy taxation. 18 figs

  1. Microenterprise in the First and Third Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schreiner

    2001-01-01

    Sparked by examples from the third world, hundreds of microenterprise programmes have been started in the first world. Will they be successful? This paper reviews the evidence and concludes that microenterprise development is more difficult in the first world. For example, the microenterprise sector in the first world is smaller because most people can get wage jobs and because of the public safety net. Unlike third-world entrepreneurs, first-world entrepreneurs are more often constrained by ...

  2. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  3. IAEA Supports World Cancer Day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Cancer can strike anyone at anytime, young or old, rich or poor. It knows no borders. World Cancer Day, on 4 February, was initiated to raise global awareness of cancer issues and stimulate new strategies and thinking to combat the killer disease. Nowhere is the need greater than in the developing world, where millions of people are suffering and dying due to lack of cancer prevention and treatment. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 84 million people will die of cancer in the next 10 years, more than 70% of them in low-income countries, unless action is taken now. The IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) was created to help poorer countries confront the growing cancer crisis by integrating radiotherapy into comprehensive cancer control programmes. As it celebrates its third birthday on World Cancer Day, PACT can claim significant progress in building effective relationships with a broad array of stakeholders, initiating six pilot projects and gaining increasing support from Member States. The IAEA commends all organizations, agencies and individuals engaged in the battle to defeat this dreadful disease. We look forward to continued collaboration with international partners to help bring hope to cancer patients, to relieve their suffering and to save lives. (IAEA)

  4. Breeder reactors over the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    After a short recall on the development of research programs, this paper reviews the fast breeder reactor operating, in construction or in project over the world (USA, France, Italy, RFG, India, Japan and U.K.). Thermal and electrical power output, and operation data are given [fr

  5. Aloes of the world project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopper, Ronell R.; Smith, Gideon F.; Crouch, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Background - The Old World genus Aloe L. comprises ± 630 species to which almost 1300 names have been applied. Members of the genus are prominent components of many, mainly arid, African landscapes. Aloes can be found in Africa (the majority of species), the Arabian Peninsula, Socotra, Madagascar...

  6. Sleep Rhymes around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolen, Jane, Ed.

    Based on the idea that, when bedding down for sleep, children all over the world welcome the comforting sound of lullabies sung by people they love, this collection contains 21 sleep rhymes from 17 nations and republics. Each lullaby in the collection is presented in its native language (Thai, Italian, Yoruba, Welsh, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Abenaki,…

  7. Sahlqvist theory for impossible worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmigiano, A.; Sourabh, S.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    We extend unified correspondence theory to Kripke frames with impossible worlds and their associated regular modal logics. These are logics the modal connectives of which are not required to be normal: only the weaker properties of additivity ◊x∨◊y=◊(x∨y) and multiplicativity □x∧□y=□(x∧y) are

  8. The Problem of World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    The major hunger problem today is chronic undernutrition, the primary cause of which is poverty. Hunger can be alleviated through food supplements, nutrition programs, and disaster relief. It can be eliminated by redistributing existing wealth and producing enough food and through equitable economic growth and a world food security system. (CS)

  9. PACS for the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Mendel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital imaging is now firmly ensconced in the developed world. Its widespread adoption has enabled instant access to images, remote viewing, remote consultation, and the end of lost or misplaced film. Unfortunately, the current paradigm of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS, with advanced technology inseparable from high complexity, high purchase costs, and high maintenance costs, is not suited for the low-income developing world. Like the simple, easy to repair, 1950’s American cars still running on the streets of Havana, the developing world requires a PACS (DW-PACS that can perform basic functions and survive in a limited-resource environment. The purpose of this article is to more fully describe this concept and to present a blueprint for PACS tailored to the needs and resources of the developing world. This framework should assist both users looking for a vendor-supplied or open-source solutions and developers seeking to address the needs of this emerging market.

  10. The best of both worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carola Simon; Lotte Vermeij; Anja Steenbekkers

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Het beste van twee werelden. In the eyes of many rural dwellers, the Dutch countryside combines the best of both worlds. They enjoy the peace and quiet, space and landscape around them every day and are happy to live in an environment where people still have time and attention

  11. World interest in nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear power will be used in a desalination plant for the first time in a USSR plant now nearing completion. Studies are in progress to expand the concept of linking the power to chemical industries. These and other developing ideas were subjects of keen discussion by world experts at an Agency conference on nuclear desalination in Madrid. (author)

  12. Small Worlds and Cultural Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Building on Granovetter's theory of the "strength of weak ties,'' research on "small-world'' networks suggests that bridges between clusters in a social network (long-range ties) promote cultural diffusion, homogeneity, and integration. We show that this macro-level implication of network structure

  13. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  14. State of the World 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.

    1993-01-01

    State of the World 1993 warns particularly about global decline in food production and rise in poverty. However, other aspects are more positive: governments responding quickly to global environmental concerns such as the ozone hole and CFCs; the Earth Summit at Rio; the possibility we are on the road to a sustainable society. The uncertainty surrounding the issue of global warming is also presented

  15. All the World's a Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Open Stages is Britain's biggest amateur theatre project, a hugely ambitious scheme to bring the professional and amateur theatre worlds together. It is a learning project but, as the Royal Shakespeare Company's Ian Wainwright tells this author, it is not only the amateurs who are learning. Wainwright states that the amateur and professional…

  16. World supply of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    At the end of 1980 nuclear energy accounted for 9% of the world production of electricity stemming from 262 power stations, utilising mainly the process of water reactors and representing an installed capacity of 142 GWe. This production, apparently limited, already represents the equivalent of 150 million TOE. The 600 nuclear power stations in service, under construction or ordered represent a total of 450 GWe. In 1985, their production ought to cover 15% of the world requirements of electricity, which corresponds to a doubling of the share of nuclear energy within 6 years. During these recent years, the development of nuclear energy has undergone a significant slowing down and the number of orders for new nuclear power stations has dropped considerably in particular in the United States. Considering the time required and the available industrial capacity, the accumulated capacity which could be installed worlwide by 1990 could attain 530 GWe, equivalent to 650 MTOE covering 24% of the world production of electricity and 7% of the world consumption of primary energy. A determined effort for the end of this century could end up by the installation of 1200 GWe of capacity, generating 1.5 GTOE. The share of nuclear energy would then represent 35% of the production of electricity [fr

  17. World's Most Efficient Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    World's Most Efficient Solar Cell National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Spectrolab Set Record For , 1999 - A solar cell that can convert sunlight to electricity at a record-setting 32 percent efficiency on Earth. Spectrolab of Sylmar, Calif., "grew" the record-setting solar cell. After

  18. The Best of Both World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Ferguson, Richard; Gaddefors, Johan

    2015-01-01

    impacts on their opportunity creation. Based on a multiple case study we find that rural entrepreneurs mix what we refer to as placial embeddedness – an intimate knowledge of and concern for the place – with strategically built non-local networks, i.e. the best of two worlds. Notably, the entrepreneurs...

  19. Wanted: A World Development Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1968-01-01

    textabstractDevelopment planning has become a routine activity for large numbers of corporations as well as for public authorities at various levels, particularly national governments. In quite a few national planning agencies extensive analyses of the probable expansion of world supply and demand

  20. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  1. Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Sets. Satish Kumar. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 37-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/02/0037-0047 ...

  2. A light-connected world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The humble household light bulb - once a simple source of illumination - could soon be transformed into the backbone of a revolutionary new wireless communications network based on visible light. Harald Haas explains how this “LiFi” system works and how it could shape our increasingly data-driven world

  3. World status: Petroleos de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is given of the petroleum industry in Venezuela. The industry was nationalized in 1975 and by 1990 was the world's fifth largest oil company. They have ambitious plans to expand production capacity and are looking to the major oil companies to assist. The prospects for sales of Orimulsion are also discussed. (UK)

  4. Defying Reality: Performing Reimagined Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intili, Amanda; Pembleton, Matthew; LaJevic, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Art educators are concerned with exposing their students to contemporary art making practices. They aim to create fresh lessons that expand their understandings of art in today's world while highlighting the importance of imagination. With a personal interest in performance and street art (art forms that have gained popularity in recent years),…

  5. A world-class act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Sherrilynne; Thomas, Ron.

    1992-01-01

    In the autumn of 1991, a school on food irradiation held at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories was attended by 14 food scientists from 12 countries. More than 30 countries have now approved food irradiation. In Canada, Nordion is a world leader with its cobalt-60 irradiators

  6. Black holes in brane worlds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A Kerr metric describing a rotating black hole is obtained on the three brane in a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world by considering a rotating five-dimensional black string in the bulk. We examine the causal structure of this space-time through the geodesic equations.

  7. Enhancing Spiritualism in Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangwal, Kiran Lata; Singh, Shireesh Pal

    2012-01-01

    Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in…

  8. Guidelines for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell; Brack, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the issues surrounding teachers' use of social networking media and their First Amendment rights. It focuses on the need to develop a school district policy outlining specific guidelines for the use of technology and social networking. It also focuses on the changing world of technology and social networking as well as…

  9. Genocide in World History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)

  10. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  11. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route.…

  12. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  13. Third world's energetic perspectives (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciammarella, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    After considering the impact of the 1973 oil crisis on the world energy situation, and particularly in the developing countries, the technical-economical aspects and perspectives of development of different alternative sources of energy are reviewed: solar, geothermal, eolic, minihydro and biomass. (M.E.L.) [es

  14. Mathematics in the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Matt

    1997-01-01

    The abstract nature of algebra causes difficulties for many students. Describes "Real-World Data," an algebra course designed for students with low grades in algebra and provides multidisciplinary experiments (linear functions and variations; quadratic, square-root, and inverse relations; and exponential and periodic variation)…

  15. Water research for the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2013-01-01

    Let’s start with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals Report 2012. Remember the target? Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Thanks to China and India the world has met the drinking water target in 2010,

  16. It's a Whole New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1994-01-01

    The article presents technology projects that provide real-life reasons for students to learn geography. A variety of online networks take students on online field trips, linking them with scientists, zoologists, archaeologists, and explorers. Other interactive software is available to simulate trips to various locations around the world. (SM)

  17. Real-world driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing complexity of engine management system there is a tendency for traditional driving cyles to become further and further removed from reality. So for a sensible evaluation of emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in the field there is an urgent need for 'real-world' driving

  18. Climatic change and world governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems of international agreements about the greenhouse effect gases control. Even if the prejudice covers the whole world, the implementing of pollution regulations generate conflicts of interest. Solidarity, equity and not historical responsibilities have to govern the discussions. This involves to take into account the place of the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  19. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M. de; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment

  20. Nanotechnology for the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin

    2006-01-01

    The letter discusses the indispensable importance of Nanotechnology for the scientific and economical revival of the developing world. Similar to the nuclear age, and maybe far more so, the nanoage will be something of a Hemingway line of demarcation between the have and the have nots

  1. Nanotechnology for the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    The letter discusses the indispensable importance of Nanotechnology for the scientific and economical revival of the developing world. Similar to the nuclear age, and maybe far more so, the nanoage will be something of a Hemingway line of demarcation between the have and the have nots.

  2. The History of World Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David

    This survey of the history of world cinema begins with the "Pre-history" of film making and covers developments, by major periods, through 1972. The film making of all major countries, except Australia, receives attention, and the appendixes contain a note on animated films, a selected filmographies list, and a bibliography. Aspects of…

  3. World Wind: NASA's Virtual Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.

    2007-12-01

    Virtual globes have set the standard for information exchange. Once you've experienced the visually rich and highly compelling nature of data delivered via virtual globes with their highly engaging context of 3D, it's hard to go back to a flat 2D world. Just as the sawbones of not-too-long-ago have given way to sophisticated surgical operating theater, today's medium for information exchange is just beginning to leap from the staid chalkboards and remote libraries to fingertip navigable 3D worlds. How we harness this technology to serve a world inundated with information will describe the quality of our future. Our instincts for discovery and entertainment urge us on. There's so much we could know if the world's knowledge was presented to us in its natural context. Virtual globes are almost magical in their ability to reveal natural wonders. Anyone flying along a chain of volcanoes, a mid-ocean ridge or deep ocean trench, while simultaneously seeing the different depths to the history of earthquakes in those areas, will be delighted to sense Earth's dynamic nature in a way that would otherwise take several paragraphs of "boring" text. The sophisticated concepts related to global climate change would be far more comprehensible when experienced via a virtual globe. There is a large universe of public and private geospatial data sets that virtual globes can bring to light. The benefit derived from access to this data within virtual globes represents a significant return on investment for government, industry, the general public, and especially in the realm of education. Data access remains a key issue. Just as the highway infrastructure allows unimpeded access from point A to point B, an open standards-based infrastructure for data access allows virtual globes to exchange data in the most efficient manner possible. This data can be either free or proprietary. The Open Geospatial Consortium is providing the leadership necessary for this open standards-based data access

  4. World Engineer’s Convention 2011: Engineers Power the World

    CERN Multimedia

    Yi Ling Hwong (Knowledge Transfer) and Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Can the increasing global energy consumption be met without intensifying global warming? Do the necessary technical solutions exist, and is the switch to a low-carbon energy supply feasible and financially viable? These crucial questions and many others were dealt with at the 2011World Engineer’s Convention (WEC). CERN was invited to participate in the event, highlighting its significant contribution to global engineering with an exhibition space devoted to the LHC on the convention floor and a keynote speech delivered by CERN’s Director-General.   From 4 – 9 September 2011, more than 2000 engineers and researchers, as well as politicians and business representatives from about 100 countries gathered at the 2011World Engineer’s Convention (WEC). Held in Geneva, Switzerland, they met to discuss solutions for a sustainable energy future. Discussions looked at the development of engineering solutions through a variety of approaches, with ...

  5. 75 FR 49525 - World Color (USA), LLC Formerly Known as Quebecor World World Color Covington Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,781] World Color (USA), LLC Formerly Known as Quebecor World World Color Covington Including On-Site Leased Workers From Randstad... Adjustment Assistance on May 14, 2010, applicable to workers of World Color (USA), LLC, formerly known as...

  6. The New Worlds Observer: Direct Detection and Study of Exoplanets from the Habitable Zone Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Webster C.; New Worlds Study Team

    2009-01-01

    Direct detection and spectroscopic study of the planets around the nearby stars is generally recognized as a prime goal of astronomy. The New Worlds Observer mission concept is being studied as an Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for this purpose. NWO features two spacecraft: a general purpose 4m telescope that operates from the UV to the Near IR, and a starshade, a flower-shaped occulter about 50m in diameter flying in alignment about 70,000km away. Our study shows this is the most effective way to map nearby planetary systems. Images will show dust and debris down to a fraction of our zodiacal light level. Planets fainter than the Earth can be seen from the Habitable Zone outward, at distances up to 20pc. High throughput and low noise enable immediate follow-up spectroscopy of discovered planets. NWO can discover many more Earth-like planets than all competing approaches including astrometric, interferometric, and internal coronagraphic. Within hours of discovery, a high quality spectrum can determine the true nature of the exoplanet and open the search for biomarkers and life. Over half of the time will be spent with the starshade in transit to the next target. During those times the telescope will be available to for general astrophysics purposes. Operating from the ultraviolet to the near infrared, this will be a true HST follow-on. The study shows all needed technologies already exist. The cost scales primarily with telescope size. The mission is definitely within the financial and technical reach of NASA for the coming decade.

  7. In the world, but not of the world : The prospects of Christianity in the modern world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, P.H.A.I.

    2000-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the prospects of Christianity in the modern world from a philosophical perspective (section 1). In order to do so, I analyse in the second section Gianni Vattimo’s and Charles Taylor’s views of the problems of modernity. They interpret modern civilisation as being

  8. Towards Role Detection in Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); V.P. Lavrenko

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractVirtual worlds are a topic of steadily growing relevance. Some of the providers report user numbers that exceed the population of entire nations in the real world. Virtual worlds typically provide a high degree of complexity, which in some areas approaches the real world's richness of

  9. Unit 148 - World Wide Web Basics

    OpenAIRE

    148, CC in GIScience; Yeung, Albert K.

    2000-01-01

    This unit explains the characteristics and the working principles of the World Wide Web as the most important protocol of the Internet. Topics covered in this unit include characteristics of the World Wide Web; using the World Wide Web for the dissemination of information on the Internet; and using the World Wide Web for the retrieval of information from the Internet.

  10. Researchers making sense of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.; Williams, Dmitri; Ho, Caroline

    Virtual worlds, from gaming worlds to social worlds, have gained increasing attention by academics, public organizations and private entrepreneurs.  Much has been said about what virtual worlds are and what they mean to people and society.  However, this panel is interested in how we come to know...

  11. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  12. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  13. Difficult to foresee tomorrow's world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    Some countries like Italy or Kazakhstan have given up nuclear power but others (Viet-Nam, Bangladesh, Egypt, Turkey) have the willingness to enter the nuclear world to sustain their development while complying with their environmental obligations. Others like United Arab Emirates, Belarus have their first reactor being built and other countries like France, Finland, United States, Slovakia, Brazil, Pakistan, India, Taiwan, South-Korea, China, Russia, Ukraine are reinforcing their reactor fleet by building new reactors. A total of 62 reactors is being built throughout the world with 22 in China. New construction of reactors, the dismantling of decommissioned installations and the integration of nuclear power in new economic models make the future brighter for nuclear industry. (A.C.)

  14. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide, there were 249 power reactors in operation at the end of 1980, with a net electrical capacity of about 142 GW. In Canada the ten reactors in operation had a combined capacity of about 5.5 GW. Another 14 under construction will produce an additional 9.9 GW. Four Canadian reactors were in the world's top ten in terms of capacity factor in 1980, and six were in the top ten in terms of lifetime performance. Data tabulated for the Canadian reactors are: location, power, operator, date of first power. For the rest of the world, a table gives the number of reactors of each type and their capacity. (N.D.H.)

  15. The unstoppable world nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    To meet energy needs and curb climate change, the number of reactors will continue to increase because more and more countries are going the need nuclear power. At present, there are 436 nuclear reactors in the world that produce 16% of the electricity, and another 48 units are under construction in all, 31 countries in the world use nuclear power to produce electricity, and some countries that do not have reactors, e.g. Poland and Italy, are seriously planning to include nuclear power in their energy mix. Global nuclear development is a reality; energy and environmental challenges have led to new support for nuclear power, which is a safe, stable emission-free source. (Author)

  16. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  17. A radioactive football world cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the 2014 football world cup by Brazil is an opportunity to recall how the level of natural radioactivity can change from a country to another. Brazil is with Iran and India one of the 3 countries where the level of natural radioactivity is the highest. In Brazil the average value for natural radioactivity is about 10 mSv/year but you can find spots on the Brazilian 'planalto' where natural radioactivity ranges from 10 to a few tens of mSv/year. The mean value of natural radioactivity at the world scale is about 2.5 mSv/year. The value of 10 mSv/year is the radiation threshold that may trigger the evacuation of the local population in case of a nuclear accident in France. These various figures show that radiation dose limits are very low and should not be considered as representative of actual health hazards. (A.C.)

  18. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  19. World nuclear developments after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1987-01-01

    1986 will inevitably go down in history as the year of Chernobyl, the consequences of which must be delays in and even withdrawals from the development of nuclear power. On the credit side, the Soviet Union has done a rapid and remarkable job in sealing the damaged reactor and rehabilitating the station and the area while improving the safety of its total program. Equally effective has been the response of the IAEA. In terms of nuclear power's claim as a major source of energy, nothing has changed as a result of Chernobyl. 15% of the world's electricity is now produced from nearly 400 power reactors. In comparison with any other energy form nuclear energy must rank high in terms of economy, safety and environmental effects. What has changed is the public perception of nuclear power, and the effort world-wide which will need to be made to restore public confidence

  20. Science in an Exponential World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander

    The amount of scientific information is doubling every year. This exponential growth is fundamentally changing every aspect of the scientific process - the collection, analysis and dissemination of scientific information. Our traditional paradigm for scientific publishing assumes a linear world, where the number of journals and articles remains approximately constant. The talk presents the challenges of this new paradigm and shows examples of how some disciplines are trying to cope with the data avalanche. In astronomy, the Virtual Observatory is emerging as a way to do astronomy in the 21st century. Other disciplines are also in the process of creating their own Virtual Observatories, on every imaginable scale of the physical world. We will discuss how long this exponential growth can continue.

  1. Why Make the World Move?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Evan Green

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The next horizons of human-computer interaction promise a whirling world of digital bytes, physical bits, and their hybrids. Are human beings prepared to inhabit such cyber-physical, adaptive environments? Assuming an optimistic view, this chapter offers a reply, drawing from art and art history, environmental design, literature, psychology, and evolutionary anthropology, to identify wide-ranging motivations for the design of such “new places” of human-computer interaction. Moreover, the author makes a plea to researchers focused in the domain of adaptive environments to pause and take a longer, more comprehensive, more self-reflective view to see what we’re doing, to recognize where we are, and to possibly find ourselves and others within our designed artifacts and systems that make the world move.

  2. Where the New World Is

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bone, Martyn Richard

    in weaving together southern literary studies and post-national American studies. Americanists of all kinds will learn a great deal from this important work." —Harilaos Stecopoulos, author of Reconstructing the World: Southern Fictions and U.S. Imperialisms, 1898–1976 "Martyn Bone's Where The New World...... earlier twentieth-century writing already had done so in ways traditional southern literary studies tended to ignore. Martyn Bone argues that this body of fiction has, over the course of some eighty years, challenged received readings and understandings of the U.S. South as a fixed place largely untouched......, and Laila Lalami. The book also seeks to resituate southern studies by drawing on theories of “scale” that originated in human geography. In this way, Bone also offers a new paradigm in which the U.S. South is thoroughly engaged with a range of other scales from the local to the global, making both...

  3. World Energy Roadmap - A Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, A.A.; Alfehaid, M.A.

    2007-07-01

    The dialogue between energy consumers and producers that has been going on for the past fifteen years has revealed the basic parameters of the complex energy scene. While the consumers are concerned with security of supply, the producers have equal concern with access to markets. A common ground for the two groups is sustainable development because both aim at the continuous flow of oil to ensure continued economic growth. Both have valid concerns and share equal responsibility towards the world at large where competitive advantages available to both groups are employed to achieve global sustainable development. The key to achieving this goal in a world of competing and (to some extent) conflicting priorities is not only a sizable and irreversible investment by both groups, but also the desire to relax unwarranted regulations that have hindered progress in the energy industry. (auth)

  4. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  5. World uranium markets: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The current state of the world's uranium market and its effect on US nuclear-fueled utilities is discussed. Major uranium-related issues that will confront US utility nuclear fuel managers in the coming years are presented, emphasizing the perspectives of supply, demand, world market adjustment, and US market restrictions on imports. It is stated that the US market is essential by non-US producers to help equilibrate an otherwise excessive supply which would cause chaos in the market. To avoid another ten-year boom/bust cycle, the US is urged to reexamine its position on long-term contracts - which permit greater price stability in contrast to the spot market and its price fluctuations. 13 figures, 6 tables

  6. The World as Evolving Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Carlos

    This paper discusses the benefits of describing the world as information, especially in the study of the evolution of life and cognition. Traditional studies encounter problems because it is difficult to describe life and cognition in terms of matter and energy, since their laws are valid only at the physical scale. However, if matter and energy, as well as life and cognition, are described in terms of information, evolution can be described consistently as information becoming more complex.

  7. Technology in Intersecting Figured Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Gertrud Lynge; Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we analyze aspects of how Danish student nurses acquire technological literacy during their clinical internship at a Danish hospital. The argument is supported by several cases from Esbensen's empirical work. We focus on a Techno-Anthropological study of how student nurses learn to engage in technological mediated relations, and discuss how we think the ideas of intersecting worlds help to analyze some of the difficulties, student's experience.

  8. Anaphora resolution without world knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffa Vilson J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical problem in the resolution of pronominal anaphora is the presence of more than one candidate for the antecedent of the pronoun. Considering two English sentences like (1 "People buy expensive cars because they offer more status" and (2 "People buy expensive cars because they want more status" we can see that the two NPs "people" and "expensive cars", from a purely syntactic perspective, are both legitimate candidates as antecedents for the pronoun "they". This problem has been traditionally solved by using world knowledge (e.g. schema theory, where, through an internal representation of the world, we "know" that cars "offer" status and people "want" status. The assumption in this paper is that the use of world knowledge does not explain how the disambiguation process works and alternative explanations should be explored. Using a knowledge poor approach (explicit information from the text rather than implicit world knowledge the study investigates to what extent syntactic and semantic constraints can be used to resolve anaphora. For this purpose, 1,400 examples of the word "they" were randomly selected from a corpus of 10,000,000 words of expository text in English. Antecedent candidates for each case were then analyzed and classified in terms of their syntactic functions in the sentence (subject, object, etc. and semantic features (+ human, + animate, etc.. It was found that syntactic constraints resolved 85% of the cases. When combined with semantic constraints the resolution rate rose to 98%. The implications of the findings for Natural Language Processing are discussed.

  9. World Council of Nuclear Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisseu, Andre

    2007-01-01

    WONUC is an association of Trade Unions, Scientific Societies and Social Organizations of the employees, workers and professionals of the nuclear energy related industries and technologies; integrated by 35 Countries and 1.8 millions members. This paper expose the products and services that WONUC provide for the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the result of their work around all the world

  10. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M. de; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment initiated an international momentum to secure the needs of both present and future generations through a joint policy agenda for sustainable development. Institutions such as the United Nations played...

  11. World gas supply-demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushby, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rapid growth in demand for natural gas from a global perspective is documented in this paper. Low prices compared to other fuels and a return to normal winter temperatures is argued to be the cause of this increase in consumption. Natural gas production and prices for 1995 are discussed and forecasts made for future years, in particular the prospects for LNG in Asia. Data on energy growth and gas specific information in world markets are included. (UK)

  12. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  13. World View in Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of updating the economic model of society there arose the problem of eliminating contradictions in the development of economic science that do not allow us to solve problems of practice in proven ways. Although these contradictions and methods for their resolving are partially reflected in many scientific publications, methodological and practical justifications for a comprehensive study of the reserves of the economic science development by combining the provisions of philosophy and disciplines of the humanities are still relevant. The solution of the problem of unpredictability of functioning and development of the economy using such a combination of scientific disciplines can be ensured by applying the world view models that enable justifying the vector of attention of scientists in the subject area of the problem. The constructiveness of the interaction of scientists representing different ontological views of the world depends on improving of the conceptual and categorical support of their dialogue. A scientific world view in such a composition creates a basis, firstly, for a fruitful discussion of representatives of various disciplines having a common subject of research, and, secondly, for overcoming the institutional and cognitive barriers to professional mobility of scientists. It can also serve to develop the mobility of representatives of professional communities of researchers.

  14. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  15. World distribution of uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, M. C.; Irvine, J. A.; Katona, L. F.; Simmon, W. L.; Bruneton, P.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Cuney, M.; Aranha, M.; Pylypenko, O.; Poliakovska, K.

    2018-01-01

    Deposit data derived from IAEA UDEPO (http://infcis.iaea.org/UDEPO/About.cshtml) database with assistance from P. Bruneton (France) and M. Mihalasky (U.S.A.). The map is an updated companion to "World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) with Uranium Deposit Classification, IAEA Tech-Doc-1629". Geology was derived from L.B. Chorlton, Generalized Geology of the World, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529 , 2007. Map production by M.C. Fairclough (IAEA), J.A. Irvine (Austrailia), L.F. Katona (Australia) and W.L. Slimmon (Canada). World Distribution of Uranium Deposits, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. Cartographic Assistance was supplied by the Geological Survey of South Australia, the Saskatchewan Geological Survey and United States Geological Survey to the IAEA. Coastlines, drainage, and country boundaries were obtained from ArcMap, 1:25 000 000 scale, and are copyrighted data containing the intellectual property of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgment by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. Any revisions or additional geological information known to the user would be welcomed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Geological Survey of Canada.

  16. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Haro, Josep Maria; Heeringa, Steven G; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Ustün, T Bedirhan

    2006-01-01

    To present an overview of the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. The discussion draws on knowledge gleaned from the authors' participation as principals in WMH. WMH has carried out community epidemiological surveys in more than two dozen countries with more than 200,000 completed interviews. Additional surveys are in progress. Clinical reappraisal studies embedded in WMH surveys have been used to develop imputation rules to adjust prevalence estimates for within- and between-country variation in accuracy. WMH interviews include detailed information about sub-threshold manifestations to address the problem of rigid categorical diagnoses not applying equally to all countries. Investigations are now underway of targeted substantive issues. Despite inevitable limitations imposed by existing diagnostic systems and variable expertise in participating countries, WMH has produced an unprecedented amount of high-quality data on the general population cross-national epidemiology of mental disorders. WMH collaborators are in thoughtful and subtle investigations of cross-national variation in validity of diagnostic assessments and a wide range of important substantive topics. Recognizing that WMH is not definitive, finally, insights from this round of surveys are being used to carry out methodological studies aimed at improving the quality of future investigations.

  17. Query Migration from Object Oriented World to Semantic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Soussi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, object-oriented approach was able to take a large share of databases market aiming to design and implement structured and reusable software through the composition of independent elements in order to have programs with a high performance. On the other hand, the mass of information stored in the web is increasing day after day with a vertiginous speed, exposing the currently web faced with the problem of creating a bridge so as to facilitate access to data between different applications and systems as well as to look for relevant and exact information wished by users. In addition, all existing approach of rewriting object oriented languages to SPARQL language rely on models transformation process to guarantee this mapping. All the previous raisons has prompted us to write this paper in order to bridge an important gap between these two heterogeneous worlds (object oriented and semantic web world by proposing the first provably semantics preserving OQLto-SPARQL translation algorithm for each element of OQL Query (SELECT clause, FROM clause, FILTER constraint, implicit/ explicit join and union/intersection SELECT queries.

  18. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  19. Advanced Reactors Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Debu

    2003-01-01

    At the end of 2002, 441 nuclear power plants were operating around the globe and providing 17% of the world's electricity. Although the rate of population growth has slowed, recent United Nations data suggest that two billion more people will be added to the world by 2050. A special report commissioned by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that electricity demand would grow almost eight-fold from 2000 to 2050 in a high economic grown scenario and more than double in a low-growth scenario. There is also a global aspiration to keep the environment pristine. Because of these reasons, it is expected that a large number of new nuclear reactors may be operating by 2050. Realization of this has created an impetus for the development of a new generation of reactors in several countries. The goal is to make nuclear power cost-competitive with other resources and to enhance safety to a level that no evacuation outside a plant site would be necessary. It should also generate less waste, prevent materials diversion for weapons production, and be sustainable. This article discusses the status of next-generation reactors under development around the world. Specifically highlighted are efforts related to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and its six reactor concepts for research and development: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR); Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR); Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR); Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR); Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR); and Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). Also highlighted are nuclear activities specific to Russia and India

  20. Nutritional rickets around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ann

    2013-07-01

    Nutritional rickets is a major public health problem in many countries of the world. The disease is characterized by deformities of the long bones, enlargement of the wrists and costochondral junctions, hypotonia and, in infants, craniotabes and delayed fontanelle closure. Predominantly caused by severe vitamin D deficiency, rickets can also be associated with hypocalcemic seizures and cardiac failure. First presentation is typically at 6-24 months of age, although hypocalcemia may be evident in younger infants. In many affluent industrialized countries, the prevalence of rickets in the general population diminished after the introduction of clean-air legislation and dietary supplementation. However, in such countries, vitamin-D deficiency rickets has re-emerged in recent years, particularly among groups with limited exposure to UVB-containing sunshine. Infants at risk of rickets tend to be those whose mothers had poor vitamin D status during pregnancy and those exclusively breast-fed for a prolonged period with little skin exposure to UVB. In other countries of the world, the prevalence of rickets can be high, even in regions with abundant year-round UVB-containing sunshine. In general, this is also due to vitamin D deficiency related to limited sun exposure. However, reports from Africa and Asia suggest that there may be other etiological factors involved. Studies in South Africa, Nigeria, The Gambia and Bangladesh have identified rickets in children, typically 3-5 years old at first presentation, in whom plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are higher than those characteristic of primary vitamin D deficiency. Calcium deficiency has been implicated, and in some, but not all, disturbances of phosphate metabolism, renal compromise and iron deficiency may also be involved. Continuing studies of the etiology of nutritional rickets will provide evidence to underpin guidelines for the prevention and treatment of rickets world-wide. This article is part of a

  1. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  2. Fieldwork Skills in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Benjamin; Lloyd, Geoffrey; Gordon, Clare; Houghton, Jacqueline; Morgan, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Virtual reality has an increasingly significant role to play in teaching and research, but for geological applications realistic landscapes are required that contain sufficient detail to prove viable for investigation by both inquisitive students and critical researchers. To create such virtual landscapes, we combine DTM data with digitally modelled outcrops in the game engine Unity. Our current landscapes are fictional worlds, invented to focus on generation techniques and the strategic and spatial immersion within a digital environment. These have proved very successful in undergraduate teaching; however, we are now moving onto recreating real landscapes for more advanced teaching and research. The first of these is focussed on Rhoscolyn, situated within the Ynys Mon Geopark on Anglesey, UK. It is a popular area for both teaching and research in structural geology so has a wide usage demographic. The base of the model is created from DTM data, both 1 m LiDAR and 5 m GPS point data, and manipulated with QGIS before import to Unity. Substance is added to the world via models of architectural elements (e.g. walls and buildings) and appropriate flora and fauna, including sounds. Texturing of these models is performed using 25 cm aerial imagery and field photographs. Whilst such elements enhance immersion, it is the use of digital outcrop models that fully completes the experience. From fieldwork, we have a library of photogrammetric outcrops that can be modelled into 3D features using free (VisualSFM and MeshLab) and non-free (AgiSoft Photoscan) tools. These models are then refined and converted in Maya to create models for better insertion into the Unity environment. The finished product is a virtual landscape; a Rhoscolyn `world' that is sufficiently detailed to provide a base not only for geological teaching and training but also for geological research. Additionally, the `Rhoscolyn World' represents a significant tool for those students who are unable to attend

  3. World Congress on Engineering 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong; Gelman, Len

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains fifty-one revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the international conference on Advances in Engineering Technologies and Physical Science (London, UK, 2-4 July, 2014), under the World Congress on Engineering 2014 (WCE 2014). Topics covered include mechanical engineering, bioengineering, internet engineering, wireless networks, image engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers an overview of the tremendous advances made recently in engineering technologies and the physical sciences and their applications, and also serves as an excellent reference for researchers and graduate students working in these fields.

  4. Henry David Thoreau's Spiritual World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云

    2013-01-01

    Henry David Thoreau was wholeheartedly in love with nature and he devoted almost all his life time to observation, appreciation and study of nature. Thus he formed a deep understanding of nature. In 1845, Thoreau began a two-year and two-month residence at Walden Pond. His life was lonely but full of fragrance. He wanted to live meaningfully, confront the essential facts of life and live a simple life. Based on the review of the literature related to this topic, this paper aims to study Henry David Thoreau’s spiritual world, especially reflected in his famous book-Walden.

  5. Miscellaneous news from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Different news from the world, Ukraine hopes to build 11 new nuclear reactors up to 2030, Armenia allows the construction of a for radioactive waste storage (in operation in 50 years), Poland has announced the opening of a nuclear power plant for 2020, Sweden closed the second reactor of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant on the 31 of may (2005), the energy situation in the Baltic sea region, on February 2005 six governments(Canada, France, Japan, United States, United kingdom, Switzerland) have signed a framework agreement for international collaboration on research and development of generation four nuclear energy systems. Finland does the choice of E.P.R.. (N.C.)

  6. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  7. Astronomy Map of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.

    2017-09-01

    I have created an online clickable and zoom-enabled world map - now viewed over 5,400 times - that contains weblinks to institutions where astronomy is either researched professionally and / or and taught in classrooms at the university level. Not included are stand-alone museums, planetariums, amateur astronomical societies, virtual institutes, nor observatories which do not fulfill this criteria. One can click on a marker to access the relevant institute. The map currently contains 697 institutes, and has multiple potential uses for undergraduate students, graduate students, postdocs, faculty and journal editors.

  8. World coal perspectives to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In Summer 2004, The World Energy Council published a Study on 'Sustainable Global Energy Development: the Case of Coal'. The Study aims at developing an internationally consistent reply to the question whether and to what extent coal use could be economic and sustainable in meeting global energy demand to 2030 and beyond. It covers markets, trade and demand, mining and combustion technologies, restructuring and international policies, and perspectives. It considers both, the contribution that coal could make to economic development as well as the need for coal adapt to the exigencies of security of supply, local environmental protection and mitigation of climate change. (Author)

  9. The Politics of World Polity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E.; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    . In this theoretical model, world-cultural and power-political explanations are pertinent to different, mutually informing, and coexisting aspects of the script-writing process. As a corollary of our approach, we present a conceptual framework for the study of intra-IGO script-writing, which is contingent on three...... normative struggles: among IGO staff, within an IGO’s board of directors, and between the staff and the board. To empirically substantiate our arguments, we examine scripts on taxation and capital controls by the International Monetary Fund. We conclude by discussing the broader implications of our model...

  10. WORLD POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY: THEORETICAL MUDDLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Augusto da Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the recent use in the Political Geography of the structuralist social theories. It is performed initially, a brief reflection on the depreciation (or appreciation of the utopias and Marxist concepts. The methodological foundations of geographical approaches based on the world-systems theory are analyzed. It is also questioned the relationship of these approaches with geopolitical analysis in the macro-scale. At last, abridged, there is a discussion about the links of imperialism and the regulation theory with the geography.

  11. LPG world supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  12. State of the World 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.R.; Flavin, C.; French, H.

    2000-01-01

    State of the World 1999 presents evidence of the birth of an entirely new economy, an Environmental Revolution that may be as sweeping as the Industrial Revolution that put us on our present unsustainable course. The authors argue that, far from being too costly to consider, the transition to an environmentally sustainable economy represents the greatest investment opportunity in history. In country after country, community after community, people are making the changes needed to shift from today's fossil fuel-based, auto-centric, throwaway economy to a solar/hydrogen-powered, bicycle/rail-centered, reuse/recycle economy--an economy that will satisfy human needs while preserving the Earth's ecosystems

  13. The lost worlds of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.

    1980-01-01

    Given that matter can exist in two forms, each the mirror image of the other which annihilate each other on contact, producing energy, Dirac's cosmological model explains why there is no conspicuous antimatter in the world since it cannot co-exist with ordinary matter. However, if the creation of matter is always accompanied by an equal and opposite quantity of antimatter, how has all the material of the Universe come into existence without being infested by its mirror substance. The question of whether Grand Unified Theories can bring about an imbalance between matter and antimatter in the primeval Universe is considered. (UK)

  14. The 'New' World Literature: A Review Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell McDougall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Works discussed: Theo D'haen, The Routledge Concise History of World Literature (Routledge, 2011; Theo D'haen, David Damrosch & Djelal Kadir, eds. The Routledge Companion to World Literature (Routledge, 2011; Theo D'haen, Cesar Dominguez & Mads Rosendahl Thomsen eds., World Literature: A Reader (Routledge, 2012; Elke Sturm-Trigonakis, Comparative Cultural Studies and the New Weltliteratur (Purdue University Press, 2013; Emily Apter, Against World Literature: On the Politics of Untranslatability (Verso, 2013; Robert Dixon and Bridget Rooney, Scenes of Reading. Is Australian Literature a World Literature? (Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2013; David Damrosch. ed. World Literature in Theory (Wiley-Blackwell, 2014

  15. One world schoolhouse education reimagined

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Salman

    2013-01-01

    A free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere: this is the goal of the Khan Academy, a passion project that grew from an ex-engineer and hedge funder's online tutoring sessions with his niece, who was struggling with algebra, into a worldwide phenomenon. Today millions of students, parents, and teachers use the Khan Academy's free videos and software, which have expanded to encompass nearly every conceivable subject; and Academy techniques are being employed with exciting results in a growing number of classrooms around the globe. Like many innovators, Khan rethinks existing assumptions and imagines what education could be if freed from them. And his core idea - liberating teachers from lecturing and state-mandated calendars and opening up class time for truly human interaction - has become his life's passion. Schools seek his advice about connecting to students in a digital age, and people of all ages and backgrounds flock to the site to utilise this fresh approach to learning. In THE ONE WORLD SCHOOL...

  16. Panorama 2010: World coal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessereau, G.; Saniere, A.

    2010-01-01

    At a time when the international community must face the key challenges posed by global warming as well as sustainability in general and many of our fellow citizens have come to look unfavorably upon fossil energies, the world is still heavily dependent on these energies to cover growing global energy demand. With proved reserves equivalent to more than 120 years at the present rate of extraction, with a better worldwide geographical distribution than petroleum, coal seems like an especially secure energy. While the renewable energies are showing rapid growth but still only represent a small proportion of the world energy mix, coal was the energy whose consumption grew at the fastest rate and for the sixth consecutive year. This gives cause for concern when one realizes that coal is also the most environmentally harmful energy at local level (its extraction generates pollution) and globally (its combustion emits CO 2 ). So how is it possible to reconcile the apparently irreconcilable, especially when, in some countries, coal represents the bulk of the energy resources? Since it is impossible to do without coal, the solution is to develop new 'clean coal' technologies, among which the capture and storage of CO 2 looks like a promising pathway. In the process, it will be necessary to overcome major technical, economic and social challenges. (author)

  17. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  18. News from the gas world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.; Bergmann, B.; Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Mr Pierre Gadonneix, President of Gaz de France, presented 'The Gaz de France Group in the new European context: opportunities and strategy of a major gas operator' during the 21. world gas congress, which was held in Nice from 6. to 9. June 2000. A few weeks from the liberalization of the gas market in Europe. It seems interesting to publish this article, which very pertinently presents the point of view of the leading French gas operator. We also considered it right to publish the presentation of Mr Burckhard Bergmann, President of Eurogas, who presented the European vision. To complete this panorama of the gas situation, we are also publishing news about the international gas situation in 1999, written by Marie-Francoise Chabrelie of Cedigaz which is summarized here under: in a changing environment, characterized by privatisation, the deregulation and the opening up of markets (Europe, Australia), natural gas has progressively gained ground in the world energy market. This trend was confirmed in 1999. Major discoveries open the way to new projects for local use and export. In spite of the uncertainties regarding the situation in countries of the ex-Soviet Union, several favourable factors, including economic recovery in Asia faster than forecast, indicate a growth hypothesis ranging from 2.5% for this year. (authors)

  19. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara [ICSGP (China); Masera, Diego [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  20. The Stuff of Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbery, EIleen K.; Latner, Alexis Glynn

    2000-01-01

    Extraterrestrial material eternally rains down on Earth. Meteorites flare in the night sky. Cosmic rays plow into Earth's atmosphere, creating invisible bursts of secondary particles. These processes began when the Earth formed in the primordial solar system and have continued ever since, indifferent to the exceedingly recent presence of human intelligence. For us to seek out stuff of other worlds, in contrast, takes a great deal of determined ingenuity. First we have to send a spacecraft somewhere else in the solar system. Indigenous material has to be collected and then brought back to Earth without exposure to conditions that might significantly alter it. The material must undergo meaningful scientific analysis. Most important, part of the material is preserved intact for future investigations. Beginning with bringing back Moon rocks, and now moving onward in the form of new missions to capture the hot thin solar wind and cold thin atmosphere of comets, extraterrestrial sample return takes place on the cutting edge of scientific technology. Sample return is also the fulcrum of an energetic debate about how to do planetary science missions. Scientists and engineers are debating whether to rely on remote sensing and in situ analysis, or to plan missions to undertake sample return. The latter is definitely more expensive on a per mission basis, and is usually technologically more challenging. But for an initially high investment of money and technology, bringing the stuff of other worlds back to Earth yields an incomparable return in scientific results.

  1. Cofactors in the RNA World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    RNA world theories figure prominently in many scenarios for the origin and early evolution of life. These theories posit that RNA molecules played a much larger role in ancient biology than they do now, acting both as the dominant biocatalysts and as the repository of genetic information. Many features of modern RNA biology are potential examples of molecular fossils from an RNA world, such as the pervasive involvement of nucleotides in coenzymes, the existence of natural aptamers that bind these coenzymes, the existence of natural ribozymes, a biosynthetic pathway in which deoxynucleotides are produced from ribonucleotides, and the central role of ribosomal RNA in protein synthesis in the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. Here, we uses both a top-down approach that evaluates RNA function in modern biology and a bottom-up approach that examines the capacities of RNA independent of modern biology. These complementary approaches exploit multiple in vitro evolution techniques coupled with high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Together these complementary approaches advance our understanding of the most primitive organisms, their early evolution, and their eventual transition to modern biochemistry.

  2. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  3. Nutrition: the new world disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Scale up 'we are what we eat' and nutrition is revealed as an aspect of world governance. The quality and nature of food systems has always tended to determine not only the health and welfare but also the fate of nations. The independence of nations depends on their development of their own human and natural resources, including food systems, which, if resilient, are indigenous, traditional, or evolved over time to climate, terrain and culture. Rapid adoption of untested or foreign food systems is hazardous not only to health, but also to security and sovereignty. Immediate gain may cause permanent loss. Dietary guidelines that recommend strange foods are liable to disrupt previous established food cultures. Since the 1960s the 'green revolution' has increased crop yield, and has also accelerated the exodus of hundreds of millions of farmers and their families from the land into lives of misery in mega-cities. This is a root cause of increased global inequity, instability and violence. 'Free trade' of food, in which value is determined by price, is imposed by dominant governments in alliance with industry when they believe they can thereby control the markets. The World Trade Organization and other agencies coordinate the work of transnational corporations that are the modern equivalents of the East India companies. Scientists should consider the wider dimensions of their work, nutrition scientists not least, because of the key place of food systems in all societies.

  4. World energy use - 2000 developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper is presenting the analysis of World energy consumption in the year 2000. Special emphasis is given to the contribution of primary energy use to the global greenhouse effect. The analysis is based on data published by British Petroleum. It is also an update of my analysis published at the same conference one year ago. It can be seen that nuclear power is still the fastest growing primary energy sector in the World, that its share in primary energy mix is increasing and that it is even the fastest increasing share of all sources. Nuclear consumption in Europe is still increasing, but surprisingly the use of coal has increased too in the last year. Consumption is rapidly increasing in North America, while nuclear share there is still fastest growing. In Asia the rate of nuclear growths has slowed down in the last year, gas is now the fastest growing primary energy source. In countries of the former Soviet Union the nuclear energy is the only sector that has reached the level of production of ten years ago. It is worrying that in the countries of OECD the coal consumption is increasing again. Finally, it is also very worrying that the overall consumption of fossil fuels worldwide is increasing. What will happen with the greenhouse effect?(author)

  5. Aging in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1987-01-01

    The relationships between the generations in Third World countries are changing as migration and industrialization erode traditional family responsibilities for supporting the elderly. It is no longer possible to assume that, as a matter of course, old people will be looked after by their families. Social change leads to an eroding of the support systems. The author finds growing evidence of this breakdown in Asia, particularly in Singapore, Hong Kong, and other highly industrialized centers. Singapore, for example, has reinstituted the compulsory study of filial piety in an attempt to push the younger generation into assuming its traditional responsibility toward the old. There has also been a significant decline in the status, prestige, and support given old people in Indonesia, although politicans insist that the family will always take care of its elderly. 2 reasons for this breakdown are 1) the impact of the mass media and 2) the increasing involvement of the younger generation in non-agricultural jobs which often involve a move to the city and away from dependence on a patriarch. Many Third World countries are in a twilight stage, between the traditionally strong structure of family support and government systems of social security.

  6. Learning in a technology enhanced world

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Specht, M. (2009). Learning in a technology enhanced world. Invited talk given at the World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare & Higher Education. October, 27, 2009, Vancouver, Canada.

  7. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  8. Disarmament Education as World Order Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1982-01-01

    Disarmament education has been exposed to wider public attention because of the launching of the World Disarmament Campaign, an education effort intended to involve the world's citizens in thinking about disarmament. Factors important to this movement are discussed. (CJ)

  9. Analysis of Soviet Historiography (Soviet World History)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neubauer, Helmut

    1961-01-01

    ...), Vol 11 No 2, Stuttgart. More than a generation had to pass before the social and political system which fancies itself to be the culmination of world history published its own version of world history...

  10. Nuclear energy in Europe and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.H.; Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim

    1982-01-01

    The author provides an account of opinions expressed at the 1982 Euratom Congress on the world's economical situation, public views on nuclear energy, the energy problem of the third world an on the development status of nuclear technology. (orig.) [de

  11. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  12. Hemoptysis, a developing world perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Omer

    2006-01-13

    Hemoptysis is a significant clinical presentation in respiratory medicine. Often a life threatening emergency, it mandates prompt assessment and intervention. Various investigations and management protocols are proposed globally, to advocate a standardized approach towards patients presenting with hemoptysis. It is the etiology, however, that has been known to influence clinical outcome and prognosis. With marked contrast in geographical patterns of pulmonary pathologies, etiological agents for hemoptysis vary over the world. Studies in West, usually demonstrate neoplastic and non-granulomatous causes to be the leading agents for hemoptysis. The diagnostic accuracy of various investigations and efficacy of management alternatives has been established there. Developing nations differ in their burden of diseases of lung. Lack of health resources and initiative often prevent quality research in critical areas. This is a retrospective observational study with a cross-sectional design in which charts of all patients admitted with the presentation of haemoptysis in the past ten years will be reviewed, at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. A series of variables, based on previous literature on haemoptysis related to the objectives of present study, will be determined in the study. Demographics, co-morbids and etiology will be determined. Findings of various investigation modalities and their accuracy in localizing the bleeding site will be determined. Efficacy of different management strategies will also be observed. Also observed will be any complications and follow-up. Pakistan is a third world nation of over 150 million, established as highly endemic for pulmonary tuberculosis. To date no study has been generated to look into hemoptysis patterns, in this nation. Lack of evidence based medicine poses a major hindrance towards confident decision-making in the approach towards a patient presenting with hemoptysis in this country. This study is devised to

  13. Hemoptysis, a developing world perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Omer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoptysis is a significant clinical presentation in respiratory medicine. Often a life threatening emergency, it mandates prompt assessment and intervention. Various investigations and management protocols are proposed globally, to advocate a standardized approach towards patients presenting with hemoptysis. It is the etiology, however, that has been known to influence clinical outcome and prognosis. With marked contrast in geographical patterns of pulmonary pathologies, etiological agents for hemoptysis vary over the world. Studies in West, usually demonstrate neoplastic and non-granulomatous causes to be the leading agents for hemoptysis. The diagnostic accuracy of various investigations and efficacy of management alternatives has been established there. Developing nations differ in their burden of diseases of lung. Lack of health resources and initiative often prevent quality research in critical areas. Design This is a retrospective observational study with a cross-sectional design in which charts of all patients admitted with the presentation of haemoptysis in the past ten years will be reviewed, at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. A series of variables, based on previous literature on haemoptysis related to the objectives of present study, will be determined in the study. Demographics, co-morbids and etiology will be determined. Findings of various investigation modalities and their accuracy in localizing the bleeding site will be determined. Efficacy of different management strategies will also be observed. Also observed will be any complications and follow-up. Discussion Pakistan is a third world nation of over 150 million, established as highly endemic for pulmonary tuberculosis. To date no study has been generated to look into hemoptysis patterns, in this nation. Lack of evidence based medicine poses a major hindrance towards confident decision-making in the approach towards a patient presenting

  14. The mystery of the quantum world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, E.

    1986-01-01

    Quantum Physics is about the mysterious behaviour of the micro-world and the strange properties of the quantum theory which predicts this behaviour. An understanding of the quantum world goes beyond physics to philosophy, cosmology, psychology and theology. There are chapters on reality in the quantum world, quantum theory, quantum theory and external reality, consciousness, hidden variables and non-locality and, finally, the mysteries of the quantum world. It is intended for a non-specialised readership. (U.K.)

  15. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  16. Gas fuels in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Gas fuels are the petroleum substitution fuels that have received the best agreement in most parts of the world. This success is due to the existence of natural gas fields or LPG reserves in several countries and to the possibility of fast development of these resources. Countries with various size and economic policy such as New Zealand, USA, Argentina, Japan or Italy have developed a very significant fleet of gas fuel vehicles. This paper summarizes the consumption of gas fuels, the number of gas fuel equipped vehicles and of gas fuel stations in the principal consuming countries. The size and composition of vehicle fleets varies from one country to the other and depends on the economical and environmental incitements and constraints from the governments. Details are given separately for LPG and natural gas vehicle fuels. (J.S.)

  17. World Congress on Engineering 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Gi-Chul; Gelman, Len

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents selected peer-reviewed, revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers who participated in the World Congress on Engineering 2015, held in London, UK, 1-3 July, 2015. This large international conference covered advances in engineering technologies and the physical sciences, with contributions on subjects including mechanical engineering, bioengineering, internet engineering, image engineering, wireless networks, knowledge engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial applications. This book offers a snapshot of the state-of-the-art, highlighting tremendous advances in engineering technologies and physical sciences and their applications, and will serve as an excellent reference for researchers and graduate students working in many different disciplines of physical sciences and engineering.

  18. World tour through the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Hwan; Kang, Ho Seong; Kim, Jong Hun

    1994-03-01

    This book deals with basic knowledge and familiarity with internet use, which is composed of seven chapters ; the world of internet, the basic knowledge for internet use such as telnet, mail, talk, basic command on Unix and command for communication, to access to the internet, if you get on the internet for the first time, useful service of internet such as archie service, gopher service, who is service, Use net, IRC and Netiquette on IRC, interesting internet trip like Billboard charts, TV-Rating, Solar Report, Agricultural Info, CARL, Nat'l Education BBS, internet service in Sydney university FEDIX, CAIR, NOAA, SDDAS, Stock, MUD and international Go server. The last chapter is computer networks connected to the internet ; computer services, BITNET, and FidoNet.

  19. Catalysis in the Primordial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Raos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Catalysis provides orderly prebiotic synthesis and eventually its evolution into autocatalytic (self-reproduction systems. Research on homogeneous catalysis is concerned mostly with random peptide synthesis and the chances to produce catalytic peptide oligomers. Synthesis of ribose via formose reaction was found to be catalysed by B(OH4−, presumably released by weathering of borate minerals. Oxide and clay mineral surfaces provide catalytic sites for the synthesis of oligopeptides and oligonucleotides. Chemoautotrophic or iron-sulphur-world theory assumes that the first (pioneer organisms developed by catalytic processes on (Fe/NiS particles formed near/close hydrothermal vents. The review provides an overlay of possible catalytic reactions in prebiotic environment, discussing their selectivity (regioselectivity, stereoselectivity as well as geological availability of catalytic minerals and geochemical conditions enabling catalytic reactions on early Earth.

  20. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  1. Big worlds under little tents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Robinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In broaching the question ‘what is a pavilion?’ we learn that this little studied type of structure has assumed so many forms and functions throughout modern history as to beg the question of whether it can really be seen as an architectural type at all. This editorial introduction suggests that one way of conceptualizing the pavilion across time and space is as a structure whose transient (and often modest presence in the landscape quite remarkably belies the otherwise rather weighty ideas or positions about the world that are embodied or indeed put on display there. This thesis is supported by some of the texts that follow, and which explore pavilions as spaces of display, ornamental eccentricities, experimental prototypes, as well as heraldic or diplomatic monuments of a kind.

  2. Energy and the third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    For the past 300 years Western society has been experiencing a growth in the availability of cheap energy, to the point where per capita energy consumption in 1977 was around 8000 watts. In less developed countries, on the other hand, per capita consumption has stayed between 400 and 500 watts, the same as in ancient Greece. With abundant energy comes more abundant life. The developed countires therefore have a moral obligation to help the rest of the world develop useable energy sources, including nuclear power. It has been said that nuclear power is unsuitable for developing countires; such an attitude is arrogant and condescending. It is up to the developing countries to choose what form of energy they will exploit. (LL)

  3. World energy data system (WENDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareau, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a unique application of System 2000: the storage of preformatted textual information in a completely user oriented data base. The World Energy Data System is an information system which allows qualified users online access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. WENDS has been used to transmit up-to-date informaion on foreign energy technology and research and development programs to DOE program divisions, the Congress, and other U.S. government officials going abroad. The WENDS concept is first described. Then, the method of storage of the textual information is discussed followed by a discussion of the retrieval system which is thoroughly designed to serve the user

  4. PRESS - WORLD MILESTONE AND CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Majnaric

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The machine printing and rapid cultural development in Europe begins with the discovery of metal lettering at the end of the 15th century. This printing technique has been named the letterpress printing and is one of the greatest inventions of mankind. The development of printing was one of the main indicators of the development of individual countries. We believe that today in the world and in Europe the Croatian development of that age is significantly neglected. This paper presents European development and development in Croatia. This paper will contribute to a more accurate evaluation of Croatian printing and cultural level of that time by displaying Croatian achievements of that era, the printing staff, printed works and printing houses, throughout European and Croatian development of printing.

  5. World tour through the internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Hwan; Kang, Ho Seong; Kim, Jong Hun

    1994-03-15

    This book deals with basic knowledge and familiarity with internet use, which is composed of seven chapters ; the world of internet, the basic knowledge for internet use such as telnet, mail, talk, basic command on Unix and command for communication, to access to the internet, if you get on the internet for the first time, useful service of internet such as archie service, gopher service, who is service, Use net, IRC and Netiquette on IRC, interesting internet trip like Billboard charts, TV-Rating, Solar Report, Agricultural Info, CARL, Nat'l Education BBS, internet service in Sydney university FEDIX, CAIR, NOAA, SDDAS, Stock, MUD and international Go server. The last chapter is computer networks connected to the internet ; computer services, BITNET, and FidoNet.

  6. Petrobras prepares for world stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, T.

    1997-01-01

    The plans of the Brazilian state oil company Petrobras for future offshore developments in partnership with foreign oil companies are outlined. Recent changes to Brazil's constitution mean that foreign participation is now permitted in the growing oil industry. Proven and recoverable reserves of 8.1 billion barrels of oil have been opened up for foreign involvement. The regulatory change also enables Petrobras to take part in projects overseas and the company expects to bid in the forthcoming licensing round for deepwater developments offshore Angola. Of the 29 sedimentary basins in Brazil, only eight so far are in production. Around 70% of proven reserves and almost all new discoveries are expected to be in deep or ultra deep waters. Petrobras have already broken the world record for deep water wells with the Marlim South well which came onstream in August 1997 in 1709m of water. (UK)

  7. Energy content of world trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Gernot [Environmental Defense Fund, 257 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This paper constructs a comprehensive dataset of oil and total energy embedded in world trade of manufacturing goods for 73 countries from 1978 to 2000. Applying the data to debates on the dependency on foreign energy sources makes clear that achieving complete energy independence in the foreseeable future is unlikely to be feasible and may not be desirable. Applying it to the discussion of environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs) highlights an important distinction between production and consumption of energy. Richer countries use relatively less energy in their industrial production yet still consume relatively large amounts of energy indirectly. A further investigation largely excludes structural shifts of production in and out of the manufacturing sector as an explanation for the downward-sloping portion of the EKC. Country-level analyses add caveats but show tentative support for the cross-country conclusions. (author)

  8. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses international progress in fusion research during the last three years. Much of the technical progress has been achieved through international collaboration in magnetic fusion research. This progress has stimulated political interest in a multinational effort, aimed at designing and possibly constructing the world's first experimental fusion reactor. This interest was reflected in recent summit-level discussions involving President Mitterand, General Secretary Gorbachev, and President Reagan. Most recently, the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have decided to begin serious preparation for taking the next step toward practical fusion energy. These parties have agreed to begin the design and supporting R and D for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The initiation of this international program to prepare for a fusion test reactor is discussed

  9. Collective Action Situated in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Bridget M.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in the history of collective action, the offline world has experienced a virtually organized and enacted union strike. While this was the first publicly noticed political action in a virtual world, others have been going on for several years now. As virtual worlds continue to grow in popularity, this type of protest of action…

  10. World Food Day Curriculum, Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Janet

    Hunger and malnutrition lead to the deaths of 13-18 million people a year; 75 percent of these victims are children. World Food Day was created to focus attention on the world's food and farm problems and to encourage the world's people to become directly involved in the solution of these problems. It is sponsored jointly by the United Nations…

  11. Northern Togo and the world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); H.A. Reitsma (Henk)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractHow global is the world economy? Does it also encompass the remote corners of the Third World where subsistence agriculture still predominates and where the first hard-surface roads have yet to be built? And if it does, when did these areas become incorporated into the world economy?

  12. Ocean Worlds of the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K. P.

    2018-05-01

    I will provide an overview of why we think we know ocean worlds exist, what we know about the physical and chemical conditions that likely persist on these worlds, and how we may proceed in our search for biosignatures on these worlds.

  13. Ibn Battuta Mall: Edutaining the World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chae Ho

    2010-01-01

    Nakheel, a Dubai World Company has created the world's largest themed mall based on the narrative of Ibn Battuta, a 14th century Muslim explorer whose world travels are well documented. The Ibn Battuta Mall is located in the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates and utilizes a communication strategy called edutainment: a neologistic…

  14. World resources of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaterre, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    In a first part, the author outlines that the issue of density of an oil product raises the question of the validity of a counting approach based on volumes. As oil industries produce always less heavy products and always more light products, this means that always less oil is needed to produce a gallon or a litre of fuel out of a refinery. The author comments the evolution of crude oil extraction. In a second part, he outlines that hydrocarbon productions become always more complex with respect to their origin. Thus, during gas extraction, humid gases are recovered which contain an important part of hydrocarbons similar to light oil. These aspects and the development of shale gas exploitation will make the USA the first oil producer in the world whereas they still have to import heavy oil to feed their refineries. He discusses the level of reserves and production costs with respect to the product type or its extraction location. He discusses the evolution of the estimates of world ultimately recoverable resources (synthesis processes excluded). He comments the level of condensate extraction ratio of the main shale gas fields in the USA and outlines the cost of natural gas imports for France. He outlines the importance of GTL (gas to liquid) processes, the increasing importance of bio-fuels (notably isobutanol biosynthesis and terpene biosynthesis). In the third part, the author states that the barrel price should keep on increasing and, in the fourth part, proposes a list of issues which will impact the future of the oil market

  15. World resources 1992-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The World Resources series is intended to meet the critical need for accessible, accurate information on some of the most pressing issues of our time. Wise management of natural resources and protection of the global environment are essential to achieve sustainable economic development and hence to alleviate poverty, improve the human condition, and preserve the biological systems on which all life depends. This volume has a special focus on sustainable development, in support of the upcoming 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Part 1 consists of four special chapters on sustainable development: an overview chapter and three case studies of what sustainable development might mean in industrial countries, low-income countries, and rapidly industrializing countries. Additional material pertinent to this topic is found throughout the volume. Part 2 continues the tradition of examining in each volume a particular region in more detail - in this case, an overview of the severe environmental and resource problems faced by Central Europe as that region makes a difficult transition to more democratic governments and more market-oriented economies. Part 3 reports on basic conditions and trends, key issues, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in each of the major resource categories, from population and human development to energy to atmosphere and climate. Where data exist, the chapters give a 20-year perspective on trends in the physical environment - spanning the time between the first United Nations Conference on the Environment and UNCED. Supporting data, as well as the core data tables from the World Resources Data Base, are found in Part 4. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  16. World population problems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1989-06-01

    Over 50% of the world's population is below the age of marriage, which indicates rapid expansion of the population into the next century. The developing countries produce 85% of the births, 95% of infant deaths, and in some, 99% of maternal deaths. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) will slow population growth but will not reverse the trend. Family planning programs have worked as evidenced by declining fertility rates. In the US there was a total fertility rate decline of 6 to 3.5 in 58 years. In Sri Lanka the same change took 30 years, in Thailand 15 years and in China 7 years. Family planning programs that are successful provide condoms cheaply, provide community distribution of pills, offer sterilization to male and females, and promote long periods of lactation. Abortion rates are often higher in countries where they are illegal and family planning is usually not offered. Social marketing and voluntary sterilization are the most cost effective birth control methods as proven in less developed countries. Management is the vital factor in more cost effective family planning programs. In sub-Saharan Africa and India there will be a need to subsidize contraceptives well into the next century. If the world is to be serious about family planning, many industrialized countries will have to contribute resources. Private sector involvement needs to be emphasized more in developing countries. Resources are low because of a lack of political will caused by a lack of understanding of the facts of demographic growth. There have been estimates that it will take $7.5 billion to satisfy the developing countries' birth control needs: there is only $1.5 billion being spent now. Many countries are not providing family planning quickly enough and may be forced to give up the freedom to choose family size. The choice of policy makers now is to increase the resources for contraceptive research, or to settle with abortion and sterilization as backup to inadequate methods.

  17. Security Theories of Third World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Victorovna Khudaykulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the security studies in the “Third World”. The evolution of the conceptual apparatus in the field of security studies and in the understanding of the “Third World” is given. The author provides us an analysis of the security issues in the so-called “post-colonial” countries in the years of “cold war” and in the post-bipolar period, defines the domain of security for the developing world and the current agenda. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the security concepts of the late XX century - the “security of the person”, “securitization”, “humanitarian intervention” - which are of particular concern to countries of the “Third World”. An alternative format of the “Third World” in the categories of postmodern, modern and premodern worlds is given, the term of “non-Westphalian” state is used as well. Basic characteristics of the “Third World” in the socio-economic and political spheres are provided. The author emphasizes that the state of security of the “Third World” is fundamentally different from that of the developed Western countries, since most threats in non-Western countries, does not come from the outside, but from within. Accordingly, the non-Western security theory does not focus exclusively on military issues and explore a wide range of issues of civil nature - economic, political, social, environmental and development challenges, as well as poverty and underdevelopment.

  18. Third-World Astronomy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, Jayant V.

    Several developing countries of the Third World have been actively interested in astronomy, as is evidenced by the membership of the IAU. The enthusiasm of individual astronomers from these countries is, however, not matched by the resources available to them to pursue their interest in astronomy, in teaching as well as research, at an above-threshold level. Major problems requiring solutions are (I) isolation from the mainstream work, which leads to research work which is not quite relevant or realistic, and to teaching based on outdated knowledge; (II) lack of financial resources, leading to shortage of books and journals in the library, insufficient computing power, out-of-date instruments, as well as inability to participate in essential activities like schools, workshops, and major international conferences and symposia; and (III) lack of handson experience with state-of-the-art instrumentation that often leads to good scientists being turned away from astronomical observations towards abstract theories. Experience of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, Italy and of the inter-university centres in India, like the IUCAA at Pune, has shown that limited resources can be made to go a long way by sharing, networking and intelligent use of communications technology. Based on the above experience, this proposal envisages setting up a Third World Astronomy Network (TWAN) under the auspices of the IAU, within the wider ICSU-umbrella with support from the UNESCO as well as participating nations. The TWAN will operate with a few key institutions as local nodal points of a wide network. The objectives of the proposed TWAN and the role of the Nodal Institutions (NIs) are spelled out in this proposal, along with the budgetary support required.

  19. The World Bank's innovation market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert Chapman; Hamel, Gary

    2002-11-01

    Large, tradition-bound organizations can make space for radical, low-cost (and therefore low-risk) innovations. Just ask executives at the World Bank. The story of this best practice begins in 1998, when a young new-products group at the international funding agency proposed holding an Innovation Marketplace to capture novel ideas within the Bank for alleviating poverty. The forum, which eventually was opened to external participants, let people informally present their antipoverty ideas to potential funding sources. Funders could move among hundreds of booths and evaluate proposals for, say, a program that would provide postdisaster reconstruction insurance in developing countries or a vaccination development initiative. The marketplace truncated the Bank's standard project-review processes, which often stretched to a year or more, and gave funders permission to make commitments in the tens of thousands of dollars, rather than in the tens of millions more typical of Bank-financed projects. The marketplace concept met with some skepticism at the beginning. Some senior executives at the Bank felt no group had the right to spend the agency's money without following its well-established resource allocations process. But the marketplace team believed an open process for allocating grants would produce more breakthrough ideas in the long run than a centralized one. In this article, the authors describe how the new-products team brainstormed to create a market for ideas, how it got senior management's support, and how it has expanded on the original concept for these innovation marketplaces. The program's success, they contend, offers hope both for the world's poor and for business leaders looking to find new ideas under the hard crust of corporate dogma, conformance, and bureaucracy.

  20. This-worldly and other-worldly: a holocaust pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hamrin-Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This story is about a kind of pilgrimage, which is connected to the course of events which occurred in Częstochowa on 22 September 1942. In the morning, the German Captain Degenhardt lined up around 8,000 Jews and commanded them to step either to the left or to the right. This efficient judge from the police force in Leipzig was rapid in his decisions and he thus settled the destinies of thousands of people. After the Polish Defensive War of 1939, the town (renamed Tschenstochau had been occupied by Nazi Germany, and incorporated into the General Government. The Nazis marched into Częstochowa on Sunday, 3 September 1939, two days after they invaded Poland. The next day, which became known as Bloody Monday, approximately 150 Jews were shot deadby the Germans. On 9 April 1941, a ghetto for Jews was created. During World War II about 45,000 of the Częstochowa Jews were killed by the Germans; almost the entire Jewish community living there.The late Swedish Professor of Oncology, Jerzy Einhorn (1925–2000, lived in the borderhouse Aleja 14, and heard of the terrible horrors; a ghastliness that was elucidated and concretized by all the stories told around him. Jerzy Einhorn survived the ghetto, but was detained at the Hasag-Palcery concentration camp between June 1943 and January 1945. In June 2009, his son Stefan made a bus tour between former camps, together with Jewish men and women, who were on this pilgrimage for a variety of reasons. The trip took place on 22–28 June 2009 and was named ‘A journey in the tracks of the Holocaust’. Those on the Holocaust tour represented different ‘pilgrim-modes’. The focus in this article is on two distinct differences when it comes to creed, or conceptions of the world: ‘this-worldliness’ and ‘other- worldliness’. And for the pilgrims maybe such distinctions are over-schematic, though, since ‘sacral fulfilment’ can be seen ‘at work in all modern constructions of travel, including