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Sample records for extraocular orbital implant

  1. 21 CFR 886.3340 - Extraocular orbital implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extraocular orbital implant. 886.3340 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3340 Extraocular orbital implant. (a) Identification. An extraocular orbital implant is a nonabsorbable device intended to be implanted during...

  2. Use of extraocular muscle flaps in the correction of orbital implant exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yen Chu

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: The study is to describe a new surgical technique for correcting large orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps and to propose a treatment algorithm for orbital implant exposure. METHODS: In a retrospective study, seven patients with orbital implant exposure were treated with extraocular muscle flaps. All data were collected from patients in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan during 2007-2012. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon (Y.J.T. Patient demographics, the original etiology, details of surgical procedures, implant types, and follow-up interval were recorded. Small exposure, defined as exposure area smaller than 3 mm in diameter, was treated conservatively first with topical lubricant and prophylactic antibiotics. Larger defects were managed surgically. RESULTS: Seven patients consisting of two males and five females were successfully treated for orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps. The average age was 36.4 (range, 3-55 years old. Five patients were referred from other hospitals. One eye was enucleated for retinoblastoma. The other six eyes were eviscerated, including one for endophthalmitis and five for trauma. Mean follow-up time of all seven patients was 19.5 (range, 2-60 months. No patient developed recurrence of exposure during follow-up. All patients were fitted with an acceptable prosthesis and had satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. CONCLUSIONS: The most common complication of orbital implant is exposure, caused by breakdown of the covering layers, leading to extrusion. Several methods were reported to manage the exposed implants. We report our experience of treating implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps to establish a well-vascularized environment that supplies both the wrapping material and the overlying ocular surface tissue. We believe it can work as a good strategy to manage or to prevent orbital implant exposure.

  3. Original hydroxyapatite orbital implant covered with small autoscleral flap with extraocular rectus muscles orbital implantation%直肌及其止端处小巩膜瓣下义眼台植入术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景明; 孙琰; 周哲; 高玉; 马戈; 葛茸茸; 王传星; 蔡金辉

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察自创的带直肌止点处小巩膜瓣下羟基磷灰石(HA)义眼台植入术的临床效果.方法 用自创方法行义眼台植入术296例(296只眼),随机对其中32例(32只眼)进行眼眶增强MRI检查以观察术后1周、1、2、3、4、5、6及18个月义眼台血管化进程.结果 所有病例随访1 ~18个月,义眼台活动良好,无义眼台外露发生.增强MRI检查显示义眼台于术后1个月即完全血管化,随着时间进展,血管化密度逐渐增大.结论 作者自创的带直肌止点区域小巩膜瓣下HA义眼台植入术,彻底解决了HA义眼台植入术外露的问题,促进义眼台血管化的优势明显,具有良好的使用前景.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of orbital implantation with original hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implant covered with small autoscleral flap at extraocular rectus muscles insertions area which was designed by the author.Methods Thirty-two cases were randomly selected from a total of 296 patients who were treated with the original hydroxyapatite implantation method.Serial precontrast and postcontrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained at 1 week,1,2,3,4,5,6 and 18 months after implantation to assess the fibrovascularization of HA orbital implants.Results Patients were followed up for 1to18 months.In all cases HAs were fixed to orbit and moved well.There was no complication of prostheses exposure.Contrast-enhanced MRI showed the HA spheres had achieved complete vascularization 1 month after implantation.The vascularization density increased with time.Conclusion The author' s original hydroxyapatite orbital implantation covered with small autoscleral flap with extraocular rectus muscles method completely solves the problem of prostheses exposure complication and its advantage of promoting the fibrovascularization is obvious.The application prospect is good.

  4. MRI of extraocular orbital diseases; Comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    The author investigated the usefulness of MRI in the diagnosis of extraocular orbital diseases, and the diagnostic ability of MRI was compared with that of CT. The materials consisted of 38 cases of diseases in extraocular orbital region (all cases were examined with MRI and 34 of them were also examined with CT). MRI was performed with spin echo or STIR sequences using a 1.5 tesla superconductive unit (GE SIGNA). CT was performed using SOMATOM CR and DR-H. The study showed that MRI was equally or more useful than CT in detecting lesions as well as assessing the internal architecture and extension of the lesions. Differentiation between benign and malignant tumors by MRI is difficult from their signal intensity only and can be made from their extraorbital extension, just as by CT. In Graves' orbitopathy, T{sub 2}-weighted images were more sensitive in reflecting its new or old pathological changes than CT. T{sub 1}-weighted images enhanced with Gd-DTPA were useful in differentiating sphenoid wing meningiomas from other tumors, but not useful in assessing the degree of intraorbital extension. STIR sequences were particularly useful in the diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy and expectd to be applied to the lesions which were not detected or poorly demonstrated with CT and spin echo sequences. (author).

  5. Intraocular and extraocular hemorrhage associated with ligature release of non-valved glaucoma drainage implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Go

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: and importance: This is the first report of a rare occurrence of intraocular and extraocular hemorrhage associated following spontaneous release of ligature of a non-valved glaucoma drainage implant. The presumed mechanism was sudden shallowing of the anterior chamber resulting in the tube irritating uveal vasculature. We do not have an explanation for the extraocular blood.

  6. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT OF EXTRA-OCULAR MUSCLES IN DOGS WITH NO CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF ORBITAL DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOSLYN, S.; Richards, S.; Boroffka, S.A.E.B.; Mitchell, M.; Hammond, G.; Sullivan, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancement of extra-ocular muscles has been reported in cases of orbital pathology in both veterinary and medical magnetic resonance imaging.We have also observed this finding in the absence of orbital disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe extra-ocular muscle contrast enh

  7. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT OF EXTRA-OCULAR MUSCLES IN DOGS WITH NO CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF ORBITAL DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOSLYN, S.; Richards, S.; Boroffka, S.A.E.B.; Mitchell, M.; Hammond, G.; Sullivan, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancement of extra-ocular muscles has been reported in cases of orbital pathology in both veterinary and medical magnetic resonance imaging.We have also observed this finding in the absence of orbital disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe extra-ocular muscle contrast enh

  8. Changes of orbital tissue volumes and proptosis in patients with thyroid extraocular muscle swelling after methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Tomoaki; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Ohji, Masahito

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the changes of orbital tissue volumes and proptosis after methylprednisolone pulse therapy in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The cross-sectional areas of orbital tissues and proptosis were measured with magnetic resonance imaging in 40 orbits of 20 patients with TAO before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The volumes of the whole orbit, orbital fatty tissue, and extraocular muscles were calculated. The volumes and proptosis were compared before and after treatment using a paired t test. Before treatment, the mean volumes were 33.0 ± 4.8 cm(3) in the whole orbit, 19.9 ± 4.1 cm(3) in the orbital fatty tissue, and 4.6 ± 1.2 cm(3) in the total extraocular muscles. After treatment, the mean volumes were 32.5 ± 4.4 cm(3) in the whole orbit, 19.9 ± 3.7 cm(3) in the orbital fatty tissue, and 4.0 ± 1.0 cm(3) in the total extraocular muscles. The mean volumes of the whole orbit (P = 0.17) and orbital fatty tissue (P = 0.82) were not significantly decreased after treatment, while the mean volume of total extraocular muscles was significantly decreased (P tissue seemed to be unchanged after methylprednisolone pulse therapy while that of total extraocular muscles was decreased. The proptosis value seemed to be unchanged after treatment.

  9. The development of longitudinal variation of Myosin isoforms in the orbital fibers of extraocular muscles of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Neal A; Porter, John D; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2004-09-01

    To examine the appearance of longitudinal variation of extraocular and embryonic myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms during the development of orbital singly innervated fibers of rat extraocular muscles (EOMs). EOMs were dissected from rat pups of various ages and stained with isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies to the embryonic and extraocular MyHC isoforms and to neurofilaments, as well as with labeled alpha-bungarotoxin. The orbital layers of whole muscles were examined by confocal microscopy. RNase protection assays for the embryonic (Myh3) and extraocular (Myh13) MyHC isoform mRNAs were also performed. At 10 days postpartum, the EOM MyHC RNA was first detected by RNase protection assay. At 11 days postpartum, the extraocular isoform was detected in the orbital fibers as two thin stripes just proximal and distal to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Over the next few weeks, the area occupied by the extraocular isoform increased to include the entire central region of the orbital fibers at and surrounding the NMJ. At the same time, the embryonic isoform became excluded from the region of the NMJ. The orbital layer fibers of rat EOMs contain a longitudinal variation in MyHC isoforms not seen in other skeletal muscles. Development of this longitudinal variation begins as a late event postpartum; and the first appearance of it may be closely linked to neural contact. This targeting of MyHC isoforms to distinct domains is unique to EOMs. Copyright Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology

  10. Isolated extraocular orbital mass: a rare presentation of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Birendra P; Sharma, Bikram; Iannuzzi, Michael C

    2016-10-07

    We report a case of orbital sarcoidosis in a 66 year old male who presented with one month history of right eye swelling and intermittent diplopia. MRI revealed an enhancing infiltrative soft tissue mass in the inferior aspect of the right orbit and biopsy of the mass demonstrated non-necrotizing granulomas. Chest CT scan was normal and PET scan showed no other organ involvement. He was treated with tapering doses of prednisone over six months. Although relapse occurred while tapering prednisone to 20 mg per day, he responded well to the addition of azathioprine with complete resolution of visual difficulties and orbital the mass on repeat MRI. Sarcoidosis, presenting as an isolated orbital mass is rare, can be successfully treated and should be included in differential diagnosis.

  11. Differential involvement of orbital fat and extraocular muscles in graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M; Regensburg, Noortje I; Mourits, Maarten P

    2013-03-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is characterized by swelling of orbital fat and extraocular muscles, but little attention has been given to differential involvement of fat and muscles. Advancements in imaging allow rather accurate measurements of orbital bony cavity volume (OV), fat volume (FV) and muscle volume (MV), and are the topics of this review. Ratios of FV/OV and MV/OV neutralize gender differences. In adult Caucasian controls, mean values ± SD of FV/OV are 0.56 ± 0.11 and of MV/OV are 0.15 ± 0.02. FV increases substantially and MV decreases slightly with advancing age, requiring age-specific reference ranges. In 95 consecutive untreated Caucasian GO patients, both FV and MV were within normal limits in 25%, increased FV but normal MV was present in 5%, normal FV but increased MV was detected in 61%, and both increased FV and MV was evident in 9%. Increased FV was associated with more proptosis and longer GO duration. Increased MV was associated with older age, more severe GO (more proptosis and diplopia, worse eye muscle ductions), higher TBII and current smoking. At the cellular and molecular level differential involvement of fat and muscles might be related to differences between fibroblast phenotypes and cytokine profiles in each compartment, to different orbital T cell subsets during the course of the disease and to peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ polymorphisms and modulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1. Enlarged muscles are apparently a rather early phenomenon in GO, whereas increases in fat mass occur relatively late. Why a minor subset of GO patients presents with an increase of only fat remains poorly understood.

  12. MRI of orbital hydroxyapatite implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanders, A.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); De Potter, P. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rao, V.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tom, B.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shields, C.L. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shields, J.A. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Our aim was to use MRI for the postsurgical assessment of a new form of integrated orbital implant composed of a porous calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite substrate. We studied ten patients 24-74 years of age who underwent enucleation and implantation of a hydroxyapatite ball; 5-13 months after surgery, each patient was examined by spin-echo MRI, with fat suppression and gadolinium enhancement. Fibrovascular ingrowth was demonstrated in all ten patients as areas of enhancement at the periphery of the hydroxyapatite sphere that extended to the center to a variable degree. The radiologist should aware of the MRI appearances of the coralline hydroxyapatite orbital implant since it is now widely used following enucleation. MRI is a useful means to determine successful incorporation of the substrate into the orbital tissues. The normal pattern of contrast enhancement should not be mistaken for recurrent tumor or infection. (orig.)

  13. Myosin heavy chain isoform expression in human extraocular muscles: longitudinal variation and patterns of expression in global and orbital layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Ah; Lim, Jeonghee; Sohn, Seongsoo; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms along the length of the global and orbital layers of human extraocular muscles (EOMs). Whole muscle tissue extracts of human EOMs were cross-sectioned consecutively and separated into orbital and global layers. The extracts from these layers were subjected to electrophoretic analysis, followed by quantification with scanning densitometry. MyHC isoforms displayed different distributions along the lengths of EOMs. In the orbital and global layers of all EOMs except for the superior oblique muscle, MyHCeom was enriched in the central regions. MyHCIIa and MyHCI were most abundant in the proximal and distal ends. A variation in MyHC isoform expression was apparent along the lengths of human EOMs. These results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the functional diversity of EOMs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Structural Functional Associations of the Orbit in Thyroid Eye Disease: Kalman Filters to Track Extraocular Rectal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-02-27

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  15. Structural functional associations of the orbit in thyroid eye disease: Kalman filters to track extraocular rectal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L.; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention, and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  16. Fabrication of patient specific composite orbital floor implants by stereolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, Mike A.; Varjas, Viktor; Kamer, Lukas; Wang, Xinjiang; Peng, Jiang; Eglin, David; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are common in traffic accidents and assaults, and inadequate treatment can result in serious complications. Accurate anatomical reconstruction of the orbit using implants is the preferred treatment. Implants require degradability, adequate mechanical properties to supp

  17. Synthetic hydroxyapatite orbital implants: a clinical and MRI evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvananthan, N; Liddicoat, A J; Fahy, G T

    1999-04-01

    Coralline hydroxypatite orbital implants have been used since the 1980s. More recently, synthetic hydroxyapatite orbital implants have been used, in both primary and secondary orbital implantation surgery. The implant may be drilled and pegged, if required, after adequate vascularisation of the implant has occurred. In this study we evaluated the clinical results and vascularisation of synthetic hydroxyapatite orbital implants. Twelve consecutive patients who had synthetic hydroxyapaptite orbital implants were evaluated clinically and 8 of these patients had orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with intravenous gadolinium performed at least 9 months post-operatively to assess vascularisation of the implant. Six patients had primary orbital implants at the time of enucleation and 6 patients had secondary implants. No significant complications occurred following insertion of the synthetic hydroxyapatite orbital implants. All patients reported cosmetic satisfaction with the results of surgery. MRI scans revealed inhomogeneous enhancement in 3 of the 4 patients receiving primary implants. All patients with secondary implants and 1 patients who had a primary implant had moderate to large areas of poor enhancement in the implant. Synthetic hydroxyapatite implants gave good clinical results but variable vascularisation occurs, especially with secondary implants.

  18. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  19. Orbital floor reconstruction with resorbable polydioxanone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierloff, Matthias; Seeck, Niels Gunnar Karl; Springer, Ingo; Becker, StephanThomas; Kandzia, Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Many different materials are proposed for reconstruction of traumatic orbital floor defects. Donor-site morbidity of autologous transplants and infections or extrusions of nonresorbable implants lead to a widespread use of resorbable, alloplastic materials such as polydioxanone (PDS). The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of orbital floor fracture-related problems after surgical treatment using PDS. Ophthalmologic and clinical examinations were performed at 194 patients before orbital floor reconstruction, 14 days and 6 months after surgery (approximate defect sizes: 2 cm², n=47). Clinical findings including the ocular motility, the sensibility of the infraorbital nerve, and the position of the globe were evaluated. For statistical analysis of categorical data, confidence intervals of percentages were determined. Linear relationships between 2 variables were assessed with Pearson correlation analysis. A reduced ocular motility was diagnosed in 60 patients (31%) before surgery; in 14 patients (7%), 2 weeks; and in 10 patients (5%), 6 months after surgery. Infraorbital hypesthesia was found in 120 patients (62%) before surgery; in 47 patients (24%), 2 weeks; and in 35 patients (18%), 6 months after surgery. An enophthalmos was present in 10 patients (5%) before surgery, and in 4 patients (2%), 6 months after surgery. Our data suggest that PDS is a suitable implant for orbital floor reconstruction with acceptable low rates of infraorbital hypesthesia, bulbus motility disturbances, and enophthalmos. Polydioxanone can also be used for orbital floor defects exceeding 2 cm².

  20. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye ...

  1. Oxidative Stress and Upregulation of Antioxidant Proteins, Including Adiponectin, in Extraocular Muscular Cells, Orbital Adipocytes, and Thyrocytes in Graves' Disease Associated with Orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marique, Lancelot; Senou, Maximin; Craps, Julie; Delaigle, Aurélie; Van Regemorter, Elliott; Wérion, Alexis; Van Regemorter, Victoria; Mourad, Michel; Nyssen-Behets, Catherine; Lengelé, Benoit; Baldeschi, Lelio; Boschi, Antonella; Brichard, Sonia; Daumerie, Chantal; Many, Marie-Christine

    2015-09-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation associated with Graves' disease (GD). It is characterized by reduced eye motility due to an increased volume of orbital fat and/or of extraocular muscles (EOMs) infiltrated by fibrosis and adipose tissue. The pathogenetic mechanisms leading to fibrosis and adipogenesis are mainly based on the interaction between orbital fibroblasts and immune cells (lymphocytes and mast cells) infiltrating the GO EOMs. Analysis of the morphological status, oxidative stress (OS), and antioxidant defenses in the orbital muscular cells and adipocytes in GO patients compared with controls was conducted. Both cell types are affected by OS, as shown by the increased expression of 4-hydroxynonenal, which leads to apoptosis in muscular cells. However, the EOMs and the adipocytes possess antioxidant defenses (peroxiredoxin 5 and catalase) against the OS, which are also upregulated in thyrocytes in GD. The expression of adiponectin (ApN) and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is also increased in GO muscular cells and adipocytes. OS and antioxidant proteins expression are correlated to the level of blood antithyrotropin receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab). Even when TSHR-Ab level is normalized, OS and antioxidant protein expression is high in EOM muscular cells and adipocytes in GO compared with controls. This justifies a supplementation with antioxidants in active as well as chronic GO patients. Orbital muscular cells are also the sources of PPARγ and ApN, which have direct or indirect local protective effects against OS. Modulation of these proteins could be considered as a future therapeutic approach for GO.

  2. The Survival of Freely Grafted Orbital Fat on Porous Polyethylene Orbital Implants in the Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Nam Ju; Choung, Ho Kyung; Khwarg, Sang In

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the long term survival of orbital fat grafted on a Medpor® implant as a method of preventing porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor®) exposure in anophthalmic sockets. Methods In one orbit in each of 8 rabbits, a small amount of retrobulbar orbital fat was grafted between the anterior surface of the Medpor® implant and overlying conjunctiva, during the enucleation and Medpor® implantation procedure. Two rabbits were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperativel...

  3. Low-Cost 3D Printing Orbital Implant Templates in Secondary Orbital Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Alison B; Campbell, Ashley A; Petris, Carisa; Kazim, Michael

    Despite its increasing use in craniofacial reconstructions, three-dimensional (3D) printing of customized orbital implants has not been widely adopted. Limitations include the cost of 3D printers able to print in a biocompatible material suitable for implantation in the orbit and the breadth of available implant materials. The authors report the technique of low-cost 3D printing of orbital implant templates used in complex, often secondary, orbital reconstructions. A retrospective case series of 5 orbital reconstructions utilizing a technique of 3D printed orbital implant templates is presented. Each patient's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were uploaded and processed to create 3D renderings upon which a customized implant was designed and sent electronically to printers open for student use at our affiliated institutions. The mock implants were sterilized and used intraoperatively as a stencil and mold. The final implant material was chosen by the surgeons based on the requirements of the case. Five orbital reconstructions were performed with this technique: 3 tumor reconstructions and 2 orbital fractures. Four of the 5 cases were secondary reconstructions. Molded Medpor Titan (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) implants were used in 4 cases and titanium mesh in 1 case. The stenciled and molded implants were adjusted no more than 2 times before anchored in place (mean 1). No case underwent further revision. The technique and cases presented demonstrate 1) the feasibility and accessibility of low-cost, independent use of 3D printing technology to fashion patient-specific implants in orbital reconstructions, 2) the ability to apply this technology to the surgeon's preference of any routinely implantable material, and 3) the utility of this technique in complex, secondary reconstructions.

  4. Autologous serum for anterior tissue necrosis after porous orbital implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital implants are now routinely used after enucleation and evisceration. However exposure of the implant can lead to infection and extrusion. Hence, early repair of larger exposure with graft material is required. We describe three cases where early postoperative mucosal dehiscence was successfully managed with autologous serum.

  5. One-stage explant-implant procedure of exposed porous orbital implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter B; Rasmussen, Marie L Roed; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    ) orbital implant from January 2000 to February 2009 were included. The patient records were reviewed; patients were interviewed by telephone and invited for a clinical examination. Histopathological examination was carried out on the removed implants. Main outcome measures were: presence of exposure......Purpose:  To investigate the risks of implant exposure after a combined explant-implant procedure in patients with an exposed porous orbital implant. Methods:  Twenty-four consecutive patients who had a combined explant-implant procedure of an exposed hydroxyapatite (21) or porous polyethylene (3...... of the new implant or not, patient graded satisfaction with the cosmetic result, and presence of poor motility. Results:  None of the new implants became exposed or infected in the follow-up period of 25 [3-94] months (median [range]). The patients scored their satisfaction with the cosmetic result...

  6. Rehabilitation of orbital defect with silicone orbital prosthesis retained by dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Satyabodh Shesharaj; Desai, Jhanvi; Kudva, Adarsh; Patil, Basavaraj R

    2016-01-01

    Orbital defects can result from cancer, birth anomalies, or trauma leading to an onslaught of problems in the function and psyche of the patient. These defects are restored by surgical reconstruction and followed by placement of orbital prosthesis for cosmetic makeup. The use of dental implants in retaining orbital prosthesis improves patient acceptance of the prosthesis owing to better retention and stability than conventional adhesive retained prosthesis. This case report describes a custom-made magnetic retentive assembly anchored by a dental implant which offers the orbital prosthesis the simplicity of self-alignment and ease of use. PMID:26953033

  7. Rehabilitation of orbital defect with silicone orbital prosthesis retained by dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Satyabodh Shesharaj; Desai, Jhanvi; Kudva, Adarsh; Patil, Basavaraj R

    2016-01-01

    Orbital defects can result from cancer, birth anomalies, or trauma leading to an onslaught of problems in the function and psyche of the patient. These defects are restored by surgical reconstruction and followed by placement of orbital prosthesis for cosmetic makeup. The use of dental implants in retaining orbital prosthesis improves patient acceptance of the prosthesis owing to better retention and stability than conventional adhesive retained prosthesis. This case report describes a custom-made magnetic retentive assembly anchored by a dental implant which offers the orbital prosthesis the simplicity of self-alignment and ease of use.

  8. PRIMARY DERMIS FAT GRAFT IMPLANTATION IN ORBIT AFTER EVISCERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orbital implants allow for cosmesis and volume replacement of an eviscerated eye. Dermis fat graft is a viable alternative to alloplastic implants as a primary orbital implant following ocular evisceration. Aim/Objectives: To provide evidence for dermal fat graft as a safe and stable orbital volume replacement following ocular evisceration. Methodology: A prospective, interventional, non-comparative case series of patients who had an primary autologous dermis graft after evisceration.All the patients fulfilling the criteria were identified. At 6 weeks post-operatively, patients received an ocular prosthesis. The volume of the dermis-fat grafted globe was measured at 1 month and 9 months post-operatively by plain magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit. Results: Ten patients underwent ocular evisceration and dermis fat graft implant.Nine patients completed the study.Out of 10 patients 60% (6 were males and 40% (4 were females.Suture abscess was noted in 20% patients, hair growth in the dermis in 10%, sub conjunctival cysts in 10% patients.Cosmetic outcome showed very good result in 50% patients with good prosthetic motility in 60%. Conclusion: This case series shows that the use of a dermis graft is a safe and effective new technique to facilitate orbital rehabilitation. It is hypothesised that the extra surface area produced with a dermis graft preserves the fornices and allows a larger implant.

  9. Iodine-125 orbital brachytherapy with a prosthetic implant in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, Clare [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Maree, Gert; Munro, Roger [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Physics; Lecuona, Karin [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Sauerwein, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Strahlenklinik, NCTeam

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is one method of irradiating the orbit after enucleation of an eye with a malignant tumor that has a potential to recur. It consists of 6 trains of I-125 seeds placed around the periphery of the orbit, a shorter central train, and a metal disc, loaded with seeds, placed beneath the eyelids. The presence of a prosthetic orbital implant requires omission of the central train and adjustment of the activity of the seeds in the anterior orbit around the prosthesis. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the technical modifications and outcome of 12 patients treated in this manner: 6 with retinoblastoma, 5 with malignant melanoma, and 1 with an intraocular rhabdomyosarcoma. The median dose was 35.5 Gy in 73 hours for retinoblastoma and 56 Gy in 141 hours for malignant melanoma. Patients with retinoblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma also received chemotherapy. Results: The tubes can be placed satisfactorily around the prosthesis. The increased activity in the anterior half of the tubes produced comparable dose distributions. There have been no orbital recurrences, no extrusion of the prosthesis, and cosmesis is good. Conclusion: Insertion of a prosthetic implant at the time of enucleation greatly enhances the subsequent cosmetic appearance. This should be encouraged unless there is frank tumor in the orbit. Orbital brachytherapy without the central train continues to give excellent local control. The short treatment time and good cosmesis are added advantages. The patient is spared the expense and inconvenience of removing and replacing the prosthetic implant. (orig.)

  10. Prevalence of Diplopia and Extraocular Movement Limitation according to the Location of Isolated Pure Blowout Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Seok Park

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Isolated pure blowout fractures are clinically important because they are themain cause of serious complications such as diplopia and limitation of extraocular movement.Many reports have described the incidence of blowout fractures associated with diplopiaand limitation of extraocular movement; however, no studies have statistically analyzedthis relationship. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the correlation betweenthe location of isolated pure blowout fractures and orbital symptoms such as diplopia andlimitation of extraocular movement.Methods We enrolled a total of 354 patients who had been diagnosed with isolated pureblowout fractures, based on computed tomography, from June 2008 to November 2011.Medical records were reviewed, and the prevalence of extraocular movement limitations anddiplopia were determined.Results There were 14 patients with extraocular movement limitation and 58 patientscomplained of diplopia. Extraocular movement limitation was associated with the followingfindings, in decreasing order of frequency: floor fracture (7.1%, extended fracture (3.6%,and medial wall (1.7%. However, there was no significant difference among the types offractures (P=0.60. Diplopia was more commonly associated with floor fractures (21.4%and extended type fractures (23.6% than medial wall fractures (10.4%. The difference wasstatistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected chi-squared test P<0.016.Conclusions Data indicate that extended type fractures and orbital floor fractures tend tocause diplopia more commonly than medial wall fractures. However, extraocular movementlimitation was not found to be dependent on the location of the orbital wall fracture.

  11. Human Brain Reacts to Transcranial Extraocular Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihua; Peräkylä, Jari; Kovalainen, Anselmi; Ogawa, Keith H; Karhunen, Pekka J; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial extraocular light affects the brains of birds and modulates their seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. However, whether the human brain is sensitive to extraocular light is unknown. To test whether extraocular light has any effect on human brain functioning, we measured brain electrophysiology of 18 young healthy subjects using event-related potentials while they performed a visual attention task embedded with emotional distractors. Extraocular light delivered via ear canals abolished normal emotional modulation of attention related brain responses. With no extraocular light delivered, emotional distractors reduced centro-parietal P300 amplitude compared to neutral distractors. This phenomenon disappeared with extraocular light delivery. Extraocular light delivered through the ear canals was shown to penetrate at the base of the scull of a cadaver. Thus, we have shown that extraocular light impacts human brain functioning calling for further research on the mechanisms of action of light on the human brain.

  12. Extraocular muscle dynamics in diplopia from enophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Michael K; Economides, John R; Horton, Jonathan C

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism of diplopia from enophthalmos is not well understood. We describe a 55-year-old man who underwent a left transorbital craniotomy for clipping of a basilar aneurysm. The lateral orbital wall was not reconstructed properly, resulting in 8 mm of left enophthalmos. Months after surgery the patient developed diplopia with ocular excursions, although he remained orthotropic in primary gaze. The left eye was limited in elevation, adduction, and abduction. These findings were confirmed by eye movement recordings, which showed ocular separation increasing with gaze eccentricity. A CT scan demonstrated a defect in the sphenoid and frontal bones, profound enophthalmos, and shortening of the rectus muscles. Slack in the extraocular muscles reduced the force generated by each muscle, causing diplopia with ocular rotation. This case underscores the value of careful orbital wall reconstruction after orbitotomy and suggests a mechanism for diplopia produced by postoperative enophthalmos.

  13. High density porous polyethylene material (Medpor) as an unwrapped orbital implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-hong; CUI Hong-guang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the clinical effect among patients who received an unwrapped orbital implant with high density porous polyethylene material (Medpor) after enucleation or evisceration. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a series of 302 patients with anophthalmia who underwent placement of an unwrapped high density porous polyethylene orbital implant. We compared the patients (n=180) who accepted primary implant placement with those (n=122) who accepted secondary implant placement. Parameters evaluated included: age at time of surgery, date of surgery, sex, implant type and size, surgery type, the surgical procedure and technique performed, and complications. Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 2.0 to 58.0 months (mean 32.5 months). A total of 5 of 302 (1.66%) cases had documented postoperative complications. The following problems were noted after surgery: implant exposure, 3 patients (0.99%); implant removed due to orbital infection, 1 patient (0.34%); ptosis, 1 patient (0.34%). There were no significant complications observed in other 297 cases and all implants showed good orbital motility. The clinical effect of primary implant placement is better than that of secondary placement. Conclusion: High density porous polyethylene material can be used successfully as an unwrapped orbital implant in anopthalmic socket surgery with minimal complications. The material is well tolerated, nonantigenic and has low rate of infection and migration.

  14. Post-operative orbital imaging: a focus on implants and prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Ashok [Royal London Hospital, Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mankad, Kshitij [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Diagnostic Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Poitelea, Cornelia; Verity, David H. [Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Davagnanam, Indran [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Accurate interpretation of orbital imaging in the presence of either orbital implants requires a sound knowledge of both the surgical approach used and the imaging characteristics of the implanted devices themselves. In this article, the radiological appearance of the various devices used in ophthalmology, and their relationship to other orbital structures, is reviewed. In addition, the intended anatomical location, function of these devices, and clinical indications for their use are provided. (orig.)

  15. Surgical treatment of an exposed orbital implant with vascularized superficial temporal fascia flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterzi, Yavuz; Sari, Ayca; Sari, Alper

    2009-03-01

    Orbital implants are often used for the correction of volume deficit after enucleation or evisceration. An orbital implant enhances aesthetics and improves mobility of the subsequent prosthetic eye. With advancements in technology and techniques, implant-related complication rates have been decreased. However, implant exposition as one of the most common complications of socket surgery is still a problem for the oculoplastic surgeon. Many factors are thought to cause orbital implant exposure: Large implants, tension on the wound, and textured surface of the implant may cause a breakdown of the covering layers over the implant. Inadequate fibrovascular ingrowth into the porous implant is the most important factor. Various surgical methods have been described to cover the defect, most offering the use of various tissues as a graft, which are not always satisfactory. We describe a case with silicone implant exposition that was managed with a vascularized superficial temporal fascia flap. According to our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the usage of a vascular tissue in the management of an orbital implant exposure.

  16. The use of Osseointegration and Orbital Implants in the Management of Orbital Exenteration or Severe Contracted Sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Esra Karaca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the results of bony integrated implants used in the management of exenterated or contracted sockets. Materials and Methods: Ten eyes of 10 cases underwent bony integrated implants for the management of exenterated (7 eyes or contracted (3 eyes sockets. The procedure was performed in two steps in a two-month period. The first step included placement of screws by preparing the osteotomy site, whereas the second step included implantation of magnetic implants over these screws that will adhere to the orbital implant. The patients were retrospectively evaluated for age, gender, etiology, surgical timing, history of radiotherapy, and time of application of epithesis. The presence of infection at the surgical site, implant loss, functional or cosmetic problems at the perisurgical area, the usage of epithesis during the social life were evaluated. Results: There were 7 female and 3 male patients. The mean age was 34 (5-75 years. The indications for enucleation or exenteration were: retinoblastoma (4 cases, malignant melanoma (2 cases, basal cell carcinoma (1 case, squamous cell carcinoma (1 case, rhabdomyosarcoma (1 case and sinoorbital mucormycosis (1 case. The epitheses were applied 3 to 156 months (mean 51 months following the intervention. All of the implantations were performed successfully. During follow-up, one case had lost the implant and one case had local infection that responded to antibiotic treatment. Three cases were reoperated and the implants were replaced after a 2-year follow-up time due to the deterioration of the magnetic effect of the implants. Conclusion: Bony integrated orbital implants have an important role in solution of esthetic problems encountered in the exenterated orbit and severe contracted socket. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 127-31

  17. Lymphomas and metastases of the extra-ocular musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey; Behrmann, Curd; Koesling, Sabrina [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany); Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Pathology, Halle (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The involvement of extra-ocular muscles in malignant diseases has been described only sporadically. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of orbital muscle lymphoma and metastases and to analyse their radiological findings. In the time period from January 2000 to January 2010, 11 patients with extra-ocular muscle malignancies (EOMM) were retrospectively identified in the radiological database of our institution. There were four women and seven men with a median age of 58 years (range, 47 to 72 years). In three patients non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), in seven cases intramuscular metastases of solid tumours and in one patient plasmacytoma of orbital muscles were diagnosed. In all, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 11 patients using a 1.5-T MRI scanner (Magnetom Vision Sonata Upgrade, Siemens, Germany). The diagnosis of EOMM was confirmed histopathologically by muscle biopsy in all cases. The prevalence of orbital muscle involvement in plasmacytoma was 0.3%, in NHL 0.4% and in carcinomas 0.1%. Clinically, EOMM presented as painless proptosis and motility disturbance. Medial and lateral rectus muscles were involved in most patients. On T2-weighted images, the lesions were isointense or mixed iso-to-hyperintense in comparison to the unaffected musculature. On T1-weighted images, all tumours were homogeneously isointense. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, most lesions showed moderate heterogeneous enhancement. Lymphomas and metastases are rare lesions of the extra-ocular musculature with a prevalence below 0.5%. Their radiological and clinical signs are non-specific and include painless muscle enlargement or masses. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diseases of extra-ocular muscles. (orig.)

  18. IMPLANTATION OF AN IRANIAN MADE HYDROXYAPATITE IN RABIT"S ORBIT: DOES IT WORK EFFECTIVELY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H FESHARAKI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Good results of foreign made Hydroxyapatite in human orbit, expensive American and Europian made hydroxyapatites, the possibility to make this material from coral by hydrothermal method and good source of coral in Persian Gulf made us start this study. Methods. The left eye of 21 male rabits weighing 200-270 grams were enucleated and implanted by 14mm coralline spheres being covered by preserved rabits sclera (11 with pure coral and 10 with Iranian made hydroxyapatite. The implants were removed for pathologic study after an average time of 79.4 days of clinical evaluation. The type of coral was acropora and the hydrothermal Ion exchange form carbonate to phosphate was performed in chemistry department of Isfahan University. Results. No evidence of extrusion was seen in implants. Exposure phenomena was seen 55 and 12 percent in coralline and hydroxyapatite implantation, respectively (P < 0.05. Tissue inflammation was detect 89 and 25 percent of coralline and hydroxyapatite implantation, respectively (P < 0.05. Discussion. The tissue tolerance of rabits orbit to Iranian made hydroxyapatite was almost fair and it"s use in human"s orbit could probably be tried safely. Orbital implantation of natural coral in rabits" orbit is accompanied by moderate to sever tissue inflammatory response and tissue necrosis, creating more clinical complications.

  19. Clinical analysis of hydroxyapatite orbital implantation after ocular trauma in 211 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Tao; ZHAO Gui-qiu; MENG Xu-xia; ZHANG Ling-yun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects and complications of hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implantation on patients after trauma-related surgeries.Methods: Retrospective analysis was made from 211 cases (211 eyes ) who underwent HA orbital implant placement after trauma-related enucleation or evisceration,including 68 cases of evisceration and primary HA implant placement, 77 cases of enucleation and HA implant placement wrapped with multi-windowed sclera, 66 cases of enucleation and HA implant placement free of wrapping.All the cases were followed up for 1-5 years to observe the therapeutic effects and major complications.Results: Five of 211 cases had wound dehiscence.Ten cases had HA implants exposure, including 1 case suffering severe orbital infection and requiring HA implant removal. The implants exposure incidences by the three surgical methods were from 1.30% to 10.06% and averaged 4.74%. Significant difference was found in late exposure incidence and total incidence from the three methods ( χ2 = 13.372, P < 0.01 and χ2 = 7.540, P < 0.05).Two cases had shrinkage of the lower fornix. Enophthalmos occurred in 1 case treated by method 1 and was corrected by implanting porous polyethylene (Medpor) plate into the bottom of orbit. In 210 cases, the artificial eye moved well and the cosmetic results were satisfactory.Conclusions: Different surgical methods have their own merit and disadvantage. Enucleation and placement of HA implant wrapped with multi-windowed sclera has corroborated fewer complications than others.

  20. Helium-neon laser therapy in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure: A superior option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Hua; Zhao, Chen; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Chen, Mei-Juan; Liu, Qing-Huai

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of helium-neon laser therapy in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure and compare the results with those of a combined drugs and surgery regimen. A total of 70 patients with hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure in 70 eyes were randomly divided into two groups: Helium-neon laser therapy (group A) and drugs plus surgery (group B). Each group contained 35 patients. The healing rates and times of the conjunctival wound were recorded and compared following helium-neon laser treatment or the drugs plus surgery regimen. Changes in the hydroxyapatite orbital implant prior to and following helium-neon laser irradiation were analyzed. A similar animal study was conducted using 24 New Zealand white rabbits, which received orbital implants and were then received drug treatment or helium-neon therapy. In the human experiment, the rates for conjunctival wound healing were 97.14% in group A and 74.29% in group B, with a significant difference between the groups (χ(2)=5.71, Phelium-neon laser therapy and 14.33±3.20 days of drugs plus surgery. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups (t=8.97, Phelium-neon laser therapy and 31.25±4.21 days of drugs plus surgery. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (t=7.91, Phelium-neon laser therapy significantly promoted vascularization of the hydroxyapatite orbital implant. These results, combined with pathological findings in animals, which showed that a helium-neon laser promoted vascularization and had anti-inflammatory effects, suggest that helium-neon laser irradiation is an effective method for treating hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure, thereby avoiding secondary surgery.

  1. Physiologic positron emission tomography/CT imaging of an integrated orbital implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Gerardo F; Finger, Paul T

    2012-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman with a T4N0M0 choroidal melanoma was staged for metastatic disease with whole-body positron emission tomography/CT imaging. She underwent enucleation of the right eye and placement of a 20-mm MEDPOR spherical implant. Four months after surgery, follow-up positron emission tomography/CT imaging revealed physiologic metabolic activity in the MEDPOR implant with no evidence of orbital melanoma or chronic inflammation.

  2. Estudo experimental da biocompatibilidade de novo material para implante orbitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Beraldi Kormann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Avaliar a biocompatibilidade de material FullCure 720®, que é uma resina, na confecção de implante orbitário. Avaliou-se a resposta clínica dos animais, toxicidade sistêmica e a resposta inflamatória crônica. Os animais foram pesados, exames bioquímicos e resposta inflamatória foram avaliados. Foi efetuada evisceração e colocado implante esférico orbitário. Os animais foram acompanhados durante o período de 60 dias, onde se avaliou o comportamento clínico e sinais locais. Após este período, procedeu-se a eutanásia seguida da enucleação. Foi realizada análise macroscópica e histomorfométrica. Os resultados revelaram comportamento normal dos animais, com ausência de exposição ou extrusão dos implantes, morte de algum animal e ausência de toxicidade sistêmica. Houve formação de uma cápsula fibrosa entre a capa escleral e o implante orbitário, resposta inflamatória considerada normal quando em contato com o tecido do coelho. A resina FullCure 720® utilizada como implante orbitário, mostrou-se biocompatível neste estudo.

  3. The validity and reliability of computed tomography orbital volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Silviu C; Dreizin, David; Uluer, Mehmet; Mossop, Corey; Grant, Michael P; Nam, Arthur J

    2017-09-01

    Orbital volume calculations allow surgeons to design patient-specific implants to correct volume deficits. It is estimated that changes as small as 1 ml in orbital volume can lead to enophthalmos. Awareness of the limitations of orbital volume computed tomography (CT) measurements is critical to differentiate between true volume differences and measurement error. The aim of this study is to analyze the validity and reliability of CT orbital volume measurements. A total of 12 cadaver orbits were scanned using a standard CT maxillofacial protocol. Each orbit was dissected to isolate the extraocular muscles, fatty tissue, and globe. The empty bony orbital cavity was then filled with sculpting clay. The volumes of the muscle, fat, globe, and clay (i.e., bony orbital cavity) were then individually measured via water displacement. The CT-derived volumes, measured by manual segmentation, were compared to the direct measurements to determine validity. The difference between CT orbital volume measurements and physically measured volumes is not negligible. Globe volumes have the highest agreement with 95% of differences between -0.5 and 0.5 ml, bony volumes are more likely to be overestimated with 95% of differences between -1.8 and 2.6 ml, whereas extraocular muscle volumes have poor validity and should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Panophthalmitis with orbital cellulitis following glaucoma drainage implant surgery in a pediatric patient

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    Bruno L. B. Esporcatte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here we report a case of childhood glaucoma refractory to angle and trabeculectomy surgery. The patient was treated with an Ahmed™ drainage implant that was subsequently complicated by rapid-onset panophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis. Intravenous and intravitreal antibiotic therapy was initiated and the drainage tube was removed. The infectious process resolved within 3 weeks; however, phthisis bulbi developed subsequently.

  5. Particle orbit simulation for high energy heavy ion implanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takashi; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Osvath, E.

    1995-10-01

    We have studied an Interdigital-H type Quadrupole (IHQ) linac structure for application to heavy ion implanter. It is possible to vary the output energy by changing the voltage between gaps only. Operating frequency of this IHQ linac is 30 MHz and the synchronous phase is -30deg{r_brace} with the exception of -90deg{r_brace} at the first gap that works as a bunching section. The calculated results show that the output energy can be varied from 0.48 MeV (30 keV/u) to 1.6 MeV (100 keV/u) for {sup 16}O{sup +}. (author).

  6. The use of rectus abdominis sheath for wrapping of the hydroxyapatite orbital implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S C; Chen, S

    1999-01-01

    Because of the decreasing availability of whole eye donation, the source of banked sclera is becoming less available. We used autogenous Rectus abdominis sheath (RAS) as an alternative to banked sclera in wrapping the hydroxyapatite (HA)orbital implant. Five anophthalmic patients were included in this study from July 1994 to December 1997. Identical surgical methods were used in every case. The average follow-up time was 18.4 months. The motility associated with sheath-wrapped HA implants was excellent and good vascular ingrowth was found in each patient during peg drilling. The complications are minimal in all the cases. Use of RAS as wrapping material for HA orbital implant has promising results. The RAS served as a practical substitute for banked donor sclera.

  7. Synthetic hydroxyapatite-based integrated orbital implants: A human pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Biswanath

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Orbital implants are used as fillers following enucleation or evisceration surgeries to replace the lost volume for better cosmesis and motility of the artificial eye. Over the last decade porous hydroxyapatite (HAp implants derived from the naturally occurring corals, are increasingly used. Recently synthetic HAp-based implants have been introduced. After fibrovasculrisation they have the added advantage of being directly integrated with the artificial shell, thereby increasing the motility to a great extent. The current study, evaluated the efficacy of two different models of synthetic HAp with 75% porosity and pore sizes ranging from 100 to 300 mm. Methods: Synthetic HAp powders were prepared with a novel wet chemical route. Two models of porous orbital implants with the characteristic designs for both evisceration and enucleation surgery were developed, characterised and implanted to consecutive 25 human subjects, 17 following evisceration, and 8 following enucleation. The postoperative performances of these implants were evaluated in respect to the degree of volume replacement (implant + prosthesis, presence/absence of lagophthalmos and lower eye-lid laxity, status of socket and fornices. Magnetic resonance imaging assessed the stability of the implants within the socket and progressive fibro-vascularisation within the porous scaffold as a function of time. Finally, motility of the implants as well as the prostheses (horizontal movements by Lister Perimeter and subjective cosmetic results (qualitative were also evaluated. Results: During the 2.5 years of follow-up study, no significant postoperative complications were noticed. One case, showed an anterior implant exposure of 3-4 mm, and was managed with donor scleral patch graft and one case of conjunctival thinning was corrected by re-suturing the conjunctival dehiscence. Fourteen of the 25 patients had a very good movement of the prostheses (> 20° horizontal movement and the

  8. 转向植入法在义眼台植入术中的应用%Application study of artificial orbital implantation with turning implantation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武开寿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the application of turning implantation method in artificial orbital implantation.Methods Artificial orbital implants were implanted into the thirty-eight patients who were purposed to accept artificial orbital implantation with turning implantation method.Results After the implantation,all the orbits of these cases are plump,the implants looking realistic,moving smooth; their appearance are greatly improved,patients were satisfied to achieve cosmetic results.Two of them were found chemosis,eye grinding pain at early postoperative period,both of them recovered after symptomatic treatment.After the follow-up 6-24 months,none of them were found artificial implant exposure and abnormal stimulation of orbital.Conclusion Turning implantation method is a good artificial orbital implantation,which should be popularized in clinical work.%目的 探讨转向植入法在义眼台植入手术中的应用的意义.方法 对拟行义眼台植入的38例(38眼)行转向植入法植入羟基磷灰石(HA)义眼台.术后随访6~24个月观察其效果.结果 38例HA义眼台植入术后眼眶饱满,装配义眼后外观逼真,转动自如,患者的容貌得到极大改善,达到美容效果.2例术后早期球结膜水肿、眼磨痛,予对症治疗后痊愈.术后随访期间,无一例出现义眼台暴露或眼眶异常刺激反应.结论 转向植入法是一种很好的义眼台植入法.

  9. Extruded, partially disintegrated, poly-HEMA orbital implant (AlphaSphere).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Prashant; Jakobiec, Frederick A; De Castro, Dawn K; Mendoza, Pia R; Fay, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old diabetic man underwent enucleation for endophthalmitis. Secondary implantation of a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) sphere (AlphaSphere, Addition Technology) was performed 2 weeks later. Six weeks after insertion, noninfectious disintegration of sutured tissue planes represented by Tenon's capsule, rectus muscle, and conjunctiva occurred, requiring removal of the fragmenting implant before uncontrolled extrusion occurred. Histopathologic analysis revealed an absence of infectious pathogens and no tissue necrosis, but rather breakup of the implant material that elicited a granulomatous response with sparse T-lymphocytes and almost no polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This distinctively designed poly-HEMA orbital implant incited a dramatic and irreversible host tissue response. Investigation of other cases will be necessary to determine the frequency of such a complication and should include rigorous histopathologic techniques.

  10. Ultrastructural organization of muscle fiber types and their distribution in the rat superior rectus extraocular muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Rashed M; El-Alfy, Sherif H

    2012-05-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are unique as they show greater variation in anatomical and physiological properties than any other skeletal muscles. To investigate the muscle fiber types and to understand better the structure-function correlation of the extraocular muscles, the present study examined the ultrastructural characteristics of the superior rectus muscle of rat. The superior rectus muscle is organized into two layers: a central global layer of mainly large-diameter fibers and an outer C-shaped orbital layer of principally small-diameter fibers. Six morphologically distinct fiber types were identified within the superior rectus muscle. Four muscle fiber types, three single innervated fibers (SIFs) and one multiple innervated fiber (MIF), were recognized in the global layer. The single innervated fibers included red, white and intermediate fibers. They differed from one another with respect to diameter, mitochondrial size and distribution, sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrillar size. The orbital layer contained two distinct MIFs in addition to the red and intermediate SIFs. The orbital MIFs were categorized into low oxidative and high oxidative types according to their mitochondrial content and distribution. The highly specialized function of the superior rectus extraocular muscle is reflected in the multiplicity of its fiber types, which exhibit unique structural features. The unique ultrastructural features of the extraocular muscles and their possible relation to muscle function are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraoral implants for orbit rehabilitation: a comparison between one-stage and two-stage surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, M C L M P; Guedes, R; de Oliveira, J A P; Pecorari, V A; Abrahão, M; Dib, L L

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the osseointegration success rate and time for delivery of the prosthesis among cases treated by two-stage or one-stage surgery for orbit rehabilitation between 2003 and 2011. Forty-five patients were included, 31 males and 14 females; 22 patients had two-stage surgery and 23 patients had one-stage surgery. A total 138 implants were installed, 42 (30.4%) on previously irradiated bone. The implant survival rate was 96.4%, with a success rate of 99.0% among non-irradiated patients and 90.5% among irradiated patients. Two-stage patients received 74 implants with a survival rate of 94.6% (four implants lost); one-stage surgery patients received 64 implants with a survival rate of 98.4% (one implant lost). The median time interval between implant fixation and delivery of the prosthesis for the two-stage group was 9.6 months and for the one-stage group was 4.0 months (P < 0.001). The one-stage technique proved to be reliable and was associated with few risks and complications; the rate of successful osseointegration was similar to those reported in the literature. The one-stage technique should be considered a viable procedure that shortens the time to final rehabilitation and facilitates appropriate patient follow-up treatment.

  12. Biomaterials for orbital implants and ocular prostheses: overview and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco; Perero, Sergio; Ferraris, Sara; Miola, Marta; Balagna, Cristina; Verné, Enrica; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Coggiola, Andrea; Dolcino, Daniela; Ferraris, Monica

    2014-03-01

    The removal of an eye is one of the most difficult and dramatic decisions that a surgeon must consider in case of severe trauma or life-threatening diseases to the patient. The philosophy behind the design of orbital implants has evolved significantly over the last 60 years, and the use of ever more appropriate biomaterials has successfully reduced the complication rate and improved the patient's clinical outcomes and satisfaction. This review provides a comprehensive picture of the main advances that have been made in the development of innovative biomaterials for orbital implants and ocular prostheses. Specifically, the advantages, limitations and performance of the existing devices are examined and critically compared, and the potential of new, smart and suitable biomaterials are described and discussed in detail to outline a forecast for future research directions. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation of histological findings with gadolinium enhanced MRI scans during healing of a PHEMA orbital implant in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, C.; Morris, I.; Vijayasekaran, S; Fallon, M.; McAllister, J.; Clayton, A.; Chirila, T.; Crawford, G; Constable, I

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—To investigate a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) orbital implant with a spongy anterior hemisphere and a smooth gel posterior hemisphere, by histology correlated with magnetic resonance images.
METHODS—Following enucleation, eight rabbits received PHEMA implants to which the muscles were directly sutured, and underwent gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 3 to 52 weeks. After the rabbits were killed, the implants were removed, cut in a plane corr...

  14. Proptosis and Anterior Dislocation as a Late Noninflammatory Complication of Failure of Tissue Integration in the Alphasphere Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimkin, Michael G; Reggie, Sara; Holds, John B

    2016-01-04

    A 57-year-old healthy female underwent enucleation for choroidal melanoma with primary implantation of a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate sphere (AlphaSphere, Addition Technology, Des Plaines, IL). Her course was uneventful, with successful prosthetic fitting 6 weeks postoperatively. She returned 2 years later, with anterior displacement of the implant, poor implant movement, and poor prosthetic fit. There was no defect in the conjunctiva, Tenon's layer or evidence of inflammation. Successful orbital implant exchange was performed, replacing the AlphaSphere with an eyebank-scleral wrapped acrylic implant. Intraoperative findings revealed dissolution of the scaffolding aspect of the anterior implant, with loss of extraocular muscle attachments and no fibrovascular ingrowth. This case demonstrates late AlphaSphere failure in an otherwise unremarkable course; further review of similar cases or a larger study is warranted to examine the efficacy of this relatively new implant.

  15. Restrictive extraocular myopathy: A presenting feature of acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Heireman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with binocular diplopia in primary gaze for 1 year. Orthoptic evaluation showed 10-prism diopter right eye hypotropia and 6-prism diopter right eye esotropia. The elevation and abduction of the right eye were mechanically restricted. This was associated with systemic features suggestive of acromegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma. An elevated serum insulin-like growth factor I level and the failure of growth hormone suppression after an oral glucose load biochemically confirmed the diagnosis of acromegaly. Computed tomography (CT of the orbit demonstrated bilateral symmetrical enlargement of the medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle bellies. All tests regarding Graves-Basedow disease were negative. Although rare, diplopia due to a restrictive extraocular myopathy could be the presenting symptom of acromegaly.

  16. Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM is a rare disorder characterized by hereditary non-progressive restrictive strabismus and blepharoptosis. Although most of the cases are bilateral and isolated, some patients may have systemic findings. CFEOM is divided into three groups as CFEOM 1, 2, and 3 according to the phenotype. Primary responsible genes are KIF21A for CFEOM type 1 and 3 and PHOX2A/ARIX gene for CFEOM type 2. Studies suggest that abnormal innervation of the extraocular muscles is the cause of muscle fibrosis. Early treatment is important because of the risk of amblyopia. Surgery is the primary treatment option for strabismus and blepharoptosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 312-5

  17. Effect research of the hydroxyapatite orbital implant on orbital development in children%儿童羟基磷灰石眼座眶内植入对眼眶发育的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋斗; 高方; 苏书; 孙桂珍

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of a surgical procedure to reconstruct socket with hydroxyapatite in the anophthalmic children. Method Hydroxyapatite was wrapped up with scleral or dura mater shell as a orbital implant. 53 consecutive patients were involved, 34 of whom had been referred for primary implantation surgery, and 19 for secondary implantation surgery. 3 patients had been drilled. Result There were no cases of orbital infection, implant extrusion, implant exposure or migration in 1~ 76 months of follow up. All children achieved a better facial appearance. The children who undergone drilling and peg placement had excellent prosthesis motility, on the contrary the effect was not very good. Conclusion The hydroxyapatite orbital implant give good cosmetic results with a low rate of complications, promotes orbital development, and helps to children's normal body and mind growth.

  18. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Seelaus, Rosemary; Zhao, Linping; Patel, Pravin K; Cohen, Mimis

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. However, improper placement of the implants can jeopardize prosthetic outcomes, and long-term success of an implant-retained prosthesis. Three-dimensional (3D) computer imaging, virtual planning, and 3D printing have become accepted components of the preoperative planning and design phase of treatment. Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture that employ cone-beam computed tomography data offer benefits to patient treatment by contributing to greater predictability and improved treatment efficiencies with more reliable outcomes in surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. 3D printing enables transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room by fabrication of surgical guides. Previous studies have shown that accuracy improves considerably with guided implantation when compared to conventional template or freehand implant placement. This clinical case report demonstrates the use of a 3D technological pathway for preoperative virtual planning through prosthesis fabrication, utilizing 3D printing, for a patient with an acquired orbital defect that was restored with an implant-retained silicone orbital prosthesis.

  19. Creep Behavior of Passive Bovine Extraocular Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Yoo; Hansang Kim; Andrew Shin; Vijay Gupta; Demer, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed...

  20. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Hui Huang,1,2 Rosemary Seelaus,1,2 Linping Zhao,1,2 Pravin K Patel,1,2 Mimis Cohen1,2 1The Craniofacial Center, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System, 2University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. However, improper placement of the implants can jeopardize prosthetic outcomes, and long-term success of an implant-retained prosthesis. Three-dimensional (3D computer imaging, virtual planning, and 3D printing have become accepted components of the preoperative planning and design phase of treatment. Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture that employ cone-beam computed tomography data offer benefits to patient treatment by contributing to greater predictability and improved treatment efficiencies with more reliable outcomes in surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. 3D printing enables transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room by fabrication of surgical guides. Previous studies have shown that accuracy improves considerably with guided implantation when compared to conventional template or freehand implant placement. This clinical case report demonstrates the use of a 3D technological pathway for preoperative virtual planning through prosthesis fabrication, utilizing 3D printing, for a patient with an acquired orbital defect that was restored with an implant-retained silicone orbital prosthesis. Keywords: computer-assisted surgery, virtual surgical planning (VSP, 3D printing, orbital prosthetic reconstruction, craniofacial implants

  1. Orbital Myositis Complicating Sinusitis: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe S Dylewski

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital myositis is a common cause of extraocular muscle enlargement. It is characterized by nonspecific inflammation of one or more extraocular muscles. Although often idiopathic in origin, orbital myositis has been associated with various noninfectious diseases. Several cases have also been reported as occurring after upper respiratory tract infections. The present report describes a case of orbital myositis together with subclinical sinusitis and its rapid resolution after antibiotic treatment. The literature on this clinical entity is also reviewed.

  2. Uso do implante esférico Medpor ™: análise de 61 cirurgias orbitárias Use of Medpor ™ spherical implant: analysis of 61 orbital surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes da Mota Moura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o uso do implante biointegrável Medpor™ em cirurgias de evisceração, enucleação ou implantação secundária em cavidades anoftálmicas. MÉTODOS: Em 61 cirurgias foi utilizado o implante orbitário Medpor™ . Em 18 casos de evisceração, não houve necessidade do revestimento do implante. Em 12 cirurgias de enucleação e implantação secundária o material utilizado para revestir o implante foi duramater homóloga. Nas demais 31 cirurgias, o revestimento foi de material autólogo (esclera, derme, músculo orbicular ou cartilagem auricular, utilizando-se a técnica de "solidéu", recobrindo apenas a superfície anterior do Medpor ™ . RESULTADOS: Os pacientes foram operados no período de janeiro/1998 a dezembro/2004, com tempo de seguimento médio de 30 meses. Em todos os casos houve aceitação do implante, permitindo boa adaptação da prótese. Em dois pacientes ocorreu exposição tardia do implante: o primeiro caso foi corrigido pelo reposicionamento do implante na cavidade, e no segundo caso a exposição foi coberta com um retalho de tarso. CONCLUSÕES: Na nossa experiência o implante Medpor ™ apresenta boa aceitação com taxa de exposição pequena do mesmo (apenas 2 casos, nenhum caso de infecção ou migração, e boa adaptação da prótese em todos os pacientes. O uso de tecido autólogo para revestir a superfície anterior do implante elimina o risco inerente ao uso de tecidos homólogos.PURPOSE: To analyze the use of Medpor ™ biointegrated implant in surgeries of evisceration, enucleation or secondary implantation in anophthalmic sockets. METHODS: The Medpor™ orbitary implant was used in 61 surgeries. In 18 cases of evisceration the implant's wrapping was not necessary. In 12 enucleation and secondary implantation surgeries the utilized material to wrap the implant was homologous duramater. In the other 31 surgeries, the implant wrapping was made from autologous tissue (sclera, dermis

  3. Extraocular muscle afferent signals modulate visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balslev, Daniela; Newman, William; Knox, Paul C

    2012-10-09

    Extraocular muscle afferent signals contribute to oculomotor control and visual localization. Prompted by the close links between the oculomotor and attention systems, it was investigated whether these proprioceptive signals also modulated the allocation of attention in space. A suction sclera contact lens was used to impose an eye rotation on the nonviewing, dominant eye. With their viewing, nondominant eye, participants (n = 4) fixated centrally and detected targets presented at 5° in the left or right visual hemifield. The position of the viewing eye was monitored throughout the experiment. As a control, visual localization was tested using finger pointing without visual feedback of the hand, whereas the nonviewing eye remained deviated. The sustained passive rotation of the occluded, dominant eye, while the other eye maintained central fixation, resulted in a lateralized change in the detectability of visual targets. In all participants, the advantage in speed and accuracy for detecting right versus left hemifield targets that occurred during a sustained rightward eye rotation of the dominant eye was reduced or reversed by a leftward eye rotation. The control experiment confirmed that the eye deviation procedure caused pointing errors consistent with an approximately 2° shift in perceived eye position, in the direction of rotation of the nonviewing eye. With the caveat of the small number of participants, these results suggest that extraocular muscle afferent signals modulate the deployment of attention in visual space.

  4. Bovine bone xenograft as orbital implants in rabbit eyes%牛骨异种移植物作为义眼座兔眼眶内植入术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Mohd Mansor; H K Tan; I Shatriah; W H Wan Hazabbah; J Hasnan

    2007-01-01

    breakdown and any restriction of intraocular movements. The implanted eyes were then enucleated on day 42. The enucleated eyes were sent for histopathological evaluation to record the type of inflammatory reaction and rate of fibrovascular ingrowth.·RESULTS: Serial clinical examination showed presence of minimal infection in all eyes, both in Group X implanted) and Group Y (control) on first postoperative day, which responded well with antibiotics. Infection occurred in the implanted group after first postoperative day, but there was no evidence of orbital migration or extrusion of implant, wound breakdown, restriction of extraocular movement, severe infection or any physical abnormality. Histopathological examination revealed good fibrovascular ingrowth in the implanted group, with minimal rejecting reaction of rabbit eye towards bovine bone implant.·CONCLUSION: This study shows that bovine orbital implant has a good biocompatibility in rabbit eyes and its cost is acceptable.

  5. Porous Hydroxyapatite and Aluminium-Oxide Ceramic Orbital Implant Evaluation Using CBCT Scanning: A Method for In Vivo Porous Structure Evaluation and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lukáts

    2012-01-01

    followup was 3.2 years or 1338 days with a range of 0.2 to 7.2 years or 79 to 2636 days in a population with an average age of 40.8 years. Results. The resolution of currently clinically used CBCT equipment allowed detailed structural observation of the orbital hydroxyapatite implants with some modifications. Volume and shape estimations were possible while density evaluation was more complicated compared to medical source computed tomography. The mean densities of the orbital implants were followed and a consistent gradual decrease identified from the beginning of implantation which was better defined after the applied correction procedure. Conclusion. CBCT with lower dosages of radiation exposure can be used to follow changes in implanted high-density porous structures. The density evaluation is possible with calibration modifications. Changes in orbital implant densities identified in this study may correspond to healing and maturation of soft tissues surrounding and penetrating the implants.

  6. Orbital floor reconstruction with poly-L/D-lactide implants: clinical, radiological and immunohistochemical study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, R; Suuronen, R; Konttinen, Y T; Hallikainen, D; Lindqvist, C; Kommonen, B; Kellomäki, M; Kylmä, T; Virtanen, I; Laine, P

    2004-06-01

    In this study the reconstruction capacity of orbital wall in sheep was evaluated when poly-L/D-lactide (PLDLA96) implants were used for large blow-out defects in 18 sheep. The contralateral side, where the defects healed spontaneously, served as controls. The follow-up was 12, 16, 22 and 36 weeks. Healing was evaluated clinically, radiologically, histologically and immunohistochemically. Physiochemical properties of the implants were also studied. At first, the implants were surrounded by elastic capsules, which gradually ossified. At 36 weeks, 60% were still visible and deformed but surrounded by bone. Light microscopy revealed a low grade inflammatory reaction. Expression of Tn-c and cFn was intense throughout the study. Shear strength decreased gradually and was not measurable after 16 weeks. Crystallinity increased steadily from 1.5 to 29.30% and molecular weight decreased from 49,000 to 4186. In CT, the final bony defect was smaller in the reconstructed sides than in the controls. Based on this study it can be concluded that PLDLA96 implant provokes a local inflammation, which does not prevent bone healing. The deformation of the implant, however, indicates that this PLDLA96 plate is not suitable for orbital floor reconstruction.

  7. Application of the FlexiForce contact surface force sensor to continuous extraocular compression monitoring during craniotomy for cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Tatsushi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Hiromi; Yasui, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce our newly developed device equipped with a contact surface force sensor (FlexiForce) for monitoring extraocular compression continuously, and to illustrate its potential clinical application using this device in patients undergoing uncomplicated frontotemporal or bifrontal craniotomy for surgical clipping of unruptured anterior circulation aneurysms. In a pilot study with volunteers, we determined the critical force of 100 gf to cause painful ocular sensation. Then we performed the bilateral extraocular force measurements in 15 patients undergoing uncomplicated frontotemporal or bifrontal craniotomy for surgical clipping of unruptured anterior circulation aneurysms. Extraocular force increased immediately after retraction of the flap, increased to 144+/-26 gf (mean+/-SD) during lower craniotomy close to the orbit, was maintained at 91+/-18 gf during microsurgery, and returned close to baseline at 24+/-14 gf after restoration of skin flap retraction. Such changes were observed only on the surgical side in frontotemporal craniotomy. Abnormal increase in extraocular force was effectively reduced by placing a real-time digital panel meter to warn surgeons to avoid excessive skin flap retraction during the surgical procedure. In conclusion, this new tool may allow us to monitor the external forces that can be applied intraoperatively to the ocular globe in the supine position.

  8. Determinants of Extraocular Muscle Volume in Patients with Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer El-Kaissi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To examine factors contributing to extraocular muscle (EOM volume enlargement in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Methods. EOM volumes were measured with orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 39 patients with recently diagnosed Graves’ disease, and compared to EOM volumes of 13 normal volunteers. Thyroid function tests, uptake on thyroid scintigraphy, anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity and other parameters were then evaluated in patients with EOM enlargement. Results. 31/39 patients had one or more enlarged EOM, of whom only 2 patients had clinical EOM dysfunction. Compared to Graves’ disease patients with normal EOM volumes, those with EOM enlargement had significantly higher mean serum TSH (0.020±0.005 versus 0.007±0.002 mIU/L; P value 0.012, free-T4 (52.9±3.3 versus 41.2±1.7 pmol/L; P value 0.003 and technetium uptake on thyroid scintigraphy (13.51±1.7% versus 8.55±1.6%; P value 0.045. There were no differences between the 2 groups in anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity, the proportion of males, tobacco smokers, or those with active ophthalmopathy. Conclusions. Patients with recently diagnosed Graves’ disease and EOM volume enlargement have higher serum TSH and more severe hyperthyroidism than patients with normal EOM volumes, with no difference in anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity between the two groups.

  9. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2008-01-01

    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  10. Presumed isotretinoin-induced extraocular myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahid Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotretinoin a synthetic analogue of vitamin A is primarily used for cystic acne not responding to conventional treatment. Several ocular side effects including blurring of vision, decreased dark adaptation, corneal opacities and meibomian gland atrophy have been reported with prolonged use of isotretinoin. There have been reports of muscular damage caused by isotretinoin. Extra ocular myopathy as an adverse effect of long term used of isotretinoin has never been mentioned in literature. We report a case of a young male who presented to us with complaints of diplopia after using isotretinoin for a prolonged period. He was diagnosed as a case of presumed isotretinoin extraocular myopathy after imaging and other blood investigations.

  11. Regenerating nerve fiber innervation of extraocular muscles and motor functional changes following oculomotor nerve injuries at different sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenchuan Zhang; Massimiliano Visocchi; Eduardo Fernandez; Xuhui Wang; Xinyuan Li; Shiting Li

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the oculomotor nerves were sectioned at the proximal (subtentorial) and distal (superior orbital fissure) ends and repaired. After 24 weeks, vestibulo-ocular reflex evaluation confirmed that the regenerating nerve fibers following oculomotor nerve injury in the superior orbital fissure had a high level of specificity for innervating extraocular muscles. The level of functional recovery of extraocular muscles in rats in the superior orbital fissure injury group was remarkably superior over that in rats undergoing oculomotor nerve injuries at the proximal end (subtentorium). Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing through the right superior rectus muscle showed that the distribution of neurons in the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve was directly associated with the injury site, and that crude fibers were badly damaged. The closer the site of injury of the oculomotor nerve was to the extraocular muscle, the better the recovery of neurological function was. The mechanism may be associated with the aberrant number of regenerated nerve fibers passing through the injury site.

  12. Microanatomy of adult zebrafish extraocular muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Kasprick

    Full Text Available Binocular vision requires intricate control of eye movement to align overlapping visual fields for fusion in the visual cortex, and each eye is controlled by 6 extraocular muscles (EOMs. Disorders of EOMs are an important cause of symptomatic vision loss. Importantly, EOMs represent specialized skeletal muscles with distinct gene expression profile and susceptibility to neuromuscular disorders. We aim to investigate and describe the anatomy of adult zebrafish extraocular muscles (EOMs to enable comparison with human EOM anatomy and facilitate the use of zebrafish as a model for EOM research. Using differential interference contrast (DIC, epifluorescence microscopy, and precise sectioning techniques, we evaluate the anatomy of zebrafish EOM origin, muscle course, and insertion on the eye. Immunofluorescence is used to identify components of tendons, basement membrane and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, and to analyze myofiber characteristics. We find that adult zebrafish EOM insertions on the globe parallel the organization of human EOMs, including the close proximity of specific EOM insertions to one another. However, analysis of EOM origins reveals important differences between human and zebrafish, such as the common rostral origin of both oblique muscles and the caudal origin of the lateral rectus muscles. Thrombospondin 4 marks the EOM tendons in regions that are highly innervated, and laminin marks the basement membrane, enabling evaluation of myofiber size and distribution. The NMJs appear to include both en plaque and en grappe synapses, while NMJ density is much higher in EOMs than in somatic muscles. In conclusion, zebrafish and human EOM anatomy are generally homologous, supporting the use of zebrafish for studying EOM biology. However, anatomic differences exist, revealing divergent evolutionary pressures.

  13. POLY(96L/4D-LACTIDE) IMPLANTS FOR REPAIR OF ORBITAL FLOOR DEFECTS - AN IN-VITRO STUDY OF THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN A SIMULATION OF THE HUMAN ORBIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CORDEWENER, FW; ROZEMA, FR; JOZIASSE, CAP; BOS, RRM; BOERING, G; PENNINGS, AJ

    1995-01-01

    To test the mechanical and physical properties of two types of poly(96L/4D-lactide) (PLA96) implants and to evaluate their suitability for repair of large orbital floor defects, a study using an in vitro set-up was performed. Implants, 0.2 mm thick and 28 mm in diameter, were produced by either an e

  14. 改良眼内容摘除义眼台植入术效果分析%The analysis of effect of improved evisceration and hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implant implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莹; 孙志敏; 宋愈

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨改良眼内容摘除义眼台植入术的临床效果和安全性.方法 回顾分析30例改良眼内容摘除义眼台植入术,对其效果进行观察.结果 手术30例,无一例义眼台暴露,无眶区凹陷发生,眶区饱满度理想,薄壳义眼可活动,但较正常眼略差.结论 改良眼内容摘出义眼台植入明显降低了义眼台的暴露率,且不会发生义眼台下坠等情况,取得更好的外观效果.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect and safety of improved evisceration and hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implant implantation. Method 30 cases of improved evisceration and hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implant implantation were retrospectively analyzed to observe the effect.Results There was no exposure of orbit implants in 30 cases,superior orbit was full and no depression,mobility of artifical eye was satisfied,but less than the other eye. Conclusion Improved evisceration and hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implant implantation greatly reduce the incidence of exposure with no falling of it,contribute to cosmetic appearance as well.

  15. Followup of a Dog with an Intraocular Silicone Prosthesis Combined with an Extraocular Glass Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyna Romkes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of unpredictable corneal changes, evisceration and implantation of a silicone prosthesis does not always lead to a satisfying cosmetic result. This paper describes the use of an intraocular silicone prosthesis in combination with an extraocular glass prosthesis and shows a followup of two and a half years in a nonexperimental study. An intraocular silicone prosthesis was implanted after evisceration of the left eye in a five-month-old Bernese mountain dog. A glass prosthesis was fitted four weeks after evisceration. Two and a half years after the operation, the dog is in good health and free of medication. No short-term or long-term complications were seen. The owners do not have trouble with handling the glass prosthesis. The combination of both prostheses shows a perfect solution to retrieve a normal looking and moving eye after evisceration.

  16. Creep behavior of passive bovine extraocular muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Lawrence; Kim, Hansang; Shin, Andrew; Gupta, Vijay; Demer, Joseph L

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed for each loading rate and was similar among all six anatomical EOMs. The mean creep coefficient after 1,500 seconds for a wide range of initial loading rates was at 1.37 ± 0.03 (standard deviation, SD). The creep function derived from the relaxation-based QLV model agreed with observed creep to within 2.7% following 16.67%/s ramp loading. Measured creep agrees closely with a derived QLV model of EOM relaxation, validating a previous QLV model for characterization of EOM biomechanics.

  17. Creep Behavior of Passive Bovine Extraocular Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Yoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed for each loading rate and was similar among all six anatomical EOMs. The mean creep coefficient after 1,500 seconds for a wide range of initial loading rates was at 1.37±0.03 (standard deviation, SD. The creep function derived from the relaxation-based QLV model agreed with observed creep to within 2.7% following 16.67%/s ramp loading. Measured creep agrees closely with a derived QLV model of EOM relaxation, validating a previous QLV model for characterization of EOM biomechanics.

  18. Dynamic Imaging of the Eye, Optic Nerve, and Extraocular Muscles With Golden Angle Radial MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Saikat; Smith, David S; Smith, Alex K; Welch, E Brian; Smith, Seth A

    2017-08-01

    The eye and its accessory structures, the optic nerve and the extraocular muscles, form a complex dynamic system. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this system in motion can have substantial benefits in understanding oculomotor functioning in health and disease, but has been restricted to date to imaging of static gazes only. The purpose of this work was to develop a technique to image the eye and its accessory visual structures in motion. Dynamic imaging of the eye was developed on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner, based on a golden angle radial sequence that allows freely selectable frame-rate and temporal-span image reconstructions from the same acquired data set. Retrospective image reconstructions at a chosen frame rate of 57 ms per image yielded high-quality in vivo movies of various eye motion tasks performed in the scanner. Motion analysis was performed for a left-right version task where motion paths, lengths, and strains/globe angle of the medial and lateral extraocular muscles and the optic nerves were estimated. Offline image reconstructions resulted in dynamic images of bilateral visual structures of healthy adults in only ∼15-s imaging time. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the motion enabled estimation of trajectories, lengths, and strains on the optic nerves and extraocular muscles at very high frame rates of ∼18 frames/s. This work presents an MRI technique that enables high-frame-rate dynamic imaging of the eyes and orbital structures. The presented sequence has the potential to be used in furthering the understanding of oculomotor mechanics in vivo, both in health and disease.

  19. Superior calcium homeostasis of extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Ulrike; Mitchell, Claire H; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2010-11-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a unique group of skeletal muscles with unusual physiological properties such as being able to undergo rapid twitch contractions over extended periods and escape damage in the presence of excess intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD). Enhanced Ca(2+) buffering has been proposed as a contributory mechanism to explain these properties; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated mechanisms modulating Ca(2+) levels in EOM and tibialis anterior (TA) limb muscles. Using Fura-2 based ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging of primary myotubes we found that EOM myotubes reduced elevated Ca(2+) ˜2-fold faster than TA myotubes, demonstrating more efficient Ca(2+) buffering. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blotting revealed higher expression of key components of the Ca(2+) regulation system in EOM, such as the cardiac/slow isoforms sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (Serca2) and calsequestrin 2 (Casq2). Interestingly EOM expressed monomeric rather than multimeric forms of phospholamban (Pln), which was phosphorylated at threonine 17 (Thr17) but not at the serine 16 (Ser16) residue. EOM Pln remained monomeric and unphosphorylated at Ser16 despite protein kinase A (PKA) treatment, suggesting differential signalling and modulation cascades involving Pln-mediated Ca(2+) regulation in EOM. Increased expression of Ca(2+)/SR mRNA, proteins, differential post-translational modification of Pln and superior Ca(2+) buffering is consistent with the improved ability of EOM to handle elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. These characteristics provide mechanistic insight for the potential role of superior Ca(2+) buffering in the unusual physiology of EOM and their sparing in DMD.

  20. Surgical management of hypotropia in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM presented by pseudoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik HA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatem A Tawfik,1 Mohammad A Rashad21Oculoplastic Service, 2Pediatric Ophthalmology Service, Ophthalmology Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To describe the demographics, characteristics, management pitfalls, and outcomes of pseudoptosis associated with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM.Methods: A retrospective review was performed of eight patients presenting with ptosis and hypotropia to oculoplastic service. All patients underwent full ocular evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging of brain and orbit. Five of these patients underwent stepwise correction of hypotropia by single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery (SSASS, followed by a frontalis sling if needed.Results: Eight patients had congenital strabismus with severe ptosis and a positive forced duction test. There was a highly significant improvement from preoperative mean hypotropia angle of 30 prism diopters (PD to 9 PD mean postoperative angle (P = 0.006. Surgery for ptosis was not needed in 80% of eyes.Conclusion: CFEOM involving both ptosis and hypotropia could be properly managed with the correct sequence of surgical steps. Proper vertical alignment by correction of hypotropia utilizing SSASS may alleviate the need for ptosis surgery.Keywords: congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles, CFEOM, single-stage adjustable suture surgery, SSASS, pseudoptosis

  1. Safety and Biocompatibility of a New High-Density Polyethylene-Based Spherical Integrated Porous Orbital Implant: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

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    Ivan Fernandez-Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate clinically and histologically the safety and biocompatibility of a new HDPE-based spherical porous orbital implants in rabbits. Methods. MEDPOR (Porex Surgical, Inc., Fairburn, GA, USA, OCULFIT I, and OCULFIT II (AJL Ophthalmic S.A., Vitoria, Spain implants were implanted in eviscerated rabbis. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=4 each according to the 3 implant materials tested and 2 follow-up times of 90 or 180 days. Signs of regional pain and presence of eyelid swelling, conjunctival hyperemia, and amount of exudate were semiquantitatively evaluated. After animals sacrifice, the implants and surrounding ocular tissues were processed for histological staining and polarized light evaluation. Statistical study was performed by ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results. No statistically significant differences in regional pain, eyelid swelling, or conjunctival hyperemia were shown between implants and/or time points evaluated. However, amount of exudate differed, with OCULFIT I causing the smallest amount. No remarkable clinical complications were observed. Histological findings were similar in all three types of implants and agree with minor inflammatory response. Conclusions. OCULFIT ophthalmic tolerance and biocompatibility in rabbits were comparable to the clinically used MEDPOR. Clinical studies are needed to determine if OCULFIT is superior to the orbital implants commercially available.

  2. Safety and Biocompatibility of a New High-Density Polyethylene-Based Spherical Integrated Porous Orbital Implant: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bueno, Ivan; Di Lauro, Salvatore; Alvarez, Ivan; Lopez, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Fernandez, Itziar; Larra, Eva; Pastor, Jose Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate clinically and histologically the safety and biocompatibility of a new HDPE-based spherical porous orbital implants in rabbits. Methods. MEDPOR (Porex Surgical, Inc., Fairburn, GA, USA), OCULFIT I, and OCULFIT II (AJL Ophthalmic S.A., Vitoria, Spain) implants were implanted in eviscerated rabbis. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 4 each) according to the 3 implant materials tested and 2 follow-up times of 90 or 180 days. Signs of regional pain and presence of eyelid swelling, conjunctival hyperemia, and amount of exudate were semiquantitatively evaluated. After animals sacrifice, the implants and surrounding ocular tissues were processed for histological staining and polarized light evaluation. Statistical study was performed by ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results. No statistically significant differences in regional pain, eyelid swelling, or conjunctival hyperemia were shown between implants and/or time points evaluated. However, amount of exudate differed, with OCULFIT I causing the smallest amount. No remarkable clinical complications were observed. Histological findings were similar in all three types of implants and agree with minor inflammatory response. Conclusions. OCULFIT ophthalmic tolerance and biocompatibility in rabbits were comparable to the clinically used MEDPOR. Clinical studies are needed to determine if OCULFIT is superior to the orbital implants commercially available. PMID:26689343

  3. Surgical Treatment of Orbital Blowout Fractures: Complications and Postoperative Care Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Matthew; Carlisle, Michael P; Lu, Guanning Nina; Humphrey, Clinton; Kriet, J David

    2016-11-01

    Orbital fractures are a common result of facial trauma. Sequelae and indications for repair include enophthalmos and/or diplopia from extraocular muscle entrapment. Alloplastic implant placement with careful release of periorbital fat and extraocular muscles can effectively restore extraocular movements, orbital integrity, and anatomic volume. However, rare but devastating complications such as retrobulbar hematoma (RBH) can occur after repair, which pose a risk of permanent vision loss if not addressed emergently. For this reason, some surgeons take the precaution of admitting patients for 24-hour postoperative vision checks, while others do not. The incidence of postoperative RBH has not been previously reported and existing data are limited to case reports. Our aim was to examine national trends in postoperative management and to report the incidence of immediate postoperative complications at our institution following orbital repair. A retrospective assessment of orbital blowout fractures was undertaken to assess immediate postoperative complications including RBH. Only patients treated by a senior surgeon in the Department of Otolaryngology were included in the review. In addition, we surveyed AO North America (AONA) Craniomaxillofacial faculty to assess current trends in postoperative management. There were 80 patients treated surgically for orbital blowout fractures over a 9.5-year period. Nearly all patients were observed overnight (74%) or longer (25%) due to other trauma. Average length of stay was 17 hours for those observed overnight. There was one (1.3%) patient with RBH, who was treated and recovered without sequelae. Results of the survey indicated that a majority (64%) of responders observe postoperative patients overnight. Twenty-nine percent of responders indicated that they send patients home the same day of surgery. Performance of more than 20 orbital repairs annually significantly increased the likelihood that faculty would manage patients on

  4. Wnt and Extraocular Muscle Sparing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of Wnt signaling factors in extraocular muscle (EOM) sparing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was examined. Three of the Wnts were preferentially upregulated in EOM, suggesting that they may be involved in maintenance of neuromuscular junctions in the EOM of ALS patients.

  5. Painless orbital myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul T Chakor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital inflammation is the third most common orbital disease, following Graves orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a 11 year old girl with 15 days history of painless diplopia. There was no history of fluctuation of symptoms, drooping of eye lids or diminished vision. She had near total restricted extra-ocular movements and mild proptosis of the right eye. There was no conjunctival injection, chemosis, or bulb pain. There was no eyelid retraction or lid lag. Rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with eosinophilia. Antinuclear antibodies were positive. Liver, renal and thyroid functions were normal. Antithyroid, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative. Repetitive nerve stimulation was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the orbit was typical of orbital myositis. The patient responded to oral steroids. Orbital myositis can present as painless diplopia. MRI of orbit is diagnostic in orbital myositis.

  6. Use of bovine pericardium as a wrapping material for hydroxyapatite orbital implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M; Puri, P; Rennie, I G

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To present the results of 27 patients who had enucleation for malignant melanoma of the choroid with hydroxyapatite implant wrapped in bovine pericardium. Method: A retrospective study was performed on 27 patients, 12 males and 15 females, who had enucleation as a primary treatment for their choroidal melanomas. The patients were followed up at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and then every 6 months. A conformer was fitted at 1 week and an artificial eye at 1 month. The average follow up was 1.7 years. Results: No patient had extrusion of the implant. One patient needed repair of the wound, two patients required a lateral tarsal strip, and one patient developed a conjunctival granuloma, which did not need excision. In one patient there was shallowing of the inferior fornix. The cosmetic results and ocular movement were satisfactory in all but one patient. Conclusion: Use of bovine pericardium as wrapping material for the hydroxyapatite implants has shown promising results with minimal extrusion rates providing an effective alternative for sclera, eliminating the potential risks of CJD. PMID:11864885

  7. Poly(L-lactide) implants for repair of human orbital floor defects : Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of long-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, FW; Bos, RRM; Rozema, FR; Houtman, WA

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of repair of orbital floor defects in patients with resorbable as-polymerized poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) implants and to determine whether these patients showed symptoms that could be indicative of the presence of a late tissue res

  8. Quantification of the vascularisation of the orbital implants of coralinehydroxyapatite with {sup 99m} Tc-MDP; Cuantificacion de la vascularizacion de los implantes orbitales dehidroxiapatita coralina con {sup 99m} Tc-MDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.L.; Solano, M.E.; Alvarez, I.; Perez, G. [Centro deInvestigaciones Clinicas 34 no.4501 e/45 y 47 Kohly, Playa C. Habana (Cuba)

    1998-12-31

    The use of ocular implants of hydroxyapatite has been increased in the last times owing to that they are well tolerated by the organism and that on the integration they show good mobility on the artificial eye with very few complications. The gammagraphy with {sup 99m} Tc-MDP can be used for the evaluation of vascularisation and its relative quantification above on these implants. In this pilot essay 10 normal persons and 37 patients were studied who had an implant of Cuban coraline hydroxyapatite (Coraline HAP-200). Thermography with {sup 99m} Tc-MDP was realized between 4 and 18 months after surgery then were obtained plane images in anterior viewing. It was measured the implant vascularisation and it was calculated for each case the relative captivation index (RCI) starting from two regions of ocular interest. As result all patients tolerated the implant without complications. The relation of the activity implant with respect to the contralateral region was 2.31{+-}0.63 (mean {+-} SD) with a range of 1.17-4.09. The relation between the left intra orbital captivation and the right in the normal persons was 1.01 {+-}0.66 (mean {+-} SD). In conclusion, we obtained that the ICR can be very useful in order to measure the integration level of this type of implant.Moreover, it was proved that the implants with Cuban coraline hydroxyapatite showed an acceptable level of integration in all the patients. (Author)

  9. Bilateral multiple extraocular muscle metastasis from breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare presentation of an initially misdiagnosed case of a pseudotumor, which on histopathology was diagnosed as bilateral breast metastases of lobular carcinoma involving multiple extraocular muscles. A 61-year-old lady presented with external ophthalmoplegia and diplopia. Incisional biopsy was performed using a lid crease approach and the patient received radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Following prolonged hormonal therapy, complete remission was achieved, with improvement in ocular motility and resolution of diplopia, about 18 months after the initial presentation. Multiple extraocular muscle involvement by breast carcinoma metastasis is very rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients with a prior history of breast carcinoma.

  10. [Treatment of primary retinal detachment. Minimal extraocular or intraocular?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissig, I

    2002-06-01

    The developments in treatment modalities for a primary retinal detachment over the last 70 years have been reviewed. There was a change from a surgery limited to the area of the break to a form of prophylactic surgery including the extent of the detachment. In between Rosengren had limited the treatment to the break with an intraocular gas bubble. A change was brought about by Custodis in 1953 who limited surgery to the break and omitted drainage. This procedure had serious postoperative complications which were eliminated by Lincoff by developing the cryosurgical detachment operation which was subsequently refined to extraocular minimal surgery. The ultimate realization of a minimal extraocular approach was the operation with a temporary balloon. Two additional intraocular procedures evolved, pneumatic retinopexy and primary vitrectomy, following one or the other pattern of treatment. With all four methods reattachment can result in 94-99% of the cases but differences can be seen in the morbidity and rate of reoperations.

  11. Fatigue resistance of rat extraocular muscles does not depend on creatine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Colleen A; Hayess, Katrin; Andrade, Francisco H

    2005-08-17

    Creatine kinase (CK) links phosphocreatine, an energy storage system, to cellular ATPases. CK activity serves as a temporal and spatial buffer for ATP content, particularly in fast-twitch skeletal muscles. The extraocular muscles are notoriously fast and active, suggesting the need for efficient ATP buffering. This study tested the hypotheses that (1) CK isoform expression and activity in rat extraocular muscles would be higher, and (2) the resistance of these muscles to fatigue would depend on CK activity. We found that mRNA and protein levels for cytosolic and mitochondrial CK isoforms were lower in the extraocular muscles than in extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Total CK activity was correspondingly decreased in the extraocular muscles. Moreover, cytoskeletal components of the sarcomeric M line, where a fraction of CK activity is found, were downregulated in the extraocular muscles as was shown by immunocytochemistry and western blotting. CK inhibition significantly accelerated the development of fatigue in EDL muscle bundles, but had no major effect on the extraocular muscles. Searching for alternative ATP buffers that could compensate for the relative lack of CK in extraocular muscles, we determined that mRNAs for two adenylate kinase (AK) isoforms were expressed at higher levels in these muscles. Total AK activity was similar in EDL and extraocular muscles. These data indicate that the characteristic fatigue resistance of the extraocular muscles does not depend on CK activity.

  12. Fatigue resistance of rat extraocular muscles does not depend on creatine kinase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayeß Katrin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine kinase (CK links phosphocreatine, an energy storage system, to cellular ATPases. CK activity serves as a temporal and spatial buffer for ATP content, particularly in fast-twitch skeletal muscles. The extraocular muscles are notoriously fast and active, suggesting the need for efficient ATP buffering. This study tested the hypotheses that (1 CK isoform expression and activity in rat extraocular muscles would be higher, and (2 the resistance of these muscles to fatigue would depend on CK activity. Results We found that mRNA and protein levels for cytosolic and mitochondrial CK isoforms were lower in the extraocular muscles than in extensor digitorum longus (EDL. Total CK activity was correspondingly decreased in the extraocular muscles. Moreover, cytoskeletal components of the sarcomeric M line, where a fraction of CK activity is found, were downregulated in the extraocular muscles as was shown by immunocytochemistry and western blotting. CK inhibition significantly accelerated the development of fatigue in EDL muscle bundles, but had no major effect on the extraocular muscles. Searching for alternative ATP buffers that could compensate for the relative lack of CK in extraocular muscles, we determined that mRNAs for two adenylate kinase (AK isoforms were expressed at higher levels in these muscles. Total AK activity was similar in EDL and extraocular muscles. Conclusion These data indicate that the characteristic fatigue resistance of the extraocular muscles does not depend on CK activity.

  13. The role of extraocular muscle pulleys in incomitant non-paralytic strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Clark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs and inferior oblique muscle have paths through the orbit constrained by connective tissue pulleys. These pulleys shift position during contraction and relaxation of the EOMs, dynamically changing the biomechanics of force transfer from the tendon onto the globe. The paths of the EOMs are tightly conserved in normal patients and disorders in the location and/or stability of the pulleys can create patterns of incomitant strabismus that may mimic oblique muscle dysfunction and cranial nerve paresis. Developmental disorders of pulley location can occur in conjunction with large, obvious abnormalities of orbital anatomy (e.g., craniosynostosis syndromes or subtle, isolated abnormalities in the location of one or more pulleys. Acquired disorders of pulley location can be divided into four broad categories: Connective tissue disorders (e.g., Marfan syndrome, globe size disorders (e.g., high myopia, senile degeneration (e.g., sagging eye syndrome, and trauma (e.g., orbital fracture or postsurgical. Recognition of these disorders is important because abnormalities in pulley location and movement are often resistant to standard surgical approaches that involve strengthening or weakening the oblique muscles or changing the positions of the EOM insertions. Preoperative diagnosis is aided by: (1 Clinical history of predisposing risk factors, (2 observation of malpositioning of the medial canthus, lateral canthus, and globe, and (3 gaze-controlled orbital imaging using direct coronal slices. Finally, surgical correction frequently involves novel techniques that reposition and stabilize the pulley and posterior muscle belly within the orbit using permanent scleral sutures or silicone bands without changing the location of the muscle′s insertion.

  14. Application of Fracture Operation MEDPORE Implant in Orbital Blowout%眼眶爆裂性骨折手术MEDPORE植入材料的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the MEDPORE surgery implant material application in the operation of orbital blowout fracture.Methods Retrospective analysis of January 2010 - December 2013 during the application of MEDPORE surgical implant the body material of clinical data of 48 cases of patients with ocular trauma fracture of the orbit.Results All the patients satisfaction after surgery, enophthalmos was corrected, different degrees of diplopia, eye movement to restore normal operation, does not affect vision, follow-up period did not appear the implant or rejection.Conclusion MEDPORE surgical implant material fracture operation is safe and effective in the application of orbital blowout, can effectively prevent postoperative enophthalmos, back and other complications, is the reconstruction of orbital wall ideal biological material.%目的 探讨MEDPORE外科植入体材料在眼眶爆裂性骨折手术中的应用.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月至2013年12月在本院应用MEDPORE外科植入体材料48例眼外伤眶骨骨折患者的临床资料.结果 全部患者术后效果满意,眼球内陷得到不同程度的矫正,复视消失,眼球运动恢复正常,手术不影响视力,出院随访期间未出现植入物脱出或排斥反应.结论 MEDPORE外科植入体材料在眼眶爆裂性骨折手术中的应用安全有效,可以有效防止术后发生眼球下陷、回退等并发症,是重建眶壁理想的生物材料.

  15. [Computer-assisted orbital floor reconstruction. Use of a CAD/CAM implant with intraoperative contact-free 3D endo- and exophthalmometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, T V; Vairaktaris, E; Alexiou, C; Schlegel, K A; Neukam, F W; Nkenke, E

    2008-11-01

    Pronounced enophthalmos can restrict patients both functionally and aesthetically. Typical symptoms are double vision on both eyes and obvious asymmetry, both of which were present in the 67-year-old male patient presented in this paper. The resulting data of computed tomography was used to fabricate a patient specific ceramic implant for reconstruction of the left orbital floor with an enophthalmos of 4mm. During the surgery the implant fitted anatomically correct, but exophthalmos occurred. The implant needed to be regraded and recontoured in the dorsal fraction, so that overcorrection could be reduced. With the assistance of optical 3D en- and exophthalmometry during surgery, the position of the cornea vertex was reproducible measured. At the end of surgery, exophthalmos was 1.5 mm. After 12 months, enophthalmos of only 1mm exists. This case displays the combination of a patient specific fabricated implant for reconstruction of the orbital floor with optical 3D-en-and exophthalmometry to correct enophthalmos with a high degree of accuracy. Therefore these two techniques in combination should be used when complex corrections of enophthalmos are needed.

  16. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG. Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna′s classification were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001 and motility (P = 0.004 between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention.

  17. Estudo histológico comparativo de implantes (ímãs em órbitas de coelhas Comparative histologic study of implants (magnets in orbits of female rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Roque Kleinpaul

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliação microscópica dos sinais da reação inflamatória causada pela fixação de implante orbitário (ímã, recoberto por ouro. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental em 54 coelhas adultas, divididas em três grupos de 18, com 3 subgrupos de 6, avaliação com uma, três e seis semanas de pós-operatório. Fixação, no rebordo inferior da órbita, de implante (ímã e ouro por meio de cola, parafuso ou fio inabsorvível (Mersilene 5.0®. As órbitas contralaterais (sem implante compuseram o grupo-controle. RESULTADOS: Sinais histológicos de reação inflamatória à fixação orbitária do implante foram observados, com cianoacrilato, parafuso, ou sutura inabsorvível (Mersilene 5.0®, até a sexta semana pós-operatória, com predomínio do processo inflamatório crônico e fibrótico cicatricial, sem demonstrar diferenças estatisticamente significativas na maior parte dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: O exame histopatológico demonstrou, na maior parte das órbitas com e sem implante, presença de reação inflamatória aguda e crônica até a sexta semana pós-operatória, com predomínio de processo inflamatório crônico e fibrótico cicatricial, sem demonstrar, na maior parte dos casos, diferenças estatisticamente significante entre os grupos experimental e controle.PURPOSE: To evaluate microscopically the signs of inflammatory reaction due to the fixation of an orbitary implant (magnet, covered by gold. METHODS: An experimental study was performed in 54 adult female rabbits, divided into 3 groups of eighteen with 3 subgroups of 6; an evaluation at 1, 3 and 6 postoperative weeks was performed. An implant (magnet, covered by gold was fixed in the inferior orbital rim using biologic glue, screw or unabsorbable suture (Mersilene 5.0®. The opposite orbits (without implants represented the control group. RESULTS: Microscopic signs of inflammatory reaction due to orbitary fixation of the implant were observed with the use of the three

  18. Impact of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis on Slow Tonic Myofiber Composition in Human Extraocular Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjust, Anton E; Danielsson, Adam; Andersen, Peter M; Brännström, Thomas; Pedrosa Domellöf, Fatima

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the proportion and cross-sectional area of myofibers containing myosin heavy chain slow-twitch (MyHCI) and myosin heavy chain slow tonic (MyHCsto) in extraocular muscles of autopsied amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with either spinal or bulbar site of disease onset. Whole-muscle cross sections from the middle portion of the medial rectus were labeled with antibodies against MyHCI or MyHCsto and laminin. Myofibers labeled with the MyHC antibodies (MyHCI+sto) and the total number of myofibers were quantified in the orbital and global layer of 6 control individuals and 18 ALS patients. The cross-sectional area of myofibers labeled for either MyHC was quantified in 130 to 472 fibers/individual in the orbital and in 180 to 573 fibers/individual in the global layer of each specimen. The proportion of MyHCI+sto myofibers was significantly smaller in the orbital and global layer of ALS compared to control individuals. MyHCI+sto myofibers were significantly smaller in the global layer than in the orbital layer of ALS, whereas they were of similar size in control subjects. The decreased proportion of MyHCI+sto fibers correlated significantly with the age of death, but not disease duration, in patients who had the bulbar-onset variant of ALS but not in patients with spinal variant. ALS, regardless of site of onset, involves a loss of myofibers containing MyHCI+sto. Only in bulbar-onset cases did aging seem to play a role in the pathophysiological processes underlying the loss of MyHCI+sto fibers.

  19. Effect of different methods of hydroxyapatite orbital implants implantation%羟基磷灰石义眼座植入不同术式的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹虹; 孙熠; 曹芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价羟基磷灰石义眼座不同植入方法的临床效果.方法 54例根据植入术式分为无包裹组和自体巩膜包裹组,观察术后一期愈合情况及义眼座暴露等并发症.随访3~18个月.结果 术后眼窝饱满度、义眼座活动度良好.主要并发症为结膜囊裂开,义眼座暴露.两种植入方法的愈合及暴露情况各组之间比较差异无统计学意义.结论 羟基磷灰石义眼座植入整容效果良好,不同术式羟基磷灰石义眼座植入术后并发症的发生与植入方式无明显关系.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of different methods of hydroxyapatite (HA)orbit implants implantation. Methods 54 cases were divided into 2 groups according to different implantation method of HA, without or with autosclera covering. The curative effect and complications were observed. The follow-up was 3 - 18 months. Results The hydroxyapatites were fixed to orbit well with good movement. The main complication was hydroxyapatites exposure. No significant differences were found between the two methods on curative effect and exposure of HA (x2=0.041, P>0.05). Conclusion The plastic surgery of hydroxyapatite implants was satisfactory. The incidence of complaication was not related to different hydroxyapatite implantation methods.

  20. Stimulation of the retina with a multielectrode extraocular visual prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Vivek; Morley, John W; Coroneo, Minas T

    2005-08-01

    An extraocular approach to developing a retinal prosthesis for blind patients using electrodes placed on the outer surface of the eye is suggested. Experiments were carried out to determine the feasibility of this approach, and evaluate electrode configurations and parameters for stimulation. In anaesthetized cats, a 21-electrode extraocular retinal prosthesis (ERP) array was sutured to the sclera over the lateral surface of the eye. Electrically evoked potentials (EEP) were recorded at the visual cortex bilaterally in response to retinal stimulation with the electrode array. Bipolar stimulation of the ERP array electrodes in horizontal and vertical configurations and at different interelectrode separations was investigated with biphasic constant-current pulses. Electrical stimulation of the lateral retina with an ERP elicited EEP that were higher in the ipsilateral visual cortex. The threshold for bipolar retinal stimulation was 500 microA. EEP amplitude increased with increases in stimulus pulse duration and current intensity. Retinal stimulation was slightly more effective with electrodes in a vertical as opposed to horizontal orientation. A larger interelectrode separation resulted in a higher EEP amplitude. Retinal stimulation with a prototype ERP array is demonstrated. The thresholds for retinal excitation are below safe charge-density limits for chronic neural stimulation. Ipsilateral localization of the EEP suggests that localized retinal stimulation is occurring. An ERP is a new approach to retinal prosthesis research, and might lead to the development of a low-resolution visual prosthesis for blind patients.

  1. 钛网联合多孔聚乙烯植入治疗内壁合并下壁眼眶骨折%Titanium mesh combined with Medpor implantation in orbital reconstruction for medial and inferior orbital wall fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜倩钰; 郭涛; 沙英虹; 韩雪梅; 史要武

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of titanium mesh combined with porous polyethylene (Medpor) implantation in orbital reconstruction for medial and inferior orbital wall fractures.Methods The surgical effect of 12 cases(12 eyes) of medial and inferior orbital wall fracture patients who received titanium mesh combined with Medpor implantation for orbital wall reconstruction were analyzed retrospectively.Preoperatively,there were 10 cases with enophthalmos equal to or more than 3 mm,2 cases with enophthalmos between 2 to 3 mm,5 cases with diplopia,2 cases with apparent vertical globe dystopia.For all the cases,an inferior subciliary approach was performed,a titanium mesh plate was used for the inferior orbital wall reconstruction and Medpor was used for the medial orbital wall reconstruction or in cases with apparent enophthalmos.Results Postoperatively,after a followed up period of 3-6 monthes,the enophthalmos of all the cases was successfully corrected to less than 2mm,the preoperative diplopia disappeared in 4 cases,resolved apparently in 1 case,the vertical globe dystopia of 2 cases disappeared,and no visual acuity impairment was observed.No complication of infection,extrusion,rejection or migration of the implants occurred.Conclusion Titanium mesh combined with Medpor implantation in orbital reconstruction for medial and inferior orbital wall fractures is safe and effective,which takes the merits of both implants.%目的 探讨应用钛网联合多孔高密度聚乙烯板(Medpor)植入治疗内壁合并下壁眼眶骨折的疗效.方法 回顾性分析12例(12眼)内壁合并下壁眼眶骨折行钛网联合Medpor植入的手术效果,术前眼球内陷≥3 mm者10例,内陷2~3 mm者2例,复视5例,眼球明显下移2例,术中均经下睑缘下皮肤切口,下壁骨折区行钛网植入,内壁骨折区及眼球内陷重的行Medpor植入矫正.结果 术后随访3~6个月,眼球内陷均矫正至2 mm以内,复视完全消失4例,明显改善1例,2例眼球

  2. Intraocular and extraocular cameras for retinal prostheses: Effects of foveation by means of visual prosthesis simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Benjamin Patrick

    Blindness due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa is unfortunately both widespread and largely incurable. Advances in visual prostheses that can restore functional vision in those afflicted by these diseases have evolved rapidly from new areas of research in ophthalmology and biomedical engineering. This thesis is focused on further advancing the state-of-the-art of both visual prostheses and implantable biomedical devices. A novel real-time system with a high performance head-mounted display is described that enables enhanced realistic simulation of intraocular retinal prostheses. A set of visual psychophysics experiments is presented using the visual prosthesis simulator that quantify, in several ways, the benefit of foveation afforded by an eye-pointed camera (such as an eye-tracked extraocular camera or an implantable intraocular camera) as compared with a head-pointed camera. A visual search experiment demonstrates a significant improvement in the time to locate a target on a screen when using an eye-pointed camera. A reach and grasp experiment demonstrates a 20% to 70% improvement in time to grasp an object when using an eye-pointed camera, with the improvement maximized when the percept is blurred. A navigation and mobility experiment shows a 10% faster walking speed and a 50% better ability to avoid obstacles when using an eye-pointed camera. Improvements to implantable biomedical devices are also described, including the design and testing of VLSI-integrable positive mobile ion contamination sensors and humidity sensors that can validate the hermeticity of biomedical device packages encapsulated by hermetic coatings, and can provide early warning of leaks or contamination that may jeopardize the implant. The positive mobile ion contamination sensors are shown to be sensitive to externally applied contamination. A model is proposed to describe sensitivity as a function of device geometry, and verified experimentally. Guidelines are

  3. Successful repair of injury to the eyelid, lacrimal passage, and extraocular muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah, Shreya Mehul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury is a known cause of monocular blindness. Ocular trauma may affect lacrimal canaliculi and the extraocular muscle. We report this case as it includes injury to lid, lacrimal canaliculi and inferior rectus. Case description: A 25-year-old male presented with an injury caused by a sharp object that resulted in a conjunctival tear, lid tear involving the lacrimal canal, and rupture of the inferior rectus muscle. All of the structures were repaired successfully during a single procedure. Conclusion: An extraocular injury involving the conjunctiva, lid, lacrimal passages, and extraocular muscles can be repaired successfully during a single procedure.

  4. Extra-ocular muscle MRI in genetically-defined mitochondrial disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitceathly, Robert D.S.; Morrow, Jasper M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Woodward, Cathy; Sweeney, Mary G. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Neurogenetics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Rahman, Shamima [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, Mitochondrial Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Plant, Gordon T.; Ali, Nadeem [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Moorfields Eye Hospital, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Bremner, Fion [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Davagnanam, Indran [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, The Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease, to characterise MRI findings in the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) and investigate whether quantitative MRI provides clinically relevant measures of disease. Patients with CPEO due to single mitochondrial DNA deletions were compared with controls. Range of eye movement (ROEM) measurements, peri-orbital 3 T MRI T1-weighted (T1w) and short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR) images, and T2 relaxation time maps were obtained. Blinded observers graded muscle atrophy and T1w/STIR hyperintensity. Cross-sectional areas and EOM mean T2s were recorded and correlated with clinical parameters. Nine patients and nine healthy controls were examined. Patients had reduced ROEM (patients 13.3 , controls 49.3 , p < 0.001), greater mean atrophy score and increased T1w hyperintensities. EOM mean cross-sectional area was 43 % of controls and mean T2s were prolonged (patients 75.6 ± 7.0 ms, controls 55.2 ± 4.1 ms, p < 0.001). ROEM correlated negatively with EOM T2 (rho = -0.89, p < 0.01), whilst cross-sectional area failed to correlate with any clinical measures. MRI demonstrates EOM atrophy, characteristic signal changes and prolonged T2 in CPEO. Correlation between elevated EOM T2 and ROEM impairment represents a potential measure of disease severity that warrants further evaluation. (orig.)

  5. Medpor implant to repair orbital floor fractures%高密度多孔聚乙烯种植体修复眼眶下壁骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立华; 韩英军; 梁天蔚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨高密度多孔聚乙烯种植体(Medpor)修复眶下壁骨折效果.方法 做睫毛下切口,充分暴露眼眶骨折部位、松解嵌顿的眶内容物,骨膜下填充Medpor修复眶下壁骨折.观察术后复视、眼球运动、眼球内陷等症状改善情况及植入物有无脱出及感染.结果 随访期内未出现Medpor脱出或排斥现象.全部21例(21只眼)术后均无明显的眼球内陷,19眼复视消失,2眼复视明显改善.结论 Medpor填充是眶下壁骨折有效治疗方法.%Objective To evaluate the effect of medpor implant in the repair of orbital floor fractures.Methods Typical sub-ciliary incision was done to expose the fracture areas and release the herniated orbital contents.Medpor sheet was inserted beneath the periosteum to repair the fracture areas.Results Within the follow-up time,there were no significant intra-operative or post-operative complications.There was no infection or extrusion of Medpor implant.Au the 21 patients showed no obvious enophthalmos.The diplopia disappeared in 19 cases and 2 cases had mild diplopia.Conclusion The results indicate that Medpor implant is a safe and effective matter to repair orbital floor fractures.

  6. 两种不同义眼台植入手术方法的临床观察%Clinical observation of two different methods of hydroxyapatite orbital implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾圆圆; 杨卫国; 肖远亮; 陈曦; 肖乐; 袁琳

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较两种不同手术方法的临床效果.方法 回顾性分析我院外伤后视力丧失且眼球萎缩150例(150眼),眼内容摘除+自体巩膜壳内义眼台植入术(眼内植入组)85例;眼球摘除+肌锥内义眼台植入术(眶内植入组)65例,总结两种术式的效果.结果 眼内植入组良好率94.1%,义眼台暴露发生率5.9%,义眼台感染而取出占本组1.2%;眶内植入组良好率93.8%,义眼台暴露发生率6.1%,义眼台感染而取出占本组3.0%.结论 眼内植入和眶内植入义眼台,都能取得良好的效果.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of two different surgical methods of implatation of hydmxyapalite orbital implant.Methods A retrospective case analysis was done.One hundred and fifty eyes of 150 patients suffered loss of vision and eyeball atrophy after injury were analyzed.Among them,85 cases were performed with evisceration of the eye combined with orbital implantation in autologous sclera shell (intraocular implantation group),and 65 cases were performed with enucleation of eyeball combined with orbital implantation in muscle cone(orbital implantation group).The curative effect of two surgeries was summarized.Results In intraocular implantation group,the effective rate was 94.1%,the implant exposure rate was 5.9%,and the implant infection rate was 1.2%.In orbital implant group,the effective rate was 93.8%,the implant exposure rate was 6.1%,and the implant infection rate was 3.0%.Conclusion Both intraocular implantation and intraorbital implantation with hydroxyapatite obital implant have good clinical efficacy.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the extraocular muscles and corresponding cranial nerves in patients with special forms of strabismus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yong-hong; ZHAO Kan-xing; WANG Zhen-chang; QIAN Xue-han; WU Xiao; MAN Feng-yuan; LU Wei; SHE Hai-cheng

    2009-01-01

    Background With the technical advances, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now sensitive enough to detect subtle structural abnormalities of ocular motor nerves arising from the brainstem and orbits of living subjects. This study was designed to delineate the MRI characteristics in patients with special forms of strabismus.Methods A total of 29 patients with special forms of strabismus underwent orbital and intracalvarium MRI. Imaging of the ocular motor nerves in the brainstem was performed in 0.8 mm thickness image planes using the three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) sequence. Nerves to extraocular muscles (EOMs), EOMs and their associated connective tissues were imaged with T1 weighting in tri-planar scans by dual-phased coils within 2.0 mm thick planes.Results Patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles exhibited hypoplasia of the oculomotor (CN3), abducens (CN6), trochlear (CN4) nerves, and the EOMs; hypoplasia of CN6 in the brainstem and an extra branch of the inferior division of CN3 to the lateral rectus were the most common but not the only presentation of Duane's retraction syndrome. Hypoplasia of CN6, facial (CN7) and hypoglossal (CN12) nerves were revealed in patients with M(o)bius syndrome. In a rare case of bilateral synergistic convergence and divergence, an enlarged branch of CN3 to the medial rectus and a questionable branch of CN3 to the inferior rectus bilaterally were found.Conclusion MRI can reveal subtle structures of the ocular motor nerves and their corresponding EOMs. This can provide valuable information regarding pathogenesis in some special forms of strabismus.

  8. A new teaching model for demonstrating the movement of the extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Joe; Refsland, Jason; Iovino, Lee; Holley, Gary; Laws, Tyler; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    The extraocular muscles consist of the superior, inferior, lateral, and medial rectus muscles and the superior and inferior oblique muscles. This study aimed to create a new teaching model for demonstrating the function of the extraocular muscles. A coronal section of the head was prepared and sutures attached to the levator palpebral superioris muscle and six extraocular muscles. Tension was placed on each muscle from a posterior approach and movement of the eye documented from an anterior view. All movements were clearly seen less than that of the inferior rectus muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first cadaveric teaching model for demonstrating the movements of the extraocular muscles. Clin. Anat. 30:733-735, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An unusual extraocular muscle anomaly in a patient with Crouzon's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    SNIR, M.; Gilad, E.; Ben-Sira, I

    1982-01-01

    A 29-year-old female suffering from Crouzon's disease was admitted to hospital with retinal detachment in the right eye. At operation agenesis of 4 extraocular muscles (superior and inferior recti and obliquus) was found, together with abnormal insertion of the 2 horizontal muscles. The same extraocular muscular abnormalities were found in the left eye. We suggest here a new surgical treatment in such cases and discuss the reasons for the limitation of ocular motility in such cases.

  10. An unusual extraocular muscle anomaly in a patient with Crouzon's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, M.; Gilad, E.; Ben-Sira, I.

    1982-01-01

    A 29-year-old female suffering from Crouzon's disease was admitted to hospital with retinal detachment in the right eye. At operation agenesis of 4 extraocular muscles (superior and inferior recti and obliquus) was found, together with abnormal insertion of the 2 horizontal muscles. The same extraocular muscular abnormalities were found in the left eye. We suggest here a new surgical treatment in such cases and discuss the reasons for the limitation of ocular motility in such cases. Images PMID:7066280

  11. Graves' disease: measurement of the extraocular muscle thickness with the echobiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenome, M; Polizzi, A; Buono, C; Ciurlo, C; Ciurlo, G

    1998-01-01

    The authors measured extraocular muscle thickness in normal subjects and in patients affected by Graves' disease, using a Sonomed A-2000 echobiometer (probe with 10-MHz frequency); Hertel's exophthalmometry was also performed. Statistically significant differences in muscle thickness between normals and patients were found. This technique seems to be sufficiently useful and reliable in extraocular thickness evaluation, showing data similar to those of the recent literature.

  12. Clinical Application of the MEDPOR Orbital Implant in Ocular Socket Plasty%MEDPOR眼种植体的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜拥武; 韦敏

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨用MEDPOR眼种植体行眼窝成形术的方法,观察临床应用的效果。方法 对13例眼球摘除或眼内容物剜除术后置入MEDPOR眼种植体,术后3~6个月钻孔安置固定义眼。结果 随访6~12个月,未有种植体外露排异,全部种植成功。10例眼外形满意,义眼活动良好;2例义眼活动差,1例义眼轻度内陷。2例切口裂开经治疗愈合。结论 MEDPOR眼种植体组织相容性好,有效增加眶内容,安装义眼的形态满意,是目前较为理想的生物材料。MEDPOR眼种植体眼窝成形术是一种值得选择的手术方法。%Objective To observe the clinical effects of orbital implant in ocular socket plasties.Methods Four patients were implanted with MEDPOR orbital implant bases folloving eyeball enucleating or eye eviscerating.Nine patients were secondary implantation.Three to six months after operation,drilling operation was performed.Results In 6~12 months of follow-up,there was no extrusion in the group.In one case dehiscence happened after operation,and satisfied result was achieved after repaired with temporal parietal fascia.The appearance and motility was satisfactory in 10 cases.In one case light enophthalmic socket was seen.Conclusion MEDPOR is natural occurring material as a foreign substance.There are few complications.It is considered that MEDPOR implant is made of one of the best materials and this method is one of the best ocular socket plasty for selection.

  13. 改良式肌锥内义眼台植入术%The improved orbital implantion with hydroxyapatite prosthesis in the muscular pyramid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康黔; 王琼; 王建辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察改良式肌锥内羟基磷灰石(HA)义眼台植入的临床效果.方法 96例眼球摘除和眼内容摘除术后采取HA义眼台植入肌锥内,义眼台前部采用巩膜或阔筋膜完全包埋.结果 术后随访3~24个月,无发生义眼台感染、暴露及脱出者,活动度达到预期目的.外观饱满,双眼对称性好.结论 采取HA义眼台植入肌锥内,前部采用巩膜或阔筋膜包埋同定的方法,并发症少、疗效良好.%Objective To observe the effect of improved orbital implantation with hydroxyapatite prosthesis in the muscular pyramid. Methods The hydroxyapatite prosthesis encapsulated with sclera or fascia lata of 96 patients with enucleation or evisceration of eyeball were implanted in the muscular pyramid. Results The follow-up period of the patients was from 3 months to 24 months. No one cases of infection,exposure and extrusion occurred. The implant migration and extrusion achieved the desired purpose. Conclusion The improved HA implant surgery with rare complications and satisfactory therapeutic effect was easy to operate and worth to clinical generalization.

  14. Orbital Infarction due to Sickle Cell Disease without Orbital Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron L. McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy that results in paroxysmal arteriolar occlusion and tissue infarction that can manifest in a plurality of tissues. Rarely, these infarcted crises manifest in the bony orbit. Orbital infarction usually presents with acute onset of periorbital tenderness, swelling, erythema, and pain. Soft tissue swelling can result in proptosis and attenuation of extraocular movements. Expedient diagnosis of sickle cell orbital infarction is crucial because this is a potentially sight-threatening entity. Diagnosis can be delayed since the presentation has physical and radiographic findings mimicking various infectious and traumatic processes. We describe a patient who presented with sickle cell orbital crisis without pain. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with known sickle cell disease or of African descent born outside the United States in a region where screening for hemoglobinopathy is not routine, even when the presentation is not classic.

  15. [Orbital metastasis in malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroli, G L; Hamedani, M; Barraco, P; Oubaaz, A; Morax, S

    2001-03-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man presenting bilateral progressive proptosis with diplopia, weight loss, tachycardia, nervosity, and stomach pain. These signs seemed at first to favor a diagnosis of Graves'ophthalmopathy. Thyroid tests were negative and the initial orbital CT scan was considered normal. A new radiological investigation 4 months later in our hospital revealed typical hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles compatible with orbital metastasis. The systemic investigations demonstrated a pulmonary tumor, multiple hepatic lesions, and several pigmented nodules of gastric mucosa. The pathology of pulmonary and gastric specimens confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. The primary lesion remains unknown. The authors discuss the differential diagnoses of orbital metastasis and the radiological characteristics of orbital metastasis in malignant melanoma.

  16. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Y; Seelaus R; Zhao L; Patel PK; Cohen M

    2016-01-01

    Yu-Hui Huang,1,2 Rosemary Seelaus,1,2 Linping Zhao,1,2 Pravin K Patel,1,2 Mimis Cohen1,2 1The Craniofacial Center, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System, 2University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. ...

  17. Extraocular muscle atrophy and central nervous system involvement in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Yu-Wai-Man

    Full Text Available Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO is a classical mitochondrial ocular disorder characterised by bilateral progressive ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. These ocular features can develop either in isolation or in association with other prominent neurological deficits (CPEO+. Molecularly, CPEO can be classified into two distinct genetic subgroups depending on whether patients harbour single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA deletions or multiple mtDNA deletions secondary to a nuclear mutation disrupting mtDNA replication or repair. The aim of this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study was to investigate whether the ophthalmoplegia in CPEO is primarily myopathic in origin or whether there is evidence of contributory supranuclear pathway dysfunction.Ten age-matched normal controls and twenty patients with CPEO were recruited nine patients with single, large-scale mtDNA deletions and eleven patients with multiple mtDNA deletions secondary to mutations in POLG, PEO1, OPA1, and RRM2B. All subjects underwent a standardised brain and orbital MRI protocol, together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in two voxels located within the parietal white matter and the brainstem.There was evidence of significant extraocular muscle atrophy in patients with single or multiple mtDNA deletions compared with controls. There was no significant difference in metabolite concentrations between the patient and control groups in both the parietal white matter and brainstem voxels. Volumetric brain measurements revealed marked cortical and cerebellar atrophy among patients with CPEO+ phenotypes.The results of this study support a primary myopathic aetiology for the progressive limitation of eye movements that develops in CPEO.

  18. Clinical observation of surgery for the implantation cyst after orbital prosthesis implantation%义眼台植入后植入性囊肿手术治疗临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许路加; 刘德成

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of surgery for the subconjuntival implantation cysts after the orbital prosthesis impantation.Methods Under local anesthesia and thc surgical microscope,the tissue around the cyst was lifted by microscopic forceys and the conjunctiva was cut horizontally to separate and fully expose the cysts.Then the cyst was removed.The separation of cysts should be careful to avoid the perforation of the capsule wall which might cause residual cyst recurrence.Results There were 32 eyes of 32 cases of epithelial implantation cyst and the cyst was nearly circular,oval or nodular,translucent and soft texture with intact capsule wall.The pathological diagnosis was dermoid cyst with serous capsule contents and keratinized tisue.There was no recurrence among the 32cases.The prosthetic eye was placed three months later and the eye symmetry was good.Conclusion Surgery is the only effective treatment for epithelial implantation cysts.The removal of epithelial implantation cysts after prosthesis implantation,was safe and reliable with less damage and no recurrence.%目的 观察义眼台植入术后结膜下上皮植入性囊肿手术治疗的效果.方法 局麻,于手术显微镜下,用显微镊将囊肿旁的组织提起,水平剪开结膜,分离囊肿,充分暴露后将其完整摘除,分离囊肿时应小心剥离避免穿破,以免囊壁残留引起囊肿复发.结果 32例(32眼)上皮植入性囊肿,囊肿呈近圆形、椭圆形或结节状,半透明,质地软,囊壁完整无破裂.病理诊断:皮样囊肿,囊内容物为浆液行,间有角化组织.32例术后均无复发,3个月安装义眼片,双眼对称,外观良好.结论 手术摘除是治疗上皮植入囊肿的唯一有效方法.显微镜下行活动义眼植入术后的结膜下上皮植入性囊肿摘除术,安全可靠,损伤小,无复发.

  19. Extraocular muscle is spared despite the absence of an intact sarcoglycan complex in gamma- or delta-sarcoglycan-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J D; Merriam, A P; Hack, A A; Andrade, F H; McNally, E M

    2001-03-01

    Models of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex do not reconcile the novel sparing of extraocular muscle in muscular dystrophy. Extraocular muscle sparing in Duchenne muscular dystrophy implies the existence of adaptive properties in these muscles that may extend protection to other neuromuscular diseases. We studied the extraocular muscle morphology and dystrophin-glycoprotein complex organization in murine targeted deletion of the gamma-sarcoglycan (gsg(-/-)) and delta-sarcoglycan (dsg(-/-)) genes, two models of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy. In contrast to limb and diaphragm, the principal extraocular muscles were intact in gsg(-/-) and dsg(-/-) mice. However, central nucleated, presumptive regenerative, fibers were seen in the accessory extraocular muscles (retractor bulbi, levator palpebrae superioris) of both strains. Skeletal muscles of gsg(-/-) mice exhibited in vivo Evans Blue dye permeability, while the principal extraocular muscles did not. Disruption of gamma-sarcoglycan produced secondary displacement of alpha- and beta-sarcoglycans in the extraocular muscles. The intensity of immunofluorescence for dystrophin and alpha- and beta-dystroglycan also appeared to be slightly reduced. Utrophin localization was unchanged. The finding that sarcoglycan disruption was insufficient to elicit alterations in extraocular muscle suggests that loss of mechanical stability and increased sarcolemmal permeability are not inevitable consequences of mutations that disrupt the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex organization and must be accounted for in models of muscular dystrophy.

  20. 自体阔筋膜遮盖暴露义眼座眼窝成形术%The prosthesis of orbital formation with autofascia lata to cover exposed orbital implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东林; 张梅菊; 王宏芳; 胡海达

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of covering exposed orbital implant with autofascia lata.Method:Three repairing techniques were used in 13 eyes of 13 patients according to initial eucleation techniques respectively.Results:All cases had mild postoperative reaction,good orbital formation and high satisfaction.No case had conjuctival dehiscence or necrosis,or exposure,dislocation or infection of orbital implant.Conclusion:It's convenient of using fascia lata as one of the repairing materials for exposed orbital implants.%目的:观察自体阔筋膜遮盖暴露义眼座的临床效果。方法:13例、13眼根据原眼球摘除术的术式用3种方法修补:(1)眼内容物剜除术后义眼座暴露者,钝性分离已裂开的球结膜及Tenon's囊,暴露巩膜及义眼座,将阔筋膜置于暴露义眼座及巩膜表面,于阔筋膜边缘与相应处巩膜间断缝合,将球筋膜覆于阔筋膜上间断缝合,连续缝合球结膜;(2)眼球摘除术后眼座暴露在修补术中未找到4条眼外直肌者,分离球结膜、Tenon's囊及义眼座,将阔筋膜置于义眼座暴露处与Tenon's囊之间,将阔筋膜边缘与后部球筋膜间断缝合,将前部球筋膜覆于阔筋膜上间断缝合,连续缝合球结膜;(3)眼球摘除术后义眼座暴露,在修补术中找到4条眼外直肌者,将阔筋膜置于义眼座暴露处,4条直肌按原生理功能缝于阔筋膜相应处,分别缝合球筋膜和球结膜。结果:13例术后反应轻,无结膜裂开及坏死,无义眼座裸露,脱位、感染等发生,眼窝成形好。结论:阔筋膜作为修补暴露义眼座的一种材料,取材方便,来源丰富,无免疫反应,效果满意,值得推广。

  1. 高密度多孔聚乙烯义眼台在眼球破裂伤中的应用%Medpor porous polyethylen orbital implant for ocular rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surgical treatment and clinical results of ocular rupture with Medpor porous polyethylen orbital implant. Methods Totally 19 patients 19 eyes with ocular rupture underwent primary Medpor porous polyethylen orbital implantion after enucleations. Results 19 patients primary Medpor porous polyethylen orbital implantion after enucleations were satisfied with appearance and activity of artificial eyes.no patients had infection and rejection. Conclusion Primary Medpor porous polyethylen orbital implantion after enucleations is an effective and safe surgical method.%目的:探讨眼球破裂伤后Medpor义眼台Ⅰ期植入的手术方法,观察术后临床效果.方法:对19例19眼严重眼球破裂伤患者行眼球摘除及球内容剜除手术后实施Medpor义眼台Ⅰ期植入.结果:本组病例19例19眼均取得满意效果,外观饱满,活动良好,术后无感染及排异反应.结论:重度眼球破裂伤后Ⅰ期行球内容剜出术及Medpor义眼台植入术,是一种可行的治疗原则.

  2. A Typical Presentation of Orbital Pseudotumor Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ayatollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orbital pseudotumor, also known as idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS, is a benign, non- infective inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. The disease may mimics a variety of pathologic conditions. We pre-sent a case of pseudotumor observed in a patient admitted under the name of orbital celluli-ties. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman reffered to our hospital with the history of left ocular pain and headache 2 days before her visit.. Ophthalmological examination of the patient was normal except for the redness and lid edema, mild chemosis and conjunctival injection. Gen-eral assessment was normal but a low grade fever was observed. She was hospitalized as an orbital cellulitis patient. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics. On the third day , sud-denly diplopia, proptosis in her left eye and ocular pain in her right side appeared. MRI re-vealed bilateral enlargement of extraocular muscles. Diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was made and the patient was treated with oral steroid.She responded promptly to the treatment. Antibiotics were discontinued and steroid was tapered in one month period under close fol-low up. Conclusion: The clinical features of orbital pseudotumor vary widely . Orbital pseudotumor and orbital cellulitis can occasionally demonstrate overlapping features.. Despite complete physical examination and appropriate imaging, sometimes correct diagnosis of the disease would be difficult (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:256-259

  3. A case of relapsing flitting bilateral idiopathic orbital inflammation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, Michelle Ann

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is defined as a benign non-infective clinical syndrome characterized by features of non-specific inflammation of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. This can be called orbital myositis if the inflammation is predominantly in the orbital muscles. It is a diagnosis of exclusion based on clinical, radiological, and if necessary, histological findings. The most commons symptoms are swelling, ptosis, proptosis and painful eye movements. To our knowledge, this patient is the first with IOI to demonstrate relapsing flitting bilateral involvement of several individual extra-ocular muscles.

  4. CT findings of orbital blow-out fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Yeol; Park, Jun Kyun; Lim, Woo Young; Rho, Kwang Suk; Ko, Yong Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and radiologic findings of CT in the diagnosis of orbital blow-out fracture. Forty-four patients with orbital blow-out fractures diagnosed by clinical findings and CT were evaluated retrospectively. On CT images, we evaluated the site and frequency of fracture, herniation of orbital fat, extraocular muscle abnormality, intraorbital hematoma, and intrasinus hemorrhage. CT is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of orbital blow-out fracture and associated soft tissue abnormalities. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  5. Medpor porous polyethylene implants in orbital blowout fracture repair%多孔聚乙烯板修复眼眶爆裂性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江; 陈志杰; 张晓辉

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨多孔聚乙烯(Medpor)板在眶壁爆裂性骨折修复术中应用的临床效果.方法 对67例(67只眼)眼眶爆裂性骨折,应用Medpor板进行修复手术.术后随访6个月~2年观察眼球突出度、眼球运动及复视等指标.结果 术前眼球突出度检查,患眼与对侧眼眼球突出度相差1.0~8.0平均(3.6±1.4) mm,差异具有统计学意义(t=19.884,P=0.000);手术后3个月,患眼手术前后眼球突出度比较,相差0.0~7.0(3.2 ±1.4)mm,差异具有统计学意义(t=19.192,P=0.000);术前65只眼眼球运动受限牵引试验阳性并伴有不同程度复视,手术后3个月,眼球运动受限者中有60例(92.3%)治愈,复视完全消失;5例(7.7%)30°视野范围外仍有复视,但对日常生活无明显影响.结论 Medpor板修复眶壁骨折是一种安全有效、方便、可靠的手术方法.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Medpor porous polyethylene implants in orbital blowout fracture repair.Methods 67 eyes of 67 cases with orbital blowout fractures underwent surgical repair with Medpor implants.Data about the degree of exophthalmos,motility and diplopia followed up for 6 months to 2 years were collected.Results Before surgery,the difference of exophthalmos between damaged and undamaged eyes was 1.0-8.0 mm,average (3.6 ± 1.4) mm.The difference was statistically significant(t =19.884,P =0.001).The difference of exophthalmos between before and after surgery on damaged eyes was 0.0-7.0 mm,average (3.2 ± 1.4) mm,The difference was statistically significant (t =19.192,P =0.000).There were 65 eyes combined with restriction of passive movement of the eye,and different degrees of diplopia before surgery.Of these 65 eyes,60 eyes had normal motility without diplopia at 3 months after surgery;5 cases still had residual diplopia outside 30° central visual field which would not affect daily life.Conclusion Medpor porous polyethylene implants in orbital blowout fracture repair is safe,effective and

  6. Analysis of sclera petal shape of hydroxyapatite for orbital implants%巩膜花瓣状成形羟基磷灰石义眼台植入32例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒敏; 于建新; 贲彦捷; 王照慧

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical effect and the experience of the Hydroxyapatie (HA) orbital plant in the reconstruction of the aopthalmia Methods A retrospective analysis of 32 patients received Hydroxyapatie (HA) implant into palatine sclera after evisceration. Results The mean follow-up time for 32patients was 10 months (ranged 3 to 18 months). There was no case ofconjunctiva dehiscence,implant exposure,implant extrusion or orbital cellulites. There was one case of conjunctive sac narrow. Conclusions The Hydroxyapatie (HA) orbital implant provide excellent motility of the artificial eye and good cosmoses with a low rate of complications, It is suggested that Hydroxyapatie (HA) orbital implant is convenient and safe, the curative effect is trustworthy.%目的 探讨巩膜花瓣状成形羟基磷灰石义眼台植入术的手术体会.方法 对32例行巩膜花瓣状成形羟基磷灰石义眼台植入术,随访3~18月,观察术后效果.结果 32例中1例结膜囊狭窄.均未发现义眼台暴露、脱出及感染等并发症.结论 巩膜花瓣状成形羟基磷灰石义眼台植入术术后并发症少,义眼台活动好,手术方便易行、疗效较可靠.

  7. The in situ scleral covering for hydroxyapatite orbital implants inplantation.%巩膜原位覆盖羟基磷灰石义眼台植入临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦书艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨改良式巩膜内羟基磷灰石义眼台植入的临床效果.方法 22例(22眼)眼内容摘除后应用自体巩膜后开窗及前折叠包裹羟基磷灰石义眼台,术后随访3 ~ 15个月.结果 所有患者均有良好效果,无一例义眼台暴露,义眼台活动良好.结论 改良式羟基磷灰石义眼台植入术并发症少,疗效良好.%Objective To investigate the clinical effects of in situ scleral covering for hydroxyapatite orbital implant implantation.Methods After evisceration in the 22 patients (22 eyes),the autologous sclera was folded anteriorly and opened posterierly for wrapping the implants.They were followed up for 3 to 15 months.Results All patients had good results,with no implant exposure,the movement was good.Conclusion The modified hydroxyapatite orbital implant surgery is safe,less complication with excellent outcomes.

  8. Extraocular Light Therapy in Winter Depression : A Double-blind Placebo-controlled Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M.; Gordijn, Marijke C.M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Meesters, Ybe; den Boer, Johan; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den; Daan, Serge

    2001-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that the circadian pacemaker is phase delayed in seasonal affective disorder, (SAD) winter type, and that the phase advance resulting from morning ocular light accounts for the efficacy of light therapy. Extraocular light has been reported to produce phase-shifts

  9. Transcriptional and functional differences in stem cell populations isolated from Extraocular and Limb muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco-Pinedo, Eugenia Cristina; Budak, Murat T; Zeiger, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a distinct muscle group that displays an array of unique contractile, structural and regenerative properties. They also have differential sensitivity to certain diseases and are enigmatically spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The EOMs are so distinct ...

  10. Clinical Application of MEDPORE Implant Materials in Orbital Blowout Fracture%MEDPORE植入体材料在眼眶爆裂性骨折的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮剑锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the MEDPORE implant materials used in operation of orbital blowout fracture. Methods a retrospective analysis of 18 cases (18 eyes) application of MEDPORE implants for orbital blowout clinical data for operation treatment of fracture. Results the patients were fol owed up for 3~6 months, the appearance of enophthalmos significantly improved than before surgery, patients with exophthalmos improved than before the operation of 1.0~3.0 in 7 cases of mm, 1 months after operation, 11 cases with diplopia removed, 6 months postoperative diplopia elimination. Conclusion orbital blowout fracture operation, especial y the operation of inferior orbital and medial orbital wal fracture, the implantation of MEDPORE surgical implant material, in order to prevent the occurrence of postoperative complications.%目的:探讨MEDPORE植入体材料在眼眶爆裂性骨折手术中的应用。方法回顾分析18例(18眼)应用MEDPORE植入体材料进行眼眶爆裂性骨折行手术治疗的临床资料。结果术后随访3~6个月,外观上眼球内陷较术前明显好转,患者眼球突出度较术前提高1.0~3.0 mm,术后1个月复视消除7例,术后6个月复视消除11例。结论眼眶爆裂性骨折手术,尤其是眶下壁和眶内侧壁骨折手术,植入MEDPORE外科植入体材料,以防止术后并发症的发生。

  11. Choroidal Melanoma Causing Contralateral Amaurosis via Orbital Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Palamar Onay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of tumor invasion into the ipsilateral orbit/optic chiasm and into the contralateral optic nerve. A 51- year-old male who declared removal of his left eye ten years ago elsewhere, attended to our clinic for swelling of the left eyelids and pain. He was ophthalmologically and radiologically evaluated. A hyperpigmented mass was detected at the socket conjunctiva of the patient whose eyelids were swollen and hyperemic. Anterior and posterior segments of the right eye were normal, and the best corrected visual acuity was 10/10. On orbital computed tomography, the left orbit was found to be filled with mass. No intracranial invasion was detected. Exenteration was performed to the patient who had no systemic metastasis. Histopathological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Ten months later, the patient presented with sudden visual loss. Light perception was absent in the right eye. Optic nerve head was pale at fundus examination. No p100 wave was obtained from the right eye with visual evoked potentials. On orbital magnetic resonance imaging, a mass invading the optic chiasm and the right optic nerve was evident. When treated with appropriate methods, choroidal malignant melanoma with no extraocular extension has pretty good prognosis. When performing enucleation in patients with intraocular tumor suspicion, extra care should be spent not to make any unnecessary maneuver leading to extraocular spread. In the presence of extraocular dissemination, exenteration should be performed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 194-6

  12. Primary orbital neuroblastoma with intraocular extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Vallinayagam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an undifferentiated malignancy of primitive neuroblasts. Neuroblastoma is among the most common solid tumors of childhood. Orbital neuroblastoma is typically a metastatic tumor. In this case report, we describe a 2-year-old child with a rapidly progressing orbital tumor. Computed tomography revealed an orbital mass lesion with extraocular and intraocular components. An incisional biopsy was done, and a histopathological examination showed features suggestive of neuroblastoma. Systemic workup including ultrasonography of the abdomen, chest roentgenogram, whole body computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy showed no evidence of systemic involvement. The diagnosis of primary orbital neuroblastoma was made, and the child was subjected to chemotherapy followed by rapid melting of the tumor. Neuroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of childhood orbital tumors.

  13. Clinicopathological study of three cases of infantile fibromatosis of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kengo; Katori, Nobutada; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2014-10-01

    We report the clinical and pathological findings in three infants with infantile fibromatosis that involved several extraocular muscles which led to disorders of ocular motility. We also describe their clinical features before and after surgery. This was a retrospective interventional case study with clinicopathological correlations. We present three cases of infantile fibromatosis that were diagnosed by clinical features and histopathlogical examination of biopsy specimens. The three patients were all female children aged 1, 3, and 3 years at their initial visit. The orbital tumor was unilateral in all patients. All three patients had disorders of ocular motility because the tumors involved ≥2 extraocular muscles. The margins between the tumor and the involved extraocular muscles were not distinct. We performed partial resection of the tumors to preserve the extraocular muscles. In all cases, the tumors partially remained, but periodic postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed no enlargement of the tumors during the follow-up period. All three patients had residual limitations of eye movements. We should consider the postoperative binocular function when we treat infantile benign fibrous tumors involving the extraocular muscles.

  14. 巩膜花瓣状包裹羟基磷灰石义眼台植入的疗效%The efficacy of petal shape sclera forming hydroxyapatite(HA) orbital implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜小芬

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨巩膜花瓣状包裹义眼台植入的手术的效果.方法 对28例(28眼)巩膜花瓣状包裹HA义眼台植入,随访6~24个月,观察其效果.结果 28例中有1例球结膜薄.巩膜缝线外露,1个月后重新缝合筋膜结膜后愈合.1例结膜囊稍狭窄.未发现义眼台暴露、脱出或感染等并发症.结论 巩膜花辨状包裹HA义眼台植入术.术后并发症少,疗效较好.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of petal shape sclera forming hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implantation.Methods Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients received petal shape sclera forming HA orbital implantation.The follow-up time was 6 to 24 months.The operative effects were observed.Results Thin bulbar conjunctiva occurred in 1 case of 28 cases and the scleral suture exposed.The fascia and conjunctiva were sutured again 1 month later.Conjunctival sac was narrow slightly in one case.No orbital implant exposure,extrusion,infection or other complication was found.Conclusion The petal shape sclera forming HA orbital implantation has good effects and less complication.

  15. The management of congenital malpositions of eyelids, eyes and orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S; Hurbli, T

    1988-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the eye and its adnexa which are multiple and varied can affect the whole eyeball or any part of it, as well as the orbit, eyelids, lacrimal ducts, extra-ocular muscles and conjunctiva. A classification of these malformations is presented together with the general principles of treatment, age of operating and surgical tactics. The authors give some examples of the anatomo-clinical forms, eyelid malformations such as entropion, ectropion, ptosis, levator eyelid retraction, medial canthus malposition, congenital eyelid colobomas, and congenital orbital abnormalities (Craniofacial stenosis, orbital plagiocephalies, hypertelorism, anophthalmos, microphthalmos and cryptophthalmos).

  16. MEDPORE植入材料在眼眶爆裂性骨折中的临床应用%Clinical Application of MEDPORE Implant Burst Fractures of the Orbital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨在眼眶爆裂性骨折手术中应用MEDPORE外科植入体材料的临床疗效。方法回顾性分析我院2010年2月至2013年6月应用MEDPORE植入材料46例(46眼)眼外伤眶骨骨折患者的临床资料。结果46例患者术后效果满意,双眼突出度基本一致,眼球内陷得到不同程度的矫正,眼球运动恢复正常,43例复视消失,2例复视改善,1例复视无改善。出院随访患者未出现植入物脱出或排斥反应。结论MEDPORE外科植入体材料组织相容性较好,可塑性强,眼眶爆裂性骨折、尤其眶下壁和眶内侧壁骨折手术,应用MEDPORE外科植入体材料可以有效的防止患者术后发生眼球下陷、回退等并发症,临床应用效果满意。%Objective To explore the clinical effect of MEDPORE in orbital blowout surgical implant materials used in fracture operation. Methods A retrospective analysis of our hospital from February 2010 to June 2013 the application of MEDPORE implants in 46 cases (46 eyes) clinical data of patients with ocular trauma fracture of orbital bone. Results 46 patients postoperative satisfaction degree is consistent, prominent eyes, enophthalmos was corrected in different degree, 43 cases recovered in eye movement, diplopia disappeared in 2 cases, diplopia improved, 1 case had no improvement of diplopia. Follow up patients did not show the implant or rejection. Conclusion MEDPORE surgical implant material has good compatibility, strong plasticity, orbital blowout fracture, especially the inferior orbital wall and medial orbital wall fracture operation, application of MEDPORE surgical implant materials can effectively prevent postoperative enophthalmos, rollback, complications, clinical application is good.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva with extraocular involvement: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Goñi Espildora

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El carcinoma escamoso de la conjuntiva es el tumor maligno más frecuente de la superficie ocular. Constituye una enfermedad rara con una incidencia de 0,13 a 1,9 por 100 000 habitantes que afecta principalmente a individuos entre los 50 y los 75 años. Suele tener un curso lento y poco agresivo. El tratamiento depende de la extensión tumoral. En presencia de compromiso intraocular la enucleación está indicada y en presencia de compromiso extraocular la exanteración orbitaria es el tratamiento estándar. Reportamos el caso de un paciente de 82 años con carcinoma escamoso conjuntival con compromiso intra y extraocular, se discute el caso y se revisa la literatura.

  18. Altered Protein Composition and Gene Expression in Strabismic Human Extraocular Muscles and Tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Andrea B.; Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Altick, Amy L.; Quilici, David R.; Wen, Dan; Johnson, L. Alan; von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether structural protein composition and expression of key regulatory genes are altered in strabismic human extraocular muscles. Methods Samples from strabismic horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with normal muscles from organ donors. We used proteomics, standard and customized PCR arrays, and microarrays to identify changes in major structural proteins and changes in gene expression. We focused on muscle and connective tissue and its control by enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines. Results Strabismic muscles showed downregulation of myosins, tropomyosins, troponins, and titin. Expression of collagens and regulators of collagen synthesis and degradation, the collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and its inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1 and TIMP2, was upregulated, along with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptors, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), as well as proteoglycans. Growth factors controlling extracellular matrix (ECM) were also upregulated. Among 410 signaling genes examined by PCR arrays, molecules with downregulation in the strabismic phenotype included GDNF, NRG1, and PAX7; CTGF, CXCR4, NPY1R, TNF, NTRK1, and NTRK2 were upregulated. Signaling molecules known to control extraocular muscle plasticity were predominantly expressed in the tendon rather than the muscle component. The two horizontal muscles, medial and lateral rectus, displayed similar changes in protein and gene expression, and no obvious effect of age. Conclusions Quantification of proteins and gene expression showed significant differences in the composition of extraocular muscles of strabismic patients with respect to important motor proteins, elements of the ECM, and connective tissue. Therefore, our study supports the emerging view that the molecular composition of strabismic muscles is substantially altered. PMID:27768799

  19. Effects of the Rho-Kinase Inhibitor Y-27632 on Extraocular Muscle Surgery in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Ji‐Sun Moon; Hyun Kyung Kim; Sun Young Shin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on postoperative inflammation and adhesion following extraocular muscle surgery in rabbits. Methods. The superior rectus muscle reinsertion was performed on both eyes of 8 New Zealand white rabbits. After reinsertion, the rabbits received subconjunctival injections of the Rho-kinase inhibitor and saline on each eye. To assess acute and late inflammatory changes, Ki-67, CD11β+, and F4/80 were evaluated and the sites of muscle ...

  20. 二期活动义眼植入联合结膜囊成形术探讨%Clinical investigation of secondary implantation of movable orbital combined with conjunctival sac plasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇芝; 崔红平; 贾文伯; 江毅; 陶雁亭; 杨珺

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of secondary orbital hydroxyapatite (HA) implant combined with conjunctival sac plasty.Methods Ten eyes of 10 patients were suffered from shallow lower fornix and ectropion that caused by long-period wearing of thick and heavy artificial eye.The secondary HA implantation combined with the reconstruction of lower fomix was conducted.Results For 6 patients with mild shallow lower fornix and mild extropion,HA implantation and lower fornix reconstruction with buried suture were operated; For 4 patients with mild shallow lower fornix and moderate ectropion,the HA implantation,lower fornix reconstruction with buried suture,and V-type shortening of full-thickness lower eyelid were operated.The 2 ~ 12 month follow-up of these patients were good.Conclusion The clinical effect of secondary orbital hydroxyapatite(HA) implant combined with conjunctival sac plasty is good..%目的 探讨二期HA义眼台植入联合结膜囊成形术手术效果.方法 10例(10眼)因摘除眼球长期佩戴厚重义眼造成下穹窿浅及睑外翻,行二期HA义眼台植入联合下穹窿成形术.结果 6例轻度下穹窿浅轻度外翻,行HA植入联合下穹窿深层埋线术;4例轻度下穹窿浅中度外翻,行行HA义眼台植入联合下穹窿深层埋线及下眼睑全层V型缩短术.随访2~12月手术效果良好.结论 二期HA植入联合结膜囊成形术,术式简单,节省费用,术后效果良好.

  1. Clinical analysis and treatment of hydroxyapatite artificial eye pedestal exposure after orbit implantation%羟基磷灰石眼座置入后暴露的临床分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菁; 包欣; 朱靖

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes and treatment of HA artificial eye pedestal exposure after implantation. Methods Eighteen cases of HA orbital implant exposure were studied. Different treatment methods were applied, and their results are reviewed and analyzed. Results Orbital implant exposures occurred typically 7 to 30 days after implantation. The diameters of the exposures ranged from 1 to 15mm.Three of the cases studied were treated conservatively, and the conjunctional dehiscence healed spontaneously.fifteen other cases were managed by operation. Conclusion The exposure of HA artificial eye pedestal is a serious syndrome after implantation. Depending on the size of the exposure,several treatment methods may be applied. Medium- and large-sized exposure (>5mm) should be operated as early as possible.%探讨分析羟基磷灰石眼座(hydroxyapatitc,HA)置入后暴露的原因及处理.方法:对18例羟基磷灰石眼座(HA)置入后暴露的患者,用不同的方法进行治疗和回顾性总结分析.结果:眼座暴露多发生在7~ 30天,暴露范围在1~ 15mm,其中3例自行愈合,15例进行手术治疗.结论:义眼座暴露为HA义眼座置入术后较为严重的并发症,根据暴露范围大小,可采用不同方法处理,暴露范围为中度(>5mm)以上时,应尽早手术.

  2. The treatment of upper eyelid sulcus using the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene implanted in orbit%眼眶内充填膨体聚四氟乙烯在上睑凹陷治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周栩; 韦敏; 俞哲元; 吴捷能

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of the treatment of upper eyelid sulcus using the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene implanted in orbit.Methods From July 2009 to April 2011,a total of 16 patients with upper eyelid sulcus were treated for recreating youthful periorbital appearance.To correct this kind of clinical characteristic,expanded polytetrafluoroethylene with different size were used as the orbital implant to restore the orbital contents and reinforce the bony support.upper eyelid sulcus was reversed effectively.Results With average 2.5 year follow up,upper eyelid sulcus of 16 cases was reversed effectively.No postoperative complication related to globe or affected normal physical function was found.Conclusions The technique of orbital implantation with Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene is beneficial for the treatment of the upper eyelid sulcus.%目的 探讨眼眶内充填膨体聚四氟乙烯治疗上睑凹陷的可行性及效果.方法 2009年7月至2011年4月,对16例因眼部老化引起的上睑凹陷患者,采用眼眶内充填不同体积的膨体聚四氟乙烯材料,增加眼眶内容物的体积,同时加强眶壁对眶内容物的支撑作用.结果 术后平均随访2.5年,16例患者眼部上睑凹陷症状得到有效改善,眼部功能无异常.结论 应用眼眶内充填膨体聚四氟乙烯技术可以有效修复上睑凹陷.

  3. The effect of titanium mesh implantation for the treatment of enophthalmos secondary to inferior orbital wall fracture%钛网眶底植入治疗眶下壁骨折眼球内陷的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金国; 张静楷; 陈松; 韩琪; 颜华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of "S" shaped titanium mesh implantation on orbit floor for enophthalmos secondary to inferior orbital wall fracture.Methods The surgical effects of 17 eyes of 17 cases inferior orbital wall fracture who received "S" shaped titanium mesh implantation on orbit floor for orbital wall reconstruction were analyzed retrospectively.Preoperatively,there were 9 cases with enophthalmos between 2 to 3 mm,8 cases with enophthalmos between 3.5 to 4.5 mm,3 cases with diplopia,2 cases with apparent vertical globe dystopia.For all the cases,an inferior subciliary approach was performed,a "S" shaped titanium mesh plate was implanted under the periosteum to cover the area of the inferior orbital wall fracture for reconstruction of the orbital cavity.Results Postoperatively,on the follow-up period of 6-12 months,the enophthalmos of all cases was corrected to less than 2mm successfully,the preoperative diplopia disappeared in all the 3 cases,the vertical globe dystopia of 2 eases disappeared,and no visual complication was observed.No complication of infection,extrusion,rejection or migration of the implants occurred,however mild low eyelid retraction occurred in 1 case and disappeared at 8 month postoperatively.Conclusion "S" shaped titanium mesh plate implantation in orbital reconstruction for correcting enophthalmos secondary to inferior orbital wall fracture is safe and effective.%目的 评价S形钛网眶底植入治疗眶下壁骨折后眼球内陷的效果.方法 回顾性分析17例(17只眼)眶下壁骨折眼球内陷患者行S形钛网眶底植入手术的临床资料.术前眼球内陷2~3 mm者9例,眼球内陷3.5 ~4.5 mm者8例,复视3例,眼球向下移位2例.术中均经下睑缘睫毛下皮肤切口,骨膜下植入塑形钛网覆盖眶下壁骨折缺损区.结果 术后随访6 ~ 12个月,眼球内陷均矫正至2 mm以内,复视3例完全消失,2例眼球下移位均消失,视力无明显变化.术后无感染,植人物无脱出

  4. Clinical exploration of the orbital Implant at its early rtage after retinoblastoma operation%视网膜母细胞瘤术后羟基磷灰石义眼座一期植入探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬梅

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童视网膜母细胞瘤(retinoblastoma,RB)眼球摘除术后羟基磷灰石义眼座一期眶内植入的可行性.方法:对21例(21眼)RB患儿,施行眼球摘除联合无包裹羟基磷灰石义眼座一期眶内植入手术.结果:随访3个月至5年,义眼座活动度良好,外形满意,眼眶及面部发育正常.2例眼座暴露,其中1例暴露4 mm×5 mm,应用重组人表皮细胞生长因子滴眼液治疗,1例暴露9 mm ×9 mm,给予手术介入+羊膜覆盖,均治愈.结论:RB术后羟基磷灰石义眼座一期植入效果好,有助于儿童眼眶及面部发育,不影响放射治疗及CT检查,最常见并发症为眼座暴露.%Objective:To explore the possibility of the hydroxyapatite orbital implants after children-retinoblastoma-eyeball-excision operations. Methods: For 21 cases ( 21 eyes ) with retinoblastoma, enucleation was executed with the exposed hydroxyapatite orbital implant at its early stage. Results:Three-month to five-year subsequent visits showed that the orbitals acted well in good shape and developed desirably in the orbit and the face. For the two cases with orbitals exposure. One exposed 4 mm × 5 mm, cured with the treatment of restoratin-superficial-skin-gowth-factor eyeliquid, the other exposed 9 mm × 9 mm, cured with the operation of amnion cover. Conclusions:The hydroxyapatite orbital implants had satisfactory effects after retinoblastma operations, with good help for childrren's orbits and faces growth,with little influence on radiotherapy or CT examination. The most common complication is the eye exposure.

  5. 同种异体脱细胞真皮用于HA义眼台暴露修复观察%Clinical observation of using homologous acellular dermal matrix as repairing material in the exposure of orbital hydroxyapatite implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超庆; 李燕飞; 程秀春; 李琦; 范晓聪; 李静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the security and effectiveness of using homologous acellular dermal as repairing material in the exposure of orbital hydroxyapatite (HA) implants.Methods By 13 cases (13 eyes) hydroxyapatite implant exposure with intraoperative exploration,to initially judge implantation methods and exposure reasons of orbital implants,and using homologous acellular dermal as repairing material.Results Thirteen cases of postoperative conjunctival blood supply were good,no obvious edema and exudation,no incision dehiscence,infection and other complications.In continuous observation of 10 months,no evidence of exposure recurred.Conclusions Acellular dermal material is readily available,and has good tissue compatibility,resistance to infection,certain flexibility,and the immune response induced is light.Acellular dermal as a extracellular matrix can guide the organization's own collagen fibers ingrowth,and is easy to survive.For the repair of HA orbital implants after implant exposure is a good material.%目的 了解同种异体脱细胞真皮应用于羟基磷灰石(HA)义眼台植入术后暴露的修复治疗的有效性和安全性.方法 对2010~2013年在济南市明水眼科医院就诊的13例(13只眼)HA义眼台暴露患者术中探查,初步判断HA义眼台植入术式及暴露的原因,应用脱细胞真皮覆盖的方法进行处理.结果 13例患者术后结膜血运良好,无明显水肿及渗出,无切口哆开、感染等并发症.连续观察10个月,未见暴露复发迹象.结论 脱细胞真皮材料容易获得,组织相容性好,抗感染能力强,有一定的柔韧性,引起的免疫反应轻微,作为一种细胞外基质,可引导自身组织的胶原纤维长入,对创面要求低易于成活.对修复HA义眼台植入术后眼台暴露是一种较好的材料.

  6. Estudo macroscópico e dinamométrico comparativo de implantes (ímãs recobertos e de suas técnicas de fixação em órbitas de coelhas Comparative macroscopic and dynamometric study of implants (covered magnets and techniques of their fixation in orbits of female rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Roque Kleinpaul

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliação clínica dos sinais da reação inflamatória de fixação de implante orbitário (ímã recoberto por ouro e avaliação macroscópica de sua resistência aos fluidos orgânicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental em 54 coelhas adultas, divididas em três grupos de 18, com 3 subgrupos de 6 de acordo com o material usado para fixação, avaliação com uma, três e seis semanas de pós-operatório. Fixação, no rebordo inferior da órbita, de implante (ímã e ouro por meio de cola ou parafuso ou fio inabsorvível (Mersilene 5.0®. As órbitas contralaterais (sem implante compuseram o grupo-controle. Medidas da resistência à tração tangencial do implante fixado. RESULTADOS: Sinais clínicos de reação inflamatória à fixação orbitária do implante foram observados com cianoacrilato, parafuso, ou sutura inabsorvível (Mersilene 5.0®, até a sexta semana de pós-operatório, sendo mais intensa no grupo F (fixação com fio. A força de tração de 80 gf, independentemente do tipo de fixação, não produziu arrancamentos em 94,5% dos implantes na primeira semana, 100% na terceira semana e em 94,5% dos casos na sexta semana. CONCLUSÃO: Sinais clínicos de reação inflamatória do implante e sua fixação foram observados com cianoacrilato ou parafuso ou sutura inabsorvível (Mersilene 5.0® até a sexta semana pós-operatória, sendo mais intensa no grupo F (fio. A resistência do implante aos fluídos orgânicos mostrou falha em 9,3% (implante com dano.PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical signs of inflammatory reaction in the fixation of an orbitary implant (magnet, covered by gold, and to evaluate the macroscopic resistance to organic fluids of the used implants. METHODS: An experimental study was performed in 54 adult female rabbits, divided into 3 groups of eighteen with 3 subgroups of 6 according to the material used for fixation; the implants were evaluated at weeks 1, 3 and 6 after surgery. An implant (magnet

  7. A continuum of myofibers in adult rabbit extraocular muscle: force, shortening velocity, and patterns of myosin heavy chain colocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K; Park, Han Na; Kim, Jong-Hee; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima; Thompson, Ladora V

    2011-10-01

    Extraocular muscle (EOM) myofibers do not fit the traditional fiber typing classifications normally used in noncranial skeletal muscle, in part, due to the complexity of their individual myofibers. With single skinned myofibers isolated from rectus muscles of normal adult rabbits, force and shortening velocity were determined for 220 fibers. Each fiber was examined for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition by densitometric analysis of electrophoresis gels. Rectus muscle serial sections were examined for coexpression of eight MyHC isoforms. A continuum was seen in single myofiber shortening velocities as well as force generation, both in absolute force (g) and specific tension (kN/m(2)). Shortening velocity correlated with MyHCIIB, IIA, and I content, the more abundant MyHC isoforms expressed within individual myofibers. Importantly, single fibers with similar or identical shortening velocities expressed significantly different ratios of MyHC isoforms. The vast majority of myofibers in both the orbital and global layers expressed more than one MyHC isoform, with up to six isoforms in single fiber segments. MyHC expression varied significantly and unpredictably along the length of single myofibers. Thus EOM myofibers represent a continuum in their histological and physiological characteristics. This continuum would facilitate fine motor control of eye position, speed, and direction of movement in all positions of gaze and with all types of eye movements-from slow vergence movements to fast saccades. To fully understand how the brain controls eye position and movements, it is critical that this significant EOM myofiber heterogeneity be integrated into hypotheses of oculomotor control.

  8. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  9. Surgically mismanaged ptosis in a patient with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type I

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    Hatem A Tawfik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis syndromes comprise a rare form of severe limitation of ocular motility. An 11-year-old girl was referred for the correction of eyelid retraction. The eyelid retraction occurred immediately following levator resection surgery performed by a plastic surgeon who missed the restrictive extraocular muscle abnormalities. On examination, both eyes were fixed in an infraducted position (20 prism diopters (Δ, with a chin-up position and significant lagophthalmos. Bilateral 12-mm inferior rectus recession with adjustable sutures was performed, which resulted in significant reduction of lagophthalmos and elimination of the head tilt.

  10. Multi-purpose extraocular forceps for small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Elias; Chun, Dal W; Gurley, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    A multi-purpose titanium forceps has been developed for small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy surgery. These forceps were designed to provide the vitreoretinal surgeon with a single tool for the extraocular manipulations that are necessary for the placement and removal of 23- and 25-gauge trochars for small-incision, sutureless pars plana vitrectomy surgery. The forceps has been designed to allow for the atraumatic manipulation of the conjunctiva, measurement of distance from the limbus, and a strong purchase of the trochar for both its fixation and removal.

  11. Sushruta in 600 B.C. introduced extraocular expulsion of lens material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2014-03-01

    It is generally accepted that Jacques Daviel introduced in the 18th century the extracapsular technique of extraction of the lens while the couching method of cataract operation had already been practiced since ancient times. Present study analyses the first known cataract surgery description in three translations into English from the original Sanskrit Sushruta textbook and all the available literature on the subject. We found evidences that some sort of extraocular expulsion of lens material through a limbal puncture (paracentesis) was described by the Indian surgeon. Nevertheless, this incision cannot be considered as a classic extracapsular procedure because it was not large enough to allow the extraction of the entire lens.

  12. Absence of all cyclovertical extraocular muscles in a child who has Apert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Daniel E; Donahue, Sean P

    2007-08-01

    A 6-month-old patient with Apert syndrome underwent strabismus surgery for a hypertropic eye. At surgery, the patient was found to have agenesis of all four cyclovertical muscles in one eye. Further investigation by computed tomography demonstrated absence of all four cyclovertical muscles in the fellow eye as well. A transposition procedure corrected the strabismus. While isolated aberrant or missing extraocular muscles are well documented in patients with craniofacial syndromes, bilateral absence of all four cyclovertical muscles, as demonstrated in this patient, poses unique treatment challenges.

  13. Evaluation of dysthyroid optic neuropathy using T2-relaxation time of extraocular muscle as parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Toshine; Inoue, Toyoko; Inoue, Yoichi [Olympia Eye Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The T2 value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in evaluating the activity of dysthyroid ophthlamopathy. We applied this method in evaluating dysthyroid optic neuropathy in 15 affected eyes of 15 patients. Another group of 40 eyes of 20 patients of dysthyroid opthalmopathy without hypertrophy of extraocular muscles served as control. The T2 value in dysthyroid optic neuropathy significantly decreased following treatment with corticosteroid but the value was still higher than that in control eyes. The findings show that the T2 value of MRI is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of dysthyroid optic neuropathy. (author)

  14. Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Breast implants are medical devices that are implanted under the ...

  15. 义眼台植入术后残存上睑沟凹陷的处理%The correction of the deep superior sulcus after the orbital implantation of hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志嘉; 李冬梅; 郝磊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the treatment of the deep superior sulcus after the orbital implantation of hydroxyapatite (HA). Design Retrospective case series. Participants 55 patients (55 eyes) with deep superior sulcus after the HA implantation. Methods The participants received dermis fat transplantation, hemisphere HA implantation or orbital fracture rehabilitation by HA compound material, respectively. The choose of the surgical method was based on the degree of the superior sulcus and the pathogenesis. Main Outcome Measures The degree of the superior sulcus and the appearance before and after surgery were evaluated. Results The situation of deep superior sulcus in all 6 cases who received dermis fat graft was improved after the surgery within 3 months. Gradual absorption of the dermis fat beneath the skin was observed after 3 months. Finally, 1 patient remained mild but improved superior sulcus, while the other 5 patients obtained relatively acceptable correction. The results of the 10 patients who received hemisphere HA implantation and the 37 patients who received orbital fracture rehabilitation were satisfying. The other 2 patients received orbital fracture rehabilhation combined with dermis fat transplantation, and the results were satisfying. Conclusions The condition of deep superior suleus after the orbital implantation of HA may achieve satisfying results by choosing proper surgical methods depending on the degree of the superior sulcus and the pathogenesis.%目的 针对义眼台眶内植入术后上睑沟凹陷的不同原因研究处理方法,评估治疗效果.设计回顾性病例系列.研究对象自2005年12月至2011年6月羟基磷灰石义眼台植入术后残存上睑沟凹陷的患者55例(55眼),平均年龄(32.3±8.9)岁.方法 术前测量评估上睑沟凹陷程度及病因,分别采取上睑自体真皮脂肪移植、羟基磷灰石半球眶内充填、眶壁骨折整复羟基磷灰石骨块或复合人工骨板充填进行治疗.观察术后

  16. Clinical observation of Medpor porous polyethylene implants in treatment of enophthalmos combined with orbital fracture%Medpor板修复眼眶骨折合并眼球内陷的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙熠; 曹虹; 燕振国

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察高密度多孔聚乙烯( Medpor )板在眼眶骨折合并眼球内陷修复术中的应用效果。  方法:对因眼眶骨折致眼球内陷患者17例17眼,采用Medpor板进行眶壁骨折修复手术。术后随访6mo,观察眼球突出度、眼球运动及复视等变化。  结果:术前患眼较对侧平均内陷(3.4±1.5) mm,术后6mo有2例残存眼球内陷1mm,其余15例眼球突出度与健眼差值小于1 mm。术前17例均存在眼球运动受限并伴有不同程度复视,术后6mo,16例患者眼球运动受限治愈,复视消失,1例患眼轻度外展受限并残存外侧水平复视。术后随访期间未见Medpor板的脱出、排斥、感染或其他不良反应。  结论:Medpor板可有效补充眼眶容积,修复眼球内陷等眼眶骨折并发症。%AIM: To observe the efficacy of Medpor porous polyethylene implants in treatment of enophthalmos combined with orbital fracture. METHODS: Seventeen cases ( 17 eyes ) with enophthalmos caused by orbital fracture underwent surgical treatment with Medpor porous polyethylene implants. All accepted a 6-mo follow-up and the data of enophthalmos, eyeball movement and diplopia were collected. RESULTS: The average difference of exophthalmos between damaged eyes and undamaged eyes was (3. 4±1. 5 ) mm preoperatively, two cases had residual 1mm enophthalmos 6mo after surgery, while other 15 cases were completely corrected. Seventeen cases suffered from eyeball movement restriction and diplopia preoperatively, 16 cases had normal eyeball movement without diplopia 6mo after surgery, 1 case with limitation of abduction and horizontal diplopia. There was no extrusion, rejection, infection or other complications occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Medpor porous polyethylene implants can effectively improve the orbit volume to repair enophthalmos caused by orbital fracture.

  17. Effects of the Rho-Kinase Inhibitor Y-27632 on Extraocular Muscle Surgery in Rabbits

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    Ji‐Sun Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effect of the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on postoperative inflammation and adhesion following extraocular muscle surgery in rabbits. Methods. The superior rectus muscle reinsertion was performed on both eyes of 8 New Zealand white rabbits. After reinsertion, the rabbits received subconjunctival injections of the Rho-kinase inhibitor and saline on each eye. To assess acute and late inflammatory changes, Ki-67, CD11β+, and F4/80 were evaluated and the sites of muscle reattachment were evaluated for a postoperative adhesion score and histopathologically for collagen formation. Results. F4/80 antibody expression was significantly different in the Rho-kinase inhibitor-injected group at both postoperative day 3 and week 4 (p=0.038, 0.031. However, Ki-67 and CD11β+ were not different the between two groups. The difference in the SRM/conjunctiva adhesion score between the two groups was also significant (p=0.034. Conclusion. Intraoperative subconjunctival injection of the Rho-kinase inhibitor may be effective for adjunctive management of inflammation and fibrosis in rabbit eyes following extraocular muscle surgery.

  18. Simple Eyes, Extraocular Photoreceptors and Opsins in the American Horseshoe Crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne

    2016-11-01

    The eyes and photoreceptors of the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus have been studied since the 1930s, and this work has been critical for understanding basic mechanisms of vision. One of the attractions of Limulus as a preparation for studies of vision is that it has three different types of eyes-a pair of later compound, image-forming eyes and two types of simple eyes, a pair of median ocelli, and three pair of larval eyes. Each eye type is tractable for experimentation. Limulus also has extraocular photoreceptors in its segmental ganglia and tail. The current contribution focuses on photoreceptors in Limulus larval eyes and ocelli and its extraocular photoreceptors with the goal of summarizing what is currently known and not known about their physiology and function and the opsins they express. The Limulus genome encodes a surprisingly large number of opsins (18), and studies of their expression pattern have raised new questions about the role of opsin co-expression, the functions of peropsins expressed outside of eyes, and the physiological relevance of opsins with apparently very low expression levels. Studies of opsin expression in Limulus lead one to wonder whether photoreceptors yet to be discovered might be present throughout its central nervous system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 花瓣式巩膜成形包裹义眼台的临床应用%Clinical application of petal type scleroplasty package of orbital socket implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡卫华; 周小红; 陈诗雅; 章梦娴

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨花瓣式巩膜成形包裹国产羟基磷灰石(HA)义眼台在眼内容摘除术中的应用体会.方法 对48例眼内容摘除者行花瓣式巩膜成形包裹国产HA义眼台植入术,术后随访6 ~24个月,观察手术效果.结果 48例中仅有2例出现轻度结膜囊狭窄,所有病例均未发现义眼台暴露、脱出或感染等严重并发症.结论 巩膜花瓣式成形包裹国产HA义眼台植入术方便易行,术后并发症少,义眼台活动佳,疗效好.%Objective To investigate the application of petal type scleroplasty package of domestic HA orbital socket implant during eyeball evisceration surgery.Methods Petal type scleroplasty package of domestic HA was implanted in 48 cases of eyeball evisceration.Patients were followed up for 6-24 months,and the postoperative effect was observed.Results Of 48 patients,mild conjunctival sac stenosis occurred in 2 patients.Severe complications,such as implant exposure,extrusion or infection,were not found in all patients.Conclusion Scleral petal type molded package of domestic HA implant is convenient and effective with few postoperative complications.

  20. Medpor Titan 外科种植体在眼眶爆裂性骨折修复术中的应用%Clinical application of Medpor Titan surgical implants in orbital blowout fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘观华; 范钦华; 张志强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of Medpor Titan surgical implants in repairing orbital blowout fracture . Methods We reviewed history of 11 patients (11 eyes) who received surgical reconstruction with Medpor Titan surgical implant for orbital blowout fracture .Patients presented with enophthalmos , diplopia and restriction of eye movement , and orbital blowout fracture was confirmed by orbital CT .Postoperative changes in eye movement , diplopia and enophthalmos were observed , and patients were followed with orbital CT for structural changes .Results Significant enophthalmos was found preoperatively in 9 patients, and was completely corrected in 8 of them.One patient had only 3 mm residual enoph-thalmos.The mean value was (-0.89 ±1.17) mm (range 1~3 mm), and was significantly improved from that before treatment ( P <0.01).Postoperative eye movement was satisfactory in 5 cases and improved in other cases .Diplopia pres-ented preoperatively in 6 patients.It disappeared in 5 of them, and improved in the other one .Orbital wall structure was restored well in all patients.There was no implant rejection, displacement, or soft tissue embed.Conclusion Medpor Ti-tan is an ideal material for the reconstruction of orbital blowout fracture for its favorable clinical outcomes and imaging friendly nature .%目的:评价镶嵌钛网高密度多孔聚乙烯(Medpor Titan)外科种植体在眼眶爆裂性骨折修复术中的作用。方法回顾性分析采用Medpor Titan修复眼眶爆裂性骨折的患者11例(11只眼)。术前存在眼球内陷、眼球运动障碍及复视,眼眶CT证实为眼眶爆裂性骨折。术后观察眼球突出度、眼球运动及复视等变化,并复查眼眶CT。结果术前9例合并眼球内陷有8例完全矫正,1例欠矫3 mm。术后眼球内陷1~3 mm,平均(-0.89±1.17)mm,与术前比较差异有统计学意义( P <0.01);术前10例眼球运动障碍的患者9例恢复正常,1

  1. Ocular and extra-ocular features of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and mutations in CEP290

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, Suzanne; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Lopez, Irma; Pott, Jan-Willem R.; de Faber, Jan Tjeerd H. N.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the centrosomal protein, 290-KD (CEP290) associated genotype and ocular and extra-ocular phenotype in 18 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Methods: Eighteen patients with LCA from 14 families with mutations in the CEP290 gene were identified with sequen

  2. Ocular and extra-ocular features of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and mutations in CEP290

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, S.; Hollander, A.I. den; Lopez, I.; Pott, J.W.; Faber, J.T. de; Cremers, F.P.; Koenekoop, R.K.; Born, L.I. van den

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated the centrosomal protein, 290-KD (CEP290) associated genotype and ocular and extra-ocular phenotype in 18 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). METHODS: Eighteen patients with LCA from 14 families with mutations in the CEP290 gene were identified with sequen

  3. Sparing of the extraocular muscles in mdx mice with absent or reduced utrophin expression: A life span analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Abby A; Hebert, Sadie L; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-11-01

    Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span. Known to be spared in the mdx mouse, and contrary to previous reports, the extraocular muscles from both the mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were also morphologically spared. In the mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, which have a normal life span compared to the mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice, the myofibers were larger at 3 and 12 months than the wild type age-matched eye muscles. While there was a significant increase in central nucleation in the extraocular muscles from all mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, the levels were still very low compared to age-matched limb skeletal muscles. Pax7- and MyoD-positive myogenic precursor cell populations were retained and were similar to age-matched wild type controls. These results support the hypothesis that utrophin is not involved in extraocular muscle sparing in these genotypes. In addition, it appears that these muscles retain the myogenic precursors that would allow them to maintain their regenerative capacity and normal morphology over a lifetime even in these more severe models of muscular dystrophy.

  4. Ocular and extra-ocular features of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and mutations in CEP290

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, Suzanne; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Lopez, Irma; Pott, Jan-Willem R.; de Faber, Jan Tjeerd H. N.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the centrosomal protein, 290-KD (CEP290) associated genotype and ocular and extra-ocular phenotype in 18 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Methods: Eighteen patients with LCA from 14 families with mutations in the CEP290 gene were identified with sequen

  5. Heterozygous mutations of the kinesin KIF21A in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamada, K; Andrews, C; Chan, WM; McKeown, CA; Magli, A; de Berardinis, T; Loewenstein, A; Lazar, M; O'Keefe, M; Letson, R; London, A; Ruttum, M; Matsumoto, N; Saito, N; Morris, L; Del Monte, M; Johnson, RH; Uyama, E; Houtman, WA; de Vries, B; Carlow, TJ; Hart, BL; Krawiecki, N; Shoffner, J; Vogel, MC; Katowitz, J; Goldstein, SM; Levin, AV; Sener, EC; Ozturk, BT; Akarsu, AN; Brodsky, MC; Hanisch, F; Cruse, RP; Zubcov, AA; Robb, RM; Roggenkaemper, P; Gottlob, [No Value; Kowal, L; Battu, R; Traboulsi, EI; Franceschini, P; Newlin, A; Demer, JL; Engle, EC

    2003-01-01

    Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1; OMIM #135700) is an autosomal dominant strabismus disorder associated with defects of the oculomotor nerve. We show that individuals with CFEOM1 harbor heterozygous missense mutations in a kinesin motor protein encoded by KIF21A. We iden

  6. O uso de implantes orbitários de polietileno granulado de ultra-alto peso molecular no reparo de cavidades anoftálmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Edward Soranz Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Alterações oculares, em especial a perda de volume nas cavidades evisceradas, promovem uma série de modificações ao paciente tanto funcional do órgão quanto psicológica e estética. Para tanto a procura de um material de baixo custo e com biocompatibilidade tem sido uma constante na literatura. Portanto, esse trabalho teve como objetivo testar experimentalmente implante de polietileno granulado de ultra-alto peso molecular, material de baixo custo, em órbitas de coelhos submetidos à evisceração cirúrgica em vários tempos experimentais, onde foram avaliados aspectos macroscópicos e microscópicose de toxicidade sistêmica do material. MÉTODOS: Para esse estudo foram utilizados coelhos Oryctolaguscuniculus submetidos à evisceração do globo ocular direito e posteriormente implantados com esfera de polietileno granulado de ultra-alto peso molecular e analisados por 15, 30, 90 e 180 dias pós-implante, com parâmetros macro, microscópios e bioquímicos. Os animais controles foram submetidos ao mesmo procedimento sem, entretanto a colocação do implante. RESULTADOS: Os resultados desse trabalho mostram que o material utilizado no implante de cavidade não apresenta alteração significativa nos parâmetros de peso e bioquímicos quando comparados ao grupo controle. O material implantado apresentou uma grande interação com o tecido do hospedeiro. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que implante de polietileno granulado de alto peso molecular desenvolvido por uma indústria nacional tem alto potencial para se realizar testes em humanos.

  7. 自体眼球筋膜联合唇黏膜移植治疗义眼台暴露%Autologous Tenons' capsule combined with lip mucosa transplantation in the treatment of orbital implant exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程燕; 吴洁; 徐琨; 朱秀萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨自体眼球筋膜联合唇黏膜移植治疗羟基磷灰石义眼台植入后暴露的临床应用.方法 回顾分析我院义眼台暴露15例(15眼),暴露时间术后2周~4个月.暴露范围4 ~10mm.围手术期进行抗感染药物治疗,术中将暴露区边缘眼球筋膜转位遮盖于暴露义眼台表面,将唇黏膜间断固定缝合于筋膜表面.术后涂抗生素眼膏加压包术眼3d.随访至术后6个月.结果 所有15例于术后6~8周唇黏膜愈合良好,结膜囊形成良好,安装义眼后外观满意.随访期间未见义眼台再暴露.结论 自体眼球筋膜联合唇黏膜移植是治疗义眼台暴露的有效方法,避免了应用异体组织修补排斥反应的发生,对治疗该并发症有临床意义.%Objective To observe the applications of autologous Tenons' capsule combined with lip mucosa transplantation in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure.Methods 15 patients with unilateral orbital implant exposure were studied between 2009 and 2012.Implant exposure occurred at two weeks to four months postoperatively.The diameters of exposure were about 4-10 mm.Perioperative drug treatment were applied to avoid infection.The exposed surfaces of the implant were covered with Tenons tissue,and the lip mucosa was transplanted to the fascia tissue surface.Postoperative eyes were bandaged with anti-infectious ointment for 3 d.The patients were followed up for 6 months postoperatively.Results Lip mucosa of all patients healed completely at six to eight weeks after surgery.The conjunctival sac was formed.The installed artificial eye was satisfactory in appearance.Implant exposure did not recur during follow-up.Conclusion Autologous Tenons capsule combined with lip mucosa transplantation is an effective method in treatment of implant exposure.Allograft rejection is avoided.This surgical method has important clinical significance for implant exposure.

  8. TOLOSA-HUNT SYNDROME MIMICKING AS ORBITAL COMPLICATION OF SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendra . Gadag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tolosa – Hunt syndrome is a rare, benign condition characterized by severe unilateral headache with extraocular palsies, orbital pain caused by nonspecific granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure or the orbit. (1-4 The incidence of Tolosa - Hunt syndrome has been estimated as approximately one to two cases per million. The etiology of the syndrome is largely unknown and it can affect people of virtually any age, with no sex predilection. It is usually unilateral, with no predisposition for right or left side; it has been reported as bilateral in 4.1-5 % cases. (2, 4 We report a rare case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome which was misdiagnosed as sinusitis with orbital complication. The clinical features, diagnostic investigation and the importance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies in the differentiation of the condition are addressed.

  9. Vascularization of methl-methacrylate modified polymerized 2-hydroxyethyl methacryate hydrogel orbital implant%甲基丙烯酸改性甲基丙烯酸β羟乙酯水凝胶义眼台的血管化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹东芳; 黄一飞; 何庆华

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The application of polymerized 2-hydroxyethyl methacryate (PHEMA) in many organs of living body shows good biocompatibility.OBJECTIVE: To observe the biocompatibility and fibrovascular condition of methl-methacrylate (MMA) modified PHEMA hydrogel orbital implant.DESIGN: Single sample observation.SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, the General Hospital of Chinese PLA; Institute of Polymer Science,Department of Chemical Engineering, Tinghua university.MATERIALS: Twenty-five New Zealand rabbits of either gender and clean grade, weighing 2.0 to 2.5 kg, were provided by the Animal Experimental Center, General Hospital of Chinese PLA. The animals were observed at postoperative 2, 4,8, 12 and 24 weeks, 5 at each time point. The experiment was permitted by ethics committee. MMA modified PHEMA hydrogel orbital implant was provided by Institute of Polymer Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tinghua University. The experiment was permitted by ethics committee.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the laboratory of Department of Ophthalmology, the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from March to October 2003. The right eye served as operation eye. When the rabbits were anesthetized,their eyelids were open with eyelid retractor. Bulbar conjunctiva was open along the edge of limbus of cornea for isolating fascia. Oculorotatory muscle was isolated and pre-set suture line was made, then muscle was cut off. When optical nerve was cut off, eyeball was completely excised. A MMA modified PHEMA hydrogel orbital implant with the diameter of 14 mm was implanted into the fossa orbitalis of rabbits. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed at postoperative 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks. The hydrogel orbital implant was taken out at postoperative 2, 4, 8,12 and 24 weeks for light microscope, immunohistochemical and electron microscope examinations.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vascularization of hydrogel orbital implant was observed in vivo by isotope

  10. Penile Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the discussion with your doctor. Types of penile implants There are two main types of penile implants: ... might help reduce the risk of infection. Comparing implant types When choosing which type of penile implant ...

  11. Direct oblique sagittal CT of orbital wall fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.B. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    Direct oblique sagittal CT was used to evaluate trauma to 77 orbits. Sixty-seven orbital wall fractures with intact orbital rims (36 floor, 22 medial wall, nine roof) were identified in 47 orbits. Since persistent diplopia and/or enophthalmos may warrant surgical repair of orbital floor fractures, optimal imaging should include an evaluation of extraocular muscle status, the nature and amount of displaced orbital contents, and an accurate definition of fracture margins. For orbital floor fractures, a combination of the direct oblique sagittal and direct coronal projections optimally displayed all fracture margins, the fracture's relationship to the inferior orbital rim and medial orbital wall, and the amount of displacement into the maxillary sinus. Inferior rectus muscle status with 36 floor fractures was best seen on the direct oblique sagittal projection in 30 fractures (83.3%) and was equally well seen on sagittal and coronal projections in two fractures (5.5%). Floor fractures were missed on 100% of axial, 5.5% of sagittal, and 0% of coronal projections. Since the direct oblique sagittal projection complements the direct coronal projection in evaluating orbital floor fractures, it should not be performed alone. A technical approach to the CT evaluation or orbital wall fractures is presented.

  12. Clinical study of secondary drilling orbital hydroxyapatite implant%羟基磷灰石眼座植入后钻孔的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋斗; 肖震国; 苏书

    2001-01-01

    目的:评价羟基磷灰石眼座植入后钻孔手术的疗效。方法:146例HA植入6个月后行钻孔手术。用弧形视野计测量术前、术后义眼的活动度。结果:义眼的活动幅度从术前的18.7±3.8度提高到42.3±3.7度。随访1~40个月无继发感染等并发症。结论:钻孔手术放置栓钉后不仅义眼的活动幅度增加,而且大大提高其活动灵敏度,改善患者外观。%Objective:To evaluate the clinical effects of drilling theorbital hydroxyapatite(HA) implant and inserting a motility peg at a seeondary stage operation.Methods:6 months after HA implantation,the implants in 146 consecutive patients were drilled and a motility peg inserted.Before and after drilling,the degrees of movements of the ocular prosthesis were measured with a Goldman visual field analyser.Results:There was no secondary infection occurring during the 1 to 40 month followup period.Motility of ocular prosthesis increased from 18.7±3.8 degree preoperatively to 42.3±3.7 degree postoperatively.Conclusion:Drilling and inserting a motility peg into the HA implant at a secondary operation improve the motility of the ocular prosthesis greatly with low rate of complication.

  13. 颞浅动脉岛状皮瓣修复重度感染性义眼座暴露%The repair surgery of severe infectious orbital implants exposure with superficial temporal artery island flaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸿斌; 刘素芝; 包俊辉; 刘萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the method and efficacy of repairment of large severely infectious orbital implants exposure with superficial temporal artery island flaps.Methods To analyse retrospectively the clinical data in ophthalmology department of Xinjiang Hospital of Occupational Disease:6 eyes from 6 cases,with exposure of diameters over 10 mm or concurrent infections in orbital implants.Results After partial penetration and flush for infection control,the patient' s ipsilateral superficial temporal artery island flaps were implanted into the ocular prosthesis to repair the large defect of the conjunctiva sac all at once.All the flaps of 6 cases survived,with stable blood supply,good wear resistance and smooth union with the conjunctiva sac tissues.The ocular prosthesis moved smoothly in all quadrants.Except for the long hair after surgery in 2 cases,no other postoperative complications appeared in the follow-up of 1 to 5 years,with good effect of the treatment.Conclusion The effective partial anti-inflammatory therapy,combined with the superficial temporal artery island flap,is a feasible and effective surgery procedure to repair severe ocular prosthesis exposure and the co-infection.%目的 探讨颞浅动脉岛状皮瓣一次性修复感染性义眼座大面积暴露的方法和效果.方法 新疆职业病医院眼科6例(6眼)义眼座暴露直径>10 mm或合并感染的回顾性分析.结果 经过局部贯穿并冲洗控制感染,取同侧颞浅动脉岛状皮瓣,植入义眼一次性修复大面积结膜囊缺损,6例全部成活,皮瓣血供稳定,耐磨性良好,与结膜囊内组织愈合平整.安装义眼各象限活动自如.术后2例出现毛发过长,需修剪,未见其它术后并发症,随访1~5年,手术效果良好.结论 局部有效抗炎结合颞浅动脉岛状皮瓣,一次性修复严重义眼座暴露合并感染,是可行有效的手术方式.

  14. Diplopia secondary to orbital surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, David I; Matta, Noelle S; Singman, Eric L

    2012-01-01

    Diplopia may occur following any type of ocular or pericocular surgery. The surgeries most frequently associated with postoperative diplopia include: repair of orbital fracture, endoscopic sinus surgery (from inadvertent orbital penetration), and orbital decompression for thyroid-related immune orbitopathy (TRIO). Postoperative diplopia after orbital tumor resection has been reported--e.g., after excision of fibrous dysplasia and osteoma. However, a recent case series suggests diplopia after orbital tumor resection is uncommon and transient. Surgical intervention for orbital trauma carries the highest risk of postoperative diplopia and will be the focus of this review. We will also present a case report of worsening diplopia following repair of orbital floor fracture to highlight potential motility issues that can arise when implants are employed to treat orbital floor fractures.

  15. The properties of the extraocular muscles of the frog. II. Pharmacological properties of the isolated superior oblique and superior rectus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, G

    1978-01-01

    The pharmacological properties of the superior oblique and the superior rectus muscles of the frog's eye were investigated in comparison with those of a skeletal muscle (iliofibularis muscle) of the same animal. Acetylcholine causes sustained contractures of the extraocular muscles; this effect is increased by physostigmine and decreased or abolished by d-tubocurarine. Also the applications of succinylcholine, choline or caffeine are able to evoke contractures. There are no striking differences in pharmacological properties between extraocular and skeletal muscles of the frog. The time-course of the contractures and the sensitivity of the muscle preparations to the drugs which evoke contractures are identical in extraocular and iliofibularis muscles. In comparison with skeletal muscles there is no higher sensitivity of the extraocular muscles against curare-like drugs. The existence of adrenergic receptors could not be found neither in extraocular nor in skeletal muscles of the frog. It is concluded that in frogs no pharmacological differences exist between the muscle fibre types which compose the extraocular and the skeletal muscles.

  16. Computed tomography of the orbital lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Eon; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    The use of computed tomography in investigation of orbital lesions was of value for the localization of the lesions as well as making the specific diagnosis. We advocated the combined use of transverse axial section and contrast enhancement in CT as a routine procedure often including coronal section in the diagnosis of orbital lesions because of its usefulness and more precise three dimensional imaging. The authors examined 68 patients with various ophthalmic problems by EMI-CT scanner 5005 from October 1977 to November 1979. Fifty one orbital lesions out of 68 CT scans were analyzed by CT, angiography and operative findings and results were as follows; 1. Among 43 males and 25 females, their age range was from 4 months to 66 years with the most frequent age group of first decade (17 cases; 25%) 2. The distribution of the lesions was mucocele, pseudotumor, optic nerve atrophy, metastasis, lacrimal gland tumor, persistent hypertrophic primary vitreous, granulosa cell myoblastoma, hemangioma in order with 13 malignancies (25%). 3. It was difficult to differentiate pathological diagnosis of the lesions, but the character of the lesions was determined by its characteristic location, and its relationship to eyeball, optic nerve, extraocular muscles and bony orbit. 4. It was thought that more accurate diagnosis of orbital lesions could be made by development of CT scanner having fine matrix, short time exposure and thin slice in the future.

  17. Rhabdomyolysis Presenting as Orbital Apex Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Jae Min; Chi, Mijung

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which striated muscle tissue breaks down rapidly and releases muscular cell constituents into extracellular fluid and the circulation. Renal symptoms, such as acute renal failure, are major complications of rhabdomyolysis. However, no previous report of rhabdomyolysis associated with orbital complication has been issued. Here, we report the first patient of rhabdomyolysis presenting as orbital apex syndrome. A 66-year-old man presented with right periorbital swelling with erythematous patches and conjunctival chemosis. In addition, swelling, redness, and vesicles were observed in both lower legs. He was found in a drunken state with the right side of his face pressed against a table. Ophthalmic examination showed right eye fixation in all directions and ischemic change of retina. Blood testing showed elevated muscle enzyme associated with muscle destruction. And computed tomography of the orbit showed swelling of right extraocular muscles and crowding of right orbital apex. Under a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis-associated orbital apex syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion, intravenous steroid and antibiotics therapy with intraocular pressure-lowering topicals were begun. Clinical presentation, treatment course, and follow-up are discussed.

  18. 先天性眼外肌纤维化一家系临床分析及手术治疗%Clinical features and surgical treatment on a family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑飞; 王亚丽; 陈静; 乔珊丽

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics, surgical outcome and curative effect of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles ( CFEOM) . METHODS: The eye exam of members in a Chinese family with CFEOM includes visual acuity, intraocular pressure, dilated fundus exam, extraocular muscle function test, orbital CT scan, and ultrasound. We did extraocular muscle surgery or frontalis suspension procedure for affected subjects in the family. RESULTS: The incidence of CFEOM in this family was 31%. All patients were affected bilateraly with symptom of congenital eye movement disorder, ptosis, hypotropia, perverted convergence on upgaze and chin up head position. As the age grows, the diseases worsen unobviously. No other systemic disorder was found. Surgical treatment improved the anomalous head position although the ocular movement disorder preserved. CONCLUSION: The pattern of inheritance in our serial patients are autosomal dominant. Surgery can improve chin up head position and cosmetic appearance. However, the eye movement deficiency cannot be improved.%目的:探讨家族性先天性眼外肌纤维化的临床特点、手术治疗方法及疗效。  方法:对先天性眼外肌纤维化家系成员进行眼部的各项检查,包括:视力、眼压、眼底、眼外肌功能、眼眶CT、双眼B超等检查,并对部分患者行斜视矫正术及额肌悬吊术。  结果:该家系眼外肌纤维化发病率为31%。该家系各患者均双眼受累,自幼表现为眼球运动障碍、上睑下垂,眼球位于下转位,向正前方注视时伴有异常辐辏,向前注视抬下颌。随年龄增长病情加重不明显。其他全身系统器官未见异常。经手术治疗,下颌上抬及外观可获得明显改善,眼球运动改善不明显。  结论:该家系具有常染色体显性遗传特征。通过手术治疗可改善头位及外观。眼球运动无明显改善。

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and DWI Features of Orbital Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuetao Mu; Hong Wang; Yueyue Li; Yuwen Hao; Chunnan Wu; Lin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods:.Thirty-nine patients with histopathologically con-firmed orbital RMS were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent orbital conventional MRI, including axial,.sagittal, and coronal T1-weighted,.T2-weighted,.and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences. The location, shape, margin, and MRI signal of the 39 lesions were reviewed..DWI in 15 patients and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in 2 patients were also analyzed. Results:.Orbital MRI was available in 39 patients and re-vealed a soft tissue mass in the orbital region in all cases..Of the 39 patients,.the primary tumor sites were limited to the orbital proper in 31 cases, while 28 cases had extraocular muscle invasion and 8 cases had extraorbital invasion..All le-sions were unilateral..Thirty-three cases were well-defined soft tissue masses and 6 cases appeared as less well-defined soft-tissue masses..Thirty-four cases showed homogeneous isoin-tense or slightly hypointense signals on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and hyperintense signal on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) compared with extraocular muscles. Five cases had heterogeneous signals with focal areas of increased signal on T1WI or decreased signal on T2WI, including 1 case with hy-pointense signal on SWI..The mean apparent diffusion coeffi-cient (ADC) value of the viable part of tumors was (0.925 ± 0.09)×10-3 mm2/s. All cases showed moderate to marked en-hancement after contrast administration. Conclusion:Several MRI features-including homogeneous isointense or slightly hypointense signal on T1WI and slightly hyperintense signal on T2WI, relative low ADC values, and moderate to marked enhancement,.extraocular muscles inva-sion, and extraorbital extensionare helpful in the diagnosis of orbital RMS. (Eye Science 2014; 29:6-11).

  20. Orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and ... in the space around the eye. An orbital cellulitis infection can get worse very quickly. A person with ...

  1. 穹隆部减张切口在义眼台植入术中的应用%The clinical application of conjunctival fornix decompression incision in hydroxyapatite orbital implantion surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈伸平; 南中义; 姚向阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the conjunctival fornix decompressive incison and hydroxyapatite( HA) orbital implantation for narrow conjunctival sac. Methods Primary preoperative and intraoperative observation were performed in 16 patients who underwent the conjunctival fornix decompression incision to treat the narrow conjunctival sac. Results The postoperative observation time was 6 months to 3 years after the surgery. 13 patients were able to wear an normal size ocular prosthesis comfortably. Other 3 patients were able to wear an custom made ocular prosthesis. Conclusion Conjunctival fornix decompression incision hydroxyapatite ( HA ) implantation is easy and effective for the narrow conjunctival sac.%目的:评价穹隆部减张切口在结膜囊狭窄者义眼台植入术中应用的效果。方法对16例需行义眼台植术者术前评估及术中观察结膜囊狭窄者术中行穹隆部减张切口成形术。结果术后观察6个月~3年,13例术后能成功安装成品义眼片,3例能配戴定制义眼片。结论穹隆部结膜减张切口应用于结膜囊轻中度狭窄患者义眼台植入术中,是一种简便,痛苦小,效果良好的方法。

  2. Severe ocular rupture double-sclera covered hydroxyapatite orbital implantation efficacy analysis%严重眼球破裂伤双层巩膜覆盖羟基磷灰石义眼台置入术的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱璐璐; 刘丽丽; 赵晓峥

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨严重眼球破裂伤双层巩膜覆盖羟基磷灰石义眼台置入术的疗效.方法:对20例(20眼)严重眼球破裂伤缝合术后患者常规行眼内容物剜除双层巩膜覆盖羟基磷灰石义眼台置入术.术后随访12~24月.结果:20例患者术后反应轻,外观及活动度好,无义眼台暴露、脱出等并发症发生.结论:本术式术后并发症少,恢复快,能有效预防义眼台暴露,是义眼置入的理想手术方法.%Objective to discuss the severe eyeball rupture double -sclera covered hydroxyapatite orbital implantation effect. Methods 20 patients with severe ocular rupture suture in patients after routine eye evisceration double-sclera covered hydroxyapatite orbital implantation.Postoperative follow -up 12 -24. Results 20 cases of patients with postoperative reaction is light, appearance and activities of the good.without orbital complications such as exposure, prolapse. Conclusion this technique is less postoperative complications.quick recovery.can effectively prevent the formation of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure, is the ideal operation method.

  3. 眼眶爆裂性骨折18例疗效分析%Analysis on Clinical Efficacy of 18 Cases Orbital Blowout Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符晓波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the symptoms, treatment and surgical effect for orbital blowout fractures. Methods The symptoms, treatment and surgical effect of 18 cases with orbital blowout fracture in the period of 2008 to 2012 are reviewed and summarized.For 6 patients of early orbital wall fracture, without apparent diplopia or restricted eye movement, conservative treatments are adopted, i.e. traction, exercising eyeballs and functional exercise. For the cases with muscle entrapment in cracks of fracture or eyeball obviously sunken, surgery is needed, and postoperative observations on diplopia, eyeball movement, enophthalmos etc shall be proceeded. Results Early traction or movement of eye or functional exercise can , to a great extent, alleviate diplopia or restricted eye movement. For 12 cases with extraocular muscle entrapment in cracks of fracture or obviously sunken eyeball, surgical repairs of orbital fracture were performed, which replaced extraocular muscle in fracture cracks and orbital contents, implanted titanium sheeting or Medpor sheeting to cover the fracture defect area. Postoperative eye movement, enophthalmos improved, and diplopia almost disappeared. Conclusions Early traction or functional exercise of moving eye can, to a great extent, alleviate the diplopia or restricted movement of the eye which patients suffered. Surgery is the first option of all to treat extraocular muscle entrapment in cracks of fracture or obviously sunken eyeball. The key to surgical success is to relax entrapped extraocular muscle and prevent postoperative readhension. Surgical curative effect is associated with the surgical procedure, surgical timing and implant.%目的探讨爆裂性眼眶骨折的病情、治疗及手术效果。方法对2008至2012年18例爆裂性眼眶骨折病情、治疗及手术效果进行分析、总结。对没有出现明显复视或眼球转动受限的早期眶壁骨折6例患者采取保守治疗,牵拉或活动眼球、功能锻炼。对肌

  4. Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Systematic reviews of literature over the period between 2008 and 2017 are discussed regarding clinical evidence for the factors affecting survival and failure of dental implants. The factors addressed include publication bias, tooth location, insertion torque, collar design, implant-abutment connection design, implant length, implant width, bone augmentation, platform switching, surface roughness, implant coatings, and the use of ceramic materials in the implant body and abutment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Constitutive properties, not molecular adaptations, mediate extraocular muscle sparing in dystrophic mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John D; Merriam, Anita P; Khanna, Sangeeta; Andrade, Francisco H; Richmonds, Chelliah R; Leahy, Patrick; Cheng, Georgiana; Karathanasis, Paraskevi; Zhou, Xiaohua; Kusner, Linda L; Adams, Marvin E; Willem, Michael; Mayer, Ulrike; Kaminski, Henry J

    2003-05-01

    Extraocular muscle (EOM) is spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we tested putative EOM sparing mechanisms predicted from existing dystrophinopathy models. Data show that mdx mouse EOM contains dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC)-competent and DGC-deficient myofibers distributed in a fiber type-specific pattern. Up-regulation of a dystrophin homologue, utrophin, mediates selective DGC retention. Counter to the DGC mechanical hypothesis, an intact DGC is not a precondition for EOM sarcolemmal integrity, and active adaptation at the level of calcium homeostasis is not mechanistic in protection. A partial, fiber type-specific retention of antiischemic nitric oxide to vascular smooth muscle signaling is not a factor in EOM sparing, because mice deficient in dystrophin and alpha-syntrophin, which localizes neuronal nitric oxide synthase to the sarcolemma, have normal EOMs. Moreover, an alternative transmembrane protein, alpha7beta1 integrin, does not appear to substitute for the DGC in EOM. Finally, genomewide expression profiling showed that EOM does not actively adapt to dystrophinopathy but identified candidate genes for the constitutive protection of mdx EOM. Taken together, data emphasize the conditional nature of dystrophinopathy and the potential importance of nonmechanical DGC roles and support the hypothesis that broad, constitutive structural cell signaling, and/or biochemical differences between EOM and other skeletal muscles are determinants of differential disease responsiveness.

  6. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara

    2012-07-01

    Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles.

  7. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: a human cadaver study: part I: endoscopic-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Jansen, J.; Schreurs, R.; Saeed, P.; Beenen, L.; Maal, T.J.J.; Gooris, P.J.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of orbital defects, surgeon errors may lead to incorrect positioning of orbital implants and, consequently, poor clinical outcomes. Endoscopy can provide additional visualization of the orbit through the transantral approach. We aimed to evaluate whether endoscopic guidance during o

  8. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part II: Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Schreurs, R.; Jansen, J; Maal, T.J.J.; Essig, H.; Gooris, P.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more pred

  9. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part I: Endoscopic-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Jansen, J; Schreurs, R.; Saeed, P.; Beenen, L.; Maal, T.J.J.; Gooris, P.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of orbital defects, surgeon errors may lead to incorrect positioning of orbital implants and, consequently, poor clinical outcomes. Endoscopy can provide additional visualization of the orbit through the transantral approach. We aimed to evaluate whether endoscopic guidance during o

  10. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: a human cadaver study: part II: navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Schreurs, R.; Jansen, J.; Maal, T.J.J.; Essig, H.; Gooris, P.J.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more pred

  11. Clinical reaserch on Medpor implantation for the orbital blowout fracture%Medpor整复爆裂性眼眶骨折的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方红丽; 谭佳; 许雪亮; 杨婧

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究人体整形的新型高分子材料-Medpor(多孔高密度聚乙烯)整复眼眶爆裂性骨折的临床效果及其特点。方法对31例患者均行高分辨率眼眶CT扫描和三维重建、了解眼眶骨折的部位、大小;用Hertel突眼计测量眼球内陷度数;Lancaster红绿灯测量法分析复视情况。以Medpor作为手术整复材料,并进行6~22个月随访。结果术前31例患者随访6个月及以上,其中:26例患者眼球内陷,20例患者眼球内陷完全矫正(76.92%),6例患者好转(23.08%);术前23例伴有复视患者,18例复视完全矫正(78.26%),5例复视好转(21.74%);术前20例患者眼球运动受限,12例恢复正常(60%),8例好转(40%)。结论 Medpor作为近年来用于临床的新型整形材料,具有生物相容性好、术后支撑能力强、稳定性高、易于固定、填充量可选的特点,并可以根据骨折范围、眼球内陷程度对材料进行热处理后修剪成型,用于眼眶骨折的整复,能有效的矫正中重度眼球内陷,复视明显的患者。%Objective To investigate the clinical results and relative merits of new high-polymer material for body modification-Medpor in the repair of orbital blowout fracture(BOF). Methods To thirty one patients, High resolution CT scan and 3-D reconstruction were used for the lactation and size of BOF;Hertel exophthalmometer was used for the measurement of enophthalmos;Lancaster test was used for examination of diplopia. Medpor as orbital grafting material was used for patients who followed up for six months at least. Results 31 cases had followed up for 6 months at least. Of 31 cases:twenty six had enophthalmos preoperatively, 20 of 26 cases(76.92%) was corrected, and 6 of 26 cases(23.08%)was improved;23 cases had diplopia preoperatively, 18 cases was corrected(78.26%) and 5 cases was improved(21.74%); 20 patients preoperatively had eye movement disorders of BOF, 12

  12. The reason of self sclera deliquescent after eyeball enucleation with orbital implant in second stage operation for ocular trauma%眼外伤后二期眼球摘除义眼台植入后自体巩膜溶解原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔玉春; 王智霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reason of self sclera deliquesce after enucleation of eyeball with orbital implant in second stage operation for ocular trauma.Methods According whether primary suture with seond enucleation of eyeball with orbital implant,The pateints were divided into two groups:Group 1:second enucleation of eyeball with orbital implant after ocular trauma ( 164 eyes in 164 cases)and Group 2:enucleation of eyeball with orbital implant after other reasons(352 eyes in 352 cases).The analysis matters including eyeball rupture,inflammatory reaction,the reasons of eyeball enucleation,postoperative complications and effects,and by that to compare the differences and possible cause of self sclera deliquescent in two groups.Results The incidence of self-sclera deliquesce was 8.54% in Grroup 1,higher than the 1.99% in Group 2 significantly.Conclusion We supposed that many reasons explain the self sclera deliquescent after second enucleation of eyeball with orbital implant in oculatr trauma:the time of orbital implantation,the exclusion of orbital implantation,hypersensitivity and antigen-antibody reaction,Tenon's scar and adherence and so on,so we consider it is help to prevent self-sclera deliquesce by choose proper timepoint to remove eyeball with orbital implant.%目的 探讨眼外伤后二期眼球摘除义眼台植入后发生自体巩膜溶解的原因.方法 对行眼球摘除患者病历资料进行回顾性总结和分析,根据是否因眼外伤后一期缝合并在不同时间二期行眼球摘除义眼台植入分成两组,组1为眼外伤后二期眼球摘除义眼台植入164例(164眼);组2为其余原因眼球摘除义眼台植入352例(352眼).从一期眼球破裂情况、术后眼球炎症反应、二期眼球摘除原因、术后并发症、术后效果等方面进行分析,比较两组之间发生自体巩膜溶解的差异及可能的原因.结果 外伤后二期眼球摘除义眼台植入术后自体巩膜溶解的发生率(8.54

  13. Assessment of Stability of Craniofacial Implants by Resonant Frequency Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjac, Filip; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Lazić, Vojkan; Dordević, Igor; Ihde, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Implant stability is a principal precondition for the success of implant therapy. Extraoral implants (EO) are mainly used for anchoring of maxillofacial epithesis. However, assessment of implant stability is mostly based on principles derived from oral implants. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical stability of EO craniofacial disk implants (single, double, and triple) by resonance frequency analysis at different stages of the bone's healing. Twenty patients with orbital (11), nasal (5), and auricular (4) defects with 50 EO implants placed for epithesis anchorage were included. Implant stability was measured 3 times; after implant placement, at 3 months and at least after 6 months. A significant increase in implant stability values was noted between all of the measurements, except for triple-disk implants between third and sixth months, and screw implants between 0 and third months. Disk implants showed lower implant stability quotient (ISQ) values compared with screw implants. Triple-disk implants showed better stability compared with single and double-disk implants. Based on resonance frequency analysis values, disk implants could be safely loaded when their ISQ values are 38 (single disks), 47 (double disks), and 48 (triple disks). According to resonance frequency analysis, disk implant stability increased over time, which showed good osseointegration and increasing mineralization. Although EO screw implants showed higher ISQ values than disk implants, disk-type implants can be safely loaded even if lower values of stability are measured.

  14. Dystrophic changes in extraocular muscles after gamma irradiation in mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Abby A; Kunz, Matthew D; McLoon, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) have a strikingly different disease profile than limb skeletal muscles. It has long been known that they are spared in Duchenne (DMD) and other forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, the cause for this sparing is not understood. We have proposed that differences in myogenic precursor cell properties in EOM maintain normal morphology over the lifetime of individuals with DMD due to either greater proliferative potential or greater resistance to injury. This hypothesis was tested by exposing wild type and mdx:utrophin(+/-) (het) mouse EOM and limb skeletal muscles to 18 Gy gamma irradiation, a dose known to inhibit satellite cell proliferation in limb muscles. As expected, over time het limb skeletal muscles displayed reduced central nucleation mirrored by a reduction in Pax7-positive cells, demonstrating a significant loss in regenerative potential. In contrast, in the first month post-irradiation in the het EOM, myofiber cross-sectional areas first decreased, then increased, but ultimately returned to normal compared to non-irradiated het EOM. Central nucleation significantly increased in the first post-irradiation month, resembling the dystrophic limb phenotype. This correlated with decreased EECD34 stem cells and a concomitant increase and subsequent return to normalcy of both Pax7 and Pitx2-positive cell density. By two months, normal het EOM morphology returned. It appears that irradiation disrupts the normal method of EOM remodeling, which react paradoxically to produce increased numbers of myogenic precursor cells. This suggests that the EOM contain myogenic precursor cell types resistant to 18 Gy gamma irradiation, allowing return to normal morphology 2 months post-irradiation. This supports our hypothesis that ongoing proliferation of specialized regenerative populations in the het EOM actively maintains normal EOM morphology in DMD. Ongoing studies are working to define the differences in the myogenic precursor cells

  15. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.

  16. Analysis of neurotrophic factors in limb and extraocular muscles of mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid M Harandi

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is currently an incurable fatal motor neuron syndrome characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting and death ensuing 3-5 years after diagnosis. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs are known to be important in both nervous system development and maintenance. However, the attempt to translate the potential of NTFs into the therapeutic options remains limited despite substantial number of approaches, which have been tested clinically. Using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR technique, the present study investigated mRNA expression of four different NTFs: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in limb muscles and extraocular muscles (EOMs from SOD1G93A transgenic mice at early and terminal stages of ALS. General morphological examination revealed that muscle fibres were well preserved in both limb muscles and EOMs in early stage ALS mice. However, in terminal ALS mice, most muscle fibres were either atrophied or hypertrophied in limb muscles but unaffected in EOMs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in early stage ALS mice, NT-4 was significantly down-regulated in limb muscles whereas NT-3 and GDNF were markedly up-regulated in EOMs. In terminal ALS mice, only GDNF was significantly up-regulated in limb muscles. We concluded that the early down-regulation of NT-4 in limb muscles is closely associated with muscle dystrophy and dysfunction at late stage, whereas the early up-regulations of GDNF and NT-3 in EOMs are closely associated with the relatively well-preserved muscle morphology at late stage. Collectively, the data suggested that comparing NTFs expression between limb muscles and EOMs from different stages of ALS animal models is a useful method in revealing the patho-physiology and progression of ALS, and eventually rescuing motor neuron in ALS patients.

  17. The properties of the extraocular muscles of the frog. I. Mechanical properties of the isolated superior oblique and superior rectus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, G

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties of two extraocular muscles (superior oblique and superior rectus muscles) of the frog were studied and compared with those of a frog's skeletal muscle (iliofibularis muscle) which contains the same types of muscle fibres as the oculorotatory muscles. The extraocular muscles are very fast twitching muscles. They exhibit a smaller contraction time, a smaller half-relaxation time, a higher fusion frequency, and a lower twitch-tetanus ratio than the skeletal muscles. The maximum isometric tetanic tension produced per unit cross-sectional area is lower in the extraocular muscles than in skeletal muscles. However, the extraocular muscles show a higher fatigue resistance than the skeletal muscles. With respect to the dynamic properties there are some differences between the various oculorotatory muscles of the frog. The superior rectus muscle exhibits a faster time-course of the contraction, a higher fusion frequency, and a higher fatigability than the superior oblique muscle. An increase of the extracellular K+-concentration evokes sustained contractures not only in the extraocular muscles but also in the iliofibularis muscle; between these muscles there are no striking differences in the mechanical threshold of the whole muscle preparation. The mechanical threshold depends on the Ca++-concentration of the bathing solution and it is found in a range between 12.5 and 17.5 mM K+ in a normal Ringer solution containing 1.8 mM Ca++. The static-mechanical properties of the extraocular muscles of the frog and the dependence of the active developed tension on the muscle extension are very similar to those which are known to exist in the extraocular muscles of other vertebrates. In tetanic activated frog's oculorotatory muscles a linear relationship exists between length and tension. A variation of the stimulation frequency does not change the slope of this curve but causes parallel shifts of the curve. The peculiar properties of the extraocular muscles

  18. Low energy semiconductor laser irradiation in the treatment of exposed hydroxyapatite orbital implants%低功率半导体激光治疗羟基磷灰石义眼座暴露

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖洪斐; 陈蔷娟; 易敬林; 冯珍; 张向荣; 聂萍萍

    2003-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the value of low energy level of semiconductor laser irradiation in treatment of exposured hydroxyapatite orbital implants. Methods Twenty-two patients who suffered from the exposure were treated with multifunctional semiconductor laser therapy apparatus. They were divided into 3 groups according to the size of the exposure zone (vertical diameter: mild, ≤ 3mm; moderate:4-7mm; severe: 8-10mm). Every patient was treated for 5 minutes per day for 5 to 15 days. And the results were compared with another 20 patients suffering from the same disease who were treated by pharmacotherapy and/or operative therapy. Results All of the 22 patients treated by laser therapy were cured (100%), while the cure rates of the control who was further divided according to the severity of exposure size, i.e. mild, moderate and severe, were 83.3%, 63.6% and 0 respectively. So laser therapy was statistically superior to pharmacotherapy and/or operative therapy in the treatment of moderate and severe states of exposure. Conclusion Laser therapy is more effective than pharmacotherapy and/or operative therapy in treatment of the exposed hydroxyapatite orbital implants. Laser therapy can prevent the enlargement of the exposure zone.%目的探讨低功率半导体激光治疗羟基磷灰石义眼座暴露的疗效.方法采用JAM-II型多功能半导体激光治疗仪(激光物质为GaA1As,激光波长650nm)对22例不同程度的义眼座暴露患者进行激光照射治疗,并将结果与既往采用药物及手术治疗的20例义眼座暴露患者比较.结果 激光组22例全部愈合(100%);药物及手术组中轻、中、重度的愈合率分别为83.3%,63.6%和0.经采用X2检验之四格表精确检验法处理,2组间轻度患者的愈合率在统计学上差异无显著性意义(P=0.545),而2组间中度和重度患者的愈合率在统计学上差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).结论低功率半导体激光治疗羟基磷灰石义眼座暴露的疗效优于药物

  19. 眼眶骨折修复术的临床疗效分析%The clinical analysis on the method and effect of repairing surgery for orbital fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜战云; 郑嵩山; 王永功; 柴昌; 戴淑真

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the method and effect of repairing surgery for orbital fracture.Methods Clinical manifestations and treatments of 96 cases of orbital fracture were analyzed retrospectively.Results Postoperative displace,prolapse,infection,rejection or visual decrease were not observed in the 96 cases.Enophthalmos was corrected completely in 94 cases (97.92%) and undercorrected by 1 ~2 mm in 2 cases (2.08%) after surgery.Exophthalmos was corrected by 1.5 ~3.5 mm compared with preoperation.Diplopia was alleviated obviously in 8 case (8.33%) without diplopia in primary eye position,except for the condition of eyeball maximal exercise;and was corrected completely in 85 cases (88.54%);Diplopia was alleviated partially in 3case (3.13%) and after one year the strabismus correction was adopted.Early chemosis after operation was observed in 27cases,and orbital hemorrhage was found in 2 cases.All cases returned to normal situation within 2 weeks.Decreased sensation of infraorbital nerve innervation existed in 11 cases,with returning to normal situation in 3 months in 9 cases and permanent damage in 2 cases.Conclusion The suitable approaches and orbital implants can be selected according to its fracture condition and location to repair the orbital fracture and recover the orbital cavity volume.The curative effect is better in the early phase of orbital fracture than in the late phase.The key points of eliminating diplopia are to release the blocked extraocular muscles,strengthen the early functional exercise of eyeball and prevent re-conglutination of extraocular muscles.%目的 分析眼眶骨折患者的手术方法及效果.方法 对96例(96眼)眼眶骨折的临床表现、治疗方法和效果进行回顾性分析.结果 96例术后均未发生填充材料移位、脱出、感染或排斥现象,无术后视力下降者.94例(97.92%)术后眼球内陷得到完全矫正,2例(2.08%)欠矫l~2mm,眼球突出度均较术前提高1.5~3.5 mm;85例(88

  20. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound. People who are ... of-hearing can get help from them. The implant consists of two parts. One part sits on ...

  1. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imaging (MRI) scans, to evaluate your inner ear anatomy. Cochlear implant surgery Cochlear implant surgery is usually performed as an outpatient procedure under general anesthesia. An incision is made behind the ear ...

  2. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: A myogenic precursor cell hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallestad, Kristen M.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McDonald, Abby A.; Daniel, Mark L.; Cu, Sharon R.; McLoon, Linda K., E-mail: mcloo001@tc.umn.edu

    2011-04-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin{sup -/-} (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a

  3. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: a myogenic precursor cell hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallestad, Kristen M; Hebert, Sadie L; McDonald, Abby A; Daniel, Mark L; Cu, Sharon R; McLoon, Linda K

    2011-04-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin(-/-) (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a subpopulation

  4. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  5. 钛网植入治疗眼眶内下壁爆裂性骨折眼球内陷%Titanium mesh implantation for the treatment of enophthalmos caused by blow-out fractures of orbital medial and inferior walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金国; 张静楷; 陈松; 韩琪; 颜华

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨钛网植入治疗眼眶内下壁爆裂性骨折后眼球内陷的效果.方法 回顾性分析11例(11只眼)眼眶内下壁爆裂性骨折行钛网植入手术的临床资料.术前眼球内陷4.0 ~6.5mm,伴双眼复视者2例,眼球下移位者4例.手术入路为下睑缘切口联合鼻侧皮肤切口,分别于骨膜下植入钛网覆盖眶内壁及下壁骨折缺损区.结果 术后随访7~11个月,眼球内陷均矫正至1 mm以内,2例复视完全消失,4例眼球移位均完全矫正.术后无感染、植人物脱出、排斥或移位等并发症.结论 单纯应用钛网治疗眼眶内下壁爆裂性骨折引起的眼球内陷安全有效,重建眶腔特殊解剖形态、完全还纳脱出的眶内容物是治疗的关键.%Objective To evaluate the effect of titanium mesh implantation for enophthalmos secondary to blow-out fractures of orbital medial and inferior walls.Methods The surgical effects of 11 cases (11 eyes) of blow-out fractures of orbital medial and inferior walls who received titanium mesh implantation for orbital reconstruction were analyzed retrospectively.Preoperatively,all cases showed 4.0 to 6.5mm enophthalmos among whom 2 cases had diplopia and 4 cases had apparent vertical globe dystopia.For all the cases,inferior subciliary approach combined with nasal lateral approach were performed,and 2 titanium mesh plates were implanted under the periosteum to cover the area of the inferior and medial orbital wall fracture respectively in order to reconstruct the normal orbital cavity.Results Postoperatively,after a followed up period of 7-11 months,the enophthalmos of all cases was corrected to less than l mm successfully,the preoperative diplopia disappeared in all the 2 cases,the vertical globe dystopia of 4 cases disappeared totally,and no complication such as infection,extrusion,rejection or migration of the implants occurred.Conclusion Titanium mesh plates implantation only is safe and effective to correct the enophthalmos

  6. Thermal orbital injuries from disposable cauteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Stasior, O G

    1984-07-01

    Forty rabbits divided in six groups and three brands of hot wire cautery with temperature ranging from 190 degrees C to 1035 degrees C were used in this experiment. A surgical procedure resembling a cosmetic blepharoplasty was performed on a total of 60 lower eyelids of the rabbits. The remaining eyelids were either shams or normal controls. Cautery application to orbital fat was carefully controlled, i.e., 10 or 20 seconds in single or double applications. Gross observation and microscopic examination of the biopsied specimens taken at 3 hours, 2 days, and 2 weeks after the procedures were performed. Evidence of thermal injury to the lacrimal gland and extraocular muscle damage was found. Although no evidence of thermal injury to the optic nerve was found, it was conceivable that either by a direct transfer of heat or by an indirect inflammatory and compressive effect the health of the optic nerve might be threatened. It is strongly recommended that hot wire cautery be used with extreme caution when working with orbital tissues.

  7. 'Orbital volume restoration rate after orbital fracture'; a CT-based orbital volume measurement for evaluation of orbital wall reconstructive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, J M; Sung, K H; Chi, M

    2017-01-13

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of orbital reconstruction and factors related to the effect of orbital reconstruction by assessing of orbital volume using orbital computed tomography (CT) in cases of orbital wall fracture.MethodsIn this retrospective study, 68 patients with isolated blowout fractures were evaluated. The volumes of orbits and herniated orbital tissues were determined by CT scans using a three-dimensional reconstruction technique (the Eclipse Treatment Planning System). Orbital CT was performed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at final follow ups (minimum of 6 months). We evaluated the reconstructive effect of surgery making a new formula, 'orbital volume reconstruction rate' from orbital volume differences between fractured and contralateral orbits before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow up.ResultsMean volume of fractured orbits before surgery was 23.01±2.60 cm(3) and that of contralateral orbits was 21.31±2.50 cm(3) (P=0.005). Mean volume of the fractured orbits immediately after surgery was 21.29±2.42 cm(3), and that of the contralateral orbits was 21.33±2.52 cm(3) (P=0.921). Mean volume of fractured orbits at final follow up was 21.50±2.44 cm(3), and that of contralateral orbits was 21.32±2.50 cm(3) (P=0.668). The mean orbital volume reconstruction rate was 100.47% immediately after surgery and 99.17% at final follow up. No significant difference in orbital volume reconstruction rate was observed with respect to fracture site or orbital implant type. Patients that underwent operation within 14 days of trauma had a better reconstruction rate at final follow up than patients who underwent operation over 14 days after trauma (P=0.039).ConclusionComputer-based measurements of orbital fracture volume can be used to evaluate the reconstructive effect of orbital implants and provide useful quantitative information. Significant reduction of orbital volume is observed immediately after orbital wall

  8. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.OBJETIVO: A crotoxina é a principal neurotoxina da cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e sua ação neurotóxica caracteriza-se por um bloqueio pr

  9. Implantable Microimagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ohta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications.

  10. [The gene mutation screening of a family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles associated with corpus callosum agenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-tao; Zhou, Lian-hong; Zha, Yun-fei; Liu, Tian; Tian, Ming-xing; Yuan, Jing; Xing, Yi-qiao

    2013-07-01

    To identify TUBB3 gene mutations in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscle associated with corpus callosum agenesis. We have found a family with CFEOM associated with corpus callosum agenesis, including 4 affected individuals in three generations of 11 familial members. 4 affected individuals were sequenced by direct TUBB3 sequencing, 4 unaffected individuals in the family and 100 cases of unrelated normal person as a control. This family is in line with Mendelian autosomal dominant inheritance. Clinical manifestations belongs to CFEOM3. All affected individuals were detected with TUBB3 c.1249G > A mutation, the mutation is in exon 4, resulting in wild-type gene encoding the Aspartic acid ( Asp or D ) replaced .by Asparagine (Asn or N ). Our study supports that TUBB3 gene mutation c.1249G > A (p. Asp417Asn), is the underlying molecular pathogenesis of this family with CFEOM3.

  11. Phenothiourea sensitizes zebrafish cranial neural crest and extraocular muscle development to changes in retinoic acid and IGF signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Bohnsack

    Full Text Available 1-Phenyl 2-thiourea (PTU is a tyrosinase inhibitor commonly used to block pigmentation and aid visualization of zebrafish development. At the standard concentration of 0.003% (200 µM, PTU inhibits melanogenesis and reportedly has minimal other effects on zebrafish embryogenesis. We found that 0.003% PTU altered retinoic acid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF regulation of neural crest and mesodermal components of craniofacial development. Reduction of retinoic acid synthesis by the pan-aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor diethylbenzaldehyde, only when combined with 0.003% PTU, resulted in extraocular muscle disorganization. PTU also decreased retinoic acid-induced teratogenic effects on pharyngeal arch and jaw cartilage despite morphologically normal appearing PTU-treated controls. Furthermore, 0.003% PTU in combination with inhibition of IGF signaling through either morpholino knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptor phosphorylation, disrupted jaw development and extraocular muscle organization. PTU in and of itself inhibited neural crest development at higher concentrations (0.03% and had the greatest inhibitory effect when added prior to 22 hours post fertilization (hpf. Addition of 0.003% PTU between 4 and 20 hpf decreased thyroxine (T4 in thyroid follicles in the nasopharynx of 96 hpf embryos. Treatment with exogenous triiodothyronine (T3 and T4 improved, but did not completely rescue, PTU-induced neural crest defects. Thus, PTU should be used with caution when studying zebrafish embryogenesis as it alters the threshold of different signaling pathways important during craniofacial development. The effects of PTU on neural crest development are partially caused by thyroid hormone signaling.

  12. Phenothiourea sensitizes zebrafish cranial neural crest and extraocular muscle development to changes in retinoic acid and IGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, Brenda L; Gallina, Donika; Kahana, Alon

    2011-01-01

    1-Phenyl 2-thiourea (PTU) is a tyrosinase inhibitor commonly used to block pigmentation and aid visualization of zebrafish development. At the standard concentration of 0.003% (200 µM), PTU inhibits melanogenesis and reportedly has minimal other effects on zebrafish embryogenesis. We found that 0.003% PTU altered retinoic acid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) regulation of neural crest and mesodermal components of craniofacial development. Reduction of retinoic acid synthesis by the pan-aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor diethylbenzaldehyde, only when combined with 0.003% PTU, resulted in extraocular muscle disorganization. PTU also decreased retinoic acid-induced teratogenic effects on pharyngeal arch and jaw cartilage despite morphologically normal appearing PTU-treated controls. Furthermore, 0.003% PTU in combination with inhibition of IGF signaling through either morpholino knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptor phosphorylation, disrupted jaw development and extraocular muscle organization. PTU in and of itself inhibited neural crest development at higher concentrations (0.03%) and had the greatest inhibitory effect when added prior to 22 hours post fertilization (hpf). Addition of 0.003% PTU between 4 and 20 hpf decreased thyroxine (T4) in thyroid follicles in the nasopharynx of 96 hpf embryos. Treatment with exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) and T4 improved, but did not completely rescue, PTU-induced neural crest defects. Thus, PTU should be used with caution when studying zebrafish embryogenesis as it alters the threshold of different signaling pathways important during craniofacial development. The effects of PTU on neural crest development are partially caused by thyroid hormone signaling.

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy Determination of Young’s Modulus of Bovine Extra-ocular Tendon Fiber Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Lawrence; Reed, Jason; Shin, Andrew; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Extra-ocular tendons (EOTs) transmit the oculorotary force of the muscles to the eyeball to generate dynamic eye movements and align the eyes, yet the mechanical properties of the EOTs remain undefined. The EOTs are known to be composed of parallel bundles of small fibers whose mechanical properties must be determined in order to characterize the overall behavior of EOTs. The current study aimed to investigate the transverse Young’s modulus of EOT fiber bundles using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fresh bovine EOT fiber bundle specimens were maintained under temperature and humidity control, and indented 100 nm by the inverted pyramid tip of an AFM (Veeco Digital Instruments, NY). Ten indentations were conducted for each of 3 different locations of 10 different specimens from each of 6 EOTs, comprising a total of 1,800 indentations. Young’s modulus for each EOT was determined using a Hertzian contact model. Young’s moduli for fiber bundles from all six EOTs were determined. Mean Young’s moduli for fiber bundles were similar for the six anatomical EOTs: lateral rectus 60.12 ± 2.69 (±SD) MPa, inferior rectus 59.69 ± 5.34 MPa, medial rectus 56.92 ±1.91 MPa, superior rectus 59.66 ±2.64 MPa, inferior oblique 57.7± 1.36 MPa, and superior oblique 59.15± 2.03. Variation in Young’s moduli among the six EOTs was not significant (P > 0.25). The Young’s modulus of bovine EOT fibers is highly uniform among the six extraocular muscles, suggesting that each EOT is assembled from fiber bundles representing the same biomechanical elements. This uniformity will simplify overall modeling. PMID:24767704

  14. Orbital pseudotumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goodlick TA, Kay MD, Glaser JS, Tse DT, Chang WJ. Orbital disease and neuro-ophthalmology. In: Tasman ... 423. Review Date 8/20/2016 Updated by: Franklin W. Lusby, MD, ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La ...

  15. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  16. Image Compression and Resizing for Retinal Implant in Bionic Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sharmili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One field where computer-related Image processing technology shows great promise for the future isbionic implants such as Cochlear implants, Retinal implants etc.. Retinal implants are being developedaround the world in hopes of restoring useful vision for patients suffering from certain types of diseaseslike Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD and Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP. In these diseases thephotoreceptor cells slowly degenerated, leading to blindness. However, many of the inner retinalneurons that transmit signals from the photoreceptors to the brain are preserved to a large extent for aprolonged period of time. The Retinal Prosthesis aims to provide partial vision by electricallyactivating the remaining cells of the retina. The Epi retinal prosthesis system is composed of twounits, extra ocular unit and intraocular implant. The two units are connected by a telemetric inductivelink. The Extraocular unit consists of a CCD camera, an image processor, an encoder, and a transmitterbuilt on the eyeglass. High-resolution image from a CCD camera is reduced to lower resolutionmatching the array of electrodes by image processor, which is then encoded into bit stream. Eachelectrode in an implant corresponds to one pixel in an image. The bit stream is modulated on a 22 MHzcarrier and then transmitted wirelessly to the inside implant. This paper mainly discusses twoapproaches in image processing which reduces the size of the image without loss of the object detectionrate to that of the original image. One is about the related image processing algorithms include imageresizing, color erasing, edge enhancement and edge detection. Second one is to generate the saliencymap for an image.

  17. Complications associated with use of tantalum-mesh--covered implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, V A; La Piana, F G

    1982-02-01

    In 1948, ophthalmologists started implanting plastic spheres partially covered with tantalum mesh (eg, the Valley Forge Implant) in anophthalmic sockets. Numerous patients have developed complications ten to 15 years after surgery: pain ("pinching" or "deep"), headache, heavy mucopurulent discharge and diffuse conjunctival inflammation, migration of the implant, thinning or erosion of tissues covering the implant (extrusion), and inability to wear an artificial eye. Management includes refabrication of the artificial eye and replacement of the implant with a dermis-fat graft or a silicone ball plus scleral graft. Tantalum-mesh--covered orbital implants should probably not be used.

  18. CT in the diagnosis of isolated cysticercal infestation of extraocular muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauniyar, R.K.; Thakur, S.K.D.; Panda, A

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) to diagnose orbital cysticercosis, and present the diagnostic features. METHOD: US and CT were used to evaluate patients with proptosis. Four patients were diagnosed as having orbital myocysticercosis and treated with oral albendazole and corticosteroid. Follow-up was undertaken with US and CT. RESULT: US features were confirmatory of myocysticercosis in two eyes where as CT was effective in diagnosing the condition in all four eyes. In two patients the medial rectus was involved, in one the superior rectus and, in the other, the inferior rectus muscles. Serial US and CT revealed complete resolution of the lesions in 3 months. CONCLUSION: CT is useful method in diagnosing isolated orbital myocysticercosis. Our report demonstrated that ophthalmic signs and symptoms in the presence of proptosis, especially in an endemic region, should alert the clinician to the possibility of myocysticercosis. Though CT is superior, US can be used as a economical follow-up investigation. Rauniyar, R. K. etal. (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 154--156.

  19. A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, J M; Uwimpuhwe, H; Ballo, R; Kaur, M.; Bajic, V.B.; Prince, S.

    2009-01-01

    Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of severe extraocular muscle (EOM) dysfunction among African MG subjects reported earlier may result from altered DAF expression. To test this hypothesis, we screened the DAF gene sequences relevant to the classical complement pathway and found an association between myasthe...

  20. Reduction of Orbital Inflammation following Decompression for Thyroid-Related Orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Rog Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Thyroid-related orbitopathy (TRO is associated with inflammation, expansion of orbital fat, enlargement of extraocular muscles, and optic neuropathy (ON. We examined the effects of orbital decompression on the inflammatory and congestive signs of TRO in patients who underwent emergent orbital decompression. Methods. This retrospective, consecutive study included patients with ON from TRO who underwent orbital decompression. Pre- and postoperative orbital inflammatory signs in the operated and nonoperated, contralateral eyes were graded with the 10-item clinical activity score (CAS. Results. Thirty-one orbits were included. Postoperatively, 22 patients and 29 orbits had resolution of ON while the remaining 2 patients had improvement in visual acuity. Mean preoperative CAS was 9.5 ± 0.4. At 12 months, postoperative CAS was 2.1 ± 0.6 (P<0.01 in the operated eye and 3.2 ± 0.5 (P<0.05 in the nonoperated, contralateral eye. Conclusion. In our series, 94% of orbits had resolution of ON. There was also a statistically significant postoperative reduction in the CAS in both the operated and nonoperated, contralateral eyes. This phenomenon may be due to lowered venous congestion, decreased intraorbital pressure, and diminution in inflammatory factors.

  1. Goserelin Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in men (blockage that causes difficulty urinating), or heart or liver disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Goserelin implant should not be used in pregnant women, except ...

  2. Contraceptive implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E

    2010-03-01

    Implantable contraception has been extensively used worldwide. Implants are one of the most effective and reversible methods of contraception available. These devices may be particularly appropriate for certain populations of women, including women who cannot use estrogen-containing contraception. Implants are safe for use by women with many chronic medical problems. The newest implant, Implanon (Organon International, Oss, The Netherlands), is the only device currently available in the United States and was approved in 2006. It is registered for 3 years of pregnancy prevention. Contraceptive implants have failure rates similar to tubal ligation, and yet they are readily reversible with a return to fertility within days of removal. Moreover, these contraceptive devices can be safely placed in the immediate postpartum period, ensuring good contraceptive coverage for women who may be at risk for an unintended pregnancy. Irregular bleeding is a common side effect for all progestin-only contraceptive implants. Preinsertion counseling should address possible side effects, and treatment may be offered to women who experience prolonged or frequent bleeding. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  3. Lower fornix combined approach of functional outer canthal plasty orbital fracture Perioperative Care%下穹窿联合外眦入路功能性眼眶骨折整复术的围术期护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉萍; 韩丽芬

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察下穹窿联合外眦入路功能性眼眶骨折整复术的围术期护理效果。方法对经下穹窿联合外眦入路功能性眼眶骨折整复术的患者给予心理护理、术前护理、术后护理及眼外肌训练等观察疗效。结果所有患者经综合护理后术后经CT三维成像观察眼眶部骨折复位良好,眼球移位及复视得到良好的纠正。本组病例均以钛板行骨折固定,术后植入物兼容性好,术后恢复好。部分术后仅留术眼外眦部伤痕,不影响美观,有良好的美容效果。结论规范的围术期护理对下穹窿联合外眦入路功能性眼眶骨折整复术的治疗及恢复有重要的作用。%Objective To observe the outer canthus lower fornix combined approach of functional orbital fractures plasty perioperative care effect .Methods for the inferior fornix combined approach of functional outer canthal plasty orbital fractures in patients given psychological care ,preoperative care,postoperative care and extraoc-ular muscle training effects were observed .Results All patients with comprehensive care after the observation of three -dimensional imaging by CT after orbital fractures good eye displacement and diplopia get good correction.The patients are titanium line fracture fixation and implant compatibility ,good postoperative recovery.After leav-ing only part of the lateral canthus of eye surgery scars,do not affect the appearance,good cosmetic results.Conclusion standardized perioperative nursing care under the dome on the outer canthus combined approach of functional plasty orbital fracture treatment and recovery has an important role.

  4. Computed tomographic evaluation of the orbit and sella turcica. An atlas of anatomic-CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, C.Y.; Iwakawa, N. (Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of this study is the correlation of the gross anatomy of the orbit and sella turcica with their appearance on CT images. The head of an embalmed human cadaver was scanned in axial and coronal planes according to Reid's base line, using the GE CT/T 8800 scanner with 1.5 mm collimation. The technique of Review sup(TM) target reconstruction was applied. The cadaver was sectioned in axial and coronal planes 2 to 3 mm slices. We analysed the appearance of the orbit and sella turcica in various axial and coronal sections, and then correlated the anatomic and CT appearances in corresponding planes. Based on the analysis of extra-ocular muscles and optic nerve, judgements regarding their size should be based only on true cross sections, 90/sup 0/ to the course of the individual muscle or optic nerve.

  5. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 侯自新

    2001-01-01

    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  6. Value of Free-Run Electromyographic Monitoring of Extraocular Cranial Nerves during Expanded Endonasal Surgery (EES) of the Skull Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  7. Loss of MAFB Function in Humans and Mice Causes Duane Syndrome, Aberrant Extraocular Muscle Innervation, and Inner-Ear Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong G; Tischfield, Max A; Nugent, Alicia A; Cheng, Long; Di Gioia, Silvio Alessandro; Chan, Wai-Man; Maconachie, Gail; Bosley, Thomas M; Summers, C Gail; Hunter, David G; Robson, Caroline D; Gottlob, Irene; Engle, Elizabeth C

    2016-06-02

    Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital eye-movement disorder defined by limited outward gaze and retraction of the eye on attempted inward gaze. Here, we report on three heterozygous loss-of-function MAFB mutations causing DRS and a dominant-negative MAFB mutation causing DRS and deafness. Using genotype-phenotype correlations in humans and Mafb-knockout mice, we propose a threshold model for variable loss of MAFB function. Postmortem studies of DRS have reported abducens nerve hypoplasia and aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus muscle by the oculomotor nerve. Our studies in mice now confirm this human DRS pathology. Moreover, we demonstrate that selectively disrupting abducens nerve development is sufficient to cause secondary innervation of the lateral rectus muscle by aberrant oculomotor nerve branches, which form at developmental decision regions close to target extraocular muscles. Thus, we present evidence that the primary cause of DRS is failure of the abducens nerve to fully innervate the lateral rectus muscle in early development.

  8. Results of diplopia and strabismus in patients with severe thyroid ophthalmopathy after orbital decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilo Roncevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It has been frequently stated that the orbital decompression, in patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy, does not usually improve extraocular muscles function and that after the operation there is often a deterioration of these functions. The purpose of this article is evaluation of extraocular muscles function after applying personal method of 3 wall orbital decompression. Materials And Methods: Retrospective review of case records of 119 patients with severe thyroid ophthalmopathy seen and treated by the author between December 1986 and December 2010. All patents underwent 3 wall orbital decompression combined with removal of the periorbital, intraorbital and retrobulbar fat. Correction of coexistent eyelid retraction and deformities were also performed. Results: Comparison of preoperative and postoperative results was conducted in 65 patients three months after 3 wall decompression. All patients showed a significant reduction of exophthalmos [5-11 mm, 7.2 mm on average], reduction of intraocular pressure, marked improvement in ocular muscle function as well as considerable reduction in or disappearance of subjective symptoms. There were no cases of subsequent impairment of ocular motility. Strabismus surgery was performed in 6 patients with residual diplopia. There was an improvement in vision in 68% patients who had impaired vision before the operation. Less evident relapse of exophthalmos was recorded in 3 cases only and only one patient required unilateral reoperation. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this method of orbital decompression is logical, based on an understanding of the pathology, has less complication rates, is relatively easy to perform, gives very good functional and aesthetic long term results and allows rapid recovery.

  9. Cochlear Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this text, the authors recall the main principles and data ruling cochlear implants. Then, a first circle of technical equipment for assistance is presented. This circle includes: device setting (DS), Electrically evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses (EABR), Neural Response Telemetry (NRT), Stapedial Reflex (SR) and Electrodogram Acquisition (EA). This first cycle becomes more and more important as children are implanted younger and younger; the amount of data available with this assistance makes necessary the use of models (implicit or explicit) to handle this information. Consequently, this field is more open than ever.

  10. Orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  11. [Central nervous system abnormalities related to congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguel-Ancheita, Silvia; Rodríguez-Garcidueñas, Wendolyn

    2009-01-01

    We undertook this study to describe central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD). This was a retrospective, observational, transversal and descriptive study including patients with congenital fibrotic strabismus. We analyzed clinical files of patients from 2001 to 2006. Neurological lesions were reported. Restrictive strabismus was demonstrated in all cases. Sixteen patients were included: nine males and seven females. Different neurological lesions were reported: corpus callosum anomalies, severe cortipathy, epilepsy, cavum vergae, nystagmus, occipital subarachnoid cyst, and hydrocephalus. Mental retardation was reported in 56% of patients. Different malformations were reported: genital malformations, trigonocephalus, camptodactyly, mild facial hypoplasia, low set ears, and agenesis of left ear. Blepharoptosis was present in 81% of patients. The most frequent form of strabismus was exotropia (56%), hypotropia in 37.5%, hypertropia 18.7%, "A" pattern 18.7%, and esotropia in 6.25%. Affection was cranial nerve III, 93.75%; cranial nerve VI, 6.25%; cranial nerve VII, 6.25%; and lesion to cranial nerve II in eight cases (50%). We have suggested that failure in early stages of embryology of the CNS can lead to the development of paralytic strabismus and generate secondary fibrotic changes, not only in muscle structures but also in other orbital tissues. That is the reason why we have used the term "congenital fibrotic strabismus" to report cases included in CCDD. We have demonstrated the strong association of mental retardation and neurological alterations. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is relevant for these patients.

  12. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Exams, Study Finds Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  13. Orbital disease related diplopia and its therapy%与眼眶疾病相关的复视问题及治疗对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 肖利华

    2012-01-01

    Diplopia is the common clinical manifestation of orbital diseases,which seriously impairs patients' quality of life.It occurs in many kinds of conditions,including orbital fractures,thyroid associated ophthalmopathy and lesions in extraocular muscles.The article recommended the pathogenesis,diagnostic methods and surgical indications of diplopia evoked by orbital fractures.The extraocular muscles could be involved in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy.Diplopia occurred in the active or inactive stage has different treatment protocols.The lesions in extraocular muscles include idiopathetic inflammation,parasitic cyst and varied benign or malignant tumors.The suitable treatment with accurate pathologic results could reduce diplopia efficiently.%复视是眼眶疾病中较为常见的临床表现,严重影响患者的生活质量.眼眶骨折、甲状腺相关眼病和眼外肌病变是常见的眼眶疾病,复视为共同特征.本文介绍了眼眶骨折造成复视的机制、检查方法及手术适应证和手术时机.甲状腺相关眼病可累及眼外肌,炎症活动期和静止期均可发生复视,但治疗方案有所不同.眼外肌病变包括特发性炎症、寄生虫囊肿及多种良、恶性肿瘤,经手术明确病理诊断后给予针对性治疗,可有效改善复视.

  14. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-01-01

    Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only...

  15. Agreement between intraoperative measurements and optical coherence tomography of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Pablo-Gómez-de-Liaño, L; Fernández-Vigo, J I; Ventura-Abreu, N; Morales-Fernández, L; García-Feijóo, J; Gómez-de-Liaño, R

    2016-12-01

    To assess the agreement between intraoperative measurements of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles with those measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. An analysis was made of a total of 67 muscles of 21 patients with strabismus. The limbus-insertion distance of the horizontal rectus muscles were measured using pre-operative SD-OCT and intra-operatively in 2 ways: 1) direct, after a conjunctival dissection in patients who underwent surgery, or 2) transconjunctival in patients who were treated with botulinum toxin, or in those who were not going to be operated. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were calculated to determine the concordance between the 2 methods. The mean age was 45.9 ±20.9 years (range 16 to 85), with 52% being women. The percentage of identification by direct intraoperative measurement was 95.6% (22/23), by transconjunctival intraoperative measurement 90.9% (40/44), and by OCT 85% (57/67), with 22 muscles finally being analysed for the agreement study between direct intraoperative measurement and OCT measurements, and 35 muscles for the agreement between transconjuctival intraoperative measurement and OCT. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good agreement with OCT and direct intraoperative measurements (0.931; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.839-0.972; P<.001), and with transconjunctival intraoperative measurements (0.889; 95% CI: 0.790-0.942; P<.001). The SD-OCT is an effective technique to measure the distance from the insertion of the horizontal rectus muscles to the limbus, with a high agreement with intraoperative measurements being demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Myostatin shows a specific expression pattern in pig skeletal and extraocular muscles during pre- and post-natal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Marco; Caliaro, Francesca; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Sacchetto, Roberta; Martinello, Tiziana; Toniolo, Luana; Reggiani, Carlo; Mascarello, Francesco

    2008-02-01

    Myogenesis is driven by an extraordinary array of cellular signals that follow a common expression pattern among different animal phyla. Myostatin (mstn) is a secreted growth factor that plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle mass regulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate mstn expression in a large mammal (the pig) in order to ascertain whether distinct expression changes of this factor might be linked to the fiber-type composition of the muscle examined and/or to specific developmental stages. To assess the expression pattern of mstn in relation to myogenic proliferative (Pax7 and MyoD) and differentiative (myogenin) markers, we evaluated muscles with different myosin heavy-chain compositions sampled during pre- and post-natal development and on myogenic cells isolated from the same muscles. Skeletal muscles showed higher levels of mRNA for mstn and all other genes examined during fetal development than after birth. The wide distribution of mstn was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry experiments supporting evidence for cytoplasmic staining in early fetal periods as well as the localization in type 1 fibers at the end of the gestation period. Extraocular muscles, in contrast, did not exhibit decreasing mRNA levels for mstn or other genes even in adult samples and expressed higher levels of both mstn mRNA and protein compared with skeletal muscles. Experiments carried out on myogenic cells showed that mstn mRNA levels decreased when myoblasts entered the differentiation program and that cells isolated at early post-natal stages maintained a high level of Pax7 expression. Our results showed that mstn had a specific expression pattern whose variations depended on the muscle type examined, thus supporting the hypothesis that at birth, porcine myogenic cells continue to be influenced by hyperplastic/proliferative mechanisms.

  17. Conserved and muscle-group-specific gene expression patterns shape postnatal development of the novel extraocular muscle phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Georgiana; Merriam, Anita P; Gong, Bendi; Leahy, Patrick; Khanna, Sangeeta; Porter, John D

    2004-07-08

    Current models in skeletal muscle biology do not fully account for the breadth, causes, and consequences of phenotypic variation among skeletal muscle groups. The muscle allotype concept arose to explain frank differences between limb, masticatory, and extraocular (EOM) muscles, but there is little understanding of the developmental regulation of the skeletal muscle phenotypic range. Here, we used morphological and DNA microarray analyses to generate a comprehensive temporal profile for rat EOM development. Based upon coordinate regulation of morphologic/gene expression traits with key events in visual, vestibular, and oculomotor system development, we propose a model that the EOM phenotype is a consequence of extrinsic factors that are unique to its local environment and sensory-motor control system, acting upon a novel myoblast lineage. We identified a broad spectrum of differences between the postnatal transcriptional patterns of EOM and limb muscle allotypes, including numerous transcripts not traditionally associated with muscle fiber/group differences. Several transcription factors were differentially regulated and may be responsible for signaling muscle allotype specificity. Significant differences in cellular energetic mechanisms defined the EOM and limb allotypes. The allotypes were divergent in many other functional transcript classes that remain to be further explored. Taken together, we suggest that the EOM allotype is the consequence of tissue-specific mechanisms that direct expression of a limited number of EOM-specific transcripts and broader, incremental differences in transcripts that are conserved by the two allotypes. This represents an important first step in dissecting allotype-specific regulatory mechanisms that may, in turn, explain differential muscle group sensitivity to a variety of metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  18. 4D-visualization of the orbit based on dynamic MRI with special focus on the extra-ocular muscles and the optic nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, C. [Univ. of Applied Sciences Osnabrueck (Germany); Boerner, B.I.; Buitrago, C.; Klarhoefer, M.; Scheffler, K.; Kunz, C.; Zeilhofer, H.F. [Univ. Hospital Basle (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    By recording time dependent patients' behaviour, dynamic radiology is dedicated to capturing functional anatomy. Dynamic 'quasi-continuous' MRI data of lateral eye movements of a healthy volunteer were acquired using SE imaging sequence (Siemens, 1.5 T). By means of combined application of several image processing and visualization techniques, namely shaded and transparent surface reconstruction as well as direct volume rendering, 4D-visualization of the dynamics of the extra ocular muscles was possible. Though the original MRI data were quite coarse vascular structures could be recognized to some extent. For the sake of 4D-visualization of the optic nerve, the optic cavity was opened by axial clipping of the visualization. Superimposition of the original MRI slices to the visualization, either transparently or opaque, served as validation and comparison to conventional diagnosis. For facilitation of the analysis of the visualization results, stereoscopic rendering was rated as quite significant especially in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  19. Orbital liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbolla-Pertierra, A M; Morales-Baños, D R; Martínez-Nava, L R; Garrido-Sánchez, G A; López-Hernández, C M; Velasco-Ramos, P

    2017-02-01

    The case is presented of a 46-year-old male with right eye proptosis and conjunctival hyperaemia, of 18 months onset. A well-defined intraconal mass was found in the computed tomography. In magnetic resonance this was hypo-intense on T1, enhanced with gadolinium and hyperintense on T2. Excisional biopsy was performed, which was reported as a well-differentiated liposarcoma in the histopathology study. Liposarcoma is a malignant adipose tissue tumour. It is very rare in the orbit, with 5 histological types, the most common being myxoid. The treatment of choice is wide surgical excision and may be accompanied with radiotherapy. As it is an infiltrative tumour, It has a high rate of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. 应用多孔高密度聚乙烯植入物矫正眼眶爆裂性骨折导致的眼球内陷%Correction of enophthalmos causing by orbital blowout fractures with porous high density polyethylene implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 李筱荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate correction action of porous high-density polyethylene implants in the enophthalmos caused by orbital blowout fracture. Methods: 83 cases of orbital blowout fracture were selected. Orbital fractures were repaired and enophthalmos were correcte by porous high-density polyethylene implants. The eye movement, the degree of enophthalmos, visual acuity, diplopia, and in-fraorbital nerve feelings were estimated in 6 months after operation and preoperation. Results: In 83 patients (83 eyes), 69 cases of postoperative corrected visual acuity were improved, 14 cases decline in early postoperation, after 7-10 days neurotrophic treatment corrected visual acuity achieved 0.8 and above; 78 cases of enophthalmos correction were satisfactory, 5 cases were undercorrection; 79 cases of postoperative eye movements were normal, 4 cases of eye movement were improved poorly; In 75 patients diplopia were completely eliminated the extreme temporal lobe diplopia were left in 8 cases; 83 cases after surgery had no infraorbital neural sensory loss. Conclusion: Porous high density polyethylene implants can be effective for repair of orbital blowout fracture and correction of enophthalmos, and its long-term effect is security and stability.%目的:评价在手术治疗眼眶爆裂性骨折中应用多孔高密度聚乙烯植入物矫正眼球内陷的效果.方法:选取83例需要手术治疗的眼眶爆裂性骨折患者.术中采用多孔高密度聚乙烯植入物修复眼眶骨折并矫正眼球内陷.从眼球运动、眼球内陷程度、视力、复视及眶下神经感觉等方面对术后6个月及术前情况进行评估.结果:83例患者(83眼)中,69例术后矫正视力得到改善,14例术后早期下降,经7~10d神经营养治疗矫正视力均达到0.8及以上:78例术后眼球内陷纠正满意,5例欠矫;79例术后眼球活动正常,4例眼球运动障碍改善欠佳;75例术后完全消除复视,8例遗留极端颞侧复视;83

  1. A rare presentation and challenging reconstruction of an extensive cystic orbital Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son T. Ho, MD

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year old female presents with an irritated right eye and right-sided enophthalmos for the past year. The patient previously had an extensive right-sided cystic orbital schwannoma removed with reconstruction 5 years ago. Imaging revealed an enlarged right orbit with medial wall collapse and inferior displacement of a floor plate implant. An anterior orbitotomy with placement of an enophthalmos implant and 1mm Medpor sheets was conducted to reconstruct the orbit and corrected the ocular misalignment and right lower lid retraction. We report a successful case of orbital reconstruction in a patient with orbital deformity due to the removal of a massive cystic schwannoma.

  2. A rare presentation and challenging reconstruction of an extensive cystic orbital Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son T Ho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year old female presents with an irritated right eye and right-sided enophthalmos for the past year. The patient previously had an extensive right-sided cystic orbital schwannoma removed with reconstruction 5 years ago. Imaging revealed an enlarged right orbit with medial wall collapse and inferior displacement of a floor plate implant. An anterior orbitotomy with placement of an enophthalmos implant and 1mm Medpor sheets was conducted to reconstruct the orbit and corrected the ocular misalignment and right lower lid retraction. We report a successful case of orbital reconstruction in a patient with orbital deformity due to the removal of a massive cystic schwannoma.

  3. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  4. Management of orbital fractures: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyette JR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jennings R Boyette,1 John D Pemberton,2 Juliana Bonilla-Velez1 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA Abstract: Many specialists encounter and treat orbital fractures. The management of these fractures is often challenging due to the impact that they can have on vision. Acute treatment involves a thorough clinical examination and management of concomitant ocular injuries. The clinical and radiographic findings for each individual patient must then be analyzed for the need for surgical intervention. Deformity and vision impairment can occur from these injuries, and while surgery is intended to prevent these problems, it can also create them. Therefore, surgical approach and implant selection should be carefully considered. Accurate anatomic reconstruction requires complete assessment of fracture margins and proper implant contouring and positioning. The implementation of new technologies for implant shaping and intraoperative assessment of reconstruction will hopefully lead to improved patient outcomes. Keywords: orbital fracture, orbital blowout, orbital floor

  5. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2012-01-01

    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  6. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nila; F.Moeloek

    1993-01-01

    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  7. Craniofacial implants at a single centre 2005-2015: retrospective review of 451 implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, R; Chaggar, J; Knapp, N; Martin, T; White, N; Evriviades, D; Edmondson, S; Parmar, S

    2017-02-16

    Craniofacial endosseous implants are regularly used to support prostheses in the rehabilitation of complex defects, but reported success rates vary. To review our own clinical practice over 10 years, and particularly to examine the impact of radiotherapy and the timing of placement on the survival of implants, we retrospectively audited the records for all patients who had endosseous implants for prosthetic rehabilitation in our unit between 2005 and 2015. We reviewed 167 records, which gave 451 implants, of which, 222 (49%) were auricular, 98 (22%) nasal, and 131 (29%) orbital. Most were placed after ablative operations for cutaneous malignancy (n=103 patients, 62%). The failure rate of implants placed in bone that was irradiated either before or after placement was significantly higher than that of those placed in non-irradiated bone (univariate analysis: 11% compared with 2%, pimplants at the time of ablation. Our findings seem to support this practice regardless of whether or not the patient will later require adjuvant radiotherapy.

  8. The normal and variant clinical anatomy of the sensory supply of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voirol, Jenna R; Vilensky, Joel A

    2014-03-01

    Orbital and retro-orbital pain are relatively common clinical conditions that are associated with such disorders as trigeminal, lacrimal, and ciliary neuralgia, cluster headaches, paroxysmal hemicrania, inflammatory orbital pseudotumor, trochleitis, and herpetic neuralgia ophthalmicus, thus making the nerves supplying the orbit of great clinical importance. Surprisingly, how pain from this region reaches conscious levels is enigmatic. Classically, it has been assumed that pain reaches the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (V1 ) and travels to the descending spinal trigeminal nucleus. However, exactly where the receptors for orbital pain are located and how impulses reach V1 is speculative. In this project, we reviewed all of the reported connections between the orbital nerves and V1 in order to understand how pain from this region is transmitted to the brain. We found reported neural connections to exist between cranial nerve (CN) V1 and CNs III, IV, and VI within the orbit, as well as direct neural branches to extra-ocular muscles from the nasociliary, frontal, and supraorbital nerves. We also found reported neural connections to exist between the presumed carotid plexus and CN VI and CN V1 , CN VI and CN V1 and V2 , and between CN V1 and CN III, all within the cavernous sinus. Whether or not these connections are sympathetic or sensory or some combination of both connections remains unclear. An understanding of the variability and frequency of these neural connections could lead to safer surgical procedures of the orbit and effective treatments for patients with orbital pain.

  9. Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Karimi

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available People with profound hearing loss are not able to use some kinds of conventional amplifiers due to the nature of their loss . In these people, hearing sense is stimulated only when the auditory nerve is activated via electrical stimulation. This stimulation is possible through cochlear implant. In fact, for the deaf people who have good mental health and can not use surgical and medical treatment and also can not benefit from air and bone conduction hearing aids, this device is used if they have normal central auditory system. The basic parts of the device included: Microphone, speech processor, transmitter, stimulator and receiver, and electrode array.

  10. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.

  11. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may al...

  12. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine) ...

  13. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine). ...

  14. Degradation of implant materials

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the degradation of implant materials, reviewing in detail such failure mechanisms as corrosion, fatigue and wear, along with monitoring techniques. Surveys common implant biomaterials, as well as procedures for implant retrieval and analysis.

  15. Bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, P D; Char, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral orbital lesions are rare. The differential diagnosis includes orbital pseudotumour, metastasis, leukaemia, lymphoma, Wegener's granulomatosis, and neurofibromatosis. We report what we believe to be the first case of bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

  16. A STUDY OF OCULAR INVOLVEMENT IN ORBITAL FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Christy Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Orbital trauma is significantly disabling and is reported to occur in multiple situations. All traumas to the face require a careful ocular examination including an estimation of the visual acuity of each eye. However, other potentially blinding complications can easily be missed unless they are actively sought. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence and types of ocular involvement in orbital wall fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a prospective, hospital-based study of patients with orbital injuries and other associated facial bone fractures reporting to casualty and Department of Ophthalmology in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital over a period of two years. The study included 50 consecutive patients of orbital fractures attending our hospital. The statistical significance was analysed using chi-square test. RESULTS Out of the 50 cases, the majority of the participants were males comprising 88% (n-44 and the remaining 12% (n-6 were females. 80% of the males met with road traffic accidents and 68% of them were in the age group of 20 to 40 years. Among the females, 67% met with road traffic accidents and 33% had injury due to slip and fall. The orbital wall fractures were distributed as 52% in the single wall, 28% in two walls and 20% in more than two walls categories. The periocular findings in orbital wall fractures was distributed as 25 with Subconjunctival Haemorrhage (SCH, 16 with periorbital oedema and SCH, 14 with ecchymosis, 14 with pupil abnormality (mydriasis and RAPD, 1 with corneal perforation and 6 with lid laceration. 58% of the participants who had visual acuity between 6/6 to 6/6p had single wall fracture. Those who had visual acuity less than 6/12 had more than two walls fracture. There was extraocular movement restriction in 6 patients, which comprises 12%. CONCLUSION 78% of the orbital wall fractures were due to road traffic accidents. 68% of the persons involved were males in the age

  17. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2014-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  18. Implant marketing: cost effective implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohrle, P S; Levin, R P

    1996-01-01

    The application of the KAL-Technique to the field of implant dentistry allows both patients and dental practices to benefit. It is an exciting advance that decreases frustration and stress in providing implant procedures and lowers overall costs. Professionals using the KAL-Technique report significant predictability in achieving passive framework fit. They are also lowering overall cost of implant cases, which increases the number of patients who can accept implant treatment. It has been well established that the more individuals in a practice that receive implants, the more referrals a practice will gain. This is because implant patients find tremendous advances in the quality of life, and do not hesitate to tell others who can take advantage of this opportunity. Implant dentistry is one of the fastest growing fields in dentistry today. While some other areas of dentistry begin to decline in volume and need, implant dentistry provides the opportunity to keep practices strong and to insure long-term success.

  19. Ocular rehabilitation following socket reconstruction with amniotic membrane transplantation with failed primary hydroxyapatite implant post enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Raghuwar Dayal; Chand, Pooran; Alvi, Habib A

    2015-02-01

    There are several clinical situations that require enucleation in children, with retinoblastoma being the most common. Intra-orbital implants are routinely placed in children at the time of initial surgery to provide motility and cosmesis in addition to adequate orbital volume. Current practice employs intra-orbital implants made of nonporous silicone, hydroxyapatite, or porous polyethylene. Complications are usually minimal with these implants but they do occur. The purpose of this clinical report is to describe the rehabilitation of a pediatric patient with failed primary intra-orbital coralline hydroxyapatite implant post enucleation, who was successfully fitted with custom ocular prosthesis following secondary socket reconstruction with amniotic membrane transplantation after removal of infected implant.

  20. Flap tear of rectus muscles: an underlying cause of strabismus after orbital trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Irene H; Brown, Mark S

    2002-11-01

    To present an avulsion injury of the rectus muscle after orbital trauma, usually the inferior rectus, and detail its diagnosis and operative repair. Forty-three patients underwent repair of flap tears of 62 rectus muscles. During surgery, we found the muscle abnormality was often subtle, with narrowing or thinning of the remaining attached global layer of muscle. The detached flap of external (orbital) muscle was found embedded in surrounding orbital fat and connective tissue. Retrieval and repair were performed in each case. The causes of orbital trauma were as follows: orbital fractures (15 patients), blunt trauma with no fracture (11 patients), suspected trauma but did not undergo computerized tomographic scan (12 patients), and status after retinal detachment repair (5 patients). Of note, 15 of the 43 patients (35%) underwent repair of the flap tear alone, without any additional orbital or strabismus surgery. Diagnostically, the predominant motility defect in 45 muscles was limitation toward the field of action of the muscle, presumably as a result of a tether created by the torn flap; these tethers simulated muscle palsy. Seventeen muscles were restricted away from their field of action, simulating entrapment. The direction taken by the flap during healing determined the resultant strabismus pattern. All patients with gaze limitation toward an orbital fracture had flap tears. The worst results after flap tear repair were seen in patients (1) who had undergone orbital fracture repair before presentation, (2) who had undergone previous attempts at strabismus repair, and (3) who had the longest intervals between the precipitating event and the repair. The best results were obtained in patients who underwent simultaneous fracture and strabismus repair or early strabismus repair alone. Avulsion-type flap tears of the extraocular muscles are a common cause of posttraumatic strabismus. Early repair produces the best results, but improvement is possible despite long

  1. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  2. 眼眶爆裂性骨折应用Medpor外科种植体联合医用耳脑胶治疗的研究%Application of medpor surgical implant combined with medical biomaterials glue for treatment of orbital blowout fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔国栋; 夏娣; 李蕾; 苏金良; 姜红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of using Medpor surgical implant combined with medical biomaterials glue to treat orbital blowout fracture. Methods Retrospective analysis was taken in 26 patients with orbital fracture from the year of 2007 to 2010 by examination of CT scan, the endophthalmos, diplopia and ocular movement before and after operation. After six months we evaluated the clinical efficacy. Results Twenty-five eyes of endophthalmos recovered after operations. After six month twenty-one patients had improved eye sight without diplopia, diplopia of three patients improved obviously. All patients had no adverse reaction from Medpor. The vision of these eyes elevated with different degrees. Conclusions For the patients of orbital trauma, early diagnoses is very important. If patients have endophthalmos and diplopia, the plerosis operation must be done as early as possible. The way of the operation is to use Medpor transplantation combined with medical biomaterials glue to fracture bone. Training of ocular movement immediately after the operation is an efficacious clinical therapy.%目的 探讨Medpor外科种植体联合医用耳脑胶治疗眼眶爆裂性骨折的临床应用意义.方法 手术治疗眼眶骨折26例(26眼).术前常规CT检查,并检查眼球内陷、复视及眼球运动情况,评价术后治疗效果.结果 术后25例眼球内陷得到明显改善,术后6个月,21例复视完全治愈,3例复视症状好转,所有病例无Medpor植入术后不良反应.结论 眼眶爆裂性骨折应早期即做出准确诊断,如伴明显复视与眼球内陷,应该早期手术治疗,术中应用Medpor联合医用耳脑胶植入骨折缺损处,术后早期行眼球运动训练,可取得良好疗效.

  3. 应用Medpor种植体联合医用耳脑胶治疗眼眶爆裂性骨折的临床研究%Application of Medpor surgical implant combined medicine biomaterials glue for treatment of orbital burst fracture guodong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏金良; 崔国栋; 魏秀华; 李蕾; 夏娣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨Medpor种植体联合医用耳脑胶治疗眼眶爆裂性骨折的疗效.方法 回顾性分析2008年7月至2011年7月我院手术治疗的31例(31只眼)眼眶骨折患者,术前常规CT检查,并检查眼球内陷、复视及眼球运动情况,评价术后治疗效果.结果 术后26例眼球内陷患者得到明显改善,术后6个月,24例患者复视完全治愈,6例复视症状好转,所有病例无Medpor植入术后不良反应.结论 眼眶爆裂性骨折应早期即做出准确诊断,如伴明显复视与眼球内陷,应该早期手术治疗,术中应用Medpor联合医用耳脑胶植入骨折缺损处,术后早期行眼球运动训练,可取得满意疗效.%Objective To observe the clinical treatment efficacy of Medpor surgical implant combined with medicine biomaterials glue to treat orbital burst fracture. Methods Retrospectively analysis was performed in 21 patients with orbital fracture from the year of 2007-2010 by examination of CT scan, endophthalmos,diplopia and ocular movement before operation and after it. After six months we evaluated the treatment efficacy. Results Twenty-five eyes endophthalmos recovered after operations. After six month twenty-one patients had improved eye sight without diplopia,diplopia of three patients improved obviously. All patients had no adverse reaction from Medpor. The vision of these eyes elevated with different degrees. Conclusion For the patients of orbital trauma, early diagnoses is very important. If patients have endophthalmos and diplopia, plerosis operation should be performed as early as possible. The way of the operation is to use Medpor transplantation combined with medicine biomaterials glue to fracture bone. Train ocular movement immediately after the operation. The treatment is an effective clinical therapy.

  4. 眼球萎缩改良结膜瓣覆盖术临床观察%Clinical observation of non-orbital implantation with conjunctival flap covering the entire cornea for eyeball atrophy surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔磊; 田艳明; 李鹏; 闫希冬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical observation of non-movable coral eye-seat implantation with modified conjunctival-Tenon's capsule flap covering the entire cornea for eyeball atrophy surgery,applying thin eye model.Methods Thirteen eyes (13 light or moderate eyeball atrophy cases) who had accepted the surgical treatment including conjunctival flap covering the entire cornea,receiving thin eye-model 1 month later,which had satisfying cosmetically result.Results The surgical method of restoring mild and moderate atrophy eyeballs (especially mild atrophy eyeballs) to be the base and making a modified conjunctival-Tenon's capsule flap covering the entire cornea operation with thin eye-model fixed,restore the normally anatomy structure,had fewer complications and non-influence on eyeball movement.Conclusions The thin eye-model has good activity,satisfactory appearance and the appearance are obviously improved.%目的 探讨改良结膜瓣覆盖术治疗轻、中度萎缩眼球,术后安装薄型义眼模的临床效果.方法 对2006年1月至2014年1月在解放军第474医院就诊的13例(13只眼)轻、中度眼球萎缩患者保留完整角膜行结膜覆盖术,术后1个月配戴薄型义眼.结果 13例13只眼经过改良术式治疗配戴薄型义眼模,术后观察半年以上均达到满意的美容效果.结论 轻、中度萎缩眼球以其自身作为底座,行改良结膜瓣覆盖术并发症少,义眼模活动度良好,仿真效果逼真,明显改善患者容貌.

  5. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology.

  6. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology. PMID:22073096

  7. Retrograde peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jumshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation.

  8. [Bilateral cochlear implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Jona; Migirov, Lela; Taitelbaum-Swead, Rikey; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2010-06-01

    Cochlear implant surgery became the standard of care in hearing rehabilitation of patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This procedure may alter the lives of children and adults enabling them to integrate with the hearing population. In the past, implantation was performed only in one ear, despite the fact that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral, especially in noisy conditions. Cochlear implantation may be performed sequentially or simultaneously. The "sensitive period" of time between hearing loss and implantation and between the two implantations, when performed sequentially, significantly influences the results. Shorter time spans between implantations improve the hearing results after implantation. Hearing success after implantation is highly dependent on the rehabilitation process which includes mapping, implant adjustments and hearing training. Bilateral cochlear implantation in children is recommended as the proposed procedure in spite of the additional financial burden.

  9. 眶下壁骨折不同入路修复手术的效果比较%Comparison of the different approaches of reconstruction surgery for orbital floor fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江新利; 苗慧鹏; 周忠友; 张晓融; 刘金玲

    2016-01-01

    .84)d (t =-2.981,P =0.004)in lower lid group.Enophthalmos was improved in both groups.The degree of postoperative enophthalmos increased (1.13 ±0.68) mm in endoscopic transmaxillary group.Compared with (2.61 ± 0.90) mm in lower lid group,there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (t =-9.927,P =0.000).In lower lid group,significant eyelid scar was observed in 8 cases,and slight lower lid retraction was observed in 5 cases.Conclusion Surgical reconstruction with hydroxyapatite implantation for orbital floor blowout fracture via the two methods could effectively improve the diplopia and limited extraocular motion.Both of them have advantages and disadvantages.The endoscopic transmaxillary approach has the advantages of small damage and quick recovery,while the lower lid approach is better in significant enophthalmos correcting.

  10. 一体钛网整体修复眼眶骨折后眼球内陷的原因%Postoperative enophthalmos in inner and inferior orbital fracture repaired by titanium mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树纲; 邹吉新; 张繁友

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨经一体钛网材料整体修复眼眶内壁合并下壁骨折术后眼球内陷的原因.方法 眼眶内壁合并下壁骨折术后眼球内陷改善不理想6例,研究其手术方法、植入材料及影像学表现.结果 6例术前为眼球内陷3 ~4 mm,术前计算机断层成像(CT)显示骨折范围大,眶内容物大量脱出,“隅角”移位;手术中使用一体钛网材料同时修复内壁及下壁.术后残余2 mm的眼球内陷,2例复视.术后CT显示6例存在钛网后缘向筛窦移位,后部眶腔重建不理想,1例复视者存在眶内容旋转,眼外肌移位情况,1例骨膜下出血,眼球上移位.结论 眼眶内壁合并下壁骨折手术难度较大,直视下找到正常解剖标志点,采用个体化手术方案,合理选择手术材料,才能达到较好的效果.%Objective To explore the causes of postoperative enophthalmos in inner and inferior orbital fracture repaired by titanium mesh.Methods Six cases with inner and inferior orbital fracture repaired by titanium mesh were studied,whose postoperative symptoms were residual enophthalmos.Operative method,implant material,and imagining manifestation were studied.Results Preoperatively,6 cases showed 3~ 4 mm enophthalmos,CT showed fractures of orbital contents in large range,large number of prolapse,and "comer" shife.In operation,one titanium mesh was used to repair the fracture.Postoperative patients showed 2 mm enophthalmos in all these cases,and diplopia in 2 patients; postoperative CT showed the shift of titanium mesh edge to ethmoid sinus,posterior orbital reconstruction is not ideal ; in one diplopia case,CT showed rotation of orbital content and extraocular muscle transposition.Besides,subperiosteal hemorrhage and eyeball displacement were showed in the other diplopia case.Conclusion Operational difficulty in orbital fracture with inner and inferior wall is great.Normal anatomical landmark found under direct vision,individual operation scheme

  11. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model Estudo da crotoxina na indução de paralisia da musculatura extraocular em modelo animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.OBJETIVO: A

  12. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may also be observed. Prompt intravenous antibiotic treatment should be started, and surgical drainage may be performed if patient shows failure to improve in 48 hours despite optimal management. Without treatment, the clinical course may progress to subperiosteal or orbital abscess, and even to cavernous sinus thrombosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 52-6

  13. PRIMARY ENDOPROSTHETIC REPLACEMENT OF THE ANOPHTHALMIC ORBIT IN PATIENTS WITH UVEAL MELANOMA: SIX-YEAR FOLLOW-UP RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yarovoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A locomotor stump was formed in 36 patients (28 women and 8 men, by implanting an endoprosthesis for enucleation of the eyeball with uveal melanoma (UM. The indication for endoprosthesis implantation was no signs of extrabulbar growth. A modified 17–19 mm silicone implant covered with strips from a dura mater graft and medical mesh fabric was used as an orbital implant. The follow-up was 3 to 72 months (mean 32.5 months. All the patients achieved a satisfactory cosmetic effect. None patient was found to have a recurrent orbital tumor. Out of the complications, anterior implant surface denudation was noted in 4 patients. Two patients developed metastases. The absence of recurrent orbital UM at a 6-year follow-up enables primary endoprosthetic replacement of the orbit for UM to be regarded as a safe and reasonable method for patient cosmetic rehabilitation. 

  14. Implant success!!!.....simplified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthra Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The endeavor towards life-like restoration has helped nurture new vistas in the art and science of implant dentistry. The protocol of "restoration-driven implant placement" ensures that the implant is an apical extension of the ideal future restoration and not the opposite. Meticulous pre-implant evaluation of soft and hard tissues, diagnostic cast and use of aesthetic wax-up and radiographic template combined with surgical template can simplify the intricate roadmap for appropriate implant treatment. By applying the harmony of artistic skill, scientific knowledge and clinical expertise, we can simply master the outstanding implant success in requisites of aesthetics, phonetics and function.

  15. [Repair of the orbital cavity by a dermoadipose graft after enucleation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varene, B; Morax, S

    1986-01-01

    Dermis fat graft as a movable implant within the muscle cone is considered. The graft's survival depends mainly on its early vascularization which is bound to dermis, quality of the socket and suture of the recti muscles. The results of the twenty three first grafts emphasize two types of indications: Essential indications for the treatment of enophthalmos and for the treatment of migrated or extruded orbital implants. Relative indications: primary grafts and dermis-fat implantation for the treatment of contracted sockets.

  16. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  17. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  18. Polygons in billiard orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Don, Henk

    2011-01-01

    We study the geometry of billiard orbits on rectangular billiards. A truncated billiard orbit induces a partition of the rectangle into polygons. We prove that thirteen is a sharp upper bound for the number of different areas of these polygons.

  19. Improving quality of life in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration: focus on miniature ocular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael A; Amir, Nancy; Herro, Angela; Porbandarwalla, Salman S; Pollard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Low vision devices in the past have been mainly extraocular. There are now four new devices in different stages of development and implementation that are currently available. Three of them, the Implantable Miniature Telescope (IMT, VisionCare Ophthalmic Technologies, Saratoga, CA), Intraocular Lens for Visually Impaired People (IOL-VIP, IOL-VIP System, Soleko, Pontecorvo, Italy), and Lipschitz Mirror Implant (LMI, Optolight Vision Technology, Herzlia, Israel) are implanted into the anterior segment while the Argus II (Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) is implanted into the posterior segment. The goal of these devices is to increase the patient quality of life which has been measured by Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ) scales. The IMT is the only device that has been shown to increase the VFQ score by seven points at 6 months compared to baseline. It is the only FDA-approved device in the US while the Argus has been approved in Europe. Each of these prosthetics has potential benefits for patients.

  20. Improving quality of life in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration: focus on miniature ocular implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Singer1, Nancy Amir2, Angela Herro3, Salman S Porbandarwalla3, Joseph Pollard11Medical Center Ophthalmology Associates, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Santa Rosa Low Vision Clinic, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: Low vision devices in the past have been mainly extraocular. There are now four new devices in different stages of development and implementation that are currently available. Three of them, the Implantable Miniature Telescope (IMT, VisionCare Ophthalmic Technologies, Saratoga, CA, Intraocular Lens for Visually Impaired People (IOL-VIP, IOL-VIP System, Soleko, Pontecorvo, Italy, and Lipschitz Mirror Implant (LMI, Optolight Vision Technology, Herzlia, Israel are implanted into the anterior segment while the Argus II (Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA is implanted into the posterior segment. The goal of these devices is to increase the patient quality of life which has been measured by Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ scales. The IMT is the only device that has been shown to increase the VFQ score by seven points at 6 months compared to baseline. It is the only FDA-approved device in the US while the Argus has been approved in Europe. Each of these prosthetics has potential benefits for patients.Keywords: IMT, IOL-VIP, LMI, Argus II 

  1. Traumatic transconjunctival orbital emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Stroh, E M; Finger, P T

    1990-01-01

    Orbital emphysema can be produced by trans-conjunctival migration of air from a high pressure airgun. In an industrial accident an 8 mm conjunctival laceration was produced in the superior fornix which acted as a portal of entry for air into the subconjunctival, subcutaneous, and retrobulbar spaces. Computed tomography revealed no evidence of orbital fracture and showed that traumatic orbital emphysema occurred without a broken orbital bone.

  2. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  3. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  4. Urinary incontinence - collagen implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007373.htm Urinary incontinence - injectable implant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to ...

  5. Implantable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Implantable Medical Devices Updated:Sep 16,2016 For Rhythm Control ... a Heart Attack Introduction Medications Surgical Procedures Implantable Medical Devices • Life After a Heart Attack • Heart Attack ...

  6. About Implantable Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tube was inserted, and get a new contraceptive implant on schedule or switch to another method of ... continue Possible Side Effects Young women who get contraceptive implants might notice such side effects as: irregular or ...

  7. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with implants Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... treat or prevent breast cancer. One type of breast reconstruction uses breast implants — silicone devices filled with silicone ...

  8. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  9. Implantable Heart Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  10. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  11. COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION: MY EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is a small, surgically implanted complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This type of hearing loss, typically involves damage to hair cells in the cochlea, as a result sound cannot reach the auditory nerve which usually receives information from hair cells. A cochlear implant skips the damaged hair cells and to stimulate the auditory nerve directly. An implant does not restore normal hearing, instead it can give a deaf person a useful representation of sounds in the environment and help him or her to understand speech. I am here presenting this article in relation to the indications, intraoperative and postoperative complications of cochlear implantation in our institute since January 2013. Children who receive implants at earlier age, outperform their peers who are implanted at a later age. This is reflected in all the areas of speech and language development.

  12. Implantes transcigomáticos Traszygomatic implants

    OpenAIRE

    B. Fernández Ateca; M. Colorado Bonnin; C. Gay Escoda

    2004-01-01

    Los implantes cigomáticos, originariamente diseñados por Branemark en 1989, son implantes de cabeza en 45 grados, de 4'5 milímetros de diámetro en su parte más ancha, y que pueden medir entre 30 y 50 milímetros de longitud. Se insertan desde la parte palatina del proceso alveolar, siguiendo la cresta cigomática-alveolar hasta anclarse en el cuerpo del malar, y en el caso de pacientes maxilectomizados, entrando directamente en el cuerpo del malar. Estos implantes ofrecen una alternativa más al...

  13. Ultrasound scan of the orbit with an immersion protection in patients with subatrophy and anophthalmos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Verigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed 73 patients with anophthalmos with different types of intraorbital implants, and subatrophy of the globe. For three- dimensional ultrasound image of the orbit we used a new immersion substation on the basis of compressed polyvinyl alcohol, which was placed between the probe and the eyelids, excluding «dead zone». Acoustic density of the orbital structure and orbital blood flowwere estimated.

  14. Ultrasound scan of the orbit with an immersion protection in patients with subatrophy and anophthalmos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Verigo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We observed 73 patients with anophthalmos with different types of intraorbital implants, and subatrophy of the globe. For three- dimensional ultrasound image of the orbit we used a new immersion substation on the basis of compressed polyvinyl alcohol, which was placed between the probe and the eyelids, excluding «dead zone». Acoustic density of the orbital structure and orbital blood flowwere estimated.

  15. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Han, Eunkyu; Feng, Ying; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Valenti, Jeff A; Anderson, Jay; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    We present a database of well determined orbital parameters of exoplanets. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 421 planets orbiting 357 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form on the Web at http://exoplanets.org through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the selection different biase...

  16. Ectopic cilia associated with an orbital dermoid cyst and sinus tract: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulík, David; Karhanová, Marta; Vaverka, Miroslav; Brychtová, Světlana; Pospíšilová, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Ectopic cilia are extremely rare congenital anomalies in which eyelash follicles appear in an abnormal place on the eyelid, most typically on the lateral quadrant of the anterior surface of the upper eyelid. In the majority of cases, simple surgical excision of ectopic cilia is indicated because of its cosmetic aspect. There is usually no associated medical co-morbidity with this anomaly. The authors report an unusual case of ectopic cilia associated with an orbital dermoid cyst and sinus tract. A 3-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with ectopic cilia on the left upper eyelid. There was no history of inflammation or swelling of the eyelid. An ophthalmological examination revealed only 1 mm of ptosis; no proptosis, inferior displacement, or palpable orbital mass was present. During surgical excision of the ectopic cilia, a thin sinus tract was identified, leading posteriorly to the orbit. Magnetic resonance imaging performed after the excision showed a supraorbital extraconal mass just below the roof of the left orbit. A supraorbital 2-piece craniotomy was performed with total extirpation of the dermoid cyst. The cyst was removed en bloc without damage to the extraocular muscles, but the sinus tract could no longer be identified. Follow-up MRI was performed 6 months after surgery and showed no evidence of recurrence. A follow-up ophthalmological examination showed no signs of inferior displacement or proptosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the first reported instance of ectopic cilia associated with a dermoid cyst and sinus tract in which no typical clinical signs and symptoms of possible orbital pathology were present. This case highlights the value of radiological examination in all cases of ectopic cilia prior to surgical excision.

  17. A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis

    KAUST Repository

    Heckmann, J M

    2009-08-13

    Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of severe extraocular muscle (EOM) dysfunction among African MG subjects reported earlier may result from altered DAF expression. To test this hypothesis, we screened the DAF gene sequences relevant to the classical complement pathway and found an association between myasthenics with EOM paresis and the DAF regulatory region c.-198CG SNP (odds ratio8.6; P0.0003). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results in a twofold activation of a DAF 5?-flanking region luciferase reporter transfected into three different cell lines. Direct matching of the surrounding SNP sequence within the DAF regulatory region with the known transcription factor-binding sites suggests a loss of an Sp1-binding site. This was supported by the observation that the c.-198CG SNP did not show the normal lipopolysaccharide-induced DAF transcriptional upregulation in lymphoblasts from four patients. Our findings suggest that at critical periods during autoimmune MG, this SNP may result in inadequate DAF upregulation with consequent complement-mediated EOM damage. Susceptible individuals may benefit from anti-complement therapy in addition to immunosuppression. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraocular Muscles Tension, Tonus, and Proprioception in Infantile Strabismus: Role of the Oculomotor System in the Pathogenesis of Infantile Strabismus—Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Schiavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role played by the extraocular muscles (EOMs in the etiology of concomitant infantile strabismus is still debated and it has not yet definitively established if the sensory anomalies in concomitant strabismus are a consequence or a primary cause of the deviation. The commonest theory supposes that most strabismus results from abnormal innervation of the EOMs, but the cause of this dysfunction and its origin, whether central or peripheral, are still unknown. The interaction between sensory factors and innervational factors, that is, esotonus, accommodation, convergence, divergence, and vestibular reflexes in visually immature infants with family predisposition, is suspected to create conditions that prevent binocular alignment from stabilizing and strengthening. Some role in the onset of fixation instability and infantile strabismus could be played by the feedback control of eye movements and by dysfunction of eye muscle proprioception during the critical period of development of the visual sensory system. A possible role in the onset, maintenance, or worsening of the deviation of abnormalities of muscle force which have their clinical equivalent in eye muscle overaction and underaction has been investigated under either isometric or isotonic conditions, and in essence no significant anomalies of muscle force have been found in concomitant strabismus.

  19. A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, J M; Uwimpuhwe, H; Ballo, R; Kaur, M; Bajic, V B; Prince, S

    2010-01-01

    Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of severe extraocular muscle (EOM) dysfunction among African MG subjects reported earlier may result from altered DAF expression. To test this hypothesis, we screened the DAF gene sequences relevant to the classical complement pathway and found an association between myasthenics with EOM paresis and the DAF regulatory region c.-198C>G SNP (odds ratio=8.6; P=0.0003). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results in a twofold activation of a DAF 5'-flanking region luciferase reporter transfected into three different cell lines. Direct matching of the surrounding SNP sequence within the DAF regulatory region with the known transcription factor-binding sites suggests a loss of an Sp1-binding site. This was supported by the observation that the c.-198C>G SNP did not show the normal lipopolysaccharide-induced DAF transcriptional upregulation in lymphoblasts from four patients. Our findings suggest that at critical periods during autoimmune MG, this SNP may result in inadequate DAF upregulation with consequent complement-mediated EOM damage. Susceptible individuals may benefit from anti-complement therapy in addition to immunosuppression.

  20. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Akçay; Gamze Dereli Can; Nurullah Çağıl

    2014-01-01

    Preseptal cellulitis (PC) is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC) is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites) or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epid...

  1. Orbital inflammation: Corticosteroids first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagi Glass, Lora R; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Orbital inflammation is common, and may affect all ages and both genders. By combining a thorough history and physical examination, targeted ancillary laboratory testing and imaging, a presumptive diagnosis can often be made. Nearly all orbital inflammatory pathology can be empirically treated with corticosteroids, thus obviating the need for histopathologic diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In addition, corticosteroids may be effective in treating concurrent systemic disease. Unless orbital inflammation responds atypically or incompletely, patients can be spared biopsy.

  2. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Ke(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Vogan, D. , Dixmier algebras, sheets and representation theory (in Actes du colloque en I' honneur de Jacques Dixmier),Progress in Math. 92, Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 1990, 333-397.[2]McGovern, W., Dixmier Algebras and Orbit Method, Operator Algebras, Unitary Representations and Invariant Theory,Boston: Birkhauser, 1990, 397-416.[3]Liang, K. , Parabolic inductions of nilpotent geometric orbit datum, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese) , 1996, 41 (23):2116-2118.[4]Vogan, D., Representations of Real Reductive Lie Groups, Boston-Basel-Stuttgart: Birkhauser, 1981.[5]Lustig, G., Spaltenstein, N., Induced unipotent class, J. London Math. Soc., 1997, 19. 41-52.[6]Collingwood, D. H. , McGovern, W. M. , Nilpotent Orbits in Semisimple Lie Algebras, New York: Van Nostremt Reinhold,1993.

  3. Orbital myositis and rheumatoid arthritis: case report Miosite orbitária e artrite reumatóide: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÁUDIA B. PANFILIO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Orbital myositis implies orbital inflammation confined to one or more of the extraocular muscles. The acute form responds well to high doses of oral corticosteroids tapered gradually, but it may recur or become chronic. We describe a 38 years old female who has been suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for six years. She developed diplopia as a result of a paralysis of the right and left rectus medialis muscle. MRI showed inflammatory process and thickness of the referred muscles. The patient had a total recovery with oral use of 80 mg methylpredinisolone daily. Two months after the first episode she developed a bilateral ophthalmoplegy. The patient improved with oral use of steroids the second time, but a paresis of the left rectus lateralis muscle remained. From the 156 cases we reviewed only three have been related to rheumatic diseases and none has been previously related to rheumatoid arthritis.Miosite orbitaria é a inflamação de um ou mais músculos extraoculares. A forma aguda responde ao tratamento com doses altas de esteróides, porém pode-se tornar recorrente ou crônica. Relatamos uma paciente de 38 anos de idade, portadora de artrite reumatoide há 6 anos, que apresentou diplopia e cefaléia de um mês de evolução. A ressonância magnética (RM de órbitas mostrou processo inflamatório e espessamento dos músculos reto mediais. A paciente apresentou recuperação completa após o uso de 80 mg/dia de metilprednisolona. Dois meses depois, ela apresentou oftalmoplegia bilateral que acometia toda a musculatura ocular extrínseca. Desta vez, a RM foi normal. A paciente melhorou com nova série do esteroide, porém permaneceu com paresia do músculo reto lateral esquerdo como sequela. Revisamos 153 casos de miosite orbitaria publicados; apenas três estavam relacionados com doenças reumatológicas e nenhum deles com artrite reumatóide.

  4. Family of Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  5. Implantes transcigomáticos Traszygomatic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández Ateca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes cigomáticos, originariamente diseñados por Branemark en 1989, son implantes de cabeza en 45 grados, de 4'5 milímetros de diámetro en su parte más ancha, y que pueden medir entre 30 y 50 milímetros de longitud. Se insertan desde la parte palatina del proceso alveolar, siguiendo la cresta cigomática-alveolar hasta anclarse en el cuerpo del malar, y en el caso de pacientes maxilectomizados, entrando directamente en el cuerpo del malar. Estos implantes ofrecen una alternativa más al cirujano en el momento de planificar un tratamiento protésico-rehabilitador implantosoportado. Sobretodo, en aquellos pacientes con un maxilar superior atrófico en el que no se pueden realizar injertos óseos o estos han fracasado. El objetivo de este artículo es proponer el protocolo quirúrgico de colocación de los implantes trascigomáticos y revisar la literatura actual sobre la evolución clínica de estos implantes.The zygomatic implants, originally designed by Branemark in 1989, are implants with a 45 degree inclined head, 4'5 millimetre diameter at their widest part and measuring between 30 and 50 millimetres in length. They are inserted from the palatine side of the alveolar process, following the zygomatic-alveolar edge and anchor in the body of the zygomatic bone. In the case of maxillectomized patients, they are inserted directly in the body of the malar bone. These implants offer an additional alternative to the surgeon when planning an implant supported rehabilitation treatment; specially in those patients with an atrophic maxilla in which osseous grafts cannot be realized or these grafts have failed. The objective of this article is to propose the surgical,protocol of placement of traszygomatic implants and to check the current literature on the clinical evolution of these implants.

  6. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence.

  7. A Study Of Orbital Fractures In A Tertiary Health Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana J Kamath

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of patients with orbital fractures had 48% patients in the age group of 20 – 40 years with male : female ratio of 10:1. Road traffic accidents (71.43% were the most common cause followed by injury due to fall (20%. Eighty five percent of patients had normal visual acuity at presentation and 65.57% patients had no ocular complaints. Diplopia was present in 14.2% of patients. Of the orbital fractures infraorbital rim was involved in 43.13%, floor in 19.6%, lateral wall in 13.7%, pure blow out in 14.28% and the roof in 2.9%. Important ocular findings were extraocular movements restriction in 9 (10.3%, infraorbital dysaesthesia in 3 (3.4%, enophthalmos in 2, RAPD and globe rupture in 1 patient each. 32 patients underwent surgical management. At the end of 4 months of follow up, 3 had restriction of EOM, 1 patient had vision loss due to globe rupture, 2 had RAPD (optic nerve compression, 1 had lagophthalmos, 1 had exotropia and 1 had atrophic bulbi.

  8. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  9. Treatment of midfacial defects using prostheses supported by ITI dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Paolo; Jaques, Bertrand

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the use of ITI dental implants used for anchoring facial prostheses in the restorative treatment of midface defects. The authors analyzed the clinical data of 26 patients with orbital defects (n = 11), orbitonasal defects (n = 4), orbitonasomaxillary defects (n = 3), and nasal defects (n = 8). Data included age, sex, primary disease, implant position, implant length, implant failure, prosthetic attachment, radiation therapy, and peri-implant skin reactions. Follow-up was at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and then on a yearly basis. The authors noted the status of healing and complications, if any. In total, 62 implants were placed as follows: 27 (43.5 percent) for orbital prostheses, 12 (19.4 percent) for orbitonasal prostheses, 14 (22.6 percent) for orbitonasomaxillary prostheses, and nine (14.5 percent) for nasal prostheses. Thirty-eight implants (61.3 percent) were placed in previously irradiated areas in 18 patients (69.2 percent). Mild skin reactions together with mild accumulation of sebaceous crusting around implants were recorded in 14.2 percent of the skin observations. No patient experienced severe inflammation requiring administration of systemic antibiotics or surgical revision. Implant success was 100 percent in both irradiated and nonirradiated patients. In conclusion, ITI dental implants result in a high rate of success in retaining midface prostheses and offer good stability and aesthetic satisfaction.

  10. Patterns of orbital disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses various patterns of presentations of orbital lesions. Since this article has been authored by an otolaryngologist, the entire concept has been viewed from otolaryngologist's angle. With the advent of nasal endoscope trans nasal access to orbit is becoming the order of the day. Major advantage being that external skin incision is avoided.

  11. LUNISOLAR INVARIANT RELATIVE ORBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Ali Rahoma

    2013-01-01

    The present study deal with constructing an analytical model within Hamiltonian formulation to design invariant relative orbits due to the perturbation of J2 and the lunisolar attraction. To fade the secular drift separation over the time between two neighboring orbits, two second order conditions that guarantee that drift are derived and enforced to be equal.

  12. Reticulohistiocytoma of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Heather M.; Hayek, Brent R.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticulohistiocytoma is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferation of the skin or soft tissue. While ocular involvement has been documented in the past, there have been no previously reported cases of reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit. In this report, the authors describe a reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit in a middle-aged woman. PMID:24807799

  13. Implants in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohit A; Mitra, Dipika K; Rodrigues, Silvia V; Pathare, Pragalbha N; Podar, Rajesh S; Vijayakar, Harshad N

    2013-07-01

    Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

  14. Implants in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit A Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

  15. Implant treatment planning considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T

    2008-04-01

    As dental implants become a more accepted treatment modality, there is a need for all parties involved with implant dentistry to be familiar with various treatment planning issues. Though the success can be highly rewarding, failure to forecast treatment planning issues can result in an increase of surgical needs, surgical cost, and even case failure. In this issue, the focus is on implant treatment planning considerations.

  16. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian G.

    2000-06-01

    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~moore/orbitals_gnuplot). The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  17. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...... of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  18. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  19. Orbital cellulitis following silicone-sponge scleral buckles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemet AY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet, Joseph R Ferencz, Ori Segal, Amit Meshi Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel Background: Acute or chronic infection of the scleral explant is rare. We report seven cases of scleral explant infections that caused orbital cellulitis. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective chart review of oculoplastics at oculoplastics and vitreo-retinal units in a secondary referral hospital. All subjects had orbital cellulitis secondary to scleral buckle in the range of January 1990 to March 2010. Demographics, imaging studies, and pathology specimens were reviewed. Results: A total of 841 silicone-sponge scleral buckle implants for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were performed. Forty were extracted (4.75%; annual rate of 1.9 cases. Seven (0.83% had orbital cellulitis. The mean time from implantation to presentation was 5.7 years. There was bacterial growth in all specimens, with Staphylococcus aureus in four. Conclusions: Patients who are operated on with silicone-sponge scleral buckling for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment sometimes require removal of the implant because of infection. However, the infection rate is low. Patients should be followed in the long term for possible complications. Keywords: scleral explant infection, scleral buckle, orbital cellulitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

  20. Orbital floor reconstruction using calcium phosphate cement paste: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tañag, Marvin A; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2004-12-01

    Orbital floor defects were created in 10 New Zealand white rabbits and were reconstructed using an injectable calcium phosphate paste. These animals were euthanized at 2, 4, 8, and 12 months after implantation and were examined for biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Grossly, implants were found to be adherent to the floor and covered with fibrous tissues. There was no sign of infection, extrusion, or migration of implant within the orbit and maxilla. The orbital floor was completely restored. Histological examination showed active new bone formation that encroached within the implant and gradually increased in density with time. Maxillary mucosa and glands were likewise reconstituted. Thin fibrovascular tissues were seen on top of and within the surface of the implant, and few to slight inflammatory cells were seen. Microradiography showed direct apposition between the new bone and the implant. These findings compare favorably with previously published reports on the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of calcium phosphate cement. The authors believe that, together with ease of use and structural integrity, calcium phosphate paste can be useful in orbital floor reconstruction.

  1. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON,DAVID J.

    1999-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  2. Management of peri-implantitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandran Prathapachandran; Neethu Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless ...

  3. Management of peri-implantitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandran Prathapachandran; Neethu Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless ...

  4. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  5. Prototyping LHC Orbit Control

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; Srinivasan, B

    2002-01-01

    Orbit correction consists in adjusting the strengths of the corrector magnets to make the measured beam position match a predefined reference. In the LHC, this involves around 2000 sensors and more than 1000 actuators that are distributed along both rings. The orbit correction scheme should be able to compensate for very slow orbit drifts in the range of a 10-2 Hz but also for fast motions (vibrations) up to 1 Hz. In this paper we investigate correction schemes that could be used in either case. The choice of design formalisms is based on the experience we gained with the SPS and the LEP.

  6. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  7. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...

  8. MUSIC AND COCHLEAR IMPLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yitao; Xu Li

    2013-01-01

    Currently, most people with modern multichannel cochlear implant systems can understand speech in qui-et environment very well. However, studies in recent decades reported a lack of satisfaction in music percep-tion with cochlear implants. This article reviews the literature on music ability of cochlear implant users by presenting a systematic outline of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients with regard to their music perception as well as production. The review also evaluates the similarities and differences be-tween electric hearing and acoustic hearing regarding music perception. We summarize the research results in terms of the individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, pitch, and timbre). Finally, we briefly intro-duce the vocal singing of prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants as evaluated by acoustic measures.

  9. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  10. Envelopes of Cometary Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović, Ž.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss cometary orbits from the standpoint of Nonstandard (Leibnitz analysis, a relatively new branch of mathematics. In particular, we consider parabolic cometary paths. It appears that, in a sense, every parabola is an ellipse.

  11. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Cochlear Implants What are the Benefits of Cochlear Implants? For people with implants: Hearing ranges from near ...

  12. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  13. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  14. Antisymmetric Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.

  15. Dental Implant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  16. Dental Implant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Oshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities.

  17. [Orbital complications of sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J

    2014-12-01

    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal

  18. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  19. Cutting edge: retrobulbar inflammation, adipogenesis, and acute orbital congestion in a preclinical female mouse model of Graves' orbitopathy induced by thyrotropin receptor plasmid-in vivo electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkelgosha, Sajad; So, Po-Wah; Deasy, Neil; Diaz-Cano, Salvador; Banga, J Paul

    2013-09-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a complication in Graves' disease (GD) but mechanistic insights into pathogenesis remain unresolved, hampered by lack of animal model. The TSH receptor (TSHR) and perhaps IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are considered relevant antigens. We show that genetic immunization of human TSHR (hTSHR) A-subunit plasmid leads to extensive remodeling of orbital tissue, recapitulating GO. Female BALB/c mice immunized with hTSHR A-subunit or control plasmids by in vivo muscle electroporation were evaluated for orbital remodeling by histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Antibodies to TSHR and IGF-1R were present in animals challenged with hTSHR A-subunit plasmid, with predominantly TSH blocking antibodies and were profoundly hypothyroid. Orbital pathology was characterized by interstitial inflammation of extraocular muscles with CD3+ T cells, F4/80+ macrophages, and mast cells, accompanied by glycosaminoglycan deposition with resultant separation of individual muscle fibers. Some animals showed heterogeneity in orbital pathology with 1) large infiltrate surrounding the optic nerve or 2) extensive adipogenesis with expansion of retrobulbar adipose tissue. A striking finding that underpins the new model were the in vivo MRI scans of mouse orbital region that provided clear and quantifiable evidence of orbital muscle hypertrophy with protrusion (proptosis) of the eye. Additionally, eyelid manifestations of chemosis, including dilated and congested orbital blood vessels, were visually apparent. Immunization with control plasmids failed to show any orbital pathology. Overall, these findings support TSHR as the pathogenic antigen in GO. Development of a new preclinical model will facilitate molecular investigations on GO and evaluation of new therapeutic interventions.

  20. Bioceramics for implant coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A Campbell

    2003-11-01

    Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechanical properties of metal implants, but recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has led to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first CaP coatings were produced via vapor phase processes, but more recently solution-based and biomimetic methods have emerged. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  1. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    the period 1999 to 2006; 239 one-stage procedures and 353 two-stage procedures. The postoperative course through November 2009 was evaluated by cumulative incidence adjusting for competing risks for the selected outcomes; hematoma, infection, seroma, implant rupture, severe capsular contracture (modified.......7% for severe capsular contracture, 32.3% for displacement/asymmetry of the implant and 38.6% for reoperation. When comparing one- and two-stage procedures, we observed significantly higher risk estimates for infection, seroma and extrusion of the implant following two-stage procedures, whereas the risk...

  2. Biomedical implantable microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, J D

    1980-10-17

    Innovative applications of microelectronics in new biomedical implantable instruments offer a singular opportunity for advances in medical research and practice because of two salient factors: (i) beyond all other types of biomedical instruments, implants exploit fully the inherent technical advantages--complex functional capability, high reliability, lower power drain, small size and weight-of microelectronics, and (ii) implants bring microelectronics into intimate association with biological systems. The combination of these two factors enables otherwise impossible new experiments to be conducted and new paostheses developed that will improve the quality of human life.

  3. Optimization of dental implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dol, Aleksandr V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.

    2017-02-01

    Modern dentistry can not exist without dental implantation. This work is devoted to study of the "bone-implant" system and to optimization of dental prostheses installation. Modern non-invasive methods such as MRI an 3D-scanning as well as numerical calculations and 3D-prototyping allow to optimize all of stages of dental prosthetics. An integrated approach to the planning of implant surgery can significantly reduce the risk of complications in the first few days after treatment, and throughout the period of operation of the prosthesis.

  4. A study of the pathological changes and expression of the hepatocyte growth factor in the extraocular muscle in concomitant strabismus%共同性斜视眼外肌的病理变化及肝细胞生长因子表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琪; 周炼红; 易贝茜; 叶美红; 徐永红

    2015-01-01

    . Methods In a experimental study, 58 concomitant strabismus patients were recruited for the strabismus group and 10 normal subjects were recruited as the control group. Strabismus patients were divided into a concomitant exotropia group (32 cases) and a concomitant esotropia group (26 cases). All the resected tissues of the rectus muscles were obtained from patients with concomitant strabismus during resection surgery and corneal implants. The mean average optical density of HGF was measured by the SABC method for immunohistochemistry using an image analyzer. The amounts of HGF in the resected muscles of patients were compared with normal subjects , and correlated with factors such as age and degree of deviation in the clinical data of the patients. Results ①The thickness of the cross-sectional area of muscle fiber in the resected rectus muscles of patients with constant exotropia was 308.9 ±68.4 μm2 and for patients with constant esotropia was 217.9 ±34.7 μm2, which were significantly lower than those of normal subjects (t=16.74, 28.34, P<0.05). ②Masson staining showed that the weak side of the extraocular muscles of patients with concomitant strabismus had a decrease in the number of muscle fibers, an increase in collagen fiber content, and a disordered arrangement compared to the normal control group. ③The amount of HGF in the resected rectus muscles of patients with constant exotropia and constant esotropia were significantly lower than those of normal subjects (t=6.33, 4.75, P<0.05). ④The amount of HGF was negatively correlated with age and the degree of deviation (r=-0.856,-0.525, P<0.05). Conclusion A decreased level of HGF expression may contribute to the incidence of concomitant strabismus. The change in the expression of HGF in extraocular muscles may result in a deterioration of concomitant strabismus.

  5. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS) configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP). The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan t...

  6. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  7. Susceptible mechanisms of extraocular muscles in the passive transferred experimental myasthenia gravis rats%重症肌无力被动转移大鼠模型眼外肌的易感机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿; 王桂平; 杜婴; 周琼; 苗建亭; 李柱一

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨眼外肌在重症肌无力发病过程中的易感机制.方法 给予SD大鼠腹腔注射mAb35建立重症肌无力被动转移(PTMG)大鼠模型,对照组大鼠注射等量生理盐水.选取PTMG组和对照组大鼠眼外肌、膈肌、胫前肌3种骨骼肌组织.采用乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)染色法观察神经肌肉接头(NMJ)并检测NMJ面积和灰度;采用银环蛇毒免疫组化法检测乙酰胆碱受体( AChR)数量;采用电镜观察NMJ超微结构和其AChR情况,并分析比较神经末端面积和突触后膜面积的比值以及突触前后膜长度的比值.结果 AChE染色结果显示,对照组眼外肌NMJ面积相对其他两种骨骼肌更小(P<0.01),PTMG组眼外肌与其他两种骨骼肌NMJ面积比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).银环蛇毒免疫组化结果显示,PTMG组和对照组眼外肌与其它两种骨骼肌间AChR灰度值比较均有统计学差异(P<0.01).电镜观察结果显示,PTMG组3种骨骼肌突触前后膜长度比值均较对照组下降(P<0.01),神经末端面积与突触后膜面积比值较对照组增加(P<0.01),其中眼外肌的变化较其他骨骼肌更为显著.结论 PTMG大鼠模型眼外肌易感机制可能与眼外肌和其他骨骼肌间NMJ面积、AChR数量差异造成眼外肌NMJ安全系数较低有关.%Objective To investigate the susceptible mechanisms of extraocular muscles in passive transferred experimental myasthenia gravis ( PTMG) rats. Methods PTMG model was induced by intraperitoneally injection of purified monoclonal antibody 35. The control group were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline. The extraocular muscles, diaphragms and tibial front muscles in the PTMG group and control group were dissected. Acetylcholinesterase staining, which showed neuromuscular junctions, and alpha bungarotoxin immunohistochemical reaction, which showed acetylcholine receptors (AChR) were used. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) ultrastructure was observed by transmission

  8. Orbits for sixteen binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361−2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB,WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB,WDS 08017−0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277−0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 = STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  9. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    CERN Document Server

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Rodríguez, Julián Blanco; Cally, Paul S; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H; Solanki, Sami K

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21 deg (up to 34 deg by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismology studies of the polar regions. Here we consider an array of science objectives to be addressed by helioseismology within the baseline telemetry allocation (51 Gbit per orbit, current baseline) and within the science observing windows (baseline 3 x 10 days per orbit). A particularly important objective is the measurement of large-scale flows at high latitudes (rotation and meridional flow), which are largely unknown but play an important role in flux transport dynamos. The full range of Earth-Sun-spacecraft angles provi...

  10. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  11. DEALING WITH DENTAL IMPLANT FAILURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran

    2008-01-01

    An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options. When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them. PMID:19089213

  12. Dealing with dental implant failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Levin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options.When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them.

  13. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  14. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  15. MEMS biomedical implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Yuchong

    2012-01-01

    The field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced tremendously for the last 20 years. Most commercially noticeably, the field has successfully advanced from pressure sensors to micro physical sensors, such as accelerometers and gyros, for handheld electronics application. In parallel, MEMS has also advanced into micro total analysis system(TAS) and/or lab-on-a-chip applications. This article would discuss a relatively new but promising future direction towards MEMS biomedical implants. Specifically, Parylene C has been explored to be used as a good MEMS implant material and will be discussed in detail. Demonstrated implant devices, such as retinal and spinal cord implants, are presented in this article.

  16. Risks of Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection or injury. Demonstrated by redness, swelling, warmth, pain and or/loss of function. Lymphedema or ... Overfilling or underfilling of saline-filled breast implants Physical stresses such as trauma or intense physical pressure ...

  17. Cochlear Implant in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Samadi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is the result of a great combination and collaboration of engineering and medicine. It is mainly because it has the most conflict with the human nervous system among all prosthesis. Cochlear implant helps a child with profound hearing loss to understand and articulate speech and let an adult person with hearing loss communicate with people by phone. Although these wonderful results could not be seen in all patients, will let us know about the great scientific findings.

  18. Vertical orbital dystopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M

    1996-06-01

    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  19. Deceleration Orbit Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.

    1991-04-26

    During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.

  20. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Autologous grafting of extraocular muscles: experimental study in rabbits Transplante autólogo de musculatura ocular extrínseca: estudo experimental em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Meireles-Teixeira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of autologous extraocular muscle grafting as a type of muscle expansion surgery. METHODS: The left superior rectus muscle of twenty-nine rabbits was resected and this fragment was attached to the endpoint of the respective right superior rectus (test group. Thereafter, the superior rectus of the left eye was reattached to the sclera (control group. Both groups were examined during different postoperative periods in order to assess their outcomes. RESULTS: The presence of hyperemia was slightly more frequent in the grafted group. Secretion and muscle atrophy were negligible in both groups. Fibrosis was greater in grafted animals. These muscles were weaker than the control muscles, although the force required to split muscular parts was always greater than the physiological one. CONCLUSIONS: This surgical technique was reliable and useful if one intends to achieve muscle expansion without the intrinsic risks of dealing with heterologous/artificial materials.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade do uso de segmentos de músculos oculares extrínsecos como expansores de tendões musculares. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove coelhos tiveram seu músculo reto superior esquerdo ressecado e o fragmento de cada um foi transplantado para o reto superior contralateral (grupo-teste. Então, o reto superior esquerdo foi reinserido na esclera (grupo-controle. Os animais foram então examinados em diversos períodos pós-operatórios, até os seus sacrifícios, para que se avaliasse o desenrolar dessa técnica cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: A hiperemia foi maior entre os testes. A secreção e a atrofia muscular foram mínimas nos dois grupos. Houve maior presença de fibrose no grupo-teste, mas não tão expressiva a ponto de inviabilizar os efeitos da cirurgia. Esses músculos também se romperam mais facilmente do que os do grupo-controle, porém, a força de rompimento foi sempre bem maior do que aquela presente numa contração muscular normal

  2. Anodized dental implant surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. Materials and Methods: A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. Results: The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. Conclusions: The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  3. Biomaterials in cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenarz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear implant (CI represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development.

  4. Anodized dental implant surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Muktadar Anand; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  5. Contraceptive implants: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam Rowlands,1,2 Stephen Searle3 1Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 2Dorset HealthCare, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 3Sexual Health Services, Chesterfield, United KingdomAbstract: Progestin-only contraceptive implants are a highly cost-effective form of long-acting reversible contraception. They are the most effective reversible contraceptives and are of a similar effectiveness to sterilization. Pregnancies are rare in women using this method of contraception, and those that do occur must be fully investigated, with an ultrasound scan of the arm and serum etonogestrel level if the implant cannot be located. There are very few contraindications to use of implants, and they have an excellent safety profile. Both acceptability and continuation with the method are high. Noncontraceptive benefits include improvements in dysmenorrhea, ovulatory pain, and endometriosis. Problematic bleeding is a relatively common adverse effect that must be covered in preinsertion information-giving and supported adequately if it occurs. Recognized training for both insertion and removal should be undertaken. Care needs to be taken at both insertion and removal to avoid neurovascular injury. Implants should always be palpable; if they are not, noninsertion should be assumed until disproven. Etonogestrel implants are now radiopaque, which aids localization. Anticipated difficult removals should be performed by specially trained experts. Keywords: contraceptive, subdermal implant, etonogestrel, levonorgestrel, progestin-only, long-acting reversible contraception

  6. Biocompatible implant surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Bikash; Pawar, Sudhir; Pattanaik, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Surface plays a crucial role in biological interactions. Surface treatments have been applied to metallic biomaterials in order to improve their wear properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. A systematic review was performed on studies investigating the effects of implant surface treatments on biocompatibility. We searched the literature using PubMed, electronic databases from 1990 to 2009. Key words such as implant surface topography, surface roughness, surface treatment, surface characteristics, and surface coatings were used. The search was restricted to English language articles published from 1990 to December 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major dental implant journals was performed. When considering studies, clinical studies were preferred followed by histological human studies, animal studies, and in vitro studies. A total of 115 articles were selected after elimination: clinical studies, 24; human histomorphometric studies, 11; animal histomorphometric studies, 46; in vitro studies, 34. The following observations were made in this review: · The focus has shifted from surface roughness to surface chemistry and a combination of chemical manipulations on the porous structure. More investigations are done regarding surface coatings. · Bone response to almost all the surface treatments was favorable. · Future trend is focused on the development of osteogenic implant surfaces. Limitation of this study is that we tried to give a broader overview related to implant surface treatments. It does not give any conclusion regarding the best biocompatible implant surface treatment investigated till date. Unfortunately, the eventually selected studies were too heterogeneous for inference of data.

  7. Optical orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069775

  8. Optical orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  9. 手术显微镜下经泪阜部结膜切口整复爆裂性眶内壁骨折%Treatment of orbital blowout medial wall fracture transconjunctiva caruncula lacrimalis incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张越; 王丽杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨手术显微镜下经泪阜部结膜切口治疗眶内壁骨折的方法及效果.方法 回顾性研究手术显微镜下经泪阜结膜切口进行眶内壁骨折复位手术30例,检查手术前后的视力、复视程度、眼球运动、眼球突出度及三维CT图像,并随访6~12个月.结果 30例中29例手术后复视、眼球运动障碍、眼球内陷明显改善.1例眼球运动障碍术后仅得以改善.结论 手术显微镜下经泪阜部结膜切口进行爆裂性眶内壁骨折复位术,效果良好.%Objective To evaluate the operation using microscope to cure the orbital blowout medial wall fractures transconjunctiva caruncula lacrimalis incision and it's the clinical effect. Method Retrospective review of 30 patients undergoing orbital blowout medial wall fractures surgery transconjunctiva caruncula lacrimalis incision. Check the visual activity,diplopia ,extraocular movement and 3D CT postoperatively. Results Diplopia and extraocular movement was significant improved in 29 cases,only 1 patient movement was partly improved. Conclusion Treatment the orbital blowout medial wall fracture transconjunctiva caruncula lacrimalis incision is effcetive for blowout fracture.

  10. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2011-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a set of local orthonormal Hartree–Fock (HF) molecular orbitals can be obtained for both the occupied and virtual orbital spaces by minimizing powers of the orbital variance using the trust-region algorithm. For a power exponent equal to one, the Boys localization function...... is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may...

  11. Solar Orbiter Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Holly; St. Cyr, Orville Chris; Mueller, Daniel; Zouganelis, Yannis; Velli, Marco

    2017-08-01

    With the delivery of the instruments to the spacecraft builder, the Solar Orbiter mission is in the midst of Integration & Testing phase at Airbus in Stevenage, U.K. This mission to “Explore the Sun-Heliosphere Connection” is the first medium-class mission of ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program and is being jointly implemented with NASA. The dedicated payload of 10 remote-sensing and in-situ instruments will orbit the Sun as close as 0.3 A.U. and will provide measurments from the photosphere into the solar wind. The three-axis stabilized spacecraft will use Venus gravity assists to increase the orbital inclination out of the ecliptic to solar latitudes as high as 34 degrees in the extended mission. The science team of Solar Orbiter has been working closely with the Solar Probe Plus scientists to coordinate observations between these two highly-complementary missions. This will be a status report on the mission development; the interested reader is referred to the recent summary by Müller et al., Solar Physics 285 (2013).

  12. Sedna Orbit Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  13. Myxoma of the orbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambhatla Saptagirish

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare, benign neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that usually develop in soft tissues. As the clinical manifestations are non-specific, it is difficult to diagnose the tumour without biopsy and histopathological examination. We report a case of orbital myxoma with histopathological correlation.

  14. Sedna Orbit Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  15. Iatrogenic Tumor Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Ping Bai

    2008-01-01

    Iatrogenic tumor implantation is a condition that results from various medical procedures used during diagnosis or treatment of a malignancy. It involves desquamation and dissemination of tumor cells that develop into a local recurrence or distant metastasis from the tumor under treatment. The main clinical feature of the condition is nodules at the operation's porous channel or incision, which is easily diagnosed in accordance with the case history. Final diagnosis can be made based on pathological examination. Tumor implantation may occur in various puncturing porous channels, including a laparoscopic port, abdominal wall incision, and perineal incision, etc. Besides a malignant tumor,implantation potential exists with diseases, such as a borderline tumor and endometriosis etc. Once a tumor implantation is diagnosed, or suspected, surgical resection is usually conducted.During the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, avoiding and reducing iatrogenic implantation and dissemination has been regarded as an important principle for surgical treatment of tumors. In a clinical practice setting, if possible, excisional biopsy should be employed, if a biopsy is needed. Repeated puncturing should be avoided during a paracentesis. In a laparoscopic procedure, the tissue is first put into a sample bag and then is taken out from the point of incision. After a laparoscopic procedure, the peritoneum, abdominal muscular fasciae, and skin should be carefully closed, and/or the punctured porous channel be excised. In addition, the sample/tissue should be rinsed with distilled water before surgical closure of the abdominal cavity,allowing the exfoliated tumor cells to swell and rupture in the hypo-osmolar solution. Then surgical closure can be conducted following a change of gloves and equipment. The extent of hysteromyomectomy should as far as possible be away from the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of tumor implantation

  16. Implant interactions with orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenza, Frank

    2012-09-01

    Many situations arise in which orthodontic therapy in conjunction with implant modalities is beneficial, relevant or necessary. These situations might entail orthodontic treatment preparatory to the placement of an implant, such as in the site preparation for implant placement. Traditionally, this has been somewhat well understood, but there are certain guidelines that must be adhered to as well as diagnostic steps that must be followed. Provision of adequate space for implant placement is of paramount importance, but there is also the consideration of tissue manipulation and remodeling which orthodontic therapy can achieve very predictably and orthodontists should be well versed in harnessing and employing this modality of site preparation. In this way, hopeless teeth that are slated for extraction can still be utilized by orthodontic extraction to augment tissues, both hard and soft, thereby facilitating site development. On the corollary, and representing a significant shift in treatment sequencing, there are many situations in which orthodontic mechanotherapy can be simplified, expedited, and facilitated by the placement of an implant and utilization as an integral part of the mechanotherapy. Implants have proven to provide excellent anchorage, and have resulted in a new class of anchorage known as "absolute anchorage". Implants can be harnessed as anchors both in a direct and indirect sense, depending upon the dictates of the case. Further, this has led to the development of orthodontic miniscrew systems and techniques, which can have added features such as flexibility in location and placement, as well as ease of use and removal. As orthodontic appliances evolve, the advent of aligner therapy has become mainstream and well accepted, and many of the aforementioned combined treatment modalities can and should be incorporated into this relatively new treatment modality as well.

  17. Standard Enucleation with Aluminium Oxide Implant (Bioceramic Covered with Patient's Sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Zigiotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe in our study a modified standard enucleation, using sclera harvested from the enucleated eye to cover the prosthesis in order to insert a large porous implant and to reduce postoperative complication rates in a phthisis globe. Methods. We perform initially a standard enucleation. The porous implant (Bioceramic is then covered only partially by the patient's sclera. The implant is inserted in the posterior Tenon's space with the scleral covering looking at front. All patients were followed at least for twelve months (average followup 16 months. Results. We performed nineteen primary procedures (19 patients, 19 eyes, M; F and secondary, to fill the orbital cavity in patients already operated by standard evisceration (7 patients, 7 eyes. There were no cases of implant extrusion. The orbital volume was well reintegrated. Conclusion. Our procedure was safe and effective. All patients had a good cosmetic result after final prosthetic fitting and we also achieved good prothesis mobility.

  18. Use of osseointegrated implants in the restoration of head and neck defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumanas, Eleni D; Chang, Ting-Ling; Beumer, John

    2006-09-01

    Osseointegrated implants can be applied to facilitate retention, stability, and support for facial and intraoral prostheses used to restore head and neck defects. At the University of California, Los Angeles, Maxillofacial Prosthetics Clinic, retrospective studies have indicated that in nonirradiated maxillectomy patients, implant survival rates are 82.6 percent. In mandibles reconstructed with fibula free flaps, survival rates are 94.6 percent. Similarly, high implant survival rates have been observed for most sites used to support facial prostheses. Cumulative six-year survival rates for auricular sites exceed 95 percent and for floor of nose sites, success rates exceed 87 percent. However, survival rates are low (53 percent) for implants placed in the frontal bone for retention of orbital prostheses and even lower for irradiated bone sites ranging from 63 percent in the maxilla to 27 percent in the orbit.

  19. Template-Based Orbital Wall Fracture Treatment Using Statistical Shape Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Hans-Martin; Huempfner-Hierl, Heike; Kruber, Daniel; Schulze, Peter; Hierl, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate whether a mold generated from a statistical shape model of the orbit could be generated to provide a cost-efficient means for the treatment of orbital fractures. A statistical shape model was created from 131 computed tomographic (CT) scans of unaffected adult middle European human orbits. To generate the model, CT scans were segmented in Brainlab software, preregistered using anatomic landmarks, trimmed to an identical size, and definitely registered. Then, the model was created using the global master algorithm. Based on this model, a mold consisting of a male part and a female part was constructed and printed using a rapid prototyping technique. A statistical shape model of the human orbit was generated from 125 CT scans. Six scans (4.5%) presented major anatomic deviations and were discarded. A solid mold based on this model was printed. Using this mold, flat titanium mesh could be successfully deformed to serve as an orbital implant. A mold based on the statistical orbital shape could serve as a cost-effective means for the treatment of orbital fractures. It allows the anatomic preformation of titanium or resorbable implant material for orbital reconstruction. Because these materials could be cut from larger sheets, the use of a mold would be a cost-effective treatment alternative. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Bovine heterologous bone graft in orbital surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S; Hurbli, T; Smida, R

    1993-08-01

    Lubboc (T650) is a bovine heterologous bone implant obtained by specific preparation of trabecular of bone. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies have revealed the absence of any cytotoxicity or systemic toxicity. Lubboc has many fields of application, including all bone graft surgical indications. We report our first results concerning the use of this product in orbital surgery either as a filling or contention material or as an apposition material. On all 20 operated patients we did not encounter any intolerance, inflammation or infection. The follow-up is still too short to appreciate the long term integration of this material which has the advantage of being a substitute for autologous bone, avoiding bone graft harvesting.

  1. Positron implantation in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, V.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Welch, D.O.

    1993-12-31

    The Monte Carlo technique for modeling positron prior to annihilation and electron implantation in semi-infinite metals is described. Particle implantation is modelled as a multistep process, a series of collisions with the atoms of the host material. In elastic collisions with neutral atoms there is no transfer of energy. The particle loses energy by several different channels, excitation of the electron gas, ionization of the ion cores, or, at low energies, by phonon excitation. These competing scattering mechanisms have been incorporated into the Monte Carlo framework and several different models are being used. Brief descriptions of these Monte Carlo schemes, as well as an analytic model for positron implantation are included. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations are presented and compared with expermental data. Problems associated with modeling positron implantation are discuss and the need for more expermental data on energy-loss in different materials is stressed. Positron implantation in multilayers of different metals is briefly described and extensions of this work to include a study of multilayers and heterostructures is suggested.

  2. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  3. Orbit correction algorithm for SSRF fast orbit feedback system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; YIN Chongxian; LIU Dekang

    2009-01-01

    A fast orbit feedback system is designed at SSRF to suppress beam orbit disturbance within sub-micron in the bandwidth up to 100 Hz.The SVD (Singular value decomposition) algorithm is applied to calculate the inverse response matrix in global orbit correction.The number of singular eigenvalues will influence orbit noise suppression and corrector strengths.The method to choose singular eigenvalue rejection threshold is studied in this paper,and the simulation and experiment results are also presented.

  4. Comparison of Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Earth Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The technological, environmental, social, and political ramifications of low Earth orbits as compared to geosynchronous Earth orbits for the solar power satellite (SPS) are assessed. The capital cost of the transmitting facilities is dependent on the areas of the antenna and rectenna relative to the requirement of high efficiency power transmission. The salient features of a low orbit Earth orbits are discussed in terms of cost reduction efforts.

  5. Management of peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Prathapachandran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless the origin is the result of simple mechanical overload. Diagnosis is based on changes of color in the gingiva, bleeding and probing depth of peri-implant pockets, suppuration, X-ray, and gradual loss of bone height around the tooth. Treatment will differ depending upon whether it is a case of peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis. The management of implant infection should be focused on the control of infection, the detoxification of the implant surface, and regeneration of the alveolar bone. This review article deals with the various treatment options in the management of peri-implantitis. The article also gives a brief description of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis of peri-implantitis.

  6. Dental implants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, B

    2016-12-01

    A high number of patients have one or more missing tooth and it is estimated that one in four American subjects over the age of 74 have lost all their natural teeth. Many options exist to replace missing teeth but dental implants have become one of the most used biomaterial to replace one (or more) missing tooth over the last decades. Contemporary dental implants made with titanium have been proven safe and effective in large series of patients. This review considers the main historical facts concerned with dental implants and present the different critical factors that will ensure a good osseo-integration that will ensure a stable prosthesis anchorage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Complications in implant dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Ayesha; Qureshi, Saima; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Rashid, Haroon

    2017-01-01

    After tooth loss, an individual may seek tooth replacement so that his/her function and esthetics could be restored. Clinical prosthodontics, during the past decade, has significantly improved and developed according to the advancements in the science and patient's demands and needs. Conventional options in prosthodontics for substituting a missing single tooth include the removable partial denture, partial and full coverage bridgework, and resin-bonded bridgework. Dental implants have gained increasing popularity over the years as they are capable of restoring the function to near normal in both partial and completely edentulous arches. With substantial evidence available, fixed implant-supported prosthesis are fully acknowledged as a reliable treatment option for the replacement of single or multiple missing teeth nowadays. While dental implants are increasingly becoming the choice of replacement for missing teeth, the impediments associated with them are progressively emerging too. PMID:28435381

  8. Dental Implant Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Kevin; Delfini, Ronald H; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants have increased in the last few decades thus increasing the number of complications. Since many of these complications are easily diagnosed on postsurgical images, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with them and to be able to recognize and diagnose them. Radiologists should also have a basic understanding of their treatment. In a pictorial fashion, this article will present the basic complications of dental implants which we have divided into three general categories: biomechanical overload, infection or inflammation, and other causes. Examples of implant fracture, loosening, infection, inflammation from subgingival cement, failure of bone and soft tissue preservation, injury to surround structures, and other complications will be discussed as well as their common imaging appearances and treatment. Lastly, we will review pertinent dental anatomy and important structures that are vital for radiologists to evaluate in postoperative oral cavity imaging.

  9. Clinical observation of modified hydroxyapatite implant in scleral shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Wei Du

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effects of modified hydroxyapatite implant in scleral shell.METHODS:Thirty-four cases were performed eye evisceration, autogenous sclera shell anterior and posterior petaloid shape with posterior sclera fenestration, hydroxyapatite artificial eyeballs were implanted at stage I, and conjunctival wound, orbital activity and other complications were observed after surgery.RESULTS: The follow-up was 6~12mo. There was no patients with implant exposure, sclera dissolution, conjunctival wound dehiscence, conjunctival sac constriction noted. All the patients got good activity of artificial globe, and the active range of side motion of the HA was 10°~15°.The artificial eyes looked symmetrical, and the eyes socket were full.CONCLUSION: The modified hydroxyapatite implant in scleral shell can maintain the normal anatomy of the orbital tissue, and also can get full eyes socket and good activity, It was an easy and simple surgery which could obtain satisfactory clinical effect and less complications.

  10. Topics in orbit equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  11. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  12. Osseointegration of Immediate Transalveolar Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel González Beriau

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: osseointegration is critical to start prosthetic rehabilitation. Objective: to describe osseointegration of immediate transalveolar implants. Methods: a prospective case series study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013. It included all patients (75 patients with 79 implants who attended the Prosthodontics service. Age, sex, osseointegration, cause of tooth loss, region of the implant, specific tooth, bone level and keratinized gingiva around the implant, were the variables studied. Frequency distribution and statistical analysis were used for data analysis. Results: females and patients aged 31 to 45 years predominated. Osseointegration was observed in 97.4% of the implants. Nearly all implants were placed in the premaxilla and posterior maxilla, specifically in the first bicuspids. In most patients, osseointegration with bone formation occurred at the implant collar and in the presence of completely keratinized tissue, with a statistically significant association between the two variables. Conclusion: rehabilitation treatment with this type of implant led to successful osseointegration in most cases studied.

  13. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Akçay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal cellulitis (PC is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, Haempphilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and S. pyogenes. The method for the diagnosis of OS and PS is computed tomography. Using effective antibiotics is a mainstay for the treatment of PC and OC. There is an agreement that surgical drainage should be performed in cases of complete ophthalmoplegia or significant visual impairment or large abscesses formation. This infections are also at a greater risk of acute visual loss, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, cerebritis, endophthalmitis, and brain abscess in children. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to control the infection. Diagnosis, treatment, management and complications of PC and OC are summarized in this manuscript. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2014; 4(3: 123-127

  14. Chaos Behaviour of Molecular Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Tang; SUN Fu-Yan; SHEN Shu-Lan

    2007-01-01

    Based on H(u)ckel's molecular orbit theory,the chaos and;bifurcation behaviour of a molecular orbit modelled by a nonlinear dynamic system is studied.The relationship between molecular orbit and its energy level in the nonlinear dynamic system is obtained.

  15. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  16. 80例以复视为首发症状的眼外肌麻痹病因分析%Analysis of 80 cases of extraocular muscles paralysis with diplopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨以复视为首发症状的眼肌麻痹患者的临床特征、鉴别诊断,探讨其病因及发病机制。方法回顾分析2008至2013年我院神经内科收治以复视症状为主症的眼肌麻痹患者80例,根据病史、详细的查体和眼部检查,分析其发病原因。结果80例病例中,糖尿病性眼肌麻痹24例(动眼神经麻痹16例,外展神经麻痹6例,合并动眼神经、外展神经麻痹2例),脑血管病20例,动脉粥样硬化性动眼神经、外展神经麻痹18例,颅内动脉瘤者10例,重症肌无力眼肌型2例,躯体形式障碍1例,颅内肿瘤2例,多发性硬化1例,神经梅毒1例,脑干脑炎1例。结论很多神经系统疾病可引起复视的神经眼科体征,其中糖尿病性眼肌麻痹为最主要病因,脑血管病、动脉瘤眼肌麻痹、动脉粥样硬化也是重要原因,其他还有重症肌无力(眼肌型)、躯体形式障碍、颅内占位等。以复视为首发症状的急性眼外肌麻痹病因复杂,容易误诊,临床医生应高度重视,明确诊断,以达到正确治疗。%Objective To evaluate clinical features of extraocular muscles paralysis that initially presented with di -plopia.Methods Eighty cases with extraocular muscles paralysis were analyzed for causes of disease by reviewing medical history, a thorough physical examination and a complete eye examination .The clinical features were studied .Results Twenty-four patients with extraocular muscles paralysis were caused by diabetes , including oculomotor nerve paralysis ( 16 cases), abducent nerve paralysis (6 cases), and combination of oculomotor nerve and abducent nerve paralysis (2 cases). Twenty cases were caused by cerebrovascular diseases , and 18 cases were caused by arteriosclerosis resulted oculomotor and abducent nerve paralysis .Ten cases were caused by intracranial aneurysms ,two cases by myasthenia gravis ,one case by so-matization disorder ,two by

  17. 带状疱疹并发眼外肌麻痹11例临床分析%Analysis of 11 cases of herpes zoster complicated by extraocular muscles paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓鸥

    2012-01-01

    11例带状疱疹并发眼外肌麻痹患者均表现为眼睑及周围皮肤带状疱疹,疹后14天~2个月出现复视、斜视,持续4周~2个月.早期眼部外用、严重者系统应用糖皮质激素治疗可防止眼部后遗症的发生.%Eleven cases of herpes zoster complicated by extraocular muscles paralysis were reported. All cases presented herpes zoster of eyelids and nearby skin. Ten days to two months after the onset of herpes zoster, diplopia and esotropia occurred and lasted for 4 weeks to 2 months. Early application of glucocorticoids can prevent the occurrence of ocular sequelae.

  18. Corrosion of bio implants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Kamachi Mudali; T M Sridhar; Baldev Raj

    2003-06-01

    Chemical stability, mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility in body fluids and tissues are the basic requirements for successful application of implant materials in bone fractures and replacements. Corrosion is one of the major processes affecting the life and service of orthopaedic devices made of metals and alloys used as implants in the body. Among the metals and alloys known, stainless steels (SS), Co–Cr alloys and titanium and its alloys are the most widely used for the making of biodevices for extended life in human body. Incidences of failure of stainless steel implant devices reveal the occurrence of significant localised corroding viz., pitting and crevice corrosion. Titanium forms a stable TiO2 film which can release titanium particles under wear into the body environment. To reduce corrosion and achieve better biocompatibility, bulk alloying of stainless steels with titanium and nitrogen, surface alloying by ion implantation of stainless steels and titanium and its alloys, and surface modification of stainless steel with bioceramic coatings are considered potential methods for improving the performance of orthopaedic devices. This review discusses these issues in depth and examines emerging directions.

  19. Ion implantation in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintersgill, M. C.

    1984-02-01

    An introductory overview will be given of the effects of ion implantation on polymers, and certain areas will be examined in more detail. Radiation effects in general and ion implantation in particular, in the field of polymers, present a number of contrasts with those in ionic crystals, the most obvious difference being that the chemical effects of both the implanted species and the energy transfer to the host may profoundly change the nature of the target material. Common effects include crosslinking and scission of polymer chains, gas evolution, double bond formation and the formation of additional free radicals. Research has spanned the chemical processes involved, including polymerization reactions achievable only with the use of radiation, to applied research dealing both with the effects of radiation on polymers already in commercial use and the tailoring of new materials to specific applications. Polymers are commonly divided into two groups, in describing their behavior under irradiation. Group I includes materials which form crosslinks between molecules, whereas Group II materials tend to degrade. In basic research, interest has centered on Group I materials and of these polyethylene has been studied most intensively. Applied materials research has investigated a variety of polymers, particularly those used in cable insulation, and those utilized in ion beam lithography of etch masks. Currently there is also great interest in enhancing the conducting properties of polymers, and these uses would tend to involve the doping capabilities of ion implantation, rather than the energy deposition.

  20. Implantable Impedance Plethysmography

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate by theory, as well as by ex vivo and in vivo measurements that impedance plethysmography, applied extravascularly directly on large arteries, is a viable method for monitoring various cardiovascular parameters, such as blood pressure, with high accuracy. The sensor is designed as an implant to monitor cardiac events and arteriosclerotic progression over the long term.

  1. Remote actuated valve implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  2. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  3. Implantable Impedance Plethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Theodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate by theory, as well as by ex vivo and in vivo measurements that impedance plethysmography, applied extravascularly directly on large arteries, is a viable method for monitoring various cardiovascular parameters, such as blood pressure, with high accuracy. The sensor is designed as an implant to monitor cardiac events and arteriosclerotic progression over the long term.

  4. Hip Resurfacing Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadossi, Matteo; Tedesco, Giuseppe; Sambri, Andrea; Mazzotti, Antonio; Giannini, Sandro

    2015-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the advantages of hip resurfacing. 2. Describe the disadvantages of hip resurfacing. 3. Identify the population in which hip resurfacing is most often indicated. 4. Demonstrate how to properly postoperatively manage patients with metal-on-metal prostheses. Hip resurfacing offers a suitable solution for young patients affected by hip disease who have high function demands and good bone quality. Bone stock preservation, restoration of the normal proximal femur anatomy, the lack of stress shielding, and the possibility of resuming sporting activity are proven advantages of hip resurfacing. However, there are some disadvantages, such as fracture of the femoral neck, onset of neck narrowing, and possible complications due to the metal-on-metal bearings, including pseudotumors, peri-implant osteolysis, and chronic elevation of metal ions in serum levels. Recent data suggest that the ideal candidate for hip resurfacing is an active male, younger than 65 years, with primary or posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and with a femoral head diameter larger than 50 to 54 mm. Based on these selection criteria, the literature reports implant survival to be similar to that of total hip arthroplasty. The current authors' experience confirms a low failure rate and excellent functional outcomes, with metal ion serum levels becoming stable over time in well-functioning implants. Proper surgical technique, correct patient selection, and the right choice of a well-established prosthetic model are essential elements for the long-term success of these implants.

  5. Cochlear Implants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few days About 2 to 4 weeks after surgery, the sound and speech processor is matched with the implant package and ... of these sounds and will quickly learn language. After the first few ... sounds and develop speech and language. This is an extended process with ...

  6. Use of copolymer polylactic and polyglycolic acid resorbable plates in repair of orbital floor fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jonathan; German, Michael; Wong, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The fractures of the orbital floor are common after craniofacial trauma. Repair with resorbable plates is a viable reconstructive option; however, there are few reports in the literature. This study describes our experience using copolymer polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PLLA/PGA) orbital reconstruction plates (LactoSorb, Lorenz Surgical, Jacksonville, FL) in 29 cases of the orbital floor fracture repair. We conducted a retrospective review of 29 orbital floor fractures at a single institution repaired through transconjunctival, preseptal dissection using PLLA/PGA plates fashioned to repair the orbital floor defect. Associated fractures included zygomaticomaxillary, LeFort, and nasoethmoid fractures. There were six patients with complications. Four patients had transient diplopia with complete resolution of symptoms within 1 year. One patient had diplopia postoperatively, but was later lost to follow-up. Two patients have had persistent enophthalmos since 1 year. In each of these cases, the floor fracture was coincident with significant panfacial or neurotrauma. We did not encounter any adverse inflammatory reactions to the implant material itself. The study concluded that orbital floor fracture repair with resorbable plates is safe, relatively easy to perform, and in the majority of cases was effective without complications. In the presence of severe orbital trauma, more rigid implant materials may be appropriate.

  7. Orbital cellulits following cataract surgery under peribulbar anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee, Chandoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Orbital cellulits following cataract surgery is extremely rare. We describe a case of orbital and facial cellulitis that occurred after routine cataract operation with peribulbar anaesthesia. There were no preoperative systemic or ocular risk factors for postoperative infection. Case description: An 89-year-old man presented to eye casualty, the day after he underwent an uneventful phacoemulsification and posterior chamber lens implantation in the left eye under peribulabr anaesthesia, with soreness, swelling and reduced visual acuity (6/18 in the operated eye. On initial presentation periorbital swelling was noted, the eye was minimally tender, intraocular pressure was raised at 28 mHg and fundoscopy was limited due to a hazy cornea. The patient was discharged on topical medication with a diagnosis of allergic reaction to postoperative drops.The following day, the patient re-presented with worsening orbital swelling involving the left cheek. Ocular findings remained unchanged. CT scan revealed left orbit soft tissue swelling and a locule of air medial to the medial rectus. There were no signs of sinus infection or periosteal inflammation. A diagnosis of left orbital and facial cellulitis was made and the patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics.Discussion: Our patient did not have any predisposing risk factors, therefore most likely cause of cellulitis is surgical trauma during administration of the peribulbar block. This case illustrates the need for adequate skin preparation before the administration of peribulbar anaesthesia and minimal tissue trauma during the procedure.

  8. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  9. Galactic Habitable Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Mao, S.; Kawata, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fossil record shows that the Earth has experienced several mass extinctions over the past 500 million years1, and it has been suggested that there is a periodicity in extinction events on timescales of tens1 and/or hundreds of millions of years. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of the mass extinctions, including the suggestion that the Earth's ozone layer may have been destroyed by intense radiation from a nearby supernovae2- 3, exposing the Earth's surface to damaging UV radiation. Recent observations of cores taken from the ocean floor revealed atoms of a very rare isotope of iron (60Fe) believed to have arrived on Earth around 2 million years ago as fallout from a nearby supernovae4. Astronomical evidence for that past supernovae was recently found in the debris of a young cluster of massive stars5, by tracing its past orbit, putting it at the right place at the right time to explain the mild extinction event. Here we report new high-resolution (both in space and time) N-body chemodynamical simulations (carried out with our novel code GCD+6) of the evolution of a model Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the orbit of èsun-like' stars over a 500 million year period, checking the proximity to supernovae throughout the history of the orbit and comparing the times when this occurs with past mass extinctions on Earth. We additionally explain the important effects of the spiral arm pattern, radial migration of stars and Galactic chemistry on habitability.

  10. Review of orbital imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, P.S. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074 (Singapore)], E-mail: dnrgohps@nus.edu.sg; Gi, M.T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Charlton, A. [Department of Pathology, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Tan, C.; Gangadhara Sundar, J.K.; Amrith, S. [Department of Ophthalmology, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074 (Singapore)

    2008-06-15

    CT and MRI are commonly used in the evaluation of patients with suspected orbital disease. Many different diseases may present within this small anatomical space. The purpose of this article is to present a diagnostic strategy based on a compartment model. Localizing pathology to sinus, bone, extraconal space, muscle cone, intraconal space, optic nerve, globe or lacrimal fossa allows significant reduction in the number of differential diagnoses as these compartments contain different tissues which disease may involve or arise from. Certain diseases may also present in multiple compartments. Common diseases which might present in one or multiple compartments will be discussed.

  11. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and

  12. Mucocele After Orbital Fracture Repair Masquerading as Optic Neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongyeop; Kim, Jinhyun; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Hochang

    2016-06-01

    The authors report a patient of mucocele formation after orbital wall fracture repair masquerading as optic neuritis.A 38-year-old man with a history of medial orbital wall fracture repair with an alloplastic implant 10 years previously, presented with left visual disturbance and mild ocular pain with movement of the left eye of 3-day duration, and a relative afferent papillary defect in his left eye. He reported having cold symptoms 2 weeks before presentation. His symptoms were typical of retrobulbar optic neuritis. Under suspicion of optic neuritis, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed a large cyst in the sphenoid sinus and ethmoid sinus, just behind the alloplastic implant, that was compressing the medial rectus muscle and optic nerve of the left eye. The patient underwent endoscopic marsupialization of the cyst. Subsequent histologic examinations revealed a cyst lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and the visual disturbance resolved. For patients who present solely with optic neuropathy after orbital fracture repair, it is important to be vigilant of potentially rare cause, mucocele formation.

  13. Engineered porous metals for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsi Krishna, B.; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2008-05-01

    Interest is significant in patient-specific implants with the possibility of guided tissue regeneration, particularly for load-bearing implants. For such implants to succeed, novel design approaches and fabrication technologies that can achieve balanced mechanical and functional performance in the implants are necessary. This article is focused on porous load-bearing implants with tailored micro-as well as macrostructures using laser-engineered net shaping (LENS™), a solid freeform fabrication or rapid prototyping technique that can be used to manufacture patient-specific implants. This review provides an insight into LENS, some properties of porous metals, and the potential applications of this process to fabricate unitized structures which can eliminate longstanding challenges in load-bearing implants to increase their in-vivo lifetime, such as in a total hip prosthesis.

  14. The use of virtual surgical planning and navigation in the treatment of orbital trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Scott Herford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual surgical planning (VSP has recently been introduced in craniomaxillofacial surgery with the goal of improving efficiency and precision for complex surgical operations. Among many indications, VSP can also be applied for the treatment of congenital and acquired craniofacial defects, including orbital fractures. VSP permits the surgeon to visualize the complex anatomy of craniofacial region, showing the relationship between bone and neurovascular structures. It can be used to design and print using three-dimensional (3D printing technology and customized surgical models. Additionally, intraoperative navigation may be useful as an aid in performing the surgery. Navigation is useful for both the surgical dissection as well as to confirm the placement of the implant. Navigation has been found to be especially useful for orbit and sinus surgery. The present paper reports a case describing the use of VSP and computerized navigation for the reconstruction of a large orbital floor defect with a custom implant.

  15. Periodic orbits for three and four co-orbital bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, P. E.; McInnes, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the natural families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibrium configurations of the planar-restricted 1 + n-body problem for the case 2 ≤ n ≤ 4 equal-mass satellites. Such periodic orbits can be used to model both trojan exoplanetary systems and parking orbits for captured asteroids within the Solar system. For n = 2, there are two families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibria of the system: the well-known horseshoe and tadpole orbits. For n = 3, there are three families that emanate from the equilibrium configurations of the satellites, while for n = 4, there are six such families as well as numerous additional connecting families. The families of periodic orbits are all of the horseshoe or tadpole type, and several have regions of neutral linear stability.

  16. Periodic orbits for 3 and 4 co-orbital bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the natural families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibrium configurations of the the planar restricted $1+n$ body problem for the case $2\\leq n \\leq 4$ equal mass satellites. Such periodic orbits can be used to model both trojan exoplanetary systems and parking orbits for captured asteroids within the solar system. For $n=2$ there are two families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibria of the system: the well known horseshoe and tadpole orbits. For $n=3$ there are three families that emanate from the equilibrium configurations of the satellites, while for $n=4$ there are six such families as well as numerous additional connecting families. The families of periodic orbits are all of the horseshoe or tadpole type, and several have regions of neutral linear stability.

  17. Orbital debris issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, D. J.

    Orbital debris issues fall into three major topics: Environment Definition, Spacecraft Hazard, and Space Object Management. The major issue under Environment Definition is defining the debris flux for sizes smaller (10 cm in diameter) than those tracked by the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). Sources for this size debris are fragmentation of larger objects, either by explosion or collision, and solid rocket motor products. Modeling of these sources can predict fluxes in low Earth orbit which are greater than the meteoroid environment. Techniques to measure the environment in the size interval between 1 mm and 10 cm are being developed, including the use of telescopes and radar both on the ground and in space. Some impact sensors designed to detect meteoroids may have detected solid rocket motor products. Once the environment is defined, it can be combined with hypervelocity impact data and damage criteria to evaluate the Spacecraft Hazard. Shielding may be required to obtain an acceptable damage level. Space Object Management includes techniques to control the environment and the desired policy to effectively minimize the hazard to spacecraft. One control technique - reducing the likelihood of future explosions in space - has already been implemented by NASA. The effectiveness of other techniques has yet to be evaluated.

  18. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  19. Peri-implant hastalıklar

    OpenAIRE

    Dilsiz, Alparslan; Zihni, Meltem; Yavuz, M Selim

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of partially or totally edentulous subjects with oral implants is a common procedure. Biological complications are occur around implants which are peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis. Peri-implant mucositis is pathological condition which is normally localized in the soft tissues surrounding an oral implant. Peri-implantitis surrounding oral implants is an inflammatory process affecting the soft and hard tissues resulting in rapid loss of supporting bone associated with b...

  20. Peri-implant hastalıklar

    OpenAIRE

    Dilsiz, Alparslan; Zihni, Meltem; YAVUZ, M. Selim

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of partially or totally edentulous subjects with oral implants is a common procedure. Biological complications are occur around implants which are peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis. Peri-implant mucositis is pathological condition which is normally localized in the soft tissues surrounding an oral implant. Peri-implantitis surrounding oral implants is an inflammatory process affecting the soft and hard tissues resulting in rapid loss of supporting bone associated with b...

  1. Efter cochlear implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders

    Dit barn har netop fået et cochlear implant. Hvad nu? Skal barnet fokusere udelukkende på at lære talt sprog, eller skal det også lære/fortsætte med tegnsprog eller støttetegn? Det er et vanskeligt spørgsmål, og før valget foretages, er det vigtigt at vurdere hvilke konsekvenser valget har, dels...... for den sproglige udvikling isoleret set, og dels for barnets udvikling ud fra en helhedsbetragtning. Dette indlæg fokuserer på, hvilke forventninger man kan have til cochlear implant-brugeres sproglige udvikling med talt sprog alene, hhv. med to sprog (tale og tegn). Disse forventninger er baseret på...

  2. Efter cochlear implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders

    2007-01-01

      Dit barn har netop fået et cochlear implant. Hvad nu? Skal barnet fokusere udelukkende på at lære talt sprog, eller skal det også lære/fortsætte med tegnsprog eller støttetegn? Det er et vanskeligt spørgsmål, og før valget foretages, er det vigtigt at vurdere hvilke konsekvenser valget har, dels...... for den sproglige udvikling isoleret set, og dels for barnets udvikling ud fra en helhedsbetragtning. Dette indlæg fokuserer på, hvilke forventninger man kan have til cochlear implant-brugeres sproglige udvikling med talt sprog alene, hhv. med to sprog (tale og tegn). Disse forventninger er baseret på...

  3. Treatment of sphenoid dysplasia with a titanium-reinforced porous polyethylene implant in orbitofrontal neurofibroma: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niddam, Jeremy; Bosc, Romain; Suffee, Tabrez M; Le Guerinel, Caroline; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Meningaud, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-01

    Orbital manifestations occur in less than 1% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). These manifestations are frequently associated with sphenoid wing dysplasia. The typical radiologic feature is partial or total loss of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, which leads to herniation of the temporal lobe through the orbital cavity resulting in proptosis and pulsating exophthalmos. Traditional reconstruction of this bone defect involves split bone grafting or titanium mesh. However, these techniques have some limitations due to bone resorption and infection risk. We report the use of 0.85 mm titanium-reinforced porous polyethylene implant sheet in three cases of orbital neurofibromatosis with sphenoid dysplasia. The role of this material was to create a barrier between the brain and orbital cavity. The implant sheet was modeled intraoperatively to reconstruct the orbital cavity anatomy and fitted without any screws. The malleability of the implant allows quick reconstruction of the curved orbital skeleton. Furthermore, the implant doesn't interfere with postoperative imaging and may decrease risk infection.

  4. Opaque intraocular lens implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf IH; Patel CK

    2013-01-01

    Imran H Yusuf, CK Patel The Oxford Eye Hospital, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford, United KingdomWe read with great interest the recent article by Lee et al,1 who described their clinical experience with three patients who underwent primary implantation of Morcher (Stuttgart, Germany) occlusive intraocular lenses (IOLs) across a variety of neuro-ophthalmic indications. We hope to offer some further insight into these clinical observations in the context of o...

  5. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Letícia Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immediately after tooth extraction, this study aimed to present a literature review about biomaterials surrounding immediate dental implants. The search included 56 articles published from 1969 to 2012. The results were based on data analysis and discussion. It was observed that implant fixation immediately after extraction is a reliable alternative to reduce the treatment length of prosthetic restoration. In general, the biomaterial should be used to increase bone/implant contact and enhance osseointegration.

  6. Zirconia in fixed implant prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Petra Christine; Att, Wael; Strub, Joerg Rudolf

    2012-10-01

    CAD/CAM technology in combination with zirconia ceramic has increasingly gained popularity in implant dentistry. This narrative review presents the current knowledge on zirconia utilized as framework material for implant-borne restorations and implant abutments, laboratory tests and developments, clinical performance, and possible future trends for implant dentistry are addressed. A review of available literature from 1990 through 2010 was conducted with search terms zirconia,"implants,"abutment,"crown," and "fixed dental prosthesis" using electronic databases (PubMed) and manual searching. Latest applications of zirconia in implant dentistry include implant abutments, multiple unit and full-arch frameworks as well as custom-made bars to support fixed and removable prostheses. High biocompatibility, low bacterial surface adhesion as well as favorable chemical properties of zirconia ceramics are reported. Zirconia stabilized with yttrium oxide exhibits high flexural strength and fracture toughness due to a transformation toughening mechanism. Preliminary clinical data confirmed the high stability of zirconia for abutments and as a framework material for implant borne crowns and fixed dental prostheses. Zirconia abutment or framework damage has rarely been encountered. However, veneering porcelain fractures are the most common technical complication in implant-supported zirconia restorations. These porcelain veneer failures have led to concerns regarding differences in coefficient of thermal expansions between core and veneering porcelain and their respective processing techniques. As presently evidence of clinical long-term data is missing, caution with regard to especially extensive implant-borne zirconia frameworks is recommended. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only

  8. Orbital State Uncertainty Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, J.; Poore, A. B.

    2012-09-01

    Fundamental to the success of the space situational awareness (SSA) mission is the rigorous inclusion of uncertainty in the space surveillance network. The *proper characterization of uncertainty* in the orbital state of a space object is a common requirement to many SSA functions including tracking and data association, resolution of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs), conjunction analysis and probability of collision, sensor resource management, and anomaly detection. While tracking environments, such as air and missile defense, make extensive use of Gaussian and local linearity assumptions within algorithms for uncertainty management, space surveillance is inherently different due to long time gaps between updates, high misdetection rates, nonlinear and non-conservative dynamics, and non-Gaussian phenomena. The latter implies that "covariance realism" is not always sufficient. SSA also requires "uncertainty realism"; the proper characterization of both the state and covariance and all non-zero higher-order cumulants. In other words, a proper characterization of a space object's full state *probability density function (PDF)* is required. In order to provide a more statistically rigorous treatment of uncertainty in the space surveillance tracking environment and to better support the aforementioned SSA functions, a new class of multivariate PDFs are formulated which more accurately characterize the uncertainty of a space object's state or orbit. The new distribution contains a parameter set controlling the higher-order cumulants which gives the level sets a distinctive "banana" or "boomerang" shape and degenerates to a Gaussian in a suitable limit. Using the new class of PDFs within the general Bayesian nonlinear filter, the resulting filter prediction step (i.e., uncertainty propagation) is shown to have the *same computational cost as the traditional unscented Kalman filter* with the former able to maintain a proper characterization of the uncertainty for up to *ten

  9. [Neurotology and cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, Miguel A

    2015-05-01

    In this review we analyse cochlear implantation in terms of the fundamental aspects of the functioning of the auditory system. Concepts concerning neuronal plasticity applied to electrical stimulation in perinatal and adult deep hypoacusis are reviewed, and the latest scientific bases that justify early implantation following screening for congenital deafness are discussed. Finally, this review aims to serve as an example of the importance of fostering the sub-specialty of neurotology in our milieu, with the aim of bridging some of the gaps between specialties and thus improving both the knowledge in the field of research on auditory pathologies and in the screening of patients. The objectives of this review, targeted above all towards specialists in the field of otorhinolaryngology, are to analyse some significant neurological foundations in order to reach a better understanding of the clinical events that condition the indications and the rehabilitation of patients with cochlear implants, as well as to use this means to foster the growth of the sub-specialty of neurotology.

  10. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  11. Cochlear implants in children implanted in Jordan: A parental overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A

    2015-07-01

    Exploring the perspective of parents on the cochlear implant process in Jordan. Sixty parents of deaf children were surveyed on the information gathering process prior to cochlear implant surgery, and their implant outcome expectations post-surgery. Whether child or parent characteristics may impact parents' post-surgical expectations was explored. Although parents used a variety of information sources when considering a cochlear implant, the ear, nose and throat doctor comprised their major source of information (60%). Parents received a range of information prior to cochlear implant but agreed (93.3%) on the need for a multidisciplinary team approach. Post-surgically, parents' expected major developments in the areas of spoken language (97%), and auditory skills (100%). Receiving education in mainstream schools (92%) was expected too. Parents perceived the cochlear implant decision as the best decision they can make for their child (98.3%). A significant correlation was found between parents contentment with the cochlear implant decision and expecting developments in the area of reading and writing (r=0.7). Child's age at implantation and age at hearing loss diagnosis significantly affected parents' post-implant outcome expectations (pparents agree on the need for a comprehensive multidisciplinary team approach during the different stages of the cochlear implant process. Parents' education about cochlear implants prior to the surgery can affect their post-surgical outcome expectations. The parental perspective presented in this study can help professionals develop better understanding of parents' needs and expectations and henceforth improve their services and support during the different stages of the cochlear implant process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Orbital Eccrine Hidrocystoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Marangoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old female patient presented with a painless mass on her upper eyelid medially. She noticed the mass 4 years earlier and it had increased in size over time. She had no diplopia, eyelid swelling, skin lesion overlying the mass, or visual disturbances. On ocular examination, eye movements and funduscopy were normal. The mass was movable and painless with palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed a 12x8x7 mm well-circumscribed cystic lesion with no contrast dye appearance. Surgical removal was performed delicately and no capsular rupture occured. Pathological examination revealed an eccrine hidrocystoma. Our aim is to underline that eccrine hidrocystoma should be included in differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  13. Exploratory orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  14. Orbital angular momentum microlaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  15. Orbital science's 'Bermuda Triangle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Thomas J.

    1991-02-01

    The effects of a part of the inner Van Allen belt lying closest to the earth, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) upon spacecraft including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are discussed. The area consists of positively charged ions and electrons from the Van Allen Belt which become trapped in the earth's dipole field. Contor maps representing the number of protons per square centimeter per second having energies greater than 10 million electron volts are presented. It is noted that the HST orbit causes it to spend about 15 percent of its time in the SAA, but that, unlike the experience with earlier spacecraft, the satellite's skin, internal structure, and normal electronic's packaging provides sufficient protection against eletrons, although some higher energy protons still get through. Various charged particle effects which can arise within scientific instruments including fluorescence, Cerenkov radiation, and induced radioactivity are described.

  16. Geology orbiter comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  17. Orbit Determination Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

  18. Sub-meninges implantation reduces immune response to neural implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Neil T; Stokol, Jodi; Rennaker, Robert L

    2013-04-15

    Glial scar formation around neural interfaces inhibits their ability to acquire usable signals from the surrounding neurons. To improve neural recording performance, the inflammatory response and glial scarring must be minimized. Previous work has indicated that meningeally derived cells participate in the immune response, and it is possible that the meninges may grow down around the shank of a neural implant, contributing to the formation of the glial scar. This study examines whether the glial scar can be reduced by placing a neural probe completely below the meninges. Rats were implanted with sets of loose microwire implants placed either completely below the meninges or implanted conventionally with the upper end penetrating the meninges, but not attached to the skull. Histological analysis was performed 4 weeks following surgical implantation to evaluate the glial scar. Our results found that sub-meninges implants showed an average reduction in reactive astrocyte activity of 63% compared to trans-meninges implants. Microglial activity was also reduced for sub-meninges implants. These results suggest that techniques that isolate implants from the meninges offer the potential to reduce the encapsulation response which should improve chronic recording quality and stability.

  19. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  20. Homogeneous orbit closures and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenstrauss, Elon

    2011-01-01

    We give new classes of examples of orbits of the diagonal group in the space of unit volume lattices in R^d for d > 2 with nice (homogeneous) orbit closures, as well as examples of orbits with explicitly computable but irregular orbit closures. We give Diophantine applications to the former, for instance we show that if x is the cubic root of 2 then for any y,z in R liminf |n|=0 (as |n| goes to infinity), where denotes the distance of a real number c to the integers.

  1. Orbit Alignment in Triple Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2017-08-01

    The statistics of the angle Φ between orbital angular momenta in hierarchical triple systems with known inner visual or astrometric orbits are studied. A correlation between apparent revolution directions proves the partial orbit alignment known from earlier works. The alignment is strong in triples with outer projected separation less than ∼50 au, where the average Φ is about 20^\\circ . In contrast, outer orbits wider than 1000 au are not aligned with the inner orbits. It is established that the orbit alignment decreases with the increasing mass of the primary component. The average eccentricity of inner orbits in well-aligned triples is smaller than in randomly aligned ones. These findings highlight the role of dissipative interactions with gas in defining the orbital architecture of low-mass triple systems. On the other hand, chaotic dynamics apparently played a role in shaping more massive hierarchies. The analysis of projected configurations and triples with known inner and outer orbits indicates that the distribution of Φ is likely bimodal, where 80% of triples have {{Φ }}< 70^\\circ and the remaining ones are randomly aligned.

  2. 计算机辅助快速成型钛网在眼眶爆裂骨折整复中的应用%Orbital blowout fracture reconstruction using titanium mesh pre-bent with computer-aided rapid prototy-ping technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 陈伟; 曹罡; 董震; 徐金科; 刘秉尧; 罗婷苑; 马娟; 张森林

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of orbital blowout fracture repair using the individual titanium mesh bent by computer-aided rapid prototyping . Methods The CT imaging data of 11 cases of orbital blowout fracture were analyzed.The subciliary approach was used for the exposure of the fractures .An appropriate 3D-printed titanium mesh pre-bent by computer-aided rapid prototyping was selected and implanted according to the characteristics of a given defect .The surgical results were analyzed by evaluating diplopia , eyeball movement , enophthalmos , and the position of the titanium mesh and comparing the orbital vol-ume before and after surgery . Results All the operations were successfully accomplished .No remolding or trimming was needed for the pre-bent titanium mesh and implanted titanium mesh was tightly fixed to the orbital wall .The patients were followed up for 3 -12 months, which revealed no symptoms of diplopia in any of the patients . Volumetric analysis showed a significantly reduced orbital volume difference from (2.60 ±0.43) mL preoperatively to (-0.07 ±0.62) mL postoperatively (P<0.01).Enophthalmos was desirably correc-ted, with the enophthalmos difference decreased from (2.35 ±0.81)mm preoperatively to (-0.10 ±0.52) mm postoperatively (P<0.01).No extra-ocular muscle limitation was observed . Conclusion The individual titanium mesh bent with computer-aided rapid prototyping technology can be applied to orbital blowout fracture repair , which may achieve a high success rate of anatomic restoration of the orbital volume and effective prevention of enophthalmos .%目的:由于眶下壁和眶内侧壁的形态不规则,且衬垫的钛网通常是在术中由医师根据经验手工弯制和塑形,难以精确恢复眶壁的原有形态,故整复效果难以得到保障。本研究分析应用计算机辅助快速成型技术预弯的钛网修复眼眶爆裂骨折的临床疗效。方法根据11例眼眶爆裂骨折患

  3. New orbit correction method uniting global and local orbit corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Takaki, H.; Sakai, H.; Satoh, M.; Harada, K.; Kamiya, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A new orbit correction method, called the eigenvector method with constraints (EVC), is proposed and formulated to unite global and local orbit corrections for ring accelerators, especially synchrotron radiation(SR) sources. The EVC can exactly correct the beam positions at arbitrarily selected ring positions such as light source points, simultaneously reducing closed orbit distortion (COD) around the whole ring. Computer simulations clearly demonstrate these features of the EVC for both cases of the Super-SOR light source and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) that have typical structures of high-brilliance SR sources. In addition, the effects of errors in beam position monitor (BPM) reading and steering magnet setting on the orbit correction are analytically expressed and also compared with the computer simulations. Simulation results show that the EVC is very effective and useful for orbit correction and beam position stabilization in SR sources.

  4. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes

    2003-07-01

    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability.

  5. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi S Kabra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE. HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far.

  6. Current trends in dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evoluti...

  7. Dental Implants: Dual Stabilization Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    More recent epidemiological data seem to show an increasing trend of tooth loss due to periodontal reasons rather than caries; the presence of initial attachment loss, bone height and the habit of smoking significantly increase the risk of tooth mortality. A dental implant is a titanium screw which is placed into bone to replace missing teeth. The implant mimics the root of a tooth in function. Dental Implants have changed the face of dentistry over the last three decades. Success of dental i...

  8. Immediate Direct-To-Implant Breast Reconstruction Using Anatomical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn 2012, a new anatomic breast implant of form-stable silicone gel was introduced onto the Korean market. The intended use of this implant is in the area of aesthetic breast surgery, and many reports are promising. Thus far, however, there have been no reports on the use of this implant for breast reconstruction in Korea. We used this breast implant in breast reconstruction surgery and report our early experience.MethodsFrom November 2012 to April 2013, the Natrelle Style 410 form-stable anatomically shaped cohesive silicone gel-filled breast implant was used in 31 breasts of 30 patients for implant breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix. Patients were treated with skin-sparing mastectomies followed by immediate breast reconstruction.ResultsThe mean breast resection volume was 240 mL (range, 83-540 mL. The mean size of the breast implants was 217 mL (range, 125-395 mL. Breast shape outcomes were considered acceptable. Infection and skin thinning occurred in one patient each, and hematoma and seroma did not occur. Three cases of wound dehiscence occurred, one requiring surgical intervention, while the others healed with conservative treatment in one month. Rippling did not occur. So far, complications such as capsular contracture and malrotation of breast implant have not yet arisen.ConclusionsBy using anatomic breast implants in breast reconstruction, we achieved satisfactory results with aesthetics better than those obtained with round breast implants. Therefore, we concluded that the anatomical implant is suitable for breast reconstruction.

  9. Cochlear implants in genetic deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic defects are one of the most important etiologies of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss and play an important role in determining cochlear implantation outcomes. While the pathogenic mutation types of a number of deafness genes have been cloned, the pathogenesis mechanisms and their relationship to the outcomes of cochlear implantation remain a hot research area. The auditory performance is considered to be affected by the etiology of hearing loss and the number of surviving spiral ganglion cells, as well as others. Current research advances in cochlear implantation for hereditary deafness, especially the relationship among clinic-types, genotypes and outcomes of cochlear implantation, will be discussed in this review.

  10. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  11. Post-ablative reconstruction of the medial canthus and medial orbital wall using conchal cartilage graft with three illustrative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagregorio, G; Darsonval, V

    2005-12-01

    When the medial third of the upper or lower eyelid has to be reconstructed after full-thickness tumour excision, we usually use Hübner tarsomarginal grafts, but when medial canthal lesions spread to the medial orbital wall without invading the orbital margin, conchal graft becomes our first surgical option. Previously reported solutions to this difficult problem are few and concern more directly medial orbital wall fractures. We found no article dealing specifically with the use of conchal graft in post-ablative reconstruction of the medial orbital wall. Nevertheless the concha presents great advantages over bone grafting or rib cartilage, because it is more flexible and malleable. And it is less prone to extrusion or infection as may be allografts implants. It is a very effective way to repair medial orbital defects, but graft reorientation must be perfect to match exactly the medial orbital wall concavity.

  12. Third cranial nerve palsy (ptosis, diplopia accompanied by orbital swelling: case report of unusual clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis associated with polymyalgia rheumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prassede Bravi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionGiant cell arteritis (GCA is the most common systemic vasculitis in older individuals, characterized by granulomatosus inflammation of the wall of large and medium-sized arteries. The wide spectrum of arterial sites involved leads to ischemia of different organs resulting in a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. Temporal artery is commonly involved (temporal arteritis. Unusual patterns of presentation, such as extraocular motility disorders and orbital swelling, may be early and transient manifestations of GCA and precede the permanent visual loss due to ischemic optic neuropathy.Case reportWe describe a patient with uncommon manifestations of GCA consisting of transient recurrent diplopia, ptosis, orbital swelling together with more typical clinical features of the disease such as musculoskeletal manifestations (polymyalgia rheumatica and facial pain: all signs and symptoms promptly resolved under corticosteroid therapy without relapse.Conclusions A high level of suspicion of GCA in individuals over the age of 50 years is needed to prevent the development of severe complications. Clinicians should be aware of uncommon manifestations of the disease such as head–neck swelling and ophthalmoplegia: management guidelines have stated that prompt administration of adequate dose of corticosteroids as soon as ocular manifestations of GCA are noted may almost totally prevent blindness.

  13. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and su

  14. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  15. Diffractive molecular-orbital tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chunyang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Wang, Feng; He, Lixin; Shi, Wenjing; Li, Yang; Li, Min; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-03-01

    High-order-harmonic generation in the interaction of femtosecond lasers with atoms and molecules opens the path to molecular-orbital tomography and to probe the electronic dynamics with attosecond-Ångström resolutions. Molecular-orbital tomography requires both the amplitude and phase of the high-order harmonics. Yet the measurement of phases requires sophisticated techniques and represents formidable challenges at present. Here we report a scheme, called diffractive molecular-orbital tomography, to retrieve the molecular orbital solely from the amplitude of high-order harmonics without measuring any phase information. We have applied this method to image the molecular orbitals of N2, CO2, and C2H2 . The retrieved orbital is further improved by taking account the correction of Coulomb potential. The diffractive molecular-orbital tomography scheme, removing the roadblock of phase measurement, significantly simplifies the molecular-orbital tomography procedure and paves an efficient and robust way to the imaging of more complex molecules.

  16. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  17. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  18. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  19. Video Orbits of the Geminids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdukova, M.

    2014-07-01

    Geminid meteoroids, observed by the video technique, were analysed with the aim of determining the actual dispersion of their reciprocal semimajor axes 1/a within the stream. Orbits were selected from the European Video Meteor Network Database, EDMOND, (Kornos et al., 2013), from the SonotaCo Shower Catalogue (SonotaCo, 2009), and from the Czech Catalogue of Video Meteor Orbits (Koten et al., 2003). The observed orbital dispersion, including the measurement errors, was compared with that obtained from the precisely-reduced photographic orbits of Geminids from the IAU Meteor Data Center (Lindblad et al., 2003). In this paper, we concentrate on the influence of errors on the orbital dispersion. The size and distribution of observational errors determined from the long-period meteoroid streams (Hajdukova 2013), were applied to determine the real dispersion within this short-period meteoroid stream. The observed dispersions, described by the median absolute deviation in terms of 1/a, range from 0.041 to 0.050 1/au. The deviation of the median reciprocal semimajor axis from the parent (3200) Phaethon, obtained from Japanese video orbits, is 0.009 1/au, and that from the EDMOND data 0.01 1/au. This deviation obtained from the photographic orbits of the IAU Meteor Data Center was significantly greater (Hajdukova 2009). Similar results were obtained from the Czech Video Orbits Catalogue, where the value is 0.05 1/au. The investigation showed that semimajor axes of meteor orbits in both the SonotaCo and EDMOND datasets are systematically biased as a consequence of the method used for the video orbit determination, probably because corrections for atmospheric deceleration were either incorrectly made or were not done at all. Thus, the determined heliocentric velocities are underestimated, and the semimajor axes medians shifted towards smaller values. The observed distributions in 1/a from these video data become biased towards higher values of 1/a. The orbits of the Geminid

  20. Psychological intervention following implantation of an implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Sears, Samuel F

    2007-01-01

    The medical benefits of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are unequivocal, but a subgroup of patients experiences emotional difficulties following implantation. For this subgroup, some form of psychological intervention may be warranted. This review provides an overview of current...... evidence on the efficacy of psychological intervention in ICD patients and recommendations for future research....

  1. Measuring Scars of Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of periodic orbit scarring of eigenstates of classically chaotic systems is attracting increasing attention. Scarring is one of the most important ``corrections'' to the ideal random eigenstates suggested by random matrix theory. This paper discusses measures of scars and in so doing also tries to clarify the concepts and effects of eigenfunction scarring. We propose a new, universal scar measure which takes into account an entire periodic orbit and the linearized dynamics in its vicinity. This measure is tuned to pick out those structures which are induced in quantum eigenstates by unstable periodic orbits and their manifolds. It gives enhanced scarring strength as measured by eigenstate overlaps and inverse participation ratios, especially for longer orbits. We also discuss off-resonance scars which appear naturally on either side of an unstable periodic orbit.

  2. The 2009 Mars Telecommunications Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. R.; Depaula, R.; Diehl, R. E.; Edwards, C. D.; Fitzgerald, R. J.; Franklin, S. F.; Gibbs, R. G.; Kerridge, S. A.; Komarek, T. A.; Noreen, G. K.

    The first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet has begun development for a launch in 2009. NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter would use three radio bands to magnify the benefits of other future Mars missions and enable some types of missions otherwise impractical. It would serve as the Mars hub for a growing interplanetary Internet. And it would pioneer the use of planet-to-planet laser communications to demonstrate the possibility for even great networking capabilities in the future. During its nearly 10-year mission in orbit, Mars Telecommunications Orbiter would aid navigation of arriving spacecraft to their martian landing sites and monitor critical events during landings and orbit insertions. In addition, it would enable data-transmission volumes great enough to bring a virtual Mars presence to the public through a range of Internet and video features.

  3. Halo orbit to science orbit captures at planetary moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokelmann, Kevin A.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2017-05-01

    Ballisticly connecting halo orbits to science orbits in the circular-restricted three-body problem is investigated. Two classes of terminal science orbits are considered: low-altitude, tight orbits that are deep in the gravity well of the secondary body, and high-altitude, loose orbits that are strongly perturbed by the gravity of the primary body. General analytic expressions are developed to provide a minimum bound on impulse cost in both the circular restricted and the Hill's approximations. The equations are applied to a broad range of planetary moons, providing a mission design reference. Systematic grid search methods are developed to numerically find feasible transfers from halo orbits at Europa, confirming the analytical lower bound formulas. The two-impulse capture options in the case of Europa reveal a diverse set of potential solutions. Tight captures result in maneuver costs of 425-550 m/s while loose captures are found with costs as low as 30 m/s. The terminal orbits are verified to avoid escape or impact for at least 45 days.

  4. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    applied scientifically based research techniques to develop an endosseous implant that forms ... KEYWORDS: Dental implants, surgical templates, surgical procedure, stent .... during the surgical stage for single implant therapy.[24] Afterward,.

  5. Zirconia dental implants: a literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Özkurt, Zeynep; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2011-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used for fabrication of dental implants. Because of potential immunologic and possible esthetic compromises with titanium implants, novel implant technologies are being developed...

  6. Scientists Design Heat-Activated Penis Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162815.html Scientists Design Heat-Activated Penis Implant Device an improvement on current implants, researchers ... News) -- Doctors report that they have crafted a penis implant that becomes erect when heated. Dubbed by ...

  7. VSOP-2 Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H.; VSOP-2 Orbit Determination Sub-Working Group

    2009-08-01

    Precise orbit determination (POD) is a key factor to enable phase referencing observations with Astro-G. A POD accuracy of 30 cm is required for efficient X-band phase referencing observations, accuracy of 6 cm for K-band observations, and accuracy of 3 cm for Q-band observations. For the POD, Astro-G will be equipped with a GPS/Galileo receiver and a SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) retroreflector array. Four POD antennas will be equipped on four sides of the satellite body, to cover all directions. The SLR will be used as a complement to the GPS at middle-to-high altitude. Because the refroreflector array should always face to the Earth direction, it will be set up on the Ka-link antenna gimbal. The most significant perturbing force for the Astro-G is solar radiation pressure (SRP). The reflectivity of each surface component should be preliminary measured in detail to model the SRP. The estimated achievable POD accuracy at apogee is 10 ˜ 30 cm in nominal case. Phase referencing observations in K- or Q-band can be performed if the enough amount of SLR tracking data can be obtained at high altitudes.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscle associated with limb movement disorder in a family%伴有肢体运动障碍的先天性眼外肌纤维化综合征家系的影像学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炼红; 李春义; 查云飞; 张俊涛; 刘甜

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM) affects patient' s appearance and quality of life,and no effective treatment for this disease is available.Imaging study is helpful for exploring the pathogenesis of CFEOM.Objective This study was to describe the characteristics of CFEOM associated with limb movement disorder using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods A family with CFEOM associated with limb movement disorder was investigated in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University.Disease history was collected and the pedigree was investigated.Ophthalmologic examinations,including corrected visual acuity,refractive error,slitlamp examination,ophthalmoscopic examination,force of levator palpebrae superioris,ocular movement,eye position,forced duction test,and bell phenomenon examination,were performed.Ocular orbital and cranial MRI was performed in 4 CFEOM patients and 10 normal subjects to compare the structures of the extraocular muscles,motor nerve and cranium.Oral informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to any medical examination.Results A total of 1 1 members from 3 generations were investigated in this study,presenting with 4 cases of disease.The mode of inheritance of this family complied with the Mendelian autosomal dominant inheritance law.Clinical signs included disturbance of eye movement,deviation of eye position,ptosis,lack of Bell sign and positive reaction of passive pull test.In addition,unstable gait,improper body limb alignment,dysphasia and mental retardation were ohserved in 1 patient,which coincided with the diagnostic criteria of type 3 CFEOM.MRI results demonstrated that the levator palpebrae superioris,superior rectus and superior oblique muscle were clearly thinner,and the medial rectus,lateral rectus,inferior rectus muscle were thinning in the patients,showing significant differences in comparison with the normal controls(P<O.05).The oculomotor and abducens nerves became thinner and even absent in the patients

  9. Hydrogenoid orbitals revisited: From Slater orbitals to Coulomb Sturmians

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Danilo Calderini; Simonetta Cavalli; Cecilia Coletti; Gaia Grossi; Vincenzo Qquilanti

    2012-01-01

    The simple connection between the Slater orbitals, venerable in quantum chemistry, and the Coulomb Sturmian orbitals, more recently employed in atomic and molecular physics, is pointed out explicitly in view of the renewed interest in both as basis sets in applied quantum mechanics. Research in Slater orbitals mainly concerns multicentre, many-body integrals, whereas that on Sturmians exploits their orthonormality and completeness with no need of continuum states. An account of recent progress is outlined, also with reference to relationships between the two basis sets, and with the momentum space and hyperspherical harmonics representations.

  10. Implant periapical lesion: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha Diago, María; Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Cervera Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may app...

  11. Implant periapical lesion: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha Diago, María; Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Cervera Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may app...

  12. Extrusão dos implantes em portadores de cavidade anoftálmica Anophthalmic cavity and implant extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Artioli Schellini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características dos portadores de cavidades anoftálmicas que desenvolveram extrusão do implante. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, observacional, tendo sido avaliados 37 portadores de cavidade anoftálmica que tiveram extrusão do implante de cavidade, na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-UNESP. RESULTADOS: As extrusões ocorreram em cavidades enucleadas ou evisceradas, a maioria delas submetidas a cirurgia em decorrência de phthisis bulbi ou trauma, em geral de 1 a 2 anos após a cirurgia inicial. A deiscência precedeu a extrusão em todos os casos, tendo a extrusão ocorrido com todos os tipos de implantes empregados. CONCLUSÃO: Após a colocação de implantes de cavidade podem ocorrer complicações. A deiscência e extrusão das esferas são possibilidades que podem requerer nova intervenção cirúrgica, para a qual o paciente e o oftalmologista devem estar preparados.PURPOSE: To evaluate the characteristics of patients with anophthalmic cavity who developed sphere extrusion. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was done evaluating 37 patients with anophthalmic cavity and sphere extrusion at the "Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-UNESP". RESULTS: Extrusion was observed in enucleated and eviscerated cavities. The majority of the patients had the eye removed because of phthisis bulbi or trauma and the extrusion happened 1 or 2 years after the surgery. Extrusion was preceded by conjunctival dehiscence and exposure of the sphere and occurred with all used implants. CONCLUSION: Complications after orbital implant placement are a possibility. Dehiscence and sphere extrusion may happen and another surgery would be necessary. The patient and the ophthalmologist have to be prepared for this.

  13. Piezosurgery in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stübinger S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Stübinger,1 Andres Stricker,2 Britt-Isabelle Berg3,4 1Hightech Research Center of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Allschwil, Switzerland; 2Private Practice, Konstanz, Germany; 3Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies. Keywords: implantology, piezoelectric device, piezosurgery, maxillary sinus elevation, bone grafting, osteotomy, edentulous ridge splitting

  14. Endometrium implantation and ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yixun

    2004-01-01

    Embryo in uterine implantation is a complex and multifactor-related process and is a downstream and ideal point for woman fertility control.Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism of implantation is a prerequisite for development of anti-implantation contraceptives.In spite of considerable accumulation of information from the laboratory animals that has been achieved,it is difficult to generate such information in human due to ethical restriction and experimental limitation,and the present knowledge for understanding the definitive mechanisms which control these events remains elusive.Embryo implantation can also occur outside uterus.Some women with abdominal pregnancies could successfully complete the processes of gestation and bear normal babies,implying that implantation itself may be not an endometrium-specific process.Reproductive biologists should cooperate with gynecologists to further comparatively study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of implantation normally occurring in endometrium and abnormally appearing outside uterine cavity.Such collaborative studies may generate new important information for developing anti-implantation contraceptive and for techniques of accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.A specially designed GnRH-2 analog and a combination use of Iow dose RU486 and gossypol as anti-implantation contraceptives have been suggested.

  15. [The impact of dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the introduction of dental implants can only be understood when the historical context is clarified. In the past, the main treatment carried out by dentists consisted of filling or, in unfortunate cases, removal of painful teeth. Only since the introduction of dental implants did

  16. Peri-implant complications for posterior endosteal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine; Mehler, Alex; Clark, Arthur; Neal, Dan; Gonzaga, Luiz; Anusavice, Kenneth

    2015-12-01

    (1) To assess whether there is evidence of an association between the number of peri-implant tissue complications and patient characteristics such as gender, diabetes status, smoking status, and bite force; (2) To assess whether there is evidence of an association between the number of peri-implant tissue complications and location of the implant, surgical technique used, bone graft status and sinus lift status. This randomized, controlled clinical trial included a total of 176 implants (OsseoSpeed, DENTSPLY) in 67 participants with 88 fixed dental prostheses. Information was obtained from health histories, a baseline exam, surgical notes, and post-operative exams. The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney tests and generalized estimating equations using logistic regression with a significance level set at 0.05. All 176 implants survived within a recall period of 3 years, but 11 implants demonstrated peri-implant tissue complications. Ten sites showed dehiscence and one case exhibited vertical bone loss. There was a statistically significant association between surgical technique used (1-stage or 2-stage) and the presence of soft tissue complications (P = 0.005), where 2-stage surgery was associated with a higher frequency of peri-implant soft tissue complications. A correlation, although not statistically significant (P = 0.077), was noted, between peri-implant tissue complications and bone grafting, suggesting a possible role for this factor as well. Participants who did not require any second-stage surgery at the implant sites experienced fewer complications. Therefore, additional surgical procedures should be performed judiciously considering their possible effects on peri-implant tissue health. The clinical implication of this research study is that secondary surgery should be considered with caution during implant placement and it should be performed only when other options have been exhausted, as it has been shown to have a direct

  17. Short implants in oral rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Panobianco Chizolini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The placement of short dental implants is used as an alternative treatment modality to bone grafting procedures. The aim of this study was to discuss, through a literature review, the features, indications and biomechanical aspects of short implants, as well as to report the clinical factors that influence on their indication. Literature review and conclusion: It was found that short implants osseointegration can be compromised by risk factors that must be controlled to achieve treatment success. In conclusion, the main indication of short implants is to avoid an invasive surgery at atrophic areas of maxilla and mandible. Furthermore, implant design associated with surface treatment are factors that compensate its short length.

  18. Implant fixation by bone ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienapfel, H; Sprey, C; Wilke, A; Griss, P

    1999-04-01

    The term osseointegration referred originally to an intimate contact of bone tissue with the surface of a titanium implant; the term bone ingrowth refers to bone formation within an irregular (beads, wire mesh, casting voids, cut grooves) surface of an implant. The section dealing with the historical background describes the development of macroporous, microporous, and textured surfaces with an emphasis on the evolution of porous and textured metal surfaces. The principal requirements for osseointegration and bone ingrowth are systematically reviewed as follows: i) the physiology of osseointegration and bone ingrowth, including biomaterial biocompatibility with respect to cellular and matrix response at the interface; ii) the implant surface geometry characteristics; iii) implant micromotion and fixation modes; and iv) the implant-bone interface distances. Based on current methods of bone ingrowth assessment, this article comparatively reviews and discusses the results of experimental studies with the objective of determining local and systemic factors that enhance bone ingrowth fixation.

  19. SPHERES Mars Orbiting Sample Return External Orbiting Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission scenario utilizes a small Orbiting Sample (OS) satellite, launched from the surface of Mars, which will rendezvous with an...

  20. [Orbital tumor emergencies in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S; Desjardins, L

    2009-05-01

    Emergencies in childhood orbital tumorals are rare. The absolute emergency involves malignant primary orbital tumors, such as rhabdomyosarcoma or secondary malignant tumors (metastatic neuroblastoma, leukemia), involving a vital prognosis requiring prompt diagnosis. Delayed emergencies are usually vascular lesions. Among these lesions, immature orbital hemangioma, with a good prognosis, must be distinguished from orbital adnexal lymphangiomas, which are less frequent but can lead to dramatic cosmetic and functional disorders. In rare cases, they can be responsible for sudden, painful proptosis, due to orbital hemorrhage, with a risk of optic nerve compression, requiring emergency surgical treatment. Neurogenous lesions, either isolated, such as in gliomas, or associated with a systemic disease, such as Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis, threaten the functional prognosis. Diagnosis of pediatric orbital tumors is based on a good clinical examination, precise imaging investigations, and evaluation of the locoregional extension of the tumor. Biopsy is required in emergency situations, when rhabdomyosarcoma is suspected, in order to start the chemotherapy. However, the biopsy can be superfluous, and even useless or dangerous, when clinical and imaging investigations are sufficient to provide a diagnosis of capillary hemangioma, lymphangioma, or metastatic tumor from an abdominal malignancy. Treatment is closely related to the etiopathogenesis of the tumor. The outcomes are vital, functional and cosmetic. They may require orbital surgery (biopsy, tumoral resection, orbital decompression in case of a compressive hemorrhage), systemic corticotherapy (as in immature adnexal hemangioma), radiation, and chemotherapy (rhabdomyosarcoma, secondary malignant tumor). These diseases require a pediatric ophthalmological medical center specializing in orbital surgery, with close collaboration of multiple specialists such as onco-pediatricians and neurosurgeons.

  1. CT findings of orbital neoplas%眶部肿瘤的CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾腾蛟; 刘兆玉; 范国光

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨常见眶部肿瘤的CT表现。材料与方法:经手术病理及临床治疗证实的眶部肿瘤共25例,对它们的CT表现进行回顾性分析。结果:球内肿瘤4例,视网膜母细胞瘤3例,黑色素瘤1例;肌锥内肿瘤6例,海绵状血管瘤和淋巴瘤各2例,淋巴管瘤和炎性假瘤各1例;肌锥外肿瘤8例,炎性假瘤、泪腺混合瘤及皮样囊肿各2例,泪腺囊肿和畸胎瘤各1例;眶上缘皮下肿瘤4例,毛细血管瘤和表皮样囊肿各2例;另3例炎性假瘤有眼外肌和/或泪腺受累。结论:眶部肿瘤的CT表现各有其特点,结合临床及CT检查即可做出一定的定性诊断。%Objective: To explore the CT findings of common orbital neoplasms. Materials and Methods: The CT findings of twenty-five orbital neoplasms verified by pathology and clinical treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Four eyeball tumors, including three retinoblastoma and one melanoma; six intraconical tumors, including two cavernous hemangioma, two lymphoma, one lymphangioma and one inflammatory pseudotumor; eight extraconical tumors, including two inflammatory pseudotumors, two mixed tumors of lacrimal gland, two dermoid cysts, one cyst of lacrimal gland and one teratoma; four subcutaneous tumors of supraorbital margin, including two capillary hemangioma and two epidermoid cysts, another three inflammatory pseudotumors with extraocular muscle and/or lacrimal gland involved. Conclusion: Every orbital neoplasm has its own characteristic CT findings. Specific diagnosis can be made to a certain extent by combining CT features and clinical findings.

  2. Stereolithographic modelling as an aid to orbital brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, M; Lindsay, C; Sullivan, T; D'Urso, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the technique of stereolithographic biomodelling and its application to a patient who was treated using orbital brachytherapy. The process uses a moving laser beam, directed by a computer, to draw cross-sections of the model onto the surface of photo-curable liquid plastic. Using a stereolithographic apparatus (SLA), solid or surface data is sliced by software into very thin cross-sections. A helium cadmium (HeCd) laser then generates a small intense spot of ultraviolet (UV) light that is moved across the top of a vat of liquid photo monomer by a computerised optical scanning system. The laser polymerises the liquid into a solid where it touches, precisely printing each cross-section. A vertical elevator lowers the newly formed layer, and a recoating and levelling system establishes the next layer's thickness. Successive cross-sections (0.25 mm thick), each one adhering to the one below, are built one on top of the other, to form the part from the bottom up. The biomodel allowed the implant to be planned in detail prior to the surgery. The accurate placement of brachytherapy catheters was assured, and the dosimetry could be determined and optimised prior to the definitive procedure. Stereolithography is a useful technique in the area of orbital brachytherapy. It allows the implant to to be carried out with greater accuracy and confidence. For the patient, it minimises the risk to the eye and provides them with a greater understanding of the procedure.

  3. A novel orbital tissue expander (OTE): design, in vitro, and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabete; Tse, David; Pinchuk, Leonard; Acosta, Ana C.; Martin, John B.; Davis, Stewart B.; Hernandez, Eleut; Yamamoto, Hideo; Denham, David B.; Dubovy, Sander; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a novel orbital tissue expander (OTE) in treating congenital anophthalmic and microphthalmic infants. Methods: The OTE implant is an inflatable (0.5 to >6cc) silicone rubber globe sliding on a titanium T-shaped bone plate secured to the temporal bone with 1mm titanium screws. In vitro testing was performed to assess injection volume versus diameter measurements to determine consistency between devices, flex fatigue for durability of the implants when compressed, weight change in isotonic saline at 37°C to mimic human body temperature, seal durability by puncturing the globe numerous times while inflating, capacity before rupture to determine the maximum amount of saline it is able to contain, and effective sterilization. Ex-vivo testing was performed for adjustments prior to in vivo study. An OTE was then implanted in five 2-week old kittens (OS only) and inflated in 0.5cc increments. Three control animals received enucleation alone. All 8 animals were followed for 18 weeks and underwent euthanasia for morphological and histopathological analysis. Results: In vitro testing confirmed a kittens. The in vivo study demonstrated biocompatibility of the implant which stimulates orbital bone growth resulting in almost no difference between the implanted socket and the control eye of the cat. There were no adverse effects in the normal maturation, weight gain, and food intake of the cats. Light microscopy showed no signs of foreign body reaction. Pictures of the implants were obtained by using a shadow-photogrammetry system to compare the explanted OTE with the OD control eye. Conclusion: In vitro and in vivo studies show the implant's potential to safely treat anophthalmic and microphthalmic infants.

  4. Ocular complications of orbital venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, J N; Guibor, P

    1975-03-01

    Three ocular complications directly related to orbital venography are described, one resulting in permanent loss of vision,. The patient had lymphangioma of the orbit which evidently had bled secondary to increased venous pressure and injection of contrast bolus. Both of the 2 patients with transient visual disturbances had diabetic retinopathy. The common factor is felt to be an imparied vascular bed which cannot meet the stress of increased venous pressure and contrast medium injection. Conditions which predispose to ocular-orbital stasis and/or hemorrhage are discussed.

  5. Study of Endometrial Receptivity during Implantation in Implantation Dysfunction Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-juan LIU; Guang-ying HUANG; Ming-wei YANG; Fu-er LU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To establish the mice model of implantation dysfunction and to study the endometrial receptivity during implantation in implantation dysfunction mouse. Methods Sexually mature female virgin, Kunming mice were randomly assigned to the control group and the model group postcoitally. The model mice at 9 : 00 AM on d 4 of pregnancy(d 4) were injected subcutaneously with mifepristone. All animals were sacrificed at 9:00 PM on d 4 and their uterine horns were examined for the presence of implanted embryos. Histopathology of uterine endometrium was observed by light-microscope. The endometrial expressions of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) assessed by immunnohistochemical SP method. The endometrial expressions of ER mRNA and PR mRNA were assessed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Compared with control group, implantation rates and average embryo number significently decreased in model group, the development of endometrium was inhibited. In model group, absorbency and area rate of ER and PR in the gland and stroma were lower than those in control group (P<0.05). Expressions of ER mRNA and PR mRNA in model uterus were significantly lower than those in the control.Conclusion The endometrial receptivity and implantation decreased in mifepristoneinduced implantation dysfunction mouse.

  6. CODIMENSION 3 BIFURCATIONS OF HOMOCLINIC ORBITS WITH ORBIT FLIPS AND INCLINATION FLIPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI SHULIANG; ZHU DEMING

    2004-01-01

    The homoclinic bifurcations in four dimensional vector fields are investigated by setting up a local coordinates near the homoclinic orbit. This homoclinic orbit is nonprincipal in the meanings that its positive semi-orbit takes orbit flip and its unstable foliation takes inclination flip. The existence, nonexistence, uniqueness and coexistence of the 1-homoclinic orbit and the 1-periodic orbit are studied. The existence of the twofold periodic orbit and three-fold periodic orbit are also obtained.

  7. Clinical Analysis of 133 Cases of Extraocular Stage and Metastasis Stage Metastatic Retinoblastoma%眼外期及远处播散期视网膜母细胞瘤133例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谊; 黄东生; 张伟令; 王一卓; 周燕; 韩涛; 洪亮; 杨怡平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics and curative effect of terminal retinoblastoma(Rb). Methods The clinical document of 133 cases (162 eyes,78 male,55 female) with extraocular and metastasis stage of Rb confirmed in Department of Pediatrics of Tongren Hospital from Sep. 2005 to May 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The average age of 133 cases was 2.04 years old( range 0. 33 -12.66 years old); primary eye types:the right eyes diagnosed primarily were 48 cases (extraocular 36 cases,metastasis stage 12 cases) ,left eyes diagnosed primarily were 56 cases (extraocular 46 cases, metastasis stage 10 cases), and double eyes diagnosed primarily were 29 cases.Results Leucocoria was the most common manifestation of terminal Rb with the primary diagnosis rate was 69.92% (93/133 cases) based on this symptom; secondly,lacrimation, flare, photophobia, exophthalmos ( 10.52% ) and side - glance ( 9.77% ), weak - eyed, blindness,cataract ( 6.77 % ), misdiagnose ( 1.51% ), recur after operation ( 1.51% ). The hospitalized rate of male [ 58 % (78/133 cases) ] was more than that of female. Seven cases (5.26%) showed the positive family history in all of cases. In all the 133 cases,131 cases (98.49%) had an increase in neurone specific enolase(NSE) ,the max was 370.00 μ.g · L-1. The total survival rate was 82.35% (98/119 cases), 14 cases ( in the metastasis stage 9 cases ,extraocular 5 cases) given up treatment and lost followed - up. One hundred and nineteen cases were followed up: the median follow - up visit was 27 months,the survival rate was 82.35% (98/119 cases). Moreover,the survival rate of Rb in the metastasis stage was 26.08% (6/23 cases); the survival rate of Rb in the extraocluar stage was 95.83% (92/96 cases). Conclusions The mortality of terminal Rb is very high, especially in metastasis stage. Therefore, it is very important to diagnose early and give an overall treatment.%目的 总结晚期视网膜母细胞瘤(Rb)患儿的

  8. Early Differential Diagnosis of Rhino-Orbito-Cerebral Mucormycosis and Bacterial Orbital Cellulitis: Based on Computed Tomography Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jun Hyuk; Lim, Hyung Bin; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yang, Jae Wook; Lee, Sung Bok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify significant clinical and radiological findings that distinguish rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) from bacterial orbital cellulitis (BOC). Methods This study was retrospective, multicenter, case-control study that enrolled 34 cases; 14 cases were diagnosed with ROCM and 20 cases were diagnosed with BOC at three different tertiary hospitals between 2005 and 2013. The medical records of all 34 cases were reviewed. The initial clinical manifestations (eyelid swelling, ptosis, extraocular muscle [EOM] limitation, conjunctival injection, and chemosis) and computed tomography (CT) findings (sinus mucosal thickening, full opacification, and air-fluid level) of both diseases were compared. Results Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) showed higher incidence rates of ROCM than BOC (DM: p < 0.001, HTN: p = 0.036). ROCM cases exhibited more frequent EOM limitation than cases with BOC (100.0% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.024) but less frequent eyelid swelling (35.7% vs. 90.0%, p = 0.002). However, the incidence rates of ptosis, conjunctival injection, and chemosis exhibited no differences between the diseases. Abnormal CT findings were observed in the sinuses of all patients with ROCM, whereas 12 patients with BOC had sinus abnormalities (100.0% vs. 60.0%, p = 0.011). Thickening of the sinus mucosa was more frequent in patients with ROCM than in those with BOC (92.9% vs. 45.0%, p = 0.009). No significant differences in full opacification or air-fluid level were detected between the groups. Conclusions The differential diagnosis of ROCM and BOC is difficult. Nevertheless, physicians should consider ROCM when a patient with suspected orbital cellulitis presents with EOM limitation without swollen eyelids or thickening of the sinus mucosa on a CT scan. PMID:27501044

  9. Doppler imaging of orbital vessels in the assessment of the activity and severity of thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Walasik-Szemplińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with symptoms of thyroid-associated orbitopathy are classifi ed on the basis of the clinical activity score (CAS proposed by Mourits in 1989. Despite its undoubted clinical usefulness, it has several limitations which can decide about the success or failure of the implemented treatment. Numerous reports mention the presence of hemodynamic changes in orbital and bulbar vessels in the course of an orbitopathy called Graves’ disease. The usage of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of numerous ophthalmologic vascular diseases suggests that changes in thyroid-associated orbitopathy can correlate with the activity and severity of the disease. This paper presents the overview of the state-of-the-art concerning the usefulness of Doppler imaging in patient selection for the treatment of thyroid-associated orbitopathy. It has been shown that the velocity of blood fl ow in the superior ophthalmic vein, which is the most susceptible to changes in anatomical conditions in the enclosed orbital space, decreases in a statistically signifi cant way. A decrease in blood fl ow velocity is closely associated with the active stage of the disease whereas reverse fl ow or its absence attest to severe orbitopathy and constitute a risk factor of ocular neuropathy. The activity of the infl ammatory process in the eyeball is also confi rmed by an increase in peak systolic velocity (PSV in the ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery as well as end-diastolic velocity (EDV in the ophthalmic artery. Resistance index values decrease in the ophthalmic artery and increase in the central retinal artery mainly in cases with considerable expansion of the extraocular muscles.

  10. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  11. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  12. Quark spin-orbit correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    The proton spin puzzle issue focused the attention on the parton spin and orbital angular momentum contributions to the proton spin. However, a complete characterization of the proton spin structure requires also the knowledge of the parton spin-orbit correlation. We showed that this quantity can be expressed in terms of moments of measurable parton distributions. Using the available phenomenological information about the valence quarks, we concluded that this correlation is negative, meaning that the valence quark spin and kinetic orbital angular momentum are, in average, opposite. The quark spin-orbit correlation can also be expressed more intuitively in terms of relativistic phase-space distributions, which can be seen as the mother distributions of the standard generalized and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. We present here for the first time some examples of the general multipole decomposition of these phase-space distributions.

  13. ORBITAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SINUS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothirmayi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To study the orbital manifestations in patients with sinus disease. METHODS : Patients wit h paranasal sinus disease presenting to OPD at Government ENT Hospital, AMC, Visakhapatnam from January 2012 to June 2014 were screened for orbital manifestations. Out of these, thirteen patients with orbital disease were referred to GREH, AMC, Visakhapatn am and were thoroughly investigated and managed appropriately. RESULTS : Out of the 14 patients 4 were female and 10 were male. Age ranged from 19 years to 70 years. 5 had maxillary sinus disease (4 - carcinoma and 1 case of mucormycosis. Frontal sinus dis ease was seen in two patients, one fibrous dysplasia and one malignancy. Five patients had ethmoidal sinus disease of which three patients were found to have ethmoidal sinus tumour (Malignant melanoma, Squamous cell Carcinoma. More than two sinuses were i nvolved in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS : Early screening of patients with sinus disease by an Ophthalmologist can help in preventing severe vision threatening orbital complications.

  14. Closed Orbits in Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrew; Haestad, Jace; Morgan, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We report characteristics of closed classical orbits in an electric field in phase space produced in photoabsorption. Rydberg states of atomic and molecular hydrogen and helium are considered. The core potential used for the hydrogen molecule is an effective one electron one center core potential evaluated at the internuclear equilibrium distance. Poincare surfaces of section in phase space are generated by integrating the equations of motion in semiparabolic coordinates u = (r + z) 1 / 2 and v = (r - z) 1 / 2, and plotting the location in phase space (pv versus v) whenever u = 0, with the electric field in the z direction. Combination orbits produced by Rydberg electron core scattering are studied and the evolution in phase space of these combination orbits due to scattering from one closed orbit into another is investigated. Connections are made to measured laser photoabsorption experiments that excite Rydberg states (20 recurrence spectra. The phase space structures responsible for the spectra are identified.

  15. A Case of Orbital Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Mark; Prendes, Mark Armando; Wilkes, Byron; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Fraig, Mostafa; Nunery, William R

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys of the United States. In this case report, a 33-year-old woman who presented with a right orbital mass causing progressive vision loss, diplopia, and facial swelling is described. Lateral orbitotomy with lateral orbital wall bone flap was performed for excisional biopsy of the lesion. The 1.5 × 1.8 × 2.3 cm cicatricial mass demonstrated a granulomatous lesion with necrosis and positive staining consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum infection. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of orbital histoplasmosis to be reported in the United States and the first case worldwide of orbital histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum.

  16. Formation around planetary displaced orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Sheng-ping; LI Jun-feng; BAOYIN He-xi

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the relative motion around the planetary displaced orbit. Several kinds of displaced orbits for geocentric and martian cases were discussed. First, the relative motion was linearized around the displaced orbits. Then, two seminatural control laws were investigated for each kind of orbit and the stable regions were obtained for each case. One of the two control laws is the passive control law that is very attractive for engineering practice. However, the two control laws are not very suitable for the Martian mission. Another special semi-natural control law is designed based on the requirement of the Martian mission. The results show that large stable regions exist for the control law.

  17. Orbital entanglement in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawski, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The basic concepts of orbital entanglement and its application to chemistry are briefly reviewed. The calculation of orbital entanglement measures from correlated wavefunctions is discussed in terms of reduced $n$-particle density matrices. Possible simplifications in their evaluation are highlighted in case of seniority-zero wavefunctions. Specifically, orbital entanglement allows us to dissect electron correlation effects in its strong and weak contributions, to determine bond orders, to assess the quality and stability of active space calculations, to monitor chemical reactions, and to identify points along the reaction coordinate where electronic wavefunctions change drastically. Thus, orbital entanglement represents a useful and intuitive tool to interpret complex electronic wavefunctions and to facilitate a qualitative understanding of electronic structure and how it changes in chemical processes.

  18. How to Orbit the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Donald J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the geometry, algebra, and logic involved in the solution of a "Mindbenders" problem in "Discover" magazine and applies it to calculations of satellite orbital velocity. Extends the solution of this probe to other applications of falling objects. (JM)

  19. Orbital mechanics near Lagrange's points

    OpenAIRE

    Utashima, Masayoshi; 歌島 昌由

    1997-01-01

    The first libration-point satellite ISEE-3 (International Sun-Earth Explorer-3) was launched in 1978. Though, no libration-point satellites were realized after the launch of the ISEE-3, NASA launched the ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft into the halo orbit in the sun-earth system in late 1995. The halo orbit in the sun-earth system is adequate for missions such as solar observation, astronomical observation, NEO (Near Earth Objects) observation, communications with t...

  20. Orbit Determination Analysis for SSAPurposes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the characterization of the space environmentand of space activities. The fundament of SSA is the access to information about theorbit of space objects. There exist several techniques to determine the orbit of objects inspace, both from space-based and from ground-based observations. This Master's Thesisproject aims at investigating orbit determinations from ground-based radar observations.In particular, the use of the EISCAT Ultra-High-Frequency (UHF) inc...