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  1. Extraocular muscle function testing

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    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  2. Extraocular muscle architecture in hawks and owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Segev, Tamar; Grow, Wade; Hall, Margaret I

    2018-02-06

    A complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. This is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. To better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically. This sample was composed of two each of the following species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and barn owl (Tyto alba). All extraocular muscles were dissected and weighed. To analyze muscle fiber architecture, the superior oblique and quadratus muscles were dissected, weighed, and sectioned at 5 μm thickness in the transverse plane. We calculated the physiologic cross-sectional area and the ratio of muscle mass to predicted effective maximum tetanic tension. Hawk and owl extraocular muscles exhibit significant physiological differences that play roles in ocular movements and closure of the nictitating membrane. Owls, which do not exhibit extraocular movement, have muscle architecture suited to stabilize the position of a massive, tubular eye that protrudes significantly from the orbit. Hawks, which have a more globose eye that is largely contained within the orbit, do not require as much muscular stability and instead have muscle architecture that facilitates rapid eye movement. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles

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    Leyla Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM is a rare disorder characterized by hereditary non-progressive restrictive strabismus and blepharoptosis. Although most of the cases are bilateral and isolated, some patients may have systemic findings. CFEOM is divided into three groups as CFEOM 1, 2, and 3 according to the phenotype. Primary responsible genes are KIF21A for CFEOM type 1 and 3 and PHOX2A/ARIX gene for CFEOM type 2. Studies suggest that abnormal innervation of the extraocular muscles is the cause of muscle fibrosis. Early treatment is important because of the risk of amblyopia. Surgery is the primary treatment option for strabismus and blepharoptosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 312-5

  4. Genetics Home Reference: congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the development of a particular branch of cranial nerve III, which emerges from the brain and controls ... nerve cells, preventing the normal development of these cranial nerves and the extraocular muscles they control. Abnormal function ...

  5. Radiologic measurement of extraocular muscle volumes in patients with Graves' orbitopathy: a review and guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Ward R.; Mourits, Maarten Ph

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare techniques for extraocular muscle (EOM) volume measurement and to provide guidelines for future measurements. DESIGN: Systematic review. RESULTS: Existing techniques used to measure extraocular muscle volumes on radiologic scans can be divided into manual

  6. Muscle spindle autogenetic inhibition in the extraocular muscles of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Filippi, G M

    1981-09-01

    The role of extraocular muscle (EOM) proprioceptors on eye motility has been investigated in lambs on "encéphale isolé", by evaluating the tension of EOMs at various lengths and velocities of stretch before and after proprioceptive blocks. The EOM tension, in the absence of proprioceptive input, was higher than in normal conditions. Such an effect occurred at lengthening values greater than 3 mm of stretch from resting muscle length, corresponding to 18 degrees of eye deviation and was dependent on the velocity of the stretch, being more effective at high velocity. The muscle receptors responsible for this effect was determined by comparing the sensitivity to vibratory stimulation of spindles and tendon organs to the amount of inhibition provoked by the same stimulation on an EOM electromyographic activity. The tension inhibition appeared to be correlated to muscle spindle activation. Thus, the presence of muscle spindles can determine a reduction of the tension within the stretched muscles. This result suggests that the EOM length and velocity signals operate moment to moment reduction on the stiffness of the muscle which antagonizes eye displacement, thus facilitating the ocular movements.

  7. Bilateral multiple extraocular muscle metastasis from breast carcinoma

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    Ramesh Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare presentation of an initially misdiagnosed case of a pseudotumor, which on histopathology was diagnosed as bilateral breast metastases of lobular carcinoma involving multiple extraocular muscles. A 61-year-old lady presented with external ophthalmoplegia and diplopia. Incisional biopsy was performed using a lid crease approach and the patient received radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Following prolonged hormonal therapy, complete remission was achieved, with improvement in ocular motility and resolution of diplopia, about 18 months after the initial presentation. Multiple extraocular muscle involvement by breast carcinoma metastasis is very rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients with a prior history of breast carcinoma.

  8. Traumatic avulsion of extraocular muscles: case reports

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    Nilza Minguini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We described the clinical, surgical details and results (motor and sensory of the retrieving procedure of traumatically avulsed muscles in three patients with no previous history of strabismus or diplopia seen in the Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Campinas, Brazil. The slipped muscle portion was reinserted at the original insertion and under the remaining stump, which was sutured over the reinserted muscle. For all three cases there was recovery of single binocular vision and stereopsis.

  9. MRI estimation of extraocular muscle swelling in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Hatakeyama, Masayuki; Asanagi, Kaoru

    1988-01-01

    The thickness and width of superior, inferior and medial rectus muscles were measured via T1-weighted coronal images using a 0.5 T superconducting MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) system in 10 patients with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy and 27 normal orbits. Lateral rectus muscles were not measured because the partial volume effect obscured their contours. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of ophthalmopathy. Group A had no ophthalmopathy, group B had corneal involvement or restricted eye movement, group C had optic nerve involvement. Mean muscle thickness increased in the order A, B and C. Mean rectus muscle width was normal in group A, but dramatically increased in group C, results suggesting that swelling of the extraocular muscles is a characteristic pathologic change in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. It is concluded that MRI is a safe and useful method of evaluating the severity of and prognosing dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. (author)

  10. Extraocular muscle proprioception and eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Draicchio, F; Errico, P; Santarelli, R; Manni, E

    1995-03-01

    In the lamb, acute unilateral section of the ophthalmic branch induced in the ipsilateral eye occasional oscillations of the resting position and misalignment of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) with respect to the stimulus. Additional electrolytic lesion of the cells innervating the proprioceptors of the medial rectus muscle, or of the lateral rectus muscle in the contralateral semilunar ganglion, provoked a 4 degrees-7 degrees consensual eye deviation towards and away from the lesioned side, respectively. The optokinetic beating field was similarly deviated. Under these experimental conditions, HVOR showed enhanced gain and marked misalignment in both eyes. Therefore, the selective suppression of muscular proprioceptive input deviated both eyes towards the direction opposite to the muscle whose gangliar proprioceptive representation has been destroyed.

  11. Comparative anatomy of the extraocular muscles in four Myliobatoidei rays (Batoidea, Myliobatiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Carlo M; Oliveira, Luciano E; Kfoury, José R

    2016-05-01

    Extraocular muscles are classically grouped as four rectus and two oblique muscles. However, their description and potential associations with species behavior are limited. The objective was to characterize extraocular muscles in four Myliobatoidei rays from diverse habitats with divergent behaviors. Heads (10 per species) of Dasyatis hypostigma, Gymnura altavela, Mobula thurstoni and Pteroplatytrygon violacea were decalcified and dissected to characterize and describe extraocular muscles. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate relationships between muscle length and species; for P. violacea, D. hypostigma and G. altavela, these were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the general pattern of extraocular muscles in vertebrates. In contrast, for M. thurstoni, the two oblique muscles were completely fused and there was a seventh extraocular muscle, named m. lateral rectus β (both were apparently novel findings in this species). There were also significant differences in eye disposition in the chondrocranium. The PCA axis 1 (rectus muscles) and PCA axis 2 (oblique muscles) accounted for 98.47% of data variability. Extraocular muscles had significant differences in length and important anatomical differences among sampled species that facilitated grouping species according to their life history. In conclusion, extraocular muscles are not uniform in all vertebrate species, thereby providing another basis for comparative studies. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  12. Morphometry of extraocular muscles in Basedow disease by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masato

    1996-01-01

    We measured the thickness of extraocular muscles in 35 patients diagnosed as Basedow disease by physicians. We used the coronal images of computed tomography in measuring the thickness at four points for each muscle. The mean thickness was 3.2±1.0 mm for superior rectus, 3.4±0.8 mm for medial rectus and 4.1 mm±13 mm for inferior rectus. These values were significantly larger than in normal eyes (p<0.01). The value for inferior rectus was significantly larger than for the other two muscles (p<0.01). Thickness of inferior rectus at its posterior portion was significantly correlated with limitation of supraduction of the affected eye (r=0.7). (author)

  13. A new teaching model for demonstrating the movement of the extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Joe; Refsland, Jason; Iovino, Lee; Holley, Gary; Laws, Tyler; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    The extraocular muscles consist of the superior, inferior, lateral, and medial rectus muscles and the superior and inferior oblique muscles. This study aimed to create a new teaching model for demonstrating the function of the extraocular muscles. A coronal section of the head was prepared and sutures attached to the levator palpebral superioris muscle and six extraocular muscles. Tension was placed on each muscle from a posterior approach and movement of the eye documented from an anterior view. All movements were clearly seen less than that of the inferior rectus muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first cadaveric teaching model for demonstrating the movements of the extraocular muscles. Clin. Anat. 30:733-735, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Successful repair of injury to the eyelid, lacrimal passage, and extraocular muscle

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    Shah, Shreya Mehul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury is a known cause of monocular blindness. Ocular trauma may affect lacrimal canaliculi and the extraocular muscle. We report this case as it includes injury to lid, lacrimal canaliculi and inferior rectus. Case description: A 25-year-old male presented with an injury caused by a sharp object that resulted in a conjunctival tear, lid tear involving the lacrimal canal, and rupture of the inferior rectus muscle. All of the structures were repaired successfully during a single procedure. Conclusion: An extraocular injury involving the conjunctiva, lid, lacrimal passages, and extraocular muscles can be repaired successfully during a single procedure.

  15. A new MRI method for the quantitative evaluation of extraocular muscle size in thyroid ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, K.; Gueven, K.; Sencer, S.; Minareci, O.; Cikim, A.; Guel, N.

    2003-01-01

    In cross section, extraocular muscles are more or less elliptical, with short and long diameters. We studied the ratio (R) of short to long diameter and investigated its use in quantitative assessment of the extraocular muscles in patients with Graves's disease. We measured the diameters on T1-weighted axial and coronal MRI and computed R for each extraocular muscle in 80 patients without and 40 with Graves's disease. We compared the measurements and R of the right and left orbits, and of men and women. The short diameter of all extraocular muscles apart from the superior oblique showed significant differences between men and women, and that of the inferior rectus varied significantly with age. R, however, was unrelated to sex or age. All patients with Graves's disease and an increased short diameter also had an increased R, but 6% of the muscles showed an increase in R, even though their short diameter was within the normal range. (orig.)

  16. Anterior uveitis and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles in a patient with Noonan syndrome

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    Elgohary Mostafa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Noonan syndrome who presented with Human Leukocyte Antigen B27-associated recurrent acute anterior uveitis and manifestations of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, which has not been reported before.

  17. Site-dependent distribution of macrophages in normal human extraocular muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, E. D.; van der Gaag, R.; Mourits, M. P.; Koornneef, L.

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: Clinical data indicate that extraocular muscles have different susceptibilities for some orbital immune disorders depending on their anatomic location. The resident immunocompetent cells may be important mediators in the local pathogenesis of such disorders so the distribution of these

  18. Determinants of Extraocular Muscle Volume in Patients with Graves' Disease

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    Samer El-Kaissi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To examine factors contributing to extraocular muscle (EOM volume enlargement in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Methods. EOM volumes were measured with orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 39 patients with recently diagnosed Graves’ disease, and compared to EOM volumes of 13 normal volunteers. Thyroid function tests, uptake on thyroid scintigraphy, anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity and other parameters were then evaluated in patients with EOM enlargement. Results. 31/39 patients had one or more enlarged EOM, of whom only 2 patients had clinical EOM dysfunction. Compared to Graves’ disease patients with normal EOM volumes, those with EOM enlargement had significantly higher mean serum TSH (0.020±0.005 versus 0.007±0.002 mIU/L; P value 0.012, free-T4 (52.9±3.3 versus 41.2±1.7 pmol/L; P value 0.003 and technetium uptake on thyroid scintigraphy (13.51±1.7% versus 8.55±1.6%; P value 0.045. There were no differences between the 2 groups in anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity, the proportion of males, tobacco smokers, or those with active ophthalmopathy. Conclusions. Patients with recently diagnosed Graves’ disease and EOM volume enlargement have higher serum TSH and more severe hyperthyroidism than patients with normal EOM volumes, with no difference in anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity between the two groups.

  19. Contractile Force of Human Extraocular Muscle: A Theoretical Analysis

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    Hongmei Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The length-contractile force relationships of six human extraocular muscles (EOMs in primary innervations should be determined during eye movement modeling and surgery of clinical EOMs. This study aims to investigate these relationships. Method. The proposal is based on the assumption that six EOMs have similar constitutive relationships, with the eye suspended in the primary position. The constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained by optimizing from previous experimental data and the theory of mechanical equilibrium using traditional model. Further, simulate the existing experiment of resistance force, and then compare the simulated results with the existing experimental results. Finally, the mechanical constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained. Results. The results show that the simulated resistance forces from the other four EOMs except for the horizontal recti well agree with previous experimental results. Conclusion. The mechanical constitutive relationships of six EOMs in primary innervations are obtained, and the rationality of the constitutive relationships is verified. Whereafter, the active stress-strain relationships of the six EOMs in the primary innervations are obtained. The research results can improve the eye movement model to predict the surgical amounts of EOMs before EOM surgery more precisely.

  20. MRI of idiopathic orbital inflammation and lymphoid disease with lesions in extraocular muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Chiharu; Kotake, Fumio; Kawanishi, Masayuki; Saito, Kazuhiro; Abe, Kimihiko

    2004-01-01

    Of the disorders accompanied by hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, differentiating between idiopathic orbital inflammation and malignant lymphoma is difficult but important to treatment and prognosis. In this study using MRI, shape, signal intensity, and enhancement effects were compared between idiopathic orbital inflammation and lymphoproliferative lesions. The subjects were 27 patients (8 with idiopathic orbital inflammation, 1 with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 3 with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, and 15 with malignant lymphoma) and 10 normal controls. The evaluation items were: thickness of extraocular muscles, number of extraocular muscles involved signal intensity of extraocular muscles, and enhancement effects on extraocular muscles. When compared to control subjects (p<0.05) the attachment portion of extraocular muscles were significantly thicker in the patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, or malignant lymphoma; the most marked hypertrophy was observed in patients with malignant lymphoma. The number of extraocular muscles involved was 1.5 (mean) in the patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation, 1 in the patient with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 1.7 (mean) in the patients with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, and 5.1 (mean) in those with malignant lymphoma. The signal intensity ratio on T1W-images did not significantly differ between the patients and controls for all the disorders investigated. Signal intensity ratio on T2W-images significantly differed between patients with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia or malignant lymphoma and the controls (p<0.05) but not between patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation and controls. Signal intensity ratio after contrast enhancement differed significantly only between patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation and controls (p<0.05). (author)

  1. Orbital Floor Fracture with Atypical Extraocular Muscle Entrapment Pattern and Intraoperative Asystole in an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Farhan I.; Grant, Michael P.; Mahoney, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscle entrapment in a nondisplaced orbital fracture, although a well-known entity in pediatric trauma, is atypical in adults. It can present with a triad of bradycardia, nausea, and in rare cases, syncope, and result in severe fibrosis of damaged and incarcerated muscle. We present a case of muscle entrapment in a partially nondisplaced two-wall orbital fracture with accompanying preoperative bradycardia and intraoperative asystole in an adult PMID:26576246

  2. Rectus extraocular muscle paths and decompression surgery for Graves orbitopathy: mechanism of motility disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kalmann, Rachel; de Graaf, Mieke E. L.; Stilma, Jan S.; Mourits, Maarten P.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study possible causes of motility disturbances that may result from orbital decompression surgery in patients with Graves orbitopathy and especially the role of rectus extraocular muscle paths. METHODS: Sixteen patients with Graves orbitopathy were studied before and 3 to 6 months after

  3. Volume measurement of the horizontal extraocular muscles using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Osamu; Nishida, Eri; Murata, Toyotaka; Aoki, Yoshiko; Inatomi, Akihiro; Kani, Kazutaka (Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)); Mabuchi, Norihisa; Furutani, Yoshiaki

    1993-07-01

    The volume of the horizontal extraocular muscles of 11 normal adults and three patients with ophthalmoplegia was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI examinations were carried out with a Signa Advantage, 1.5 tesla superconductive magnetic system manufactured by General Electric. This method employs the spin echo technique with a 3.0 mm gapless slice, a 350 ms. repetition time, and a 17.0 ms. echo time. The MRI films were projected and magnified on Kent paper using an overhead projector. Then the shapes of the horizontal extraocular muscles were traced. The volume of the muscles was measured as the total weight of Kent papers which were cut out from muscle shapes in all the slices. The average volume of the normal medial and lateral rectus muscles was 690[+-]87 mm[sup 3] and 734[+-]77 mm[sup 3], respectively. Two cases of peripheral nerve palsy showed typical atrophy of the paretic muscles. A case of orbital myositis showed typical hypertrophy of the inflamed muscles. This measurement may prove useful in the analysis and evaluation of extraocular muscles, especially in ophthalmoplesia.(author).

  4. Use of extraocular muscle flaps in the correction of orbital implant exposure.

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    Hsueh-Yen Chu

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: The study is to describe a new surgical technique for correcting large orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps and to propose a treatment algorithm for orbital implant exposure. METHODS: In a retrospective study, seven patients with orbital implant exposure were treated with extraocular muscle flaps. All data were collected from patients in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan during 2007-2012. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon (Y.J.T. Patient demographics, the original etiology, details of surgical procedures, implant types, and follow-up interval were recorded. Small exposure, defined as exposure area smaller than 3 mm in diameter, was treated conservatively first with topical lubricant and prophylactic antibiotics. Larger defects were managed surgically. RESULTS: Seven patients consisting of two males and five females were successfully treated for orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps. The average age was 36.4 (range, 3-55 years old. Five patients were referred from other hospitals. One eye was enucleated for retinoblastoma. The other six eyes were eviscerated, including one for endophthalmitis and five for trauma. Mean follow-up time of all seven patients was 19.5 (range, 2-60 months. No patient developed recurrence of exposure during follow-up. All patients were fitted with an acceptable prosthesis and had satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. CONCLUSIONS: The most common complication of orbital implant is exposure, caused by breakdown of the covering layers, leading to extrusion. Several methods were reported to manage the exposed implants. We report our experience of treating implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps to establish a well-vascularized environment that supplies both the wrapping material and the overlying ocular surface tissue. We believe it can work as a good strategy to manage or to prevent orbital implant exposure.

  5. A comparative study of different amniotic membrane orientations during extraocular muscle surgery in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Rehab Rashad; El-Mofty, Randa Mohamed Abdel-Moneim; Khodeir, Mustafa Mahmoud; Hamza, Wael Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    To histopathologically compare the effect of different orientations of cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (AM) transplant during extraocular muscle surgery in rabbits. Fifty-two albino rabbit eyes underwent 4-mm resection of the superior rectus. Eyes were randomly divided into four groups. In Group C (Control group, 16 eyes) the muscle was not wrapped with amniotic membrane. In the three AM groups, cryopreserved AM was wrapped around the muscle, oriented with either its stroma (Group S, 15 eyes) or epithelium (Group E, nine eyes) towards the muscle, or folded on itself with the epithelium externally (Group F, 12 eyes). The rabbits were sacrificed and the eyes were enucleated 6 weeks after surgery. Histopathological examination was conducted for periamniotic, foreign body, scleral, and conjunctival inflammation, conjunctival vascularity, adhesions and muscle fibrosis. In all AM eyes, the AM was surrounded by periamniotic inflammation, with no adhesions detected between the muscle and surrounding tissues in the segment where the AM was present, but detected elsewhere. Adhesions were detected in all group C eyes. Foreign body inflammation was significantly less in Group C than in each of the AM groups (p  .05). Scleral inflammation was absent in all specimens. No significant differences were noted among all groups in terms of conjunctival vascularity, conjunctival inflammation, or muscle fibrosis (p > .05). All AM orientations were equally effective in preventing the development of postoperative adhesions between the extraocular muscle and surrounding tissues.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in dissociated strabismus complex demonstrates generalized hypertrophy of rectus extraocular muscles.

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    Rajab, Ghada Z; Suh, Soh Youn; Demer, Joseph L

    2017-06-01

    Dissociated strabismus complex (DSC) is an enigmatic form of strabismus that includes dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) and dissociated horizontal deviation (DHD). We employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the extraocular muscles in DSC. We studied 5 patients with DSC and mean age of 25 years (range, 12-42 years), and 15 age-matched, orthotropic control subjects. All patients had DVD; 4 also had DHD. We employed high-resolution, surface coil MRI with thin, 2 mm slices and central target fixation. Volumes of the rectus and superior oblique muscles in the region 12 mm posterior to 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction were measured in quasi-coronal planes in central gaze. Patients with DSC had no structural abnormalities of rectus muscles or rectus pulleys or the superior oblique muscle but exhibited modest, statistically significant increased volume of all rectus muscles ranging from 20% for medial rectus to 9% for lateral rectus (P muscles. DSC is associated with generalized rectus extraocular muscle hypertrophy in the absence of other orbital abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiologic measurement of extraocular muscle volumes in patients with Graves' orbitopathy: a review and guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Ward R; Mourits, Maarten Ph

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate and compare techniques for extraocular muscle (EOM) volume measurement and to provide guidelines for future measurements. Systematic review. Existing techniques used to measure extraocular muscle volumes on radiologic scans can be divided into manual outlining, computer assisted and automated segmentation. Both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) image datasets can be used. On CT scans, one best measures muscle volume using region grow segmentation, accepting an overestimation of true volume by inevitable inclusion of non-muscular tissue. On high resolution MRI scans, single muscles can be outlined manually, but measurements include only part of the muscle due to poor tissue contrast at the orbital apex. Measurement errors can be reduced 3.5% by exact horizontal repositioning. A measured volume change of at least 6-17% is required to demonstrate a significant difference. Currently the best choice for EOM volume measurements on CT images is computer assisted grey value segmentation and on MRI images is manual outlining of individual muscles. Because of the time required and the complexity of the measurements, present EOM volume measurement is as yet only suitable for research purposes.

  8. Influence of the extraocular muscle proprioceptors on the orientation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Manni, E

    1996-03-01

    In the intact brain lamb, unilateral electrolytic lesion of the medial dorso-lateral portion of the semilunar ganglion containing the first order neurons of the eye muscle proprioception induced modifications of the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR and VVOR) which consisted in marked alterations of the trajectories of the quick phases, while the slow phases were scarcely affected. Similar results were observed after section of the branches described by Winckler in the retrobulbar region along the extraocular muscle proprioceptive information travels. These findings extend those of previous investigations carried out in decorticate animals.

  9. Transcriptional and functional differences in stem cell populations isolated from Extraocular and Limb muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco-Pinedo, Eugenia Cristina; Budak, Murat T; Zeiger, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a distinct muscle group that displays an array of unique contractile, structural and regenerative properties. They also have differential sensitivity to certain diseases and are enigmatically spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The EOMs are so distinct...... from other skeletal muscles that the term: allotype has been coined to highlight EOM-group-specific properties. We hypothesized that increased and distinct stem cells may underlie the continual myogenesis noted in EOM. The side population (SP) stem cells were isolated and studied. EOMs had 15x higher...... SP cell content compared to limb muscles. Expression profiling revealed 348 transcripts that define the EOM-SP transcriptome. Over 92% of transcripts were SP-specific, as they were absent in previous whole-muscle microarray studies. Cultured EOM-SP cells revealed superior in vitro proliferative...

  10. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  11. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Geraldo de Barros; Almeida, Henderson Celestino de; Velarde, David Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U), each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections) was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD). When the dose was 4U (2 applications) the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  12. Evaluation of dysthyroid optic neuropathy using T2-relaxation time of extraocular muscle as parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Toshine; Inoue, Toyoko; Inoue, Yoichi

    2001-01-01

    The T2 value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in evaluating the activity of dysthyroid ophthlamopathy. We applied this method in evaluating dysthyroid optic neuropathy in 15 affected eyes of 15 patients. Another group of 40 eyes of 20 patients of dysthyroid opthalmopathy without hypertrophy of extraocular muscles served as control. The T2 value in dysthyroid optic neuropathy significantly decreased following treatment with corticosteroid but the value was still higher than that in control eyes. The findings show that the T2 value of MRI is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of dysthyroid optic neuropathy. (author)

  13. Evaluation of dysthyroid optic neuropathy using T2-relaxation time of extraocular muscle as parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Toshine; Inoue, Toyoko; Inoue, Yoichi [Olympia Eye Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The T2 value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in evaluating the activity of dysthyroid ophthlamopathy. We applied this method in evaluating dysthyroid optic neuropathy in 15 affected eyes of 15 patients. Another group of 40 eyes of 20 patients of dysthyroid opthalmopathy without hypertrophy of extraocular muscles served as control. The T2 value in dysthyroid optic neuropathy significantly decreased following treatment with corticosteroid but the value was still higher than that in control eyes. The findings show that the T2 value of MRI is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of dysthyroid optic neuropathy. (author)

  14. Site-dependent effects of experimental hypo- and hyperthyroidism on resident macrophages in extraocular muscles of rats: a quantitative immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, E. D.; van Hogerwou, G.; van der Gaag, R.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Asmussen, G.; Koornneef, L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that the effects of dysthyroidism on resident immunocompetent cells of the extraocular muscles may play a role in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The distribution of such cells was therefore studied in extraocular muscles of rats that were made hyper- or hypothyroid

  15. Composition, Architecture, and Functional Implications of the Connective Tissue Network of the Extraocular Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K.; Vicente, André; Fitzpatrick, Krysta R.; Lindström, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally. Methods Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Rabbit EOMs were examined for levels of force transmission longitudinally and transversely using in vitro force assessment. Results Collagens I, III, and VI localized to the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium. Collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin localized to the basal lamina surrounding all myofibers. All collagens localized similarly in the orbital and global layers throughout the muscle length. Elastin had the most irregular pattern and ran longitudinally and circumferentially throughout the length of all EOMs. Scanning electron microscopy showed these elements to be extensively interconnected, from endomysium through the perimysium to the epimysium surrounding the whole muscle. In vitro physiology demonstrated force generation in the lateral dimension, presumably through myofascial transmission, which was always proportional to the force generated in the longitudinally oriented muscles. Conclusions A striking connective tissue matrix interconnects all the myofibers and extends, via perimysial connections, to the epimysium. These interconnections are significant and allow measurable force transmission laterally as well as longitudinally, suggesting that they may contribute to the nonlinear force summation seen in motor unit recording studies. This provides strong evidence that separate compartmental movements are unlikely as no region is independent of the rest of the muscle. PMID:29346490

  16. Extraocular muscle regeneration in zebrafish requires late signals from Insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Louie, Ke'ale W; Sha, Cuilee; Kelly, Ryan M; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2018-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (Igfs) are key regulators of key biological processes such as embryonic development, growth, and tissue repair and regeneration. The role of Igf in myogenesis is well documented and, in zebrafish, promotes fin and heart regeneration. However, the mechanism of action of Igf in muscle repair and regeneration is not well understood. Using adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration as an experimental model, we show that Igf1 receptor blockage using either chemical inhibitors (BMS754807 and NVP-AEW541) or translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) reduced EOM regeneration. Zebrafish EOMs regeneration depends on myocyte dedifferentiation, which is driven by early epigenetic reprogramming and requires autophagy activation and cell cycle reentry. Inhibition of Igf signaling had no effect on either autophagy activation or cell proliferation, indicating that Igf signaling was not involved in the early reprogramming steps of regeneration. Instead, blocking Igf signaling produced hypercellularity of regenerating EOMs and diminished myosin expression, resulting in lack of mature differentiated muscle fibers even many days after injury, indicating that Igf was involved in late re-differentiation steps. Although it is considered the main mediator of myogenic Igf actions, Akt activation decreased in regenerating EOMs, suggesting that alternative signaling pathways mediate Igf activity in muscle regeneration. In conclusion, Igf signaling is critical for re-differentiation of reprogrammed myoblasts during late steps of zebrafish EOM regeneration, suggesting a regulatory mechanism for determining regenerated muscle size and timing of differentiation, and a potential target for regenerative therapy.

  17. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Miao

    Full Text Available To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1 patients using multimodal MRI imaging.T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls.Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (p<0.001 uncorrected in the left precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus.CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  18. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wen; Man, Fengyuan; Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  19. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A.; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. Methods T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Results Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. Conclusions CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1. PMID:26186732

  20. Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K; Willoughby, Christy L; Anderson, Jill S; Bothun, Erick D; Stager, David; Felius, Joost; Lee, Helena; Gottlob, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles. Extraocular muscles removed during normal surgery on children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were immunostained for neuromuscular junctions, myofiber type, the immature form of the acetylcholine receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and compared to age-matched controls. Muscles from both the idiopathic INS and INS and albinism groups had neuromuscular junctions that were 35% to 71% smaller based on myofiber area and myofiber perimeter than found in age-matched controls, and this was seen on both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform-expressing myofibers (all P albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent in the INS muscles. These studies suggest that, relative to the final common pathway, INS is not the same between different patient etiologies. It should be possible to modulate these final common pathway abnormalities, via exogenous application of appropriate drugs, with the hope that this type of treatment may reduce the involuntary oscillatory movements in these children.

  1. A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis

    KAUST Repository

    Heckmann, J M; Uwimpuhwe, H; Ballo, R; Kaur, M; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Prince, S

    2009-01-01

    Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of severe extraocular

  2. The extraocular muscle stem cell niche is resistant to ageing and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eFormicola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific muscles are spared in many degenerative myopathies. Most notably, the extraocular muscles (EOMs do not show clinical signs of late stage myopathies including the accumulation of fibrosis and fat. It has been proposed that an altered stem cell niche underlies the resistance of EOMs in these pathologies, however, to date, no reports have provided a detailed characterization of the EOM stem cell niche. PW1/Peg3 is expressed in progenitor cells in all adult tissues including satellite cells and a subset of interstitial non-satellite cell progenitors in muscle. These PW1-positive interstitial cells (PICs include a fibroadipogenic progenitor population (FAPs that give rise to fat and fibrosis in late stage myopathies. PICs/FAPs are mobilized following injury and FAPs exert a promyogenic role upon myoblasts in vitro but require the presence of a minimal population of satellite cells in vivo. We and others recently described that FAPs express promyogenic factors while satellite cells express antimyogenic factors suggesting that PICs/FAPs act as support niche cells in skeletal muscle through paracrine interactions. We analyzed the EOM stem cell niche in young adult and aged wild-type mice and found that the balance between PICs and satellite cells within the EOM stem cell niche is maintained throughout life. Moreover, in the adult mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the EOM stem cell niche is unperturbed compared to normal mice, in contrast to Tibialis Anterior (TA muscle, which displays signs of ongoing degeneration/regeneration. Regenerating mdx TA shows increased levels of both PICs and satellite cells, comparable to normal unaffected EOMs. We propose that the increase in PICs that we observe in normal EOMs contributes to preserving the integrity of the myofibers and satellite cells. Our data suggest that molecular cues regulating muscle regeneration are intrinsic properties of EOMs.

  3. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.

  4. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: A myogenic precursor cell hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallestad, Kristen M.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McDonald, Abby A.; Daniel, Mark L.; Cu, Sharon R.; McLoon, Linda K., E-mail: mcloo001@tc.umn.edu

    2011-04-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin{sup -/-} (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a

  5. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: A myogenic precursor cell hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallestad, Kristen M.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McDonald, Abby A.; Daniel, Mark L.; Cu, Sharon R.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin -/- (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a subpopulation of

  6. Extra-ocular muscle MRI in genetically-defined mitochondrial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitceathly, Robert D.S.; Morrow, Jasper M.; Hanna, Michael G.; Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S.; Woodward, Cathy; Sweeney, Mary G.; Rahman, Shamima; Plant, Gordon T.; Ali, Nadeem; Bremner, Fion; Davagnanam, Indran

    2016-01-01

    Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease, to characterise MRI findings in the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) and investigate whether quantitative MRI provides clinically relevant measures of disease. Patients with CPEO due to single mitochondrial DNA deletions were compared with controls. Range of eye movement (ROEM) measurements, peri-orbital 3 T MRI T1-weighted (T1w) and short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR) images, and T2 relaxation time maps were obtained. Blinded observers graded muscle atrophy and T1w/STIR hyperintensity. Cross-sectional areas and EOM mean T2s were recorded and correlated with clinical parameters. Nine patients and nine healthy controls were examined. Patients had reduced ROEM (patients 13.3 , controls 49.3 , p < 0.001), greater mean atrophy score and increased T1w hyperintensities. EOM mean cross-sectional area was 43 % of controls and mean T2s were prolonged (patients 75.6 ± 7.0 ms, controls 55.2 ± 4.1 ms, p < 0.001). ROEM correlated negatively with EOM T2 (rho = -0.89, p < 0.01), whilst cross-sectional area failed to correlate with any clinical measures. MRI demonstrates EOM atrophy, characteristic signal changes and prolonged T2 in CPEO. Correlation between elevated EOM T2 and ROEM impairment represents a potential measure of disease severity that warrants further evaluation. (orig.)

  7. Extra-ocular muscle MRI in genetically-defined mitochondrial disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitceathly, Robert D.S.; Morrow, Jasper M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Woodward, Cathy; Sweeney, Mary G. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Neurogenetics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Rahman, Shamima [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, Mitochondrial Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Plant, Gordon T.; Ali, Nadeem [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Moorfields Eye Hospital, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Bremner, Fion [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Davagnanam, Indran [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, The Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease, to characterise MRI findings in the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) and investigate whether quantitative MRI provides clinically relevant measures of disease. Patients with CPEO due to single mitochondrial DNA deletions were compared with controls. Range of eye movement (ROEM) measurements, peri-orbital 3 T MRI T1-weighted (T1w) and short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR) images, and T2 relaxation time maps were obtained. Blinded observers graded muscle atrophy and T1w/STIR hyperintensity. Cross-sectional areas and EOM mean T2s were recorded and correlated with clinical parameters. Nine patients and nine healthy controls were examined. Patients had reduced ROEM (patients 13.3 , controls 49.3 , p < 0.001), greater mean atrophy score and increased T1w hyperintensities. EOM mean cross-sectional area was 43 % of controls and mean T2s were prolonged (patients 75.6 ± 7.0 ms, controls 55.2 ± 4.1 ms, p < 0.001). ROEM correlated negatively with EOM T2 (rho = -0.89, p < 0.01), whilst cross-sectional area failed to correlate with any clinical measures. MRI demonstrates EOM atrophy, characteristic signal changes and prolonged T2 in CPEO. Correlation between elevated EOM T2 and ROEM impairment represents a potential measure of disease severity that warrants further evaluation. (orig.)

  8. Expression of somatostatin receptors subtype 2 and 5 in extraocular muscle tissue of hypothyroidism animal induced by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangdu; Chu Qiaomei; Xu Peikang; Yao Xiaohong; Shen Jiangfan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the expression and distribution of somatostatin receptors 2 and 5 (SSTR2, 5) in extraocular muscle in hypothyroidism and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) Wister rats induced by 131 I. Methods: 20 Wister rats were randomly divided into experimental group and normal group(group D). According to 131 I doses of intraperitoneal injection, the experimental groups were divided into low (group A), middle (group B) and high dose group (group C). After 8 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and orbital tissue sections were applied to HE staining and Immunohistochemistry for the analysis of rat orbital tissue changes and SSTR2 and 5 distribution in extraocular muscle. Results: The serum FT 4 levels in group A (16.98±2.92 pmol / L), group B (1.84±0.44 pmol / L) and group C (1.35 ±0.37 pmol /L) eight weeks after 131 I injection were decreased, and had significant difference compared with group D (P 4 levels in group B and C were significantly lower than that in group A (P 0.05). Orbital tissue in experimental group showed mucoid degeneration and edema, the extent was about 25% in group A, 50% in group B, 70% in group C. The rats in group B and group C appeared obvious proliferation of fibrous and adipose tissue, muscle fibers degeneration fracture, even extraocular muscles in group C have vacuole formation. Immunohistochemical analysis displayed highest SSTR5 distribution and strongest expression was in extraocular muscle of group C, second in A B combination group (A and B groups)and weakest in group D. There were significant differences between A B combination group,group C and group D (P 0.05). Conclusion: This study observed the distribution and expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 in extraocular muscle on the established hypothyroidism animal model. It is some significance for understanding the mechanism of somatostatin receptors in occurrence and development of TAO, similar to provide a reference for the use of somatostatin analogue orbital imaging

  9. Expression of schizophrenia biomarkers in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus: an explanation for the link between exotropia and schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have implicated exotropia as a risk factor for schizophrenia. We determined whether schizophrenia biomarkers have abnormal levels of expression in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus and explored whether differences in gene expression between medial and lateral rectus muscles may explain the specific association of schizophrenia with exotropia but not esotropia. Samples from horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with age- and muscle type-matched normal muscles from organ donors. We used PCR arrays to identify differences in gene expression among 417 signaling molecules. We then focused on established schizophrenia-related growth factors, cytokines, and regulators of the extracellular matrix. Among 36 genes with significantly altered gene expression in dysfunctional horizontal rectus muscles, over one third were schizophrenia-related: CTGF, CXCR4, IL1B, IL10RA, MIF, MMP2, NPY1R, NRG1, NTRK2, SERPINA3, TIMP1, TIMP2, and TNF (adjusted p value ≤ 0.016667. By PCR array, expression of three of these genes was significantly different in medial rectus muscles, while eleven were significantly altered in lateral rectus muscles. Comparing baseline levels between muscle types, three schizophrenia-related genes (NPY1R, NTRK2, TIMP2 had lower levels of expression in medial rectus muscles. Despite the surprisingly large number of schizophrenia-related genes with altered gene expression levels in dysfunctional muscles, the lack of specificity for medial rectus muscles undermines a model of shared, region-specific gene expression abnormalities between exotropia and schizophrenia, but rather suggests consideration of the alternative model: that exotropia-induced aberrant early visual experiences may enable and/or contribute as a causative factor to the development of schizophrenia.

  10. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of extraocular muscles in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy using turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, A; Togao, O; Yamashita, K; Kikuchi, K; Momosaka, D; Honda, H

    2018-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to correlate diffusivity of extraocular muscles, measured by three-dimensional turbo field echo (3DTFE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation, with their size and activity in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy. Twenty-three patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy were included. There were 17 women and 6 men with a mean age of 55.8±12.6 (SD) years (range: 26-83 years). 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium MR images were obtained with b-values of 0 and 500s/mm 2 . The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of extraocular muscles was measured on coronal reformatted MR images. Signal intensities of extraocular muscles on conventional MR images were compared to those of normal-appearing white matter, and cross-sectional areas of the muscles were also measured. The clinical activity score was also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed with Pearson correlation and Mann-Whitney U tests. On 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation, the mean ADC of the extraocular muscles was 2.23±0.37 (SD)×10 -3 mm2/s (range: 1.70×10 -3 -3.11×10 -3 mm 2 /s). There was a statistically significant moderate correlation between ADC and the size of the muscles (r=0.61). There were no statistically significant correlations between ADC and signal intensity on conventional MR and the clinical activity score. 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation technique allows quantifying diffusivity of extraocular muscles in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy. The diffusivity of the extraocular muscles on 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation MR images moderately correlates with their size. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Analysis of Spontaneous and Nerve-Evoked Calcium Transients in Intact Extraocular Muscles in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Hennig, Grant W.; Corrigan, Robert D.; Smith, Terence K.; von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) have unique calcium handling properties, yet little is known about the dynamics of calcium events underlying ultrafast and tonic contractions in myofibers of intact EOMs. Superior oblique EOMs of juvenile chickens were dissected with their nerve attached, maintained in oxygenated Krebs buffer, and loaded with fluo-4. Spontaneous and nerve stimulation-evoked calcium transients were recorded and, following calcium imaging, some EOMs were double-labeled with rhodamine-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin (rhBTX) to identify EOM myofiber types. EOMs showed two main types of spontaneous calcium transients, one slow type (calcium waves with 1/2max duration of 2–12 s, velocity of 25–50 μm/s) and two fast “flash-like” types (Type 1, 30–90 ms; Type 2, 90–150 ms 1/2max duration). Single pulse nerve stimulation evoked fast calcium transients identical to the fast (Type 1) calcium transients. Calcium waves were accompanied by a local myofiber contraction that followed the calcium transient wavefront. The magnitude of calcium-wave induced myofiber contraction far exceeded those of movement induced by nerve stimulation and associated fast calcium transients. Tetrodotoxin eliminated nerve-evoked transients, but not spontaneous transients. Alpha-bungarotoxin eliminated both spontaneous and nerve-evoked fast calcium transients, but not calcium waves, and caffeine increased wave activity. Calcium waves were observed in myofibers lacking spontaneous or evoked fast transients, suggestive of multiply-innervated myofibers, and this was confirmed by double-labeling with rhBTX. We propose that the abundant spontaneous calcium transients and calcium waves with localized contractions that do not depend on innervation may contribute to intrinsic generation of tonic functions of EOMs. PMID:22579493

  12. Echographic monitoring of response of extraocular muscles to irradiation in graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Beth A.; Harris, Gerald J.; Lewandowski, Michael F.; Murray, Kevin J.; Massaro, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Confirmation of the efficacy of orbital irradiation in Graves' ophthalmopathy is needed due to the unpredictable natural history of the disease, the variation in individual clinical presentations, the contribution of other simultaneous treatments, and the lack of controlled studies using objective criteria to classify and assess response over time. Orbital echography before and at select intervals following orbital irradiation is proposed as an objective parameter of tissue response to orbital irradiation over time. Methods and Materials: From January, 1983 to September, 1993, 55 patients with progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy underwent 20 Gy retrobulbar irradiation. On retrospective review, standardized orbital echography was performed randomly prior to irradiation in 37 of the 55 patients to assess the acoustic characteristics of the extraocular muscles and to quantitate their individual and summed diameters. Twenty-one patients had at least one follow-up echographic evaluation at random intervals of 0 to 27.5 months following completion of irradiation. Twelve patients received steroids before or during irradiation, which were tapered in proximity to completion of radiation. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 65 months with the majority followed at least 6 months (18 patients). Results: Of the 21 patients with serial studies, 18 showed an interval decrease in individual and summed muscle size over time and return of symmetry. Interval improvement was documented as early as the 1 month follow-up study, with continued improvement seen during the 3-9 month studies, with stability typically achieved within 12 months. One patient had further changes between the 21 and 27.5 month follow-up studies. Exacerbation of disease was, however, echographically demonstrated in three patients at 6.5, 8.5, and 13 months. Follow-up studies in two of these patients again revealed improvement, one following tapered steroids. The third patient required orbital decompression

  13. Cloning of a neonatal calcium atpase isoform (SERCA 1B) from extraocular muscle of adult blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londraville, R L; Cramer, T D; Franck, J P; Tullis, A; Block, B A

    2000-10-01

    Complete cDNAs for the fast-twitch Ca2+ -ATPase isoform (SERCA 1) were cloned and sequenced from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) extraocular muscle (EOM). Complete cDNAs for SERCA 1 were also cloned from fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the same species. The two sequences are identical over the coding region except for the last five codons on the carboxyl end; EOM SERCA 1 cDNA codes for 996 amino acids and the fast-twitch cDNAs code for 991 aa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EOM SERCA 1 clusters with an isoform of Ca2+ -ATPase normally expressed in early development of mammals (SERCA 1B). This is the first report of SERCA 1B in an adult vertebrate. RNA hybridization assays indicate that 1B expression is limited to extraocular muscles. Because EOM gives rise to the thermogenic heater organ in marlin, we investigated whether SERCA 1B may play a role in heat generation, or if 1B expression is common in EOM among vertebrates. Chicken also expresses SERCA 1B in EOM, but rat expresses SERCA 1A; because SERCA 1B is not specific to heater tissue we conclude it is unlikely that it plays a specific role in intracellular heat production. Comparative sequence analysis does reveal, however, several sites that may be the source of functional differences between fish and mammalian SERCAs.

  14. Adaptation of slow myofibers: the effect of sustained BDNF treatment of extraocular muscles in infant nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Christy L; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M; Mustari, Michael J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated promising new treatment options for strabismus. Neurotrophic factors have emerged as a potential treatment for oculomotor disorders because of diverse roles in signaling to muscles and motor neurons. Unilateral treatment with sustained release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to a single lateral rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop in correlation with extraocular muscle (EOM) changes during the critical period for development of binocularity. The lateral rectus muscles of one eye in two infant macaques were treated with sustained delivery of BDNF for 3 months. Eye alignment was assessed using standard photographic methods. Muscle specimens were analyzed to examine the effects of BDNF on the density, morphology, and size of neuromuscular junctions, as well as myofiber size. Counts were compared to age-matched controls. No change in eye alignment occurred with BDNF treatment. Compared to control muscle, neuromuscular junctions on myofibers expressing slow myosins had a larger area. Myofibers expressing slow myosin had larger diameters, and the percentage of myofibers expressing slow myosins increased in the proximal end of the muscle. Expression of BDNF was examined in control EOM, and observed to have strongest immunoreactivity outside the endplate zone. We hypothesize that the oculomotor system adapted to sustained BDNF treatment to preserve normal alignment. Our results suggest that BDNF treatment preferentially altered myofibers expressing slow myosins. This implicates BDNF signaling as influencing the slow twitch properties of EOM.

  15. Phenothiourea sensitizes zebrafish cranial neural crest and extraocular muscle development to changes in retinoic acid and IGF signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Bohnsack

    Full Text Available 1-Phenyl 2-thiourea (PTU is a tyrosinase inhibitor commonly used to block pigmentation and aid visualization of zebrafish development. At the standard concentration of 0.003% (200 µM, PTU inhibits melanogenesis and reportedly has minimal other effects on zebrafish embryogenesis. We found that 0.003% PTU altered retinoic acid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF regulation of neural crest and mesodermal components of craniofacial development. Reduction of retinoic acid synthesis by the pan-aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor diethylbenzaldehyde, only when combined with 0.003% PTU, resulted in extraocular muscle disorganization. PTU also decreased retinoic acid-induced teratogenic effects on pharyngeal arch and jaw cartilage despite morphologically normal appearing PTU-treated controls. Furthermore, 0.003% PTU in combination with inhibition of IGF signaling through either morpholino knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptor phosphorylation, disrupted jaw development and extraocular muscle organization. PTU in and of itself inhibited neural crest development at higher concentrations (0.03% and had the greatest inhibitory effect when added prior to 22 hours post fertilization (hpf. Addition of 0.003% PTU between 4 and 20 hpf decreased thyroxine (T4 in thyroid follicles in the nasopharynx of 96 hpf embryos. Treatment with exogenous triiodothyronine (T3 and T4 improved, but did not completely rescue, PTU-induced neural crest defects. Thus, PTU should be used with caution when studying zebrafish embryogenesis as it alters the threshold of different signaling pathways important during craniofacial development. The effects of PTU on neural crest development are partially caused by thyroid hormone signaling.

  16. Structural functional associations of the orbit in thyroid eye disease: Kalman filters to track extraocular rectal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L.; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention, and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  17. Agreement between intraoperative measurements and optical coherence tomography of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Pablo-Gómez-de-Liaño, L; Fernández-Vigo, J I; Ventura-Abreu, N; Morales-Fernández, L; García-Feijóo, J; Gómez-de-Liaño, R

    2016-12-01

    To assess the agreement between intraoperative measurements of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles with those measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. An analysis was made of a total of 67 muscles of 21 patients with strabismus. The limbus-insertion distance of the horizontal rectus muscles were measured using pre-operative SD-OCT and intra-operatively in 2 ways: 1) direct, after a conjunctival dissection in patients who underwent surgery, or 2) transconjunctival in patients who were treated with botulinum toxin, or in those who were not going to be operated. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were calculated to determine the concordance between the 2 methods. The mean age was 45.9 ±20.9 years (range 16 to 85), with 52% being women. The percentage of identification by direct intraoperative measurement was 95.6% (22/23), by transconjunctival intraoperative measurement 90.9% (40/44), and by OCT 85% (57/67), with 22 muscles finally being analysed for the agreement study between direct intraoperative measurement and OCT measurements, and 35 muscles for the agreement between transconjuctival intraoperative measurement and OCT. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good agreement with OCT and direct intraoperative measurements (0.931; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.839-0.972; P<.001), and with transconjunctival intraoperative measurements (0.889; 95% CI: 0.790-0.942; P<.001). The SD-OCT is an effective technique to measure the distance from the insertion of the horizontal rectus muscles to the limbus, with a high agreement with intraoperative measurements being demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Orbital T-Cell Lymphoma with Discrete Enlargements of All Extraocular Muscles Bilaterally in Patient with Moon Face Countenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Kawakami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report our findings in a case of orbital T-cell lymphoma in which all of the extraocular muscles (EOMs were bilaterally and discretely enlarged and the patient had a moon face countenance. Case. A 59-year-old woman presented with visual disturbances in her left eye, hyperemia in both eyes, and a moon face countenance. Examinations showed limited upward gaze in the right eye, blepharoptosis, hypertropia, and limited downward and rightward gaze in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed only chemosis and hyperemia of both eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed discrete enlargements of the muscle bellies in all EOMs without abnormalities of the orbital fat in both eyes. Blood examinations excluded thyroid- and IgG4-related ophthalmopathy, and EOM biopsy revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. After beginning aggressive chemotherapy, the enlarged EOMs, limited eye motility, and moon face countenance improved. Unfortunately, the patient died of sepsis during the chemotherapy. Conclusions. A lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of eyes with enlarged EOMs. Because lymphomas can lead to death, it is important for clinicians to consider lymphomas in eyes with enlarged EOMs.

  19. Vitreous hemorrhage and Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that developed after botulinum toxin injection to the extraocular muscle: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Han, Jinu; Han, Sueng-Han; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Min

    2017-12-13

    The authors report a case of a rare complication that occurred after botulinum toxin injection to the extraocular muscle, which was easily overlooked and successfully corrected by surgery. A 34-year-old female patient visited our clinic for diplopia and ocular motility disorder after removal of an epidermoid tumor of the brain. At her initial visit, her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 for both eyes. An alternate cover test showed 45 prism-diopter esotropia and 3 prism-diopter hypertropia in the right eye. Following 6 months of observation, the deviation of the strabismus did not improve, and botulinum toxin was injected into the right medial rectus (RMR). After 6 days, she visited our clinic with decreased visual acuity of her right eye. The BCVA was found to be 20/50 for her right eye. Funduscopic examination presented a retinal tear inferonasal to the optic disc with preretinal hemorrhage. Subretinal fluid nasal to the fovea was seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Barrier laser photocoagulation was done around the retinal tear; however, her visual acuity continued to decrease, and vitreous hemorrhage and subretinal fluid at the lesion did not improve. In addition, a newly developed epiretinal membrane was seen on OCT. An alternate cover test presented 30 prism-diopter right esotropia. 19 weeks after RMR botulinum toxin injection, she received pars plana vitrectomy, membranectomy, endolaser barrier photocoagulation, and intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®) injection. After 4 months, her visual acuity improved to 20/20, and only 4 prism-diopter of right hypertropia and 3 prism-diopter of exotropia were noted. Vitreous opacity and the epiretinal membrane were completely removed, as confirmed by funduscopic and examination. Sudden loss of vision after injection of botulinum toxin into the extraocular muscle may suggest a serious complication, and a prompt, thorough ophthalmic examination should be performed. If improvements are not observed

  20. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.OBJETIVO: A crotoxina é a principal neurotoxina da cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e sua ação neurotóxica caracteriza-se por um bloqueio pr

  1. Specific Metabolic Properties of Rat Oculorotatory Extraocular Muscles Can Be Linked to Their Low Force Requirements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asmussen, G.; Punkt, K.; Bartsch, B.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2008), s. 4865-4871 ISSN 0146-0404 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSH-CT-2004-511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : oculomotor mechanics * muscle fiber types * cytophotometry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2008

  2. Signal intensity and T2 time of extraocular muscles in assessment of their physiological status in MR imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pająk, Michał; Loba, Piotr; Wieczorek-Pastusiak, Julia; Antosik-Biernacka, Aneta; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2012-01-01

    Lack of standardised orbital MR protocols leads to a situation, when each institution/centre may arbitrarily choose sequence parameters. Therefore, the results obtained and published by the authors may not be compared freely, and what is most important may not be considered fully reliable. Signal intensity (IS) and T2 time (T2) are important parameters in estimation of inflammatory processes of extraocular muscles in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the reference values (i.e. cut-off values) for absolute signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in healthy subjects, their relativised values to white matter (WM) and temporal muscles (TM) and to evaluate the correlation between those parameters. The orbital examination was performed in healthy volunteers according to the protocol prepared in the Radiology-Imaging Diagnostic Department of the Medical University of Lodz for patients with suspected/diagnosed thyroid orbitopathy. Using two of the standard sequences IS and T2 time were calculated for the muscles and two relativisation tissues in realtion to WM and TM. Subsequently cut-off values for healthy volunteers were calculated. The differences between muscles for IS, IS MAX, IS/TM, IS/WM, IS MAX/TM, IS MAX/WM and T2 MAX/WM were not statistically significant. Therefore one cut-off value of these parameters for all the rectus muscles was calculated. T2-relaxation time and T2 relativised to white matter had to be calculated separately for each muscle. No statistical correlation was found between IS and T2-time for extraocular muscles in healthy volunteers. We calculated the reference ranges (cut-off values) for absolute IS and T2-time values and relativised parameters. In the clinical practice the objectification of IS and T2-time values should be done to WM, than to IS or T2 of the temporal muscle. The T2 MAX/WM seems to have the highest clinical utility for the assessment of the pathophysiological status of extraocular muscles

  3. CT in the diagnosis of isolated cysticercal infestation of extraocular muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauniyar, R.K.; Thakur, S.K.D.; Panda, A.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) to diagnose orbital cysticercosis, and present the diagnostic features. METHOD: US and CT were used to evaluate patients with proptosis. Four patients were diagnosed as having orbital myocysticercosis and treated with oral albendazole and corticosteroid. Follow-up was undertaken with US and CT. RESULT: US features were confirmatory of myocysticercosis in two eyes where as CT was effective in diagnosing the condition in all four eyes. In two patients the medial rectus was involved, in one the superior rectus and, in the other, the inferior rectus muscles. Serial US and CT revealed complete resolution of the lesions in 3 months. CONCLUSION: CT is useful method in diagnosing isolated orbital myocysticercosis. Our report demonstrated that ophthalmic signs and symptoms in the presence of proptosis, especially in an endemic region, should alert the clinician to the possibility of myocysticercosis. Though CT is superior, US can be used as a economical follow-up investigation. Rauniyar, R. K. etal. (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 154--156

  4. CT in the diagnosis of isolated cysticercal infestation of extraocular muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauniyar, R.K.; Thakur, S.K.D.; Panda, A

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) to diagnose orbital cysticercosis, and present the diagnostic features. METHOD: US and CT were used to evaluate patients with proptosis. Four patients were diagnosed as having orbital myocysticercosis and treated with oral albendazole and corticosteroid. Follow-up was undertaken with US and CT. RESULT: US features were confirmatory of myocysticercosis in two eyes where as CT was effective in diagnosing the condition in all four eyes. In two patients the medial rectus was involved, in one the superior rectus and, in the other, the inferior rectus muscles. Serial US and CT revealed complete resolution of the lesions in 3 months. CONCLUSION: CT is useful method in diagnosing isolated orbital myocysticercosis. Our report demonstrated that ophthalmic signs and symptoms in the presence of proptosis, especially in an endemic region, should alert the clinician to the possibility of myocysticercosis. Though CT is superior, US can be used as a economical follow-up investigation. Rauniyar, R. K. etal. (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 154--156.

  5. Effects of extraocular muscle surgery in children with monocular blindness and bilateral nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Hejcmanova, Marketa; Landau, Klara

    2014-11-20

    Monocular infantile blindness may be associated with bilateral horizontal nystagmus, a subtype of fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome (FMNS). Patients often adopt a significant anomalous head posture (AHP) towards the fixing eye in order to dampen the nystagmus. This clinical entity has also been reported as unilateral Ciancia syndrome. The aim of the study was to ascertain the clinical features and surgical outcome of patients with FMNS with infantile unilateral visual loss. In this retrospective case series, nine consecutive patients with FMNS with infantile unilateral visual loss underwent strabismus surgery to correct an AHP and/or improve ocular alignment. Outcome measures included amount of AHP and deviation at last follow-up. Eye muscle surgery according to the principles of Kestenbaum resulted in a marked reduction or elimination of the AHP. On average, a reduction of AHP of 1.3°/mm was achieved by predominantly performing combined horizontal recess-resect surgery in the intact eye. In cases of existing esotropia (ET) this procedure also markedly reduced the angle of deviation. A dosage calculation of 3 prism diopters/mm was established. We advocate a tailored surgical approach in FMNS with infantile unilateral visual loss. In typical patients who adopt a significant AHP accompanied by a large ET, we suggest an initial combined recess-resect surgery in the intact eye. This procedure regularly led to a marked reduction of the head turn and ET. In patients without significant strabismus, a full Kestenbaum procedure was successful, while ET in a patient with a minor AHP was corrected by performing a bimedial recession.

  6. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  7. Extraocular Muscles Tension, Tonus, and Proprioception in Infantile Strabismus: Role of the Oculomotor System in the Pathogenesis of Infantile Strabismus—Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Schiavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role played by the extraocular muscles (EOMs in the etiology of concomitant infantile strabismus is still debated and it has not yet definitively established if the sensory anomalies in concomitant strabismus are a consequence or a primary cause of the deviation. The commonest theory supposes that most strabismus results from abnormal innervation of the EOMs, but the cause of this dysfunction and its origin, whether central or peripheral, are still unknown. The interaction between sensory factors and innervational factors, that is, esotonus, accommodation, convergence, divergence, and vestibular reflexes in visually immature infants with family predisposition, is suspected to create conditions that prevent binocular alignment from stabilizing and strengthening. Some role in the onset of fixation instability and infantile strabismus could be played by the feedback control of eye movements and by dysfunction of eye muscle proprioception during the critical period of development of the visual sensory system. A possible role in the onset, maintenance, or worsening of the deviation of abnormalities of muscle force which have their clinical equivalent in eye muscle overaction and underaction has been investigated under either isometric or isotonic conditions, and in essence no significant anomalies of muscle force have been found in concomitant strabismus.

  8. A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis

    KAUST Repository

    Heckmann, J M

    2009-08-13

    Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of severe extraocular muscle (EOM) dysfunction among African MG subjects reported earlier may result from altered DAF expression. To test this hypothesis, we screened the DAF gene sequences relevant to the classical complement pathway and found an association between myasthenics with EOM paresis and the DAF regulatory region c.-198CG SNP (odds ratio8.6; P0.0003). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results in a twofold activation of a DAF 5?-flanking region luciferase reporter transfected into three different cell lines. Direct matching of the surrounding SNP sequence within the DAF regulatory region with the known transcription factor-binding sites suggests a loss of an Sp1-binding site. This was supported by the observation that the c.-198CG SNP did not show the normal lipopolysaccharide-induced DAF transcriptional upregulation in lymphoblasts from four patients. Our findings suggest that at critical periods during autoimmune MG, this SNP may result in inadequate DAF upregulation with consequent complement-mediated EOM damage. Susceptible individuals may benefit from anti-complement therapy in addition to immunosuppression. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model Estudo da crotoxina na indução de paralisia da musculatura extraocular em modelo animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.OBJETIVO: A

  10. Autologous grafting of extraocular muscles: experimental study in rabbits Transplante autólogo de musculatura ocular extrínseca: estudo experimental em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Meireles-Teixeira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of autologous extraocular muscle grafting as a type of muscle expansion surgery. METHODS: The left superior rectus muscle of twenty-nine rabbits was resected and this fragment was attached to the endpoint of the respective right superior rectus (test group. Thereafter, the superior rectus of the left eye was reattached to the sclera (control group. Both groups were examined during different postoperative periods in order to assess their outcomes. RESULTS: The presence of hyperemia was slightly more frequent in the grafted group. Secretion and muscle atrophy were negligible in both groups. Fibrosis was greater in grafted animals. These muscles were weaker than the control muscles, although the force required to split muscular parts was always greater than the physiological one. CONCLUSIONS: This surgical technique was reliable and useful if one intends to achieve muscle expansion without the intrinsic risks of dealing with heterologous/artificial materials.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade do uso de segmentos de músculos oculares extrínsecos como expansores de tendões musculares. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove coelhos tiveram seu músculo reto superior esquerdo ressecado e o fragmento de cada um foi transplantado para o reto superior contralateral (grupo-teste. Então, o reto superior esquerdo foi reinserido na esclera (grupo-controle. Os animais foram então examinados em diversos períodos pós-operatórios, até os seus sacrifícios, para que se avaliasse o desenrolar dessa técnica cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: A hiperemia foi maior entre os testes. A secreção e a atrofia muscular foram mínimas nos dois grupos. Houve maior presença de fibrose no grupo-teste, mas não tão expressiva a ponto de inviabilizar os efeitos da cirurgia. Esses músculos também se romperam mais facilmente do que os do grupo-controle, porém, a força de rompimento foi sempre bem maior do que aquela presente numa contração muscular normal

  11. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  12. Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — data for figures 1-8 in journal article "Assessment of port-related air quality impacts: geographic analysis of population", International Journal of Environment and...

  13. Evaluation of rectus extraocular muscles using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy for assessment of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hong; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qinghua; Ai, Likun

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is important to assess the activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) for planning optimal treatment strategy. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is a technique for assessment of microcirculation status. The correlation between disease activity and the microcirculation characteristics of extraocular muscles (EOMs) has been demonstrated in GO. Purpose. To investigate the changes of rectus EOMs in patients with active vs. inactive GO using DCE-MRI, and to evaluate the value of DCE-MRI in assessing the activity of GO. Material and Methods. Rectus EOMs of 20 healthy controls, 18 patients with active GO, and 16 patients with inactive GO were studied. The signal intensity (SI) of rectus EOMs on T 2 W images was evaluated. Regions of interest were placed on each rectus on DCE-MRI images. The DCE-MRI parameters including time to peak enhancement (T peak ), enhancement ratio (ER), and wash-out ratio (WR) were calculated. Results. There were significant differences in SI and T peak , ER and WR values among the three groups (P = 0.000). However, there was no significant difference in SI between the active and inactive groups (P = 0.07). Tpeak values of each rectus were significantly increased in inactive group compared with the active group (P peak ), maximum ER (maxER) and maximum WR (maxWR) (P peak , maxER and maxWR were 156.98s, 1.31 and 13.50% respectively, giving positive predictive values of 68.00%, 88.90%, and 94.44% for the assessment of disease activity. Conclusion. DCE-MRI could demonstrate the micro circulatory changes of rectus EOMs in both active and inactive GO, and this MRI method is a useful tool in differentiating active from inactive GO

  14. Accommodation: The role of the external muscles of the eye: A consideration of refractive errors in relation to extraocular malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, B K

    2014-11-01

    Speculation as to optical malfunction has led to dissatisfaction with the theory that the lens is the sole agent in accommodation and to the suggestion that other parts of the eye are also conjointly involved. Around half-a-century ago, Robert Brooks Simpkins suggested that the mechanical features of the human eye were precisely such as to allow for a lengthening of the globe when the eye accommodated. Simpkins was not an optical man but his theory is both imaginative and comprehensive and deserves consideration. It is submitted here that accommodation is in fact a twofold process, and that although involving the lens, is achieved primarily by means of a give - and - take interplay between adducting and abducting external muscles, whereby an elongation of the eyeball is brought about by a stretching of the delicate elastic fibres immediately behind the cornea. The three muscles responsible for convergence (superior, internal and inferior recti) all pull from in front backwards, while of the three abductors (external rectus and the two obliques) the obliques pull from behind forwards, allowing for an easy elongation as the eye turns inwards and a return to its original length as the abducting muscles regain their former tension, returning the eye to distance vision. In refractive errors, the altered length of the eyeball disturbs the harmonious give - and - take relationship between adductors and abductors. Such stresses are likely to be perpetuated and the error exacerbated. Speculation is not directed towards a search for a possible cause of the muscular imbalance, since none is suspected. Muscles not used rapidly lose tone, as evidenced after removal of a limb from plaster. Early attention to the need for restorative exercise is essential and results usually impressive. If flexibility of the external muscles of the eyes is essential for continuing good sight, presbyopia can be avoided and with it the supposed necessity of glasses in middle life. Early attention

  15. 4D-visualization of the orbit based on dynamic MRI with special focus on the extra-ocular muscles and the optic nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, C.; Boerner, B.I.; Buitrago, C.; Klarhoefer, M.; Scheffler, K.; Kunz, C.; Zeilhofer, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    By recording time dependent patients' behaviour, dynamic radiology is dedicated to capturing functional anatomy. Dynamic ''quasi-continuous'' MRI data of lateral eye movements of a healthy volunteer were acquired using SE imaging sequence (Siemens, 1.5 T). By means of combined application of several image processing and visualization techniques, namely shaded and transparent surface reconstruction as well as direct volume rendering, 4D-visualization of the dynamics of the extra ocular muscles was possible. Though the original MRI data were quite coarse vascular structures could be recognized to some extent. For the sake of 4D-visualization of the optic nerve, the optic cavity was opened by axial clipping of the visualization. Superimposition of the original MRI slices to the visualization, either transparently or opaque, served as validation and comparison to conventional diagnosis. For facilitation of the analysis of the visualization results, stereoscopic rendering was rated as quite significant especially in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  16. Restrictive extraocular myopathy: A presenting feature of acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Heireman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with binocular diplopia in primary gaze for 1 year. Orthoptic evaluation showed 10-prism diopter right eye hypotropia and 6-prism diopter right eye esotropia. The elevation and abduction of the right eye were mechanically restricted. This was associated with systemic features suggestive of acromegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma. An elevated serum insulin-like growth factor I level and the failure of growth hormone suppression after an oral glucose load biochemically confirmed the diagnosis of acromegaly. Computed tomography (CT of the orbit demonstrated bilateral symmetrical enlargement of the medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle bellies. All tests regarding Graves-Basedow disease were negative. Although rare, diplopia due to a restrictive extraocular myopathy could be the presenting symptom of acromegaly.

  17. Extraocular myositis in a female puppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Adegboye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraocular myositis (EOM is not commonly encountered in dogs. It is generally diagnosed based on clinical features of exophthalmos without third eyelid protrusion, pain or vision loss. The traditional treatment of choice is prednisolone. This report describes a case of a mixed-breed puppy with clinical signs consistent with EOM, the use of ascorbic acid as an adjuvant to traditional corticosteroid therapy and rapid resolution of the condition without recurrence. It also shows that prolapse of the third eyelid and ptosis of the lower eyelids are possible signs of EOM during recovery. This is the first report of this sort from Africa and therefore the report is of epidemiological significance.

  18. Figure5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is an R statistics package script that allows the reproduction of Figure 5. The script includes the links to large NetCDF files that the figures access for O3,...

  19. Figure 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Two files provided. The ENS.tar file contains text data files (*.csv) used to create Figure 7 and Figure 8. The Figure7.txt is an R script that reads these files and...

  20. Comparação entre os métodos de injeção de toxina botulínica em músculo ocular externo com o uso do eletromiógrafo e com o uso da pinça de Mendonça Electromyograph assistance and Mendonça's forceps - a comparison between two methods of botulinum toxin A injection into the extraocular muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Fernando Scalamandré Mendonça

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar dois métodos de aplicação de toxina botulínica A (TBA em músculo ocular externo: com auxílio de eletromiógrafo (EMG e com a pinça de Mendonça. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados no Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP 29 pacientes que apresentavam estrabismo e baixa acuidade visual em um olho. Foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I - 17 pacientes que receberam a toxina botulínica A por meio de injeção com auxílio da pinça de Mendonça e grupo II - 12 pacientes que receberam a toxina botulínica A por injeção guiada pelo eletromiógrafo. Os pacientes dos dois grupos foram avaliados no 7º e no 14º dia após aplicação. Compararam-se os resultados dos dois grupos neste período de tempo. Os testes de correlação de Friedman e Mann-Whitney foram usados para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatística entre as médias de desvio pré-aplicação e em pelo menos um período (7º ou 14º dia após aplicação, tanto no grupo dos pacientes em que foi utilizada a pinça, quanto no grupo de pacientes em que foi utilizado o eletromiógrafo. Não houve diferença estatística dos desvios pré-aplicação e pós-aplicação entre os dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Os dois métodos de aplicação da toxina botulínica A são equivalentes e portanto, o uso da pinça de Mendonça pode ser método alternativo ao uso do eletromiógrafo, para guiar a injeção de toxina botulínica A.PURPOSE: To compare two methods of botulinum toxin A (BTA injection into the extraocular muscle (EOM: the electromyographically (EMG guided injection and the injection using Mendonça's forceps. METHODS: Twenty-nine (29 patients with strabismus and low visual acuity in one eye were examined at the Department of Ophthalmology of UNIFESP. They were divided into 2 groups - group I with 17 patients receiving the botulinum toxin A injection using Mendonça's forceps, and group II with 12 patients receiving the toxin with electromyographical

  1. Figure 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Figure.tar.gz contains a directory for each WRF ensemble run. In these directories are *.csv files for each meteorology variable examined. These are comma...

  2. Figure6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — R script for the reproduction of Figure6. This script accesses archived CMAQ and WRF model output on US EPA's HPC sol computer system and plots forward trajectories...

  3. Norrie disease: extraocular clinical manifestations in 56 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon E; Mullen, Thomas E; Graham, Dionne; Sims, Katherine B; Rehm, Heidi L

    2012-08-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness, progressive sensorineural hearing loss and cognitive impairment. The ocular phenotype has been well described, while the extraocular manifestations of the disorder are not well understood. We present the data from the Norrie Disease Registry, which consists of 56 patients with detailed clinical histories and genotype data. This study represents the largest, detailed investigation into the phenotypic spectrum of ND to date and more importantly expands knowledge of the extraocular clinical manifestations. We identify several novel aspects of the syndrome that will improve the management of these patients. In particular, we expand our understanding of the neurologic manifestations in ND and identify a chronic seizure disorder in approximately 10% of all patients. In addition, details of the hearing phenotype are described including the median age of onset (12 years of age) and how genotype affects onset. Moreover, we find vascular disease to be a significant component of ND; and vascular health should be, in the future, a component of patient clinical care. In summary, the results expand our understanding of the phenotypic variability and genotypic heterogeneity in ND patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  5. Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of the Ferret Lateral Rectus Muscle and Abducena Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    from the ferret LR Slow Resistant group is larger than the typically powerful Fast Fatigable motor units in the cat. Whole Muscle Contractile...623-632, 1990. 21. HESS A and PILAR G. SLOW FIBRES IN THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES OF THE CAT. J Physiol 169: 780-798, 1963. 22. Jacoby J, Chiarandini DJ...were split between the LR and retractor bulbi (RB) muscle slips. In addition to individual motor units, the whole LR muscle was evaluated for twitch

  6. Value of Free-Run Electromyographic Monitoring of Extraocular Cranial Nerves during Expanded Endonasal Surgery (EES) of the Skull Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  7. Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besch, D; Sachs, H; Szurman, P; Gülicher, D; Wilke, R; Reinert, S; Zrenner, E; Bartz-Schmidt, K U; Gekeler, F

    2008-10-01

    Due to low energy levels in microphotodiode-based subretinal visual prostheses, an external power supply is mandatory. We report on the surgical feasibility and the functional outcome of the extraocular part of an approach to connect a subretinal prosthesis to an extracorporeal connector in the retro-auricular space via a trans-scleral, transchoroidal cable. Seven volunteers with retinitis pigmentosa received an active subretinal implant; energy was supplied by gold wires on a trans-sclerally, transchoroidally implanted polyimide foil leading to the lateral orbital rim where it was fixated and connected to a silicone cable. The cable was implanted subperiostally beneath the temporal muscle using a trocar to the retro-auricular space where it penetrated the skin for connection to a stimulator. To avoid subretinal movement of the implant, three tension relief points have been introduced. All implantations were performed as planned without complications, and no serious adverse events occurred in the postoperative period. Fixation of the implants was stable throughout the entire study duration of 4 weeks; permanent skin penetration proved to be uncomplicated. Motility was minimally restricted in downgaze and ab-/adduction. Explantation was uneventful. The above-described procedure provides a method for stable fixation of a subretinal device with a trans-scleral, transchoroidal cable connection to an extracorporeal connector.

  8. An application of dynamic CT for diagnosis of abnormal external ocular muscle movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Kazumi; Ogura, Yuuko; Takeshita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the movements of retrobulbar structures radiologically, we have developed a new technique called 'external ocular muscle movement CT' (EOM CT), in which dynamic CT scanning is performed while the patient performs controlled eye movements. This new technique was applied in one volunteer and 72 patients with external ophthalmoplegia due to orbital mass lesion, hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, blowout fracture, and other retrobulbar lesions. EOM CT permits the assessment of extraocular muscle contraction in cases of blowout fracture, the evaluation of muscular contraction in hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, and the diagnosis of adhesions between the extraocular muscles and intraorbital masses. Radiation dose to the lens from EOM CT was measured using a phantom and TLD, and was compared with that of conventional CT scanning with a 5 mm slice thickness. The dose to the lens from EOM CT was three times higher than that for conventional CT in axial scanning, but in the coronal section of the retrobulbar region, the dose to the lens from EOM CT decreases to one twelfth of that of conventional CT. EOM CT promises to be a powerful modality for functional evaluation of the extraocular muscles and other retrobulbar structures. (author)

  9. Naturally Protected Muscle Phenotypes: Development of Novel Treatment Strategies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Paul; Doran, Philip; Lohan, James; Culligan, Kevin; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2004-01-01

    Primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene underlie x-linked muscular dystrophy. However, the absence of the dystrophin isoform Dp427 does not necessarily result in a severe dystrophic phenotype in all muscle groups. Distal mdx muscles, namely extraocular and toe fibres, appear to represent a protected phenotype in muscular dystrophy. Thus, a comparative analysis of affected versus naturally protected muscle cells should lead to a greater knowledge of the molecular pathogenes...

  10. Student figures in friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gritt B.

    , students' room for participation in their own learning, influenced by demands for efficiency, flexibility and student-centred education. The thesis recasts the anthropological endeavour as one of ‘figuration work'. That is, ‘frictional events' are explored as moments when conflicting figures...

  11. Figure S1 Figure S2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    6.8. 7.0. 7.2. 7.4. 7.6. 7.8. 8.0. 8.2. 8.4. 8.6. 8.8 ppm. 0.0. 1.8. 9.7. 5.4. 6.9. 8.1. 9.0. 10.8. 3.2. 10.3. Figure S3. NMR titration of DAN-Ia acid with NDI at 30% MeOH in CDCl3. The numbers represent the mole ratios of the DAN-acid to the repeat unit.

  12. data for figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figures 1-10 and Table 1. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, S.Y., S. Arunachalam, A. Valencia, B. Naess, V. Isakov , M. Breen , T....

  13. Figure_2_data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for Figure 2. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sarwar, G., D. Kang, K. Foley, D. Schwede, B. Gantt, and R. Mathur. Technical note:...

  14. Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saves Lives Facts & Figures My Blood, Your Blood Blood Donation Types Did you know there is more than one type of blood donation? Learn more about blood donation types here. Blood Safety and Testing The blood supply ...

  15. Adventures with Lissajous Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-06-01

    Lissajous Figures are produced by combining two oscillations at right angles to each other. The figures, drawn by mechanical devices called harmonographs, have scientific uses, but are also enjoyed for their own beauty. The author has been working with harmonographs since his undergraduate days, building several of them, lecturing on them and has written articles about them. This book is intended for people who enjoy physics or art or both.

  16. Subacute sarcoid myositis with ocular muscle involvement; a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y; Ishii, Yoshiki; Nagasawa, J; Arai, S; Okada, H; Ohmi, F; Umetsu, T; Machida, Y; Kurasawa, K; Takemasa, A; Suzuki, S; Senoh, T; Sada, T; Hirata, K

    2016-10-07

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect multiple organs. The lungs, eyes, and skin are known to be highly affected organs in sarcoidosis. There have been reports based on random muscle biopsy that 32-80% of systemic sarcoidosis comprises noncaseating granulomas; however, muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is generally asymptomatic and has an unknown frequency. We describe a case of acute to subacute sarcoid myositis of the skeletal and extraocular muscles. Typical ophthalmic involvement (manifested by infiltration of the ocular adnexa, intraocular inflammation, or infiltration of the retrobulbar visual pathways) and extraocular sarcoid myositis (as with the present case) is infrequently reported. It is important to keep in mind the rare yet perhaps underestimated entity of sarcoid myositis, and to utilize muscle biopsy and imaging tests for appropriate diagnosis and management of patients with sarcoidosis.

  17. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (pmyasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  19. Extraocular light via the ear canal does not acutely affect human circadian physiology, alertness and psychomotor vigilance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromundt, Vivien; Frey, Sylvia; Odermatt, Jonas; Cajochen, Christian

    2014-04-01

    We aimed at testing potential effects of extraocular bright light via the ear canals on human evening melatonin levels, sleepiness and psychomotor vigilance performance. Twenty healthy young men and women (10/10) kept a regular sleep-wake cycle during the 2-week study. The volunteers reported to the laboratory on three evenings, 2 h 15 min before usual bedtime, on average at 21:45 h. They were exposed to three different light conditions, each lasting for 12 min: extraocular bright light via the ear canal, ocular bright light as an active control condition and a control condition (extraocular light therapy device with completely blacked out LEDs). The timing of exposure was on average from 22:48 to 23:00 h. During the 2-h protocol, saliva samples were collected in 15-min intervals for melatonin assays along with subjective sleepiness ratings, and the volunteers performed a 10-min visual psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) prior to and after each light condition. The evening melatonin rise was significantly attenuated after the 12-min ocular bright light exposure while no significant changes were observed after the extraocular bright light and sham light condition. Subjective sleepiness decreased immediately over a short period only after ocular light exposure. No significant differences were observed for mean reaction times and the number of lapses for the PVT between the three light conditions. We conclude that extraocular transcranial light exposure in the late evening does not suppress melatonin, reduce subjective sleepiness or improve performance, and therefore, does not acutely influence the human circadian timing system.

  20. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  1. Sushruta in 600 B.C. introduced extraocular expulsion of lens material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2014-03-01

    It is generally accepted that Jacques Daviel introduced in the 18th century the extracapsular technique of extraction of the lens while the couching method of cataract operation had already been practiced since ancient times. Present study analyses the first known cataract surgery description in three translations into English from the original Sanskrit Sushruta textbook and all the available literature on the subject. We found evidences that some sort of extraocular expulsion of lens material through a limbal puncture (paracentesis) was described by the Indian surgeon. Nevertheless, this incision cannot be considered as a classic extracapsular procedure because it was not large enough to allow the extraction of the entire lens. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  2. PUBLIK FIGUR DALAM IKLAN TESTIMONIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddi Duto Hartanto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Testimonial advertising seemingly identical with famous figure such as artist%2C sportmen or others. They are all branded as "public figure" because they are well known by public. A lot of advertising creators using public figure in order to gain a high brand awareness. Is the use of public figure in testimonial advertising more profitable? Is their able quite representative for the products they represent ? Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan testimonial identik dengan tokoh terkenal%2C baik itu artis%2C tokoh masyarakat%2C olahragawan%2C atau yang lainnya. Semuanya di cap sebagai "publik figur%2C" karena sudah dikenal masyarakat.Banyak kreator iklan menggunakan publik figur dengan harapan dapat mencapai brand awareness yang tinggi. Apakah penggunaan publik figur dalam iklan testimonial lebih menguntungkan ?%2C Apakah peran publik figur (sudah mewakili produk yang dibawakan?. testimonial advertising%2C public figure

  3. Figure out the Rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    Thinking in numbers, figures and systems plays a central part in our - at least scientific – understanding of musical matters. The kind of pre-order that the numbers - and also the systemic thinking - bring along seem to facilitate the access to and dealings with what we understand as fundamental...... to reflect. By means of a critical resume of an earlier analysis of rhythmical implications in Michael Jackson's "Give In To Me" this paper discusses these matters further and reflects upon arithmetic's influences and relevance for our understanding of music....

  4. Facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Whereas most of the data are, naturally, about oil, a few figures concern nuclear energy. There is in Part 1 a flow chart of worldwide primary energy consumption by type, from 1974 to 1986, where nuclear energy consumption can be seen in relation to oil, gas, coal and hydro. The same is also given for the regions of the South. In section 3/18 the numbers of nuclear plants in construction and operation are listed separately for developing countries, centrally planned economies and industrialized countries, for 1986. (qui)

  5. Automatic figure ranking and user interfacing for intelligent figure search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Figures are important experimental results that are typically reported in full-text bioscience articles. Bioscience researchers need to access figures to validate research facts and to formulate or to test novel research hypotheses. On the other hand, the sheer volume of bioscience literature has made it difficult to access figures. Therefore, we are developing an intelligent figure search engine (http://figuresearch.askhermes.org. Existing research in figure search treats each figure equally, but we introduce a novel concept of "figure ranking": figures appearing in a full-text biomedical article can be ranked by their contribution to the knowledge discovery.We empirically validated the hypothesis of figure ranking with over 100 bioscience researchers, and then developed unsupervised natural language processing (NLP approaches to automatically rank figures. Evaluating on a collection of 202 full-text articles in which authors have ranked the figures based on importance, our best system achieved a weighted error rate of 0.2, which is significantly better than several other baseline systems we explored. We further explored a user interfacing application in which we built novel user interfaces (UIs incorporating figure ranking, allowing bioscience researchers to efficiently access important figures. Our evaluation results show that 92% of the bioscience researchers prefer as the top two choices the user interfaces in which the most important figures are enlarged. With our automatic figure ranking NLP system, bioscience researchers preferred the UIs in which the most important figures were predicted by our NLP system than the UIs in which the most important figures were randomly assigned. In addition, our results show that there was no statistical difference in bioscience researchers' preference in the UIs generated by automatic figure ranking and UIs by human ranking annotation.The evaluation results conclude that automatic figure ranking and user

  6. Irradiation followed by muscle surgery for dysthyroid ophthalmopathy with diplopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Satoko; Asakura, Akiko [Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kosuke; Mori, Toshiro; Shibuya, Masako; Kurihara, Hideo; Tazawa, Yutaka

    1995-10-01

    We obtained favorable therapeutic outcome in 12 cases of dysthyroid ophthalmopathy with diplopia. All the patients underwent Lineac irradiation to the retrobulbar tissue totalling 15 to 20 Gy over 10 days. Extraocular muscle surgery was performed 30 days after irradiation. Diplopia at the primary position almost disappeared one day after surgery. An additional surgery was necessary in one case. The interval between onset of diplopia and surgery averaged 6.1 months. Irradiation prior to muscle surgery appeared to be beneficial in allowing an early surgery and in avoiding surgical overcorrection. (author).

  7. Superior ophthalmic vein enlargement and increased muscle index in dysthyroid optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Breno da Rocha; Perry, Julian D

    2013-01-01

    To compare superior ophthalmic vein diameter and extraocular muscle index in patients with thyroid eye disease with or without optic neuropathy. High-resolution CT scan images of 40 orbits of 20 patients with history of thyroid eye disease (with or without optic neuropathy), who underwent orbital decompression surgery from January 2007 to November 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Superior ophthalmic vein diameter was measured in coronal and axial planes. Extraocular muscle index was calculated according to the method proposed by Barrett et al. The clinical diagnosis of optic neuropathy was based on characteristic signs that included afferent pupillary defect, decreased visual acuity, visual field defects, and dyschromatopsia. Orbits were divided in 2 groups based on presence or absence of optic neuropathy. Superior ophthalmic vein diameter was significantly higher in orbits with concomitant optic neuropathy (mean 2.4 ± 0.4mm, p optic neuropathy (mean 57.9% ± 5.7%, p = 0.0002). Muscle index greater than 50% was present in all patients with dysthyroid optic neuropathy. This study suggests that patients with thyroid eye disease with enlarged superior ophthalmic vein and increased extraocular muscle index are more likely to have concomitant optic neuropathy.

  8. Additional file 3: Figure S1. of RNA sequencing for global gene expression associated with muscle growth in a single male modern broiler line compared to a foundational Barred Plymouth Rock chicken line

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Hudson, Nicholas; Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Seok; Khatri, Bhuwan; Lassiter, Kentu; Cook, Devin; Piekarski, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Anthony, Nicholas; Bottje, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The canonical pathway of oxidative phosphorylation. The differentially expressed genes in breast muscle associated with the electron transport chain on (Complex I, II, III, IV, and V) that were downregulated (outlined in green) in the PeM. Pumping of hydrogen ions (H+) creates a proton motive force between the inner (IMM) and outer (OMM) mitochondrial membranes that is used to drive ATP synthesis. (PPTX 254 kb)

  9. Figure mining for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Iossifov, Ivan

    2009-08-15

    Figures from biomedical articles contain valuable information difficult to reach without specialized tools. Currently, there is no search engine that can retrieve specific figure types. This study describes a retrieval method that takes advantage of principles in image understanding, text mining and optical character recognition (OCR) to retrieve figure types defined conceptually. A search engine was developed to retrieve tables and figure types to aid computational and experimental research. http://iossifovlab.cshl.edu/figurome/.

  10. Making better scientific figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  11. Preliminary figures for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Neste Corporation's net sales during 1991 totalled USD 12.6 billion, an increase of 11 % over the figure for 1990. The largest growth in net sales took place in Neste Oil's trading activities and sales of in-house-produced crude oil. In the chemicals sector. particular growth was recorded in resins production. Gas, Shipping and Exploration and Production performed slightly better than during 1990. Oil's performance remained satisfactory. The performance of Chemicals, however, fell back considerably, primarily, as a result of the worldwide drop in prices in the petrochemicals and plastics industries. As a result, the Corporation's overall result was substantially below the good level recorded in 1990. The Corporation's operating margin totalled USD 650 million

  12. Cybersecurity Figure of Merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command The Cybersecurity Challenge in Acquisition Sonia Kaestner, Adjunct Professor, McDonough School of Business ...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Cybersecurity Figure of Merit CAPT Brian Erickson, USN, SPAWAR...the Acquisition Research Program of the Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. To request defense acquisition

  13. Long-term medical outcomes in survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Sklar, Charles A; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Kernan, Nancy A; Khakoo, Yasmin; Marr, Brian P; Wolden, Suzanne L; Abramson, David H; Dunkel, Ira J

    2013-04-01

    Data on long-term outcomes of survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma are lacking. The authors sought to provide the first report characterizing long-term outcomes among survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective analysis of long-term medical outcomes in 19 survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma treated between 1992 and 2009. Severity of outcomes was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. All patients received intensive multimodality therapy for their extra-ocular disease after management of their primary intra-ocular disease, including conventional chemotherapy (n = 19, 100%), radiotherapy (n = 15, 69%), and/or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (n = 17, 89%). The median follow-up was 7.8 years from diagnosis of extra-ocular retinoblastoma (range 2-17.8 years). The most common long-term non-visual outcomes were hearing loss (n = 15, 79%), short stature (n = 7, 37%), and secondary malignancies [SMN] (n = 6, 31%). Sixty-eight percent of survivors exhibited ≥2 non-visual long-term outcomes of any grade. Except short stature, which was not graded for severity, Grade 3-4 outcomes were limited to: ototoxicity (n = 8; n = 4 require hearing aids), SMNs (n = 6), and unequal limb length (n = 1). Five patients who developed SMNs carried a known RB1 mutation. SMNs developed at a median of 11.1 years after initial diagnosis; two patients died of their SMN. Long-term cardiac, pulmonary, hepatobiliary, or renal conditions were not identified in any survivors. Long-term outcomes are commonly seen in extra-ocular retinoblastoma survivors but the majority are mild-moderate in their severity. Longer comprehensive follow-up is needed to fully assess treatment-related outcomes but the information collected to date may affect management decisions for children with extra-ocular disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. KIAI: FIGUR ELITE PESANTREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Takdir Ilahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a pesantren (Islamic boarding school, kiai is an strategic element. Javanese kiai mainly believe that a pesantren is a small palace where he becomes the ultimate source of power and authority. Even though he lives in a rural village, he becomes a member of elite group in social, politic and economic sides in the society. Kiai who leads big pesantren has successfully enlarged their power in term of nation so kiai could be accepted in national elite. The position of kiai is higher among all pesantren elements. The degree as an Islamic scholar is exactly a sacred degree in pesantren culture and tradition. Without his figure, it is impossible for a pesantren to develop and survive. Kiai holds an ultimate position on educate the behavior and morality of the santri (students to be qualified and compatible Muslims generation. Kiai is not only a leader but he is also the man behind the leadership itself in supporting the progress of Islamic education institution for Muslims generations.

  15. A Case of Blunt Trauma of the Eyeball Associated With an Inferior Oblique Muscle and an Inferior Rectus Muscle Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keisuke; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Miura, Fumihide; Hiroe, Takashi; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the extraocular muscle in the absence of significant injury to the eyeball and adnexa is uncommon. The authors report a case of blunt trauma of the eyeball associated with an inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle rupture. A 55-year-old man slipped and fell down hitting his eye on an extended windshield wiper blade. Although he had treatment in the emergency room, he complained of diplopia in the primary position 1 day postoperatively. After noticing ruptures of the inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle during exploratory surgery, the authors carefully repaired it. Diplopia in the primary position had disappeared within 1 month after the operation and by 6 months postoperatively. The movement of the eye had almost completely recovered.

  16. Modulation of Stem Cells Differentiation and Myostatin as an approach to Counteract fibrosis in Muscle Dystrophy and Regeneration after Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), hampers cell therapy in the muscle , and is a feasible therapeutic target. Myostatin (Mst), a...17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 • Muscle lipofibrotic degeneration characterizes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), hampers cell therapy...SUBJECT TERMS Myostatin, muscle dystrophy , stem cells, myogenesis, Oct-4; Duchenne 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  17. Facts and figures in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, R.; Meuric, L.; Scherrer, S.; Paquel, V.; Louati, S.; Thienard, H.

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers a series of articles dedicated to the situation of the energy sector in France at the end of 2004: -) the energy balance sheet, -) the trend concerning energy consumption since 1973, -) the energy bill, -) figures about electrical power, -) figures about natural gas, -) figures about solid fossil fuels, -) figures about oil, and -) figures about renewable energies. The important fact to note is that the energy bill has soared by 24.1% to reach 28.35 milliard euros which represents 1.75% of the gross national product (PIB). The evolution over the year 2004 of the factors that contribute to the level of the energy bill is: - the import-export energy quantity differential: +7.5%, - the import-export energy cost differential (in Usa dollar): +27.1%, and - the fall of the dollar: -9.1%. (A.C.)

  18. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  19. Otolithic and extraocular muscle proprioceptive influences on the spatial organization of the vestibulo- and cervico-ocular quick phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Manni, E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Bortolami, R

    1997-03-01

    The cervico-ocular reflex (COR) was studied alone or in combination with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in the rabbit. Step stimulations of the body with respect to the fixed head induced small slow compensatory responses followed by large compensatory quick phases (QP). These responses remained aligned with the horizon at different head pitch angles. The QP reorientation in space was due to the gravity influence on the otolithic receptors. The vestibular induced QPs exhibit a similar pattern. Because of this reorientation, the reduction of the amplitude of the vestibular induced QPs, due to the addition of the COR, was maintained even at different static head positions. The electrolytic lesion of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve deeply affected the space orientation of the COR. In particular, the cervically induced compensatory QPs of the eye ipsilateral to the lesion showed a remarkable variability of their trajectories and they lost space reorientation. These findings suggest that the coordinate system controlling the QPs is influenced by signals originating from both head position in space and eye position in the orbit.

  20. Evaluation of the pole figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera B, E.; Macias B, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the present work it's shown the possibility of obtaining a pole-figure from the data generated in a conventional X-ray equipment, with a commercial goniometer and no electronic device to process the data. The way to plot the pole-figure on-line is by means of measuring the diffractogram and plot manually the stereographic projections. The atainable precision is very low in such a cumbersome process. In this paper we substitute such method by storing the data in a punched tape from a conventional teletype. The data is processed in a computer and the pole-figure is recorded by a plotter attached to the computer. (author)

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every ... with third parties. Please read our security and privacy policy . Plan ahead Get help and support I ...

  2. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join the Cause alz.org >> Alzheimer's & Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download the Infographic: English Spanish Share the ...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... home care. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT: FINANCIAL AND PERSONAL BENEFITS OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS Early ... State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease ...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report ... on the impact of this disease in every state across the nation. Click below to see the ...

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 272.3900 Donate Alzheimer's & Dementia What Is Alzheimer's? Brain Tour Younger/Early Onset Risk Factors Genetics Myths ... Dementia Korsakoff Syndrome Related Conditions CTE MCI Traumatic Brain Injury Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs ...

  8. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  9. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  10. Retorical figures in advertising language

    OpenAIRE

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figur...

  11. A Subset of Palisade Endings Only in the Medial and Inferior Rectus Muscle in Monkey Contain Calretinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienbacher, Karoline; Ono, Seiji; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael; Horn, Anja K. E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To further chemically characterize palisade endings in extraocular muscles in rhesus monkeys. Methods Extraocular muscles of three rhesus monkeys were studied for expression of the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR) in palisade endings and multiple endings. The complete innervation was visualized with antibodies against the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa and combined with immunofluorescence for CR. Six rhesus monkeys received tracer injections of choleratoxin subunit B or wheat germ agglutinin into either the belly or distal myotendinous junction of the medial or inferior rectus muscle to allow retrograde tracing in the C-group of the oculomotor nucleus. Double-immunofluorescence methods were used to study the CR content in retrogradely labeled neurons in the C-group. Results A subgroup of palisade and multiple endings was found to express CR, only in the medial and inferior rectus muscle. In contrast, the en plaque endings lacked CR. Accordingly, within the tracer-labeled neurons of the C-group, a subgroup expressed CR. Conclusions The study indicates that two different neuron populations targeting nontwitch muscle fibers are present within the C-group for inferior rectus and medial rectus, respectively, one expressing CR, one lacking CR. It is possible that the CR-negative neurons represent the basic population for all extraocular muscles, whereas the CR-positive neurons giving rise to CR-positive palisade endings represent a specialized, perhaps more excitable type of nerve ending in the medial and inferior rectus muscles, being more active in vergence. The malfunction of this CR-positive population of neurons that target nontwitch muscle fibers could play a significant role in strabismus.

  12. An extraocular non-invasive transscleral LED-endoilluminator for eye speculum integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl, Philipp Simon; Lindner, Christoph; Lingenfelder, Christian; Deuchler, Svenja; Singh, Pankaj; Koch, Frank; Hessling, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Conventional chandelier-endoilluminators used for pars-plana vitrectomy consist of a light-emitting tip attached to an optical fibre. The tip requires introduction into the ocular space through an incision. To achieve complete illumination of the intraocular space, the introduction of more than just one tip is sometimes necessary. An extraocular vitreoretinal LED-endoilluminator discussed in this paper represents a new approach to illuminate the intraocular space. The light source is integrated into a speculum and firmly apposed to the sclera. This approach offers the advantage of effectively illuminating the interior of the eye even though the procedure is non-invasive. Furthermore, this approach significantly reduces the risk of damage to the retina by phototoxic effects. A round white LED was used as a light source. By integrating the light source into a speculum, the LED was firmly held against the sclera. Thus, the ocular space was illuminated transsclerally. As a result, indirect uniform illumination of the complete intraocular space was achieved. The prototype was developed considering the relevant international standards. Porcine eyes were used because their properties are similar to those of human eyes. Porcine eyes could be acceptably illuminated with the selected LED. The LED-endoilluminator conforms with international standards for endoillumination. Thus, possible photochemical and thermal risks are considered and reduced to a minimum. A novel LED-endoilluminator which can be attached to a speculum was developed. The system does not need any connection to an external light source and, consequently, also avoids usage of an optical fibre. Regular and uniform illumination of the intraocular space was achieved by transmitted and scattered visible irradiation, avoiding an incision. The duration of potential light exposure, compared to existing illumination systems, can be significantly increased. This is also true when the illuminator is not directly placed

  13. The oculomotor system of decapod cephalopods: eye muscles, eye muscle nerves, and the oculomotor neurons in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelmann, B U; Young, J Z

    1993-04-29

    Fourteen extraocular eye muscles are described in the decapods Loligo and Sepioteuthis, and thirteen in Sepia; they are supplied by four eye muscle nerves. The main action of most of the muscles is a linear movement of the eyeball, only three muscles produce strong rotations. The arrangement, innervation and action of the decapod eye muscles are compared with those of the seven eye muscles and seven eye muscle nerves in Octopus. The extra muscles in decapods are attached to the anterior and superior faces of the eyes. At least, the anterior muscles, and presumably also the superior muscles, are concerned with convergent eye movements for binocular vision during fixation and capture of prey by the tentacles. The remaining muscles are rather similar in the two cephalopod groups. In decapods, the anterior muscles include conjunctive muscles; these cross the midline and each presumably moves both eyes at the same time during fixation. In the squids Loligo and Sepioteuthis there is an additional superior conjunctive muscle of perhaps similar function. Some of the anterior muscles are associated with a narrow moveable plate, the trochlear cartilage; it is attached to the eyeball by trochlear membranes. Centripetal cobalt fillings showed that all four eye muscle nerves have fibres that originate from somata in the ipsilateral anterior lateral pedal lobe, which is the oculomotor centre. The somata of the individual nerves show different but overlapping distributions. Bundles of small presumably afferent fibres were seen in two of the four nerves. They do not enter the anterior lateral pedal lobe but run to the ventral magnocellular lobe; some afferent fibres enter the brachio-palliovisceral connective and run perhaps as far as the palliovisceral lobe.

  14. Forskerklummen: Figured Worlds of literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Figured worlds”, altså forestillede verdener, er et teoretisk begreb, som i øjeblikket dukker op i flere og flere forskningssammenhænge. Det bliver anvendt på mange forskellige måder både inden for uddannelsesforskning og i forskning i literacy.......”Figured worlds”, altså forestillede verdener, er et teoretisk begreb, som i øjeblikket dukker op i flere og flere forskningssammenhænge. Det bliver anvendt på mange forskellige måder både inden for uddannelsesforskning og i forskning i literacy....

  15. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  16. Human Figure Drawings in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Motta, Little, and Tobin, this issue) which reviewed data-based studies on figure drawings and found little support for their validity or use in assessing personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Contends that article is unacceptable for publication in present form, with main criticism being that…

  17. Retorical figures in advertising language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.

  18. Third quarter 2005 sales figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division

  19. Distal mdx muscle groups exhibiting up-regulation of utrophin and rescue of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins exemplify a protected phenotype in muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Paul; Culligan, Kevin; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2002-02-01

    Unique unaffected skeletal muscle fibres, unlike necrotic torso and limb muscles, may pave the way for a more detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of inherited neuromuscular disorders and help to develop new treatment strategies for muscular dystrophies. The sparing of extraocular muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is mostly attributed to the special protective properties of extremely fast-twitching small-diameter fibres, but here we show that distal muscles also represent a particular phenotype that is more resistant to necrosis. Immunoblot analysis of membranes isolated from the well established dystrophic animal model mdx shows that, in contrast to dystrophic limb muscles, the toe musculature exhibits an up-regulation of the autosomal dystrophin homologue utrophin and a concomitant rescue of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. Thus distal mdx muscle groups provide a cellular system that naturally avoids myofibre degeneration which might be useful in the search for naturally occurring compensatory mechanisms in inherited skeletal muscle diseases.

  20. The Figure in the Idiom

    OpenAIRE

    JONES, Willie

    1996-01-01

    The argument: every metaphor and metaphoric idiom grows out of and is nourished by a seminal metonymy. Since these germinating seeds-and the mineral elements which feed them-work under cover, we tend to overlook them when we feast off harvests cropped from the fields of metaphor: and we therefore forget to take into account the radical fecundity of the metonymic germ. This essay attempts to remedy such forgetfulness. At the same time, it also claims that metonymy (a figure of rhetoric) and im...

  1. Les figures multiples du maire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lebraud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Alors même que l’ensemble du personnel gouvernemental et parlementaire est sujet à une relative désaffection de la part des citoyens, les maires français jouissent, on le sait, d’une popularité qui fait d’eux les figures centrales de la scène politique. Au-delà de la décentralisation, qui a souvent renforcé leur image de décideurs, ils ont su tirer parti de la dimension identitaire qui caractérise l’échelon communal pour devenir les acteurs indispensables de la vie locale. ...

  2. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment.

  3. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed.

  4. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N.; Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared either on figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region’s color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments show that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as grounds are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  5. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  6. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers.

  8. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  9. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  10. Are figure legends sufficient? Evaluating the contribution of associated text to biomedical figure comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Agarwal, Shashank; Johnston, Mark; Cohen, Aaron

    2009-01-06

    Biomedical scientists need to access figures to validate research facts and to formulate or to test novel research hypotheses. However, figures are difficult to comprehend without associated text (e.g., figure legend and other reference text). We are developing automated systems to extract the relevant explanatory information along with figures extracted from full text articles. Such systems could be very useful in improving figure retrieval and in reducing the workload of biomedical scientists, who otherwise have to retrieve and read the entire full-text journal article to determine which figures are relevant to their research. As a crucial step, we studied the importance of associated text in biomedical figure comprehension. Twenty subjects evaluated three figure-text combinations: figure+legend, figure+legend+title+abstract, and figure+full-text. Using a Likert scale, each subject scored each figure+text according to the extent to which the subject thought he/she understood the meaning of the figure and the confidence in providing the assigned score. Additionally, each subject entered a free text summary for each figure-text. We identified missing information using indicator words present within the text summaries. Both the Likert scores and the missing information were statistically analyzed for differences among the figure-text types. We also evaluated the quality of text summaries with the text-summarization evaluation method the ROUGE score. Our results showed statistically significant differences in figure comprehension when varying levels of text were provided. When the full-text article is not available, presenting just the figure+legend left biomedical researchers lacking 39-68% of the information about a figure as compared to having complete figure comprehension; adding the title and abstract improved the situation, but still left biomedical researchers missing 30% of the information. When the full-text article is available, figure comprehension

  11. Physical Rehabilitation Improves Muscle Function Following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    synergistic effect of treadmill running on stem -cell transplantation to heal injured skeletal muscle. Tissue Eng Part A 2010, 16(3):839–849. 20. Brutsaert...U:::-’ 0:: 0 Uninjured Injured Figure 7 c E 14 w cu12 • SED * (/) Cll < 10 ~ ~ 8 c 6 Cll Cl 4 z ..!!! ::> 0 2 0::: u 0 Uninjured Injured

  12. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures.We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons.The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19.3% recall, and 25.3% F1-score for

  13. The latest figures on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.

    2010-01-01

    According to the latest figures on uranium, soon to be published by the NEA, uranium resources, production and demand are all on the rise. Exploration efforts have increased recently in line with the expected expansion of nuclear energy in the coming years. Total identified resources have grown and are now sufficient to cover 100 years of supply at 2008 rates of consumption. Costs of production have, however, also increased. This article is based on the latest edition of the 'Red Book', Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand, which presents the results of the most recent biennial review of world uranium market fundamentals and a statistical profile of the world uranium industry as of 1 January 2009. It contains official data provided by OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) member countries on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2035 are also provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. Despite recent declines stemming from the global financial crisis, world demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow significantly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by an increasing number of governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base-load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supply, increases the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity, although the magnitude of that growth remains to be determined. Regardless of the role that nuclear energy ultimately plays in meeting rising electricity demand, the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected requirements. Meeting even high-case requirements to 2035 would consume less

  14. Figure-ground assignment in pigeons: evidence for a figural benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, Olga E; Castro, Leyre; Vecera, Shaun P; Wasserman, Edward A

    2006-07-01

    Four pigeons discriminated whether a target spot appeared on a colored figural shape or on a differently colored background by first pecking the target and then reporting its location: on the figure or the background. We recorded three dependent variables: target detection time, choice response time, and choice accuracy. The birds were faster to detect the target, to report its location, and to learn the correct response on figure trials than on background trials. Later tests suggested that the pigeons might have attended to the figural region as a whole rather than using local properties in performing the figure-background discrimination. The location of the figural region did not affect figure-ground assignment. Finally, when 4 other pigeons had to detect and peck the target without making a choice report, no figural advantage emerged in target detection time, suggesting that the birds' attention may not have been automatically summoned to the figural region.

  15. Eye muscle proprioception is represented bilaterally in the sensorimotor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Albert, Neil B; Miall, Chris

    2011-01-01

    eye after a virtual lesion with rTMS over the left somatosensory area. However, it is possible that the proprioceptive representation of the EOM extends to other brain sites, which were not examined in these previous studies. The aim of this fMRI study was to sample the whole brain to identify...... the proprioceptive representation for the left and the right eye separately. Data were acquired while passive eye movement was used to stimulate EOM proprioceptors in the absence of a motor command. We also controlled for the tactile stimulation of the eyelid by removing from the analysis voxels activated by eyelid......The cortical representation of eye position is still uncertain. In the monkey a proprioceptive representation of the extraocular muscles (EOM) of an eye were recently found within the contralateral central sulcus. In humans, we have previously shown a change in the perceived position of the right...

  16. Equilibrium figures in geodesy and geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, H.

    There is an enormous literature on geodetic equilibrium figures, but the various works have not always been interrelated, also for linguistic reasons (English, French, German, Italian, Russian). The author attempts to systematize the various approaches and to use the standard second-order theory for a study of the deviation of the actual earth and of the equipotential reference ellipsoid from an equilibrium figure.

  17. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  18. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  19. Human Figure Drawings: Abusing the Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, Achilles N.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Motta, Little, and Tobin, this issue) which reviewed data-based studies on figure drawings and found little support for their validity or use in assessing personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Notes recent approaches to interpretation of human figure drawings and cites flaws in argument against…

  20. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Figuring Out Food Labels KidsHealth / For Kids / Figuring Out Food Labels What's in this article? ...

  1. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Polepalli Ramesh

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903.

  2. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903).

  3. Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berini, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Three figures of merit are proposed as quality measures for surface plasmon waveguides. They are defined as benefit-to-cost ratios where the benefit is confinement and the cost is attenuation. Three different ways of measuring confinement are considered, leading to three figures of merit. One of the figures of merit is connected to the quality factor. The figures of merit were then used to assess and compare the wavelength response of hree popular 1-D surface plasmon waveguides: the single metal-dielectric interface, the metal slab bounded by dielectric and the dielectric slab bounded by metal. Closed form expressions are given for the figures of merit of the single metal-dielectric interface.

  4. Using Figure and Concept Knowledge in Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Karpuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to investigate how students build interaction between concepts and figure in geometry. For this purpose we developed two type data collection tool. First one called shapely is formed eight open ended question which has concepts and figure. Second one called shapeless is formed eight open ended question which has only concepts. To prepare this data collection tools’ difficulty level we took two math teachers’ opinions. Developed data collection tools were applied 120 students at 9th grade and 11th grade in Trabzon Gazi Anatolian High School. First of all we applied shapeless questions. One month later we applied shapely questions. We investigated students’ answer and the data showed that students more succeed in shapely questions than shapeless questions. We concluded that the difficulty of solving shapeless question result from students didn’t manage to draw figure representing concept knowledge or draw wrong figure, figure drawn by students can’t fulfıl generalizability condition and students who have little knowledge of concept in geometry is under the influence of prototype figure.Key Words:    Figural concepts theory, geometrical reasoning, geometry teaching

  5. Presenting Fake Figures: A Tool to Teach Effective Scientific Figure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A. Segarra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As trained scientists, we become adept not only at analyzing and understanding figures in the scientific literature, but also at designing figures to effectively represent our own data and findings. As educators, we strive to pass on these skills to our students, some of whom will ultimately become scientists themselves. Conveying the principles of effective figure design can be challenging, particularly when students have had little exposure to the process of reading scientific literature, much less writing a piece of scientific literature. Improvisational activities in the classroom reinforce teaching goals such as spontaneity, risk-taking, creativity, communication skills, team-building, and critical thinking (2. Indeed, improv training for scientists is becoming more common, helping scientists to communicate more spontaneously about their work and connect with their audience (1. In this article, we present an improvisational game that can aid in the teaching of effective scientific figure design. This “Present-a-Fake-Figure Exercise” is applicable to both the classroom and laboratory settings. In this learning activity, students improvise presenting fake scientific figures to an audience of their peers. These fake figures are prepared beforehand by the instructor and exemplify the do’s and don’ts of scientific figure design. Some of the learning outcomes of the activity include (1 identifying what makes a scientific figure cohesive, easy to analyze, and reader-friendly, and (2 identifying strategies that are useful in the design of a multi-panel figure to convey a scientific story.

  6. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Neuromuscular Responses of Elite Skaters During Different Roller Figure Skating Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantoja Patrícia Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the neuromuscular activity of elite athletes who performed various roller figure skating jumps, to determine whether the muscle activation is greater during jumps with more rotations and in which phase the muscles are more active. This study also aimed to analyze if there is any difference in the muscle activity pattern between female and male skaters. Four elite skaters were evaluated, and each participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric data were collected, and the consent forms were signed. For the second session, neuromuscular data were collected during jumps, which were performed with skates at a rink. The following four roller figure skating jumps were evaluated: single Axel, double Axel, double Mapes and triple Mapes. The neuromuscular activity of the following seven muscles was obtained with an electromyograph which was fixed to the waist of each skater with a strap: biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus. The signal was transmitted wirelessly to a laptop. During the roller figure skating jumps, the lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus, showed more activation during the jumps with more rotations, and the activation mainly occurred during the propulsion and flight phases. Female skaters demonstrated higher muscle activities in tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during the landing phase of the triple Mapes, when compared to their male counterparts. The results obtained in this study should be considered when planning training programs with specific exercises that closely resemble the roller figure skating jumps. This may be important for the success of elite skaters in competitions.

  8. Neuromuscular Responses of Elite Skaters During Different Roller Figure Skating Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Patrícia Dias; Mello, André; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the neuromuscular activity of elite athletes who performed various roller figure skating jumps, to determine whether the muscle activation is greater during jumps with more rotations and in which phase the muscles are more active. This study also aimed to analyze if there is any difference in the muscle activity pattern between female and male skaters. Four elite skaters were evaluated, and each participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric data were collected, and the consent forms were signed. For the second session, neuromuscular data were collected during jumps, which were performed with skates at a rink. The following four roller figure skating jumps were evaluated: single Axel, double Axel, double Mapes and triple Mapes. The neuromuscular activity of the following seven muscles was obtained with an electromyograph which was fixed to the waist of each skater with a strap: biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus. The signal was transmitted wirelessly to a laptop. During the roller figure skating jumps, the lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus, showed more activation during the jumps with more rotations, and the activation mainly occurred during the propulsion and flight phases. Female skaters demonstrated higher muscle activities in tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during the landing phase of the triple Mapes, when compared to their male counterparts. The results obtained in this study should be considered when planning training programs with specific exercises that closely resemble the roller figure skating jumps. This may be important for the success of elite skaters in competitions. PMID:25114728

  9. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  10. Figuring process of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal using ion beam figuring technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furen; Xie, Xuhui; Tie, Guipeng; Hu, Hao; Zhou, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Currently, ion beam figuring (IBF) technology has presented many excellent performances in figuring potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals, such as it is a noncontact figuring process and it does not require polishing fluid. So, it is a very clean figuring process and does not introduce any impurities. However, the ion beam energy deposited on KDP crystal will heat the KDP crystal and may generate cracks on it. So, it is difficult directly using IBF technology to figure KDP crystal, as oblique incident IBF (OI-IBF) has lower heat deposition, higher removal rate, and smoother surface roughness compared to normal incident IBF. This paper studied the process of using OI-IBF to figure KDP crystal. Removal rates and removal functions at different incident angles were first investigated. Then heat depositions on a test work piece were obtained through experiments. To validate the figuring process, a KDP crystal with a size of 200  mm×200  mm×12  mm was figured by OI-IBF. After three iterations using the OI-IBF process, the surface error decreases from the initial values with PV 1.986λ RMS 0.438λ to PV 0.215λ RMS 0.035λ. Experimental results indicate that OI-IBF is feasible and effective to figure KDP crystals.

  11. Central projections and entries of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Torre, G; Lucchi, M L; Brunetti, O; Pettorossi, V E; Clavenzani, P; Bortolami, R

    1996-03-25

    The entry pathway and central distribution of A delta and C muscle afferents within the central nervous system (CNS) were investigated by combining electron microscopy and electrophysiological analysis after intramuscular injection of capsaicin. The drug was injected into the rat lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and extraocular (EO) muscles. The compound action potentials of LG nerve and the evoked field potentials recorded in semilunar ganglion showed an immediate and permanent reduction in A delta and C components. The morphological data revealed degenerating unmyelinated axons and terminals in the inner sublamina II and in the border of laminae I-II of the dorsal horn at L4-L5 and C1-C2 (subnucleus caudalis trigemini) spinal cord segments. Most degenerating terminals were the central bouton (C) of type I and II synaptic glomeruli. Furthermore, degenerating peripheral axonal endings (V2) presynaptic to normal C were found. Since V2 were previously found degenerated after cutting the oculomotor nerve (ON) or L4 ventral root, we conclude that some A delta and C afferents from LG and EO muscles entering the CNS by ON or ventral roots make axoaxonic synapses on other primary afferents to promote an afferent control of sensory input.

  12. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Energy in Sweden. Facts and Figures 2005 contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years (2003 and 2004). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts

  13. Figure-ground segregation modulates apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V S; Anstis, S

    1986-01-01

    We explored the relationship between figure-ground segmentation and apparent motion. Results suggest that: static elements in the surround can eliminate apparent motion of a cluster of dots in the centre, but only if the cluster and surround have similar "grain" or texture; outlines that define occluding surfaces are taken into account by the motion mechanism; the brain uses a hierarchy of precedence rules in attributing motion to different segments of the visual scene. Being designated as "figure" confers a high rank in this scheme of priorities.

  14. Metrics of Justice. A Sundial's Nomological Figuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

  15. Work behaviors of artificial muscle based on cation driven polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisue, Hisashi; Sendai, Tomokazu; Yamato, Kentaro; Takashima, Wataru; Kaneto, Keiichi

    2007-06-01

    A soft actuator mimicking natural muscles (artificial muscle) has been developed using a flexible conducting polymer of polypyrrole films, which were driven by electrical stimulus in a saline solution. The work characteristics were studied under various load stresses and found to behave like natural muscles. The artificial muscles shrunk and stiffened by the positive electrical stimulus by 2-3% at the maximum force of 5 MPa, and relaxed by application of negative voltages. At larger load stresses, the artificial muscle shrunk slowly as natural muscles do. The driving current also lasted longer at larger loads, indicating that the muscle sensed the magnitude of the load stress. During contraction of the muscle, the conversion efficiency from the electrical input and mechanical output energies was estimated to be around 0.06%. The maximum volumetric work was approximately estimated to be 100 kJ m(-3). These figures are unexpectedly small compared with those of natural muscles.

  16. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1999, STEM-ET-82-1999). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English

  17. Michelangelo, Leibniz and the Serpentine Figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Tuinen (Sjoerd)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In his lectures from 1987, Deleuze draws an analogy between Michelangelo‟s figures and Leibnizian substances by claiming that neither are essences but rather sources of modifications or manners of being. The best way to explore this analogy, I argue, is by focusing on

  18. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  19. Relational Reasoning in Word and in Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Singer, Lauren M.; Jablansky, Sophie; Hattan, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relational reasoning capabilities of older adolescents and young adults when the focal assessment was a verbal and more schooled measure than 1 that was figural and more novel in its configuration. To achieve this end, the verbal test of relational reasoning (vTORR) was constructed to parallel the test of relational…

  20. Photovoltaic power production figures in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide figures of photovoltaic power production (in Mw) along 1992 are presented. Worldwide production of modules per manufacturing technology and per manufacturing companies in Europe, USA and Japan are provided as well. The review has used the following sources: ''PV News'', ''PV insider's report'' and ''systems solars''. (Author)

  1. Fading-Figure Tracing in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Inui, Toshio; Iwata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment of visuospatial abilities. Figure-drawing abilities, which are thought to reflect visuospatial abilities, have yet to be fully investigated in WS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether drawing abilities differ between WS individuals and…

  2. Edge effect correction using ion beam figuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Furen; Zhou, Lin

    2017-11-10

    The edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, as it can greatly reduce the key performance of the optical system. Ion beam figuring (IBF) has the advantage of no edge effect, so we can use it to remove high points on the edge and improve surface accuracy. The edge local correction method (ELCM) of IBF processes only the surface edge zone, and is very different from the current full caliber figuring method (FCFM). Therefore, it is necessary to study the ELCM of IBF. In this paper, the key factors of ELCM are analyzed, such as dwell time algorithm, edge data extension methods, and the outward dimension of the starting figuring point. At the same time, the distinctions between ELCM and FCFM are compared. Finally, a 142 mm diameter fused silica mirror is fabricated to verify the validity of the theoretical of ELCM. The experimental results indicate that the figuring precision and efficiency can be obviously improved by ELCM.

  3. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  4. INFORMATIONAL MODEL OF MENTAL ROTATION OF FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lyakhovetskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study.The subject of research is the information structure of objects internal representations and operations over them, used by man to solve the problem of mental rotation of figures. To analyze this informational structure we considered not only classical dependencies of the correct answers on the angle of rotation, but also the other dependencies obtained recently in cognitive psychology. Method.The language of technical computing Matlab R2010b was used for developing information model of the mental rotation of figures. Such model parameters as the number of bits in the internal representation, an error probability in a single bit, discrete rotation angle, comparison threshold, and the degree of difference during rotation can be changed. Main Results.The model reproduces qualitatively such psychological dependencies as the linear increase of time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for identical figures, "flat" dependence of the time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for mirror-like figures. The simulation results suggest that mental rotation is an iterative process of finding a match between the two figures, each step of which can lead to a significant distortion of the internal representation of the stored objects. Matching is carried out within the internal representations that have no high invariance to rotation angle. Practical Significance.The results may be useful for understanding the role of learning (including the learning with a teacher in the development of effective information representation and operations on them in artificial intelligence systems.

  5. Flap tear of rectus muscles: an underlying cause of strabismus after orbital trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Irene H; Brown, Mark S

    2002-11-01

    To present an avulsion injury of the rectus muscle after orbital trauma, usually the inferior rectus, and detail its diagnosis and operative repair. Forty-three patients underwent repair of flap tears of 62 rectus muscles. During surgery, we found the muscle abnormality was often subtle, with narrowing or thinning of the remaining attached global layer of muscle. The detached flap of external (orbital) muscle was found embedded in surrounding orbital fat and connective tissue. Retrieval and repair were performed in each case. The causes of orbital trauma were as follows: orbital fractures (15 patients), blunt trauma with no fracture (11 patients), suspected trauma but did not undergo computerized tomographic scan (12 patients), and status after retinal detachment repair (5 patients). Of note, 15 of the 43 patients (35%) underwent repair of the flap tear alone, without any additional orbital or strabismus surgery. Diagnostically, the predominant motility defect in 45 muscles was limitation toward the field of action of the muscle, presumably as a result of a tether created by the torn flap; these tethers simulated muscle palsy. Seventeen muscles were restricted away from their field of action, simulating entrapment. The direction taken by the flap during healing determined the resultant strabismus pattern. All patients with gaze limitation toward an orbital fracture had flap tears. The worst results after flap tear repair were seen in patients (1) who had undergone orbital fracture repair before presentation, (2) who had undergone previous attempts at strabismus repair, and (3) who had the longest intervals between the precipitating event and the repair. The best results were obtained in patients who underwent simultaneous fracture and strabismus repair or early strabismus repair alone. Avulsion-type flap tears of the extraocular muscles are a common cause of posttraumatic strabismus. Early repair produces the best results, but improvement is possible despite long

  6. String figures as mathematics? an anthropological approach to string figure-making in oral tradition societies

    CERN Document Server

    Vandendriessche, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the mathematical rationality contained in the making of string figures. It does so by using interdisciplinary methods borrowed from anthropology, mathematics, history and philosophy of mathematics. The practice of string figure-making has long been carried out in many societies, and particularly in those of oral tradition. It consists in applying a succession of operations to a string (knotted into a loop), mostly using the fingers and sometimes the feet, the wrists or the mouth. This succession of operations is intended to generate a final figure. The book explores differ

  7. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  8. Nuclear phaseout: a battle over figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coloma, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to assess the cost of abandoning nuclear energy in France because a lot of relevant figures are not published. The Court of Auditors is due to publish in 2012 a report of the costs of nuclear energy. In the case of nuclear phase out 2 costs have to be considered the dismantling cost and the cost of processing wastes and their disposal. As for the dismantling cost, official assessments in Great-Britain or Germany give a figure around 3 billions pounds per dismantled unit. In France the law imposes to EDF to put by 18 billions euros by 2016 for the future reactor dismantling. Concerning the cost of wastes, it could reach 35 billions euros for dealing with all the radioactive wastes produced till 2030. (A.C.)

  9. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    Energy in Sweden 2004: Facts and Figures contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. Since the year 2001 statistics for the period 1983-1998 are revised compared to data for previous editions. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years. Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts.

  10. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  12. Figuration of tourist personality and tourist travels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Saša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of tourist travel is a relative category, because its success depends on the subjective perception of the personality of tourists on a tourist trip. For this reason, any tourist trip can be treated from the perspective of different types of figurative forms of tourists' personality, which also determine different quality of tourist travel, which, in turn, makes them different. Thus, any tourist trip, unto itself, has its own uniqueness, taking on the forms and content created, for the most part, by the tourists themselves, along with all other tourism stakeholders involved in this process. These forms and contents are primarily conditioned by the spiritual profile of tourists' personality and their psychological and motivational preferences, which is symbolically represented in the figurative context of a chess game. In addition to this, identification of essential characteristics of different spiritual profiles of tourist's personality, must be a starting point for the programming of overall content and especially of animation and cultural content.

  13. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  14. Ambiguous Authorities: Vertigo and the Auteur Figure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Licari-Guillaume

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines authorial performance in the context of DC’s Vertigo line. In the 1990s, Vertigo gained its reputation as an innovative and progressive imprint by promoting the work of British scriptwriters, who were hailed as true author figures, despite the inherently collaborative nature of the mainstream comics industry. In a manner reminiscent of “auteur theory”, writers such as Neil Gaiman, Warren Ellis or Grant Morrison developed attractive author personas which they consistently displayed through interviews, letter columns or social media, but also, more importantly, by inserting their avatars within the comics they scripted. Upon closer examination, however, it becomes clear that their work in fact simultaneously asserts and destabilizes writerly authority, in a manner that is consistent with Linda Hutcheon’s view of postmodernity. By multiplying author figures and playfully disseminating authority, Vertigo authors question their own authorial control over the text, asserting instead the crucial role played by the reader.

  15. Perception of illusory contour figures: Microgenetic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2004-01-01

    Microgenetic analysis was used to investigate perception of illusory contour figures which represent whole, completed forms on the basis of segmented, incomplete stimulation. The analysis provided an experimental approach to this phenomenon which was standardly investigated phenomenologically. Experimental procedure consisted of two phases: a) priming phase and b) test phase which consisted of visual search task. Two types of visual search tasks were applied: (i) classic detection, in which s...

  16. Omnichannel Marketing. Facts & Figures. Denmark 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup Kjær, Jan; Kjær Jacobsen, Christine; Bjerre Herdel, Stine

    This NBI Omnichannel Facts and Figures report highlights the central findings from the NBI Omnichannel capability benchmarking tool, based on data collected in 2015 and 2016. The insights shared here provide an understanding of the way companies and marketing departments are working to deliver...... on - and adapt to - the challenges and opportunities related to the customer-centric, omnichannel experience. View this report as a data-freeze and analysis on the status of omnichannel in Denmark as of 2017....

  17. Energy: facts and figures in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, R.; Nanot, B.; Scherrer, S.; Paquel, V.; Louati, S.; Thienard, H.

    2007-01-01

    The consumption of final energy in France in 2006 increased slightly on the whole (+0.6%) and in all sectors except the industry (-0.7%). The final energy consumption is defined as the difference between the total consumption of primary energy and the consumption of the energy production sector. The evolution of the consumption of final energy is different according to the type of energy: +4.1% for coal (due to the strong demand in the iron and steel industry), +3.6% for renewable energies (due to specific development programs), +1.5% for electrical power and no change for oil and natural gas. Despite high prices, sales of car fuels rose by 0.4%, this figure hides the fact that the sales of fuels for diesel cars rose by 2.7% (because of the growing population of diesel cars) while those of grade petrol kept on plummeting (-5.9%). It is important to note that the releases of CO 2 due to energy went down by -1.4% in 2006. The energy bill increased by +18.5% to fetch 46.2*10 9 euros despite the decrease of the imported volumes. This articles details the energy figures for France in 2006 and sheds light particularly on 3 aspects: first, the annual trends in energy since 1973, secondly, the energy bill and thirdly the figures for electricity, natural gas, solid mineral fuels, hydrocarbons and renewable sources of energy. (A.C.)

  18. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  19. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  20. Figures and First Years: An Analysis of Calculus Students' Use of Figures in Technical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Antonacci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures in technical reports. In each year, these calculus students wrote a technical report as part of the Polar Bear Module, an educational unit developed for use in partner courses in biology, computer science, mathematics, and physics as part of the Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education (MSE project at Ithaca College. In the first year of the project, students received basic technical report guidelines. In year two, the report guidelines changed to include explicit language on how to incorporate figures. In year three, a grading rubric was added to the materials provided to one of the two classes. In all three years, the students performed below expectations in their use of graphs in their reports. Reviews of the figures in the 78 technical reports written by the 106 students showed repeated deficiencies in the figures and how the students used them in the discussion sections and in evidence-based arguments. In year three the student’s quantitative literacy (QL skills were assessed using an extract from a QL assessment instrument published in Numeracy. The results indicated that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with QL were not the main contributor to student difficulty with written discussion about graphs. The study underscores the need that explicit instructional attention be given to developing student knowhow in the use of figures in technical reports.

  1. Figurative Language on Maya Angelou selected Poetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risma Hayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the kinds of figurative language in the five selected poetries of Maya Angelou, the titles are: Alone, Caged Bird, Old Folks Laugh, Phenomenal Woman, Still I Rise. The focus of this study is figurative language which involves: Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole, Simile, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Irony, Antithesis, Symbolism, and Paradox. Qualitative approach with design of content analysis was used in this study. The researcher acted as the main instrument since she was the one who analyzed the figurative language. Moreover checklist was also used to support her data collection. The data was analyzed through three stages; 1. Data reduction, 2. Data representation, 3. Conclusion. The result of her study showed there were 40 sentences that containing figurative language in five selected poetries of Maya Angelou. They were; Metaphor (13 sentences, Personification (9 sentences, Hyperbole (1 sentence, Simile (8 sentences, Synecdoche (1 sentence, Antithesis (1 sentence, Symbolism (5 sentences, and Paradox (2 sentences. The researcher conclude, if the figurative language used by Angelou to compare, or even symbolize the sentences to bring the meaning come up with beautiful language. Mostly of her poetries told about her experience in the past that rooted to history of the discrimination of American-African.

  2. Ion beam figuring of silicon aspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Marcel; Zeuner, Michael; Luca, Alfonz; Dunger, Thoralf; Rost, Dirk; Kiontke, Sven; Krüger, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Silicon lenses are widely used for infrared applications. Especially for portable devices the size and weight of the optical system are very important factors. The use of aspherical silicon lenses instead of spherical silicon lenses results in a significant reduction of weight and size. The manufacture of silicon lenses is more challenging than the manufacture of standard glass lenses. Typically conventional methods like diamond turning, grinding and polishing are used. However, due to the high hardness of silicon, diamond turning is very difficult and requires a lot of experience. To achieve surfaces of a high quality a polishing step is mandatory within the manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the required surface form accuracy cannot be achieved through the use of conventional polishing methods because of the unpredictable behavior of the polishing tools, which leads to an unstable removal rate. To overcome these disadvantages a method called Ion Beam Figuring can be used to manufacture silicon lenses with high surface form accuracies. The general advantage of the Ion Beam Figuring technology is a contactless polishing process without any aging effects of the tool. Due to this an excellent stability of the removal rate without any mechanical surface damage is achieved. The related physical process - called sputtering - can be applied to any material and is therefore also applicable to materials of high hardness like Silicon (SiC, WC). The process is realized through the commercially available ion beam figuring system IonScan 3D. During the process, the substrate is moved in front of a focused broad ion beam. The local milling rate is controlled via a modulated velocity profile, which is calculated specifically for each surface topology in order to mill the material at the associated positions to the target geometry. The authors will present aspherical silicon lenses with very high surface form accuracies compared to conventionally manufactured lenses.

  3. Equilibrium figures for beta Lyrae type disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulated evidence for a geometrically and optically thick disk in the β Lyrae system has now established the disk's basic external configuration. Since the disk has been constant in its main properties over the historical interval of β Lyrae observations and also seems to have a basically well-defined photosphere, it is now time to being consideration of its sturcture. Here, we compute equilibrium figures for self-gravitating disks around stars in binary systems as a start toward eventual computation of complete disk models. A key role is played by centrifugally limited rotation of the central star, which would naturally arise late in the rapid phase of mass transfer. Beta Lyrae is thus postulated to be a double-contact binary, which makes possible nonarbitrary separation of star and disk into separate structures. The computed equilibrium figures are three-dimensional, as the gravitation of the second star is included. Under the approximation that the gravitational potential of the disk is that of a thin wire and that the local disk angular velocity is proportional to u/sup n/ (u = distance from rotation axis), we comptue the total potential and locate equipotential surfaces. The centrifugal potential is written in a particularly convenient form which permits one to change the rotation law discontinuously (for example, at the star-disk coupling point) while ensuring that centrifugal potential and centrifigual force are continuous functions of position. With such a one-parameter rotation law, one can find equilibrium disk figures with dimensions very similar to those found in β Lyrae, but considerations of internal consistency demand at least a two-parameter law

  4. Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

  5. Theories of figures of celestial bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jardetzky, Wenceslas S

    2005-01-01

    Everything in the universe rotates: the meteors, the asteroids, the planets and their satellites, the sun, the stars, the clusters and nebulae, even the galaxies themselves. The problem of the shape of a rotating body is therefore universal in astronomy. Its treatment in this book, which deals with the figures of equilibrium and distortions of rotating bodies, is full and rigorous.Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text was written by a renowned researcher and educator who taught at Columbia University and served for many years as a research associate at the La

  6. Children's Drawing of Human Figure Analisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salko Pezo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Beside speech, that helps children to express their feelings and experiences, establish relations with people, the drawing is one of the most truthful ways of its expression. In this paper the results of pleasant and unpleasant emo­tions among children through drawing of human figure are presented. The survey is conducted on 634 children, and the results indicate that there is difference in expressing negative emotions between boys and girls, while at expressing pleasant emotions the results are similar.

  7. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  8. Emotional indicators in children's human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catte, M; Cox, M V

    1999-06-01

    The human figure drawings of a group of emotionally-disturbed boys were compared with those of a group of well-adjusted boys closely matched for chronological age and another for mental age. A comparison based on Koppitz's (1968) original emotional indicators and another, based on new UK norms, showed that the emotionally-disturbed children included significantly more indicators in their drawings than their well-adjusted peers. Although this difference was statistically significant it is actually quite small. In addition, there were no differences among the groups in the kinds of indicators they exhibited. The usefulness of the Koppitz test as a tool for clinical use is questioned.

  9. Exogenous spatial attention influences figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, Shaun P; Flevaris, Anastasia V; Filapek, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    In a hierarchical stage account of vision, figure-ground assignment is thought to be completed before the operation of focal spatial attention. Results of previous studies have supported this account by showing that unpredictive, exogenous spatial precues do not influence figure-ground assignment, although voluntary attention can influence figure-ground assignment. However, in these studies, attention was not summoned directly to a region in a figure-ground display. In three experiments, we addressed the relationship between figure-ground assignment and visuospatial attention. In Experiment 1, we replicated the finding that exogenous precues do not influence figure-ground assignment when they direct attention outside of a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment if it is directed to one of the regions in a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment in displays that contain a Gestalt figure-ground cue; this result suggests that figure-ground processes are not entirely completed prior to the operation of focal spatial attention. Exogenous spatial attention acts as a cue for figure-ground assignment and can affect the outcome of figure-ground processes.

  10. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Stuart J; Travison, Thomas G; Wruck, Lisa M

    2007-11-19

    Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses) and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  11. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  12. Referred pain elicited by manual exploration of the lateral rectus muscle in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Gerwin, Robert D; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the presence of referred pain elicited by manual examination of the lateral rectus muscle in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). A case-control blinded study. It has been found previously that the manual examination of the superior oblique muscle can elicit referred pain to the head in some patients with migraine or tension-type headache. However, a referred pain from other extraocular muscles has not been investigated. Fifteen patients with CTTH and 15 healthy subjects without headache history were included. A blinded assessor performed a manual examination focused on the search for myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the right and left lateral rectus muscles. TrP diagnosis was made when there was referred pain evoked by maintained pressure on the lateral corner of the orbit (anatomical projection of the lateral rectus muscle) for 20 seconds, and increased referred pain while the subject maintained a medial gaze on the corresponding side (active stretching of the muscle) for 15 seconds. On each side, a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to assess the intensity of referred pain at both stages of the examination. Ten patients with CTTH (66.6%) had referred pain that satisfied TrPs diagnostic criteria, while only one healthy control (0.07%) reported referred pain upon the examination of the lateral rectus muscles (P < 0.001). The elicited referred pain was perceived as a deep ache located at the supraorbital region or the homolateral forehead. Pain was evoked on both sides in all subjects with TrPs, with no difference in pain intensity between the right and the left. The average pain intensity was significantly greater in the patient group (P < 0.001). All CTTH patients with referred pain recognized it as the frontal pain that they usually experienced during their headache attacks, which was consistent with active TrPs. In some patients with CTTH, the manual examination of lateral rectus muscle TrPs elicits a referred pain that

  13. Deficit in figure-ground segmentation following closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, G C; Baylis, L L

    1997-08-01

    Patient CB showed a severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation following a closed head injury. Unlike normal subjects, CB was unable to parse smaller and brighter parts of stimuli as figure. Moreover, she did not show the normal effect that symmetrical regions are seen as figure, although she was able to make overt judgments of symmetry. Since she was able to attend normally to isolated objects, CB demonstrates a dissociation between figure ground segmentation and subsequent processes of attention. Despite her severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation, CB showed normal 'parallel' single feature visual search. This suggests that figure-ground segmentation is dissociable from 'preattentive' processes such as visual search.

  14. Effects of hyperthyroidism on the rectus muscles in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyong Jy eNien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Structural details of vertebrate extraocular muscles (EOMs have shown an anatomically and functionally distinct laminar organization into an outer orbital (OL and an inner global layer (GL. Since hyperthyroidism alters tissue oxidative metabolism through mitochondrial enzymes, it is expected that structural/mitochondrial changes may be seen in hyperthyroid EOMs. We investigated the alterations in the laminar organization and mitochondrial changes in hyperthyroid mouse EOMs. Methods: Hyperthyroidism was induced in C57BL/6 mice and fresh rectus muscles were obtained to identify functional mitochondria using MitoTracker® Green and confocal microscopy; frozen sections from rectus muscles were stained with anti-rabbit Troponin T (selectively present in the OL to demonstrate changes in the OL and GL of the EOMs. Ultrastructural features of EOMs were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM.Results: Of all 4 rectus EOMs studied, the maximum change was seen in the inferior rectus muscle (IR followed by medial rectus (MR. Myofiber cross sectional area measurements and Troponin T staining in the control IR EOMs demonstrated a smaller OL (113.2 ± 3.66 μm2 and higher density staining with Troponin T (90% and a larger GL (411 ± 13.84 μm2 with low intensity staining (10%, while hyperthyroidism resulted in an increased OL (205.9 ± 5.3 μm2 and decreased GL (271.7 ± 7.5 μm2 p=0.001. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an intense staining especially in the outer rims in the hyperthyroid IR which was confirmed by TEM showing structural alterations in the mitochondria and a subsarcolemmal migration. Conclusions: The outer, thinner, orbital layer (OL of the mouse EOM contains smaller diameter myofibers and fewer mitochondria while the inner, larger global layer (GL contains larger diameter myofibers and larger density of mitochondria. Hyperthyroidism results in a significant alteration in the laminar organization and mitochondria of

  15. Prognostic Factors of Orbital Fractures with Muscle Incarceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chan Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Among the various signs and symptoms of orbital fractures, certain clinical findings warrant immediate surgical exploration, including gaze restriction, computed tomographic (CT evidence of entrapment, and prolonged oculocardiac reflex. Despite proper surgical reconstruction, prolonged complications such as diplopia and gaze restriction can occur. This article evaluated the prognostic factors associated with prolonged complications of orbital fractures with muscle incarceration. Methods The medical records of 37 patients (37 orbits with an orbital fracture with muscle incarceration from January 2001 to January 2015 were reviewed. The presence of Incarcerated muscle was confirmed via CT, as well as by intraoperative findings. Various factors potentially contributing to complications lasting for over 1 year after the injury were categorized and analyzed, including age, cause of injury, injury-to-operation time, operative time, fracture type, nausea, vomiting and other concomitant symptoms and injuries. Results All patients who presented with extraocular muscle limitations, positive CT findings, and/or a positive forced duction test underwent surgery. Of the 37 patients, 9 (24% exhibited lasting complications, such as diplopia and gaze restriction. The mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (range, 1–108 months, while that of patients who experienced prolonged complications was 30.1 months (range, 13–36 months. Two factors were significantly associated with prolonged complications: injury-to-operation time and nausea/vomiting. Loss of vision, worsening of motility, and implant complication did not occur. Conclusions Patients who present with gaze limitations, with or without other signs of a blow-out fracture, require a thorough evaluation and emergent surgery. A better prognosis is expected with a shorter injury-to-operation time and lack of nausea and vomiting at the initial presentation.

  16. Perception of illusory contour figures: Microgenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgenetic analysis was used to investigate perception of illusory contour figures which represent whole, completed forms on the basis of segmented, incomplete stimulation. The analysis provided an experimental approach to this phenomenon which was standardly investigated phenomenologically. Experimental procedure consisted of two phases: a priming phase and b test phase which consisted of visual search task. Two types of visual search tasks were applied: (i classic detection, in which subjects were detecting presence or absence of the target stimuli and (ii two-alternative forced choice, 2AFC, in which subjects performed discrimination between two concurrent targets (target A vs. target B. Variation of exposition of prim stimuli was used as an indication of the percept formation period. Concepts like early vision, visual attention and feature binding were investigated. Four experiments were conducted. Their outcome showed that (i perception of amodal figure requires visual attention, (ii features binding precedes spatial attention and (iii time period of percept formation is dependent of task properties and varies between 50 - 150 ms. Some results obtained in this research could be explained by feature-integration theory (Treisman & Gelade, 1980; Treisman, 1986. Furthermore, percept formation period data comply with data acquired in Elliott & Müller's psychophysical research (1998.

  17. Karna Particle Size Dataset for Tables and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains 1) table of bulk Pb-XAS LCF results, 2) table of bulk As-XAS LCF results, 3) figure data of particle size distribution, and 4) figure data for...

  18. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  19. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fangtu T; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-11-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, whereas shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has revealed mechanisms for figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how these mechanisms relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2 in Macaca mulatta. Although we found assignment of border ownership for attended and for ignored figures, attentional modulation was stronger when the attended figure was located on the neuron's preferred side of border ownership. When the border between two overlapping figures was placed in the receptive field, responses depended on the side of attention, and enhancement was generally found on the neuron's preferred side of border ownership. This correlation suggests that the neural network that creates figure-ground organization also provides the interface for the top-down selection process.

  20. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Fangtu T.; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, while shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has demonstrated mechanisms of figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how they relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2. While assignment of border ownership was found for attended as well as for ignore...

  1. Figures on public utilities, 1976/77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Qualified statistical data belong to the instruments of effective association work. Therefore the association, among other activities, carries out statistical investigations on business management among its member enterprises at intervals of two years. This volume contains the results of the business years 1976 and 1977. A main purpose of this statistics is to offer guidelines to the member enterprises, especially figures which allow to compare the evaluated average values of the business with data of the own enterprise, which may be, if necessary, an impetus to think about measures of rationalization. As in former statistics all the results are classified in seven categories that are determined by the size of the enterprise. Compared with the last questionnaire some items have been altered to facilitate the completion. Questions concerning the extent of the public utilities, the structure of the network system and investment planning have been introduced for the first time.

  2. FIGUR WANITA SEBAGAI PENARIK PANDANG DALAM IKLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrian D. Hagijanto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain brand awareness effectively%2C advertiser use unusual and sometimes inappropriate form of creatifity to make their ads more memorable such method includes the use of women s sexual attractions which%2C on the other hand%2C causes in fraction of ethical norms. Will this be called a deviations in ads or a compromise approach to the audience taste? Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Untuk mencapai brand awareness yang lebih tinggi%2C pengiklan harus membuat iklannya menarik%2C lewat kreativitas yang tinggi. Ketika kreativitas itu menggunakan pendekatan yang terjebak oleh pelanggaran norma-norma etis kemasyarakatan -lewat eksploatasi figur wanita dan daya tarik yang melingkupinya-. Akankah kreativitas itu disebut sebagai penyimpangan dalam iklan? Ataukah sah-sah saja sebagai suatu bentuk pendekatan yang menuruti selera pasar. advertisement%2C women s sexual attractions%2C body language

  3. Who's bigger? where historical figures really rank

    CERN Document Server

    Skiena, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Is Hitler bigger than Napoleon? Washington bigger than Lincoln? Picasso bigger than Einstein? Quantitative analysts are rapidly finding homes in social and cultural domains, from finance to politics. What about history? In this fascinating book, Steve Skiena and Charles Ward bring quantitative analysis to bear on ranking and comparing historical reputations. They evaluate each person by aggregating the traces of millions of opinions, just as Google ranks webpages. The book includes a technical discussion for readers interested in the details of the methods, but no mathematical or computational background is necessary to understand the rankings or conclusions. Along the way, the authors present the rankings of more than one thousand of history's most significant people in science, politics, entertainment, and all areas of human endeavor. Anyone interested in history or biography can see where their favorite figures place in the grand scheme of things.

  4. Figures in Space, Figuring Space: Towards a Spatialsymbolic Framework for Understanding Youth Cultures and Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Signe; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2017-01-01

    (n = 80) in four different parts of Denmark. The interviews included a photo elicitation exercise and the analysis in this article focuses on one particular picture of two young ‘hipster’ men. By using the figure of the hipster as an analytical case, the article illustrates how individual and spatial...... of paying attention to structural inequalities....

  5. Figure Structure, Figure Action, and Framing in Drawings by American and Egyptian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent; Wilson, Marjorie

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction of biological unfolding and culturally related factors on sequences of narrative figure drawings by American and Egyptian elementary students. Findings support hypotheses relating to the interaction of natural and nurtural influences on children's drawings. (Author/SJL)

  6. Figure 1. T. tor species. Figure 2. Long PCR products of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annam

    Figure 2. Long PCR products of mitochondrial DNA from the fish T. tor. Lane 1, amplified product using L-12321-Leu and S-LA-16S-H primers. Lane 2, amplified product using H-12321 –Leu and S-LA-16S-L primers. Lane M, 1-Kb DNA ladder. 8 kb ...

  7. The precision segmented reflectors: Moderate mission figure control subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevaston, G.; Redding, D.; Lau, K.; Breckenridge, W.; Levine, B.; Nerheim, N.; Sirlin, S.; Kadogawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    A system concept for a space based segmented reflector telescope figure control subsystem is described. The concept employs a two phase architecture in which figure initialization and figure maintenance are independent functions. Figure initialization is accomplished by image sharpening using natural reference targets. Figure maintenance is performed by monitoring the relative positions and alignments of the telescope components using an optical truss. Actuation is achieved using precision positioners. Computer simulation results of figure initialization by pairwise segment coalignment/cophasing and simulated annealing are presented along with figure maintenance results using a wavefront error regulation algorithm. Both functions are shown to perform at acceptable levels for the class of submillimeter telescopes that are serving as the focus of this technology development effort. Component breadboard work as well as plans for a system testbed are discussed.

  8. A figure control sensor for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, R.; Dubovitsky, S.

    1988-01-01

    A sensing and control system is required to maintain high optical figure quality in a segmented reflector. Upon detecting a deviation of the segmented surface from its ideal form, the system drives segment mounted actuators to realign the individual segments and thereby return the surface to its intended figure. When the reflector is in use, a set of figure sensors will determine positions of a number of points on the back surface of each of the reflector's segments, each sensor being assigned to a single point. By measuring the positional deviations of these points from previously established nominal values, the figure sensors provide the control system with the information required to maintain the reflector's optical figure. The optical lever, multiple wavelength interferometer, and electronic capacitive sensor, the most promising technologies for the development of the figure sensor, are illustrated. It is concluded that to select a particular implementation of the figure sensors, performance requirement will be refined and relevant technologies investigated further.

  9. FIGURATIVE AND LEXICAL VARIETIES IN FACEBOOK POSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Vina Widiadnya Putri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Language is a highly elaborated signaling system. It serves various functions in communication, it is used to share ideas, convey feelings and emotions, etc. The researchers are interested to uncover more on how people use language in terms of its variety and lexical in one of the popular social media networking platforms that we all know as Facebook. Based on the aforementioned background of the study, the problem of the research can be formulated as follows: (1 what are the figurative languages used in Facebook posts by female and male Facebook users? (2 How are the emotional lexical varieties e.g. used in Facebook posts? Method of research is a procedure needed to do the research better. In this case, method of research covers data source, data collection and data analysis. The data of this research have been taken from Facebook, it is as an online social networking website where people can create profiles, share information such as photos and quotes about themselves, and respond or link to the information posted by others. The method that used in collecting data is method of library research. They are collected by reading the Facebook user’s post, by underlining and note taking as well. The data analysis is the last step in this process of writing this research. The analysis is done by descriptive method. To make the analysis clearer, all of examples are completed with explanation. Referring to the first research problem, there are some figurative languages used by the Facebook users such as, Simile (female 1 or 4.3% and male 0%, Metaphor (female 4 or 17.3% and male 0%,, Personification (female 3 or 1.3% and male 1% or 4.3%,, Hyperbole (female 4 or 17.3% and male 1 or 4.3%, and Idiom (female 3 or 13% and male 0%,. Furthermore, in regards to the second problem that is emotional lexical used by the Facebook Users, we could mention that both the Augmentatives (female 3 or 13% and male 1 or 4.3%, and Euphemisms (female 1 or 4.3% and male 1 or

  10. Evaluation of layback spin in figure skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastšenjski Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Layback spin is considered as one of the most beautiful and elegant spins performed in figure skating. It is also one of the required spins in competitive short program in female category. Different techniques of executing layback spin with variations in changing the positions of free parts of the body, as well as the evaluation of layback spin in accordance with ISU rules and regulations, which have been used in all International Skating Federation competitions since 2004 (World and European championships, Olympic Games are presented in this paper. Due to very difficult position of the body while performing a layback spin, it is essential that the skaters who want to master it should have excellent agility (especially of the spinal column and shoulder and knee joints and balance. Layback spin performance requires significant skating knowledge, so it cannot be performed by beginners. Depending on the fl exibility and creativity, a skater can execute various positions of the head, arms, body and free leg while performing a layback spin. In some cases, these variations can increase the level of difficulty, and in others only the mark given for executing this spin.

  11. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori

  12. Running the figure to the ground: figure-ground segmentation during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Seli, Paul; Cheng, Vivian O Y; Solman, Grayden J F; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    We examined how figure-ground segmentation occurs across multiple regions of a visual array during a visual search task. Stimuli consisted of arrays of black-and-white figure-ground images in which roughly half of each image depicted a meaningful object, whereas the other half constituted a less meaningful shape. The colours of the meaningful regions of the targets and distractors were either the same (congruent) or different (incongruent). We found that incongruent targets took longer to locate than congruent targets (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and that this segmentation-congruency effect decreased when the number of search items was reduced (Experiment 2). Furthermore, an analysis of eye movements revealed that participants spent more time scrutinising the target before confirming its identity on incongruent trials than on congruent trials (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the distractor context influences target segmentation and detection during visual search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Key figures for the regional- and distribution grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikingstad, S.

    1996-02-01

    In Norway, improving the efficiency of the hydroelectric grid operation is a stated goal of the Energy Act. Several studies have identified potential profits of such improvement. This publication focuses on costs and improvement potentials. Publication of key figures may stimulate grid owners, boards and administrations to improve the operating efficiency of their grids. The publication shows key figures for the regional- and distribution grid and is based on accounting data for 1994. The key figures are divided into: (1) Cost structure: The key figures express the relative contributions of each cost component to the total income of the grid, (2) Costs and physical quantities: The key figures show the cost of delivering the transport services, (3) Physical quantities: The key figures describe the working conditions of the energy utility. It appears that the cost structure of the sector varies considerably. The same is true of the cost related to the delivery of grid services. 30 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Lighting, backlighting and watercolor illusions and the laws of figurality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We report some novel 'lighting' and 'backlighting' effects in plane figures similar to those which induce the 'watercolor illusion', that is, figures made with outlines composed of juxtaposed parallel lines varying in brightness and chromatic color. These new effects show 'illumination' as an emergent percept, and show how arrangements of 'dark and light' along the boundaries of various plane figures model the volume and strengthen the illusion of depth. To account for these various effects we propose several phenomenological 'laws of figurality' to add to the Gestalt laws of organization and figure-ground segregation. We offer a set of meta-laws which are speculative but which serve to integrate and organize the phenomenological laws. These laws indicate how luminance gradient profiles across boundary contours define both the 3D appearance of figures and the properties of the light reflected from their volumetric shapes.

  15. Isobaric Tagging-Based Quantification for Proteomic Analysis: A Comparative Study of Spared and Affected Muscles from mdx Mice at the Early Phase of Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Yuri Matsumura

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common childhood myopathy, characterized by muscle loss and cardiorespiratory failure. While the genetic basis of DMD is well established, secondary mechanisms associated with dystrophic pathophysiology are not fully clarified yet. In order to obtain new insights into the molecular mechanisms of muscle dystrophy during earlier stages of the disease, we performed a comparative proteomic profile of the spared extraocular muscles (EOM vs. affected diaphragm from the mdx mice, using a label based shotgun proteomic approach. Out of the 857 identified proteins, 42 to 62 proteins had differential abundance of peptide ions. The calcium-handling proteins sarcalumenin and calsequestrin-1 were increased in control EOM compared with control DIA, reinforcing the view that constitutional properties of EOM are important for their protection against myonecrosis. The finding that galectin-1 (muscle regeneration, annexin A1 (anti-inflammatory and HSP 47 (fibrosis were increased in dystrophic diaphragm provides novel insights into the mechanisms through which mdx affected muscles are able to counteract dystrophy, during the early stage of the disease. Overall, the shotgun technique proved to be suitable to perform quantitative comparisons between distinct dystrophic muscles and allowed the suggestion of new potential biomarkers and drug targets for dystrophinopaties.

  16. Logo design: examining consumer response to figurativeness across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Joana César; Vacas de Carvalho, Leonor; Torres, Anna; Van de Velden, Michel; Costa, Patrício

    2014-01-01

    Literature concerned with logo strategy suggests that the aesthetic appeal of brand logo significantly influences consumer reactions. The main purpose of this research is to study the influence of the different categories of figurative logo designs on consumer response. Through two studies in three countries, this research sheds light on consumer logo preferences, by investigating the psychological properties of the figurativeness of logo design. Results showed that figurativeness is an essen...

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  18. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  19. Masking interrupts figure-ground signals in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Victor A F; Zipser, Karl; Spekreijse, Henk

    2002-10-01

    In a backward masking paradigm, a target stimulus is rapidly (figure-ground segregation can be recorded. Here, we recorded from awake macaque monkeys, engaged in a task where they had to detect figures from background in a pattern backward masking paradigm. We show that the V1 figure-ground signals are selectively and fully suppressed at target-mask intervals that psychophysically result in the target being invisible. Initial response transients, signalling the features that make up the scene, are not affected. As figure-ground modulations depend on feedback from extrastriate areas, these results suggest that masking selectively interrupts the recurrent interactions between V1 and higher visual areas.

  20. Familiar shapes attract attention in figure-ground displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rolf A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2007-04-01

    We report five experiments that explore the effect of figure-ground factors on attention. We hypothesized that figural cues, such as familiar shape, would draw attention to the figural side in an attentional cuing task using bipartite figure-ground displays. The first two experiments used faces in profile as the familiar shape and found a perceptual advantage for targets presented on the meaningful side of the central contour in detection speed (Experiment 1) and discrimination accuracy (Experiment 2). The third experiment demonstrated the figural advantage in response time (RT) with nine other familiar shapes (including a sea horse, a guitar, a fir tree, etc.), but only when targets appeared in close proximity to the contour. A fourth experiment obtained a figural advantage in a discrimination task with the larger set of familiar shapes. The final experiment ruled out eye movements as a possible confounding factor by replicating the RT advantage for targets on the figural side of face displays when all trials containing eye movements were eliminated. The results are discussed in terms of ecological influences on attention, and are cast within the framework of Yantis and Jonides's hypothesis that attention is exogenously drawn to the onset of new perceptual objects. We argue that the figural side constitutes an "object" whereas the ground side does not, and that figural cues such as shape familiarity are effective in determining which areas represent objects.

  1. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether surface elements belong to a figure or the background and that this is influenced by attention. We furthermore suggest that there must be strong links between object recognition and figure-ground assignment in order to resolve the status of interior contours. Incorporation of these factors in neurocomputational models will further improve our understanding of surface reconstruction, figure-ground organization, and border-ownership.

  2. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 2.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure summarizes uncertainty (error) in hourly gradient flux measurements by individual analyte. Flux uncertainty is derived from estimates of uncertainty in...

  3. Correlation of orbital muscle changes evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and thyroid-stimulating antibody in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Inada, M.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between eye changes and autoantibody to the thyrotropin receptor in patients with Graves' disease, the authors evaluated the eye changes using magnetic resonance imaging and the results were correlated with thyroid-stimulating antibody, thyrotropin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin and thyroid growth activity. Subjects were 15 patients with Graves' disease who had Graves' ophthalmopathy, including exophthalmos and other signs and symptoms, and 9 patients without ophthalmopathy; all were maintained in a euthyroid state by antithyroid drugs. The thyrotropin-binding inhibitor imunoglobulin was measured by a kit, and thyroid-stimulating antibody and thyroid growth activity were evaluated by cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate production and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, respectively, by cultured functional rat thyroid lined cells. The sum of the swelling ratios of the four extraocular muscles correlated well with the degree of exophthalmos. The thyrotropin-binding inhibitor immunoglobulin was positive in 9 out of 15 patients with ophthalmopathy; however, no correlation was observed between the activity and exophthalmos or muscle swelling. No significant correlation was observed between muscle changes and thyroid growth activity either. On the other hand, thyroid-stimulating antibody in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy was significantly higher than that in patients without ophthalmopathy. Moreover, the level of the stimulating activity in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy showed a significant positive correlation with the sum of the swelling ratios of the individual eight eye muscles. These results suggest that thyroid-stimulating antibody has a close relation to Graves' ophthalmopathy. 23 refs., 4 figs

  4. Figurative framing: Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  5. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001 ...

  6. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory characteristics with subsequent TB-IRIS events. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory characteristics with subsequent TB-IRIS events.

  7. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006 ...

  8. Figurative framing : Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  9. A new principle of figure-ground segregation : The accentuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-01-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also

  10. Figure output program for JFT-2M experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Takada, Susumu.

    1991-11-01

    The software for the figure output of JFT-2M experimental data is reported. Since the configuration of a figure is determined by some easy input parameters, then any format of each experimental output is configured freely by this software. (author)

  11. Estimating the Volumes of Solid Figures with Curved Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Several examples of solid figures that calculus students can use to exercise their skills at estimating volume are presented. Although these figures are bounded by surfaces that are portions of regular cylinders, it is interesting to note that their volumes can be expressed as rational numbers. (JJK)

  12. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  13. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED EC01JY91.056 [5...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 223—Matagorda TED EC01JY91.047 [52...

  15. The Use and Abuse of Human Figure Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Notes widespread use of human figure drawings to describe and predict psychological functioning. Reviews data-based studies on figure drawings and concludes that there is little support for their validity or for their use as devices to assess personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Presents ease of administration and anecdotal…

  16. Figure-Ground Processing: A Reassessment of Gelb and Granit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rolf; Hebda, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    In 1923, Adhemar Gelb and Ragnar Granit, two prominent researchers in early Gestalt perceptual theory, reported a lower threshold for detection of a target (a small colored dot) on the ground region of an image than on an adjacent figural region. Although their results had a wide influence on the understanding of figure-ground perception, they are at odds with more recent investigations in which figural regions appear to have a processing advantage over ground regions. The two present studies replicated Gelb and Granit's experiment using a similar figure-ground stimulus albeit with a two-alternative forced choice procedure rather than their original method of adjustment. Experiment 1 found that, contrary to Gelb and Granit's findings, a detection advantage was found for the figural over the ground region. Experiment 2 indicated that explicit contours might have played a role in detection.

  17. Lower region: a new cue for figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, Shaun P; Vogel, Edward K; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2002-06-01

    Figure-ground assignment is an important visual process; humans recognize, attend to, and act on figures, not backgrounds. There are many visual cues for figure-ground assignment. A new cue to figure-ground assignment, called lower region, is presented: Regions in the lower portion of a stimulus array appear more figurelike than regions in the upper portion of the display. This phenomenon was explored, and it was demonstrated that the lower-region preference is not influenced by contrast, eye movements, or voluntary spatial attention. It was found that the lower region is defined relative to the stimulus display, linking the lower-region preference to pictorial depth perception cues. The results are discussed in terms of the environmental regularities that this new figure-ground cue may reflect.

  18. Human figure drawings by children with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Grattan, M M; Burnett, C N; Wolfe, C V

    1976-02-01

    Seventy-two human figure drawings by forty-three patients who had a diagnosis of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy were examined. The study includes a description of these human figure drawings according to eleven emotional indicators and according to directionality quadrants. When the human figure drawings were used as a projective tool, four personality traits of some of the children were identified: physical inadequacy, immaturity, body anxiety, and insecurity. Both the emotional indicators and the quadrant in which the figures appeared were examined in relation to stages of the disease process to see if the human figure drawings of the children might reflect more stress and anxiety at a particular stage of the disease. Suggestions for improvements and recommendations for future study are given.

  19. The history of Latin terminology of human skeletal muscles (from Vesalius to the present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Vladimir; Suchomel, Zdenek; Malinova, Petra; Stingl, Josef; Vlcek, Martin; Vacha, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this literary search was to chart the etymology of 32 selected human skeletal muscles, representative of all body regions. In researching this study, analysis of 15 influential Latin and German anatomical textbooks, dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, was undertaken, as well as reference to four versions of the official Latin anatomical terminologies. Particular emphasis has been placed on the historical development of muscular nomenclature, and the subsequent division of these data into groups, defined by similarities in the evolution of their names into the modern form. The first group represents examples of muscles whose names have not changed since their introduction by Vesalius (1543). The second group comprises muscles which earned their definitive names during the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The third group is defined by acceptance into common anatomical vernacular by the late nineteenth century, including those outlined in the first official Latin terminology (B.N.A.) of 1895. The final group is reserved for six extra-ocular muscles with a particularly poetic history, favoured and popularised by the anatomical giants of late Renaissance and 1,700 s. As this study will demonstrate, it is evident that up until introduction of the B.N.A. there was an extremely liberal approach to naming muscles, deserving great respect in the retrospective terminological studies if complete and relevant results are to be achieved. Without this knowledge of the vernacular of the ages past, modern researchers can find themselves 'reinventing the wheel' in looking for their answers.

  20. Figure-ground segregation: A fully nonlocal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiccoli, Mariella

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model that computes and integrates in a nonlocal fashion several configural cues for automatic figure-ground segregation. Our working hypothesis is that the figural status of each pixel is a nonlocal function of several geometric shape properties and it can be estimated without explicitly relying on object boundaries. The methodology is grounded on two elements: multi-directional linear voting and nonlinear diffusion. A first estimation of the figural status of each pixel is obtained as a result of a voting process, in which several differently oriented line-shaped neighborhoods vote to express their belief about the figural status of the pixel. A nonlinear diffusion process is then applied to enforce the coherence of figural status estimates among perceptually homogeneous regions. Computer simulations fit human perception and match the experimental evidence that several cues cooperate in defining figure-ground segregation. The results of this work suggest that figure-ground segregation involves feedback from cells with larger receptive fields in higher visual cortical areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Peterson, Mary A

    2008-07-01

    The question of whether or not figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention is unresolved. Early theorists assumed it can, but the evidence is scant and open to alternative interpretations. Recent research indicating that attention can influence figure-ground segmentation raises the question anew. We examined this issue by asking participants to perform a demanding change-detection task on a small matrix presented on a task-irrelevant scene of alternating regions organized into figures and grounds by convexity. Independently of any change in the matrix, the figure-ground organization of the scene changed or remained the same. Changes in scene organization produced congruency effects on target-change judgments, even though, when probed with surprise questions, participants could report neither the figure-ground status of the region on which the matrix appeared nor any change in that status. When attending to the scene, participants reported figure-ground status and changes to it highly accurately. These results clearly demonstrate that figure-ground segmentation can occur without focal attention.

  2. Figure ground discrimination in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Ha Chau; Guyader, Nathalie; Guerin, Anne; Despretz, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel

    2011-03-01

    To investigate impairment in discriminating a figure from its background and to study its relation to visual acuity and lesion size in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Seventeen patients with neovascular AMD and visual acuity Figure/ground segregation is impaired in patients with AMD. A white space surrounding an object is sufficient to improve the object's detection and to facilitate figure/ground segregation. These results may have practical applications to the rehabilitation of the environment in patients with AMD.

  3. Energy in Sweden: Facts and figures 2009; Energilaeget 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    Energy in Sweden 2009: Facts and figures contains the tabular for most of the diagrams in the main publication (STEM-ET--2009-30). These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Statistics are of preliminary character for the two last published years (2007 and 2008). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data is used. Please note that the figures have been rounded up or down, therefore totals do not always comply with the sum of individual figures

  4. Figural properties are prioritized for search under conditions of uncertainty: Setting boundary conditions on claims that figures automatically attract attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Mojica, Andrew J; Salvagio, Elizabeth; Kimchi, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Nelson and Palmer (2007) concluded that figures/figural properties automatically attract attention, after they found that participants were faster to detect/discriminate targets appearing where a portion of a familiar object was suggested in an otherwise ambiguous display. We investigated whether these effects are truly automatic and whether they generalize to another figural property-convexity. We found that Nelson and Palmer's results do generalize to convexity, but only when participants are uncertain regarding when and where the target will appear. Dependence on uncertainty regarding target location/timing was also observed for familiarity. Thus, although we could replicate and extend Nelson and Palmer's results, our experiments showed that figures do not automatically draw attention. In addition, our research went beyond Nelson and Palmer's, in that we were able to separate figural properties from perceived figures. Because figural properties are regularities that predict where objects lie in the visual field, our results join other evidence that regularities in the environment can attract attention. More generally, our results are consistent with Bayesian theories in which priors are given more weight under conditions of uncertainty.

  5. Effects of orientation on Rey complex figure performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Grossman, Jennifer; Bren, Amy; Hoverson, Allysa

    2002-10-01

    An experiment was performed that examined the impact of stimulus orientation on performance on the Rey complex figure. A total of 48 undergraduates (24 men, 24 women) were randomly assigned to one of four Rey figure orientation groups (0 degrees, 90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees ). Participants followed standard procedures for the Rey figure, initially copying it in whatever orientation group they were assigned to. Next, all participants performed a 15-20 min lexical decision experiment, used as a filler task. Finally, and unbeknownest to them, participants were asked to recall as much of the figure as they could. As expected, results revealed a main effect of Task (F = 83.92, p orientation was not significant, nor did orientation interact with task (Fs .57). The results are important from an applied setting, especially if testing conditions are less than optimal and a fixed stimulus position is not possible (e.g., testing at the bedside).

  6. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 1.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure summarizes diurnal profiles of uncertainty in the chemical gradient and transfer velocity measurements from which fluxes are calculated. This dataset is...

  7. R&D figures 'distorted' by defence spending

    CERN Multimedia

    Coghlan, A

    1990-01-01

    A report published by the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, claims that government figures for R&D spending are misleading. They apparently include military projects that are more concerned with product development than original research.

  8. Figure/ground analogy for integrated sustainability & planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a figure ground analogy as alternative way of conceptually integrating sustainability and planning. Within this framework planners are challenged to creatively consider planning practice and thought against a background...

  9. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. Temporal dynamics of figure-ground segregation in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Peter; Levi, Dennis M

    2007-01-01

    The segregation of figure from ground is arguably one of the most fundamental operations in human vision. Neural signals reflecting this operation appear in cortex as early as 50 ms and as late as 300 ms after presentation of a visual stimulus, but it is not known when these signals are used by the brain to construct the percepts of figure and ground. We used psychophysical reverse correlation to identify the temporal window for figure-ground signals in human perception and found it to lie within the range of 100-160 ms. Figure enhancement within this narrow temporal window was transient rather than sustained as may be expected from measurements in single neurons. These psychophysical results prompt and guide further electrophysiological studies.

  11. A search asymmetry reversed by figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, G W; Müller, H

    2000-05-01

    We report evidence demonstrating that a search asymmetry favoring concave over convex targets can be reversed by altering the figure-ground assignment of edges in shapes. Visual search for a concave target among convex distractors is faster than search for a convex target among concave distractors (a search asymmetry). By using shapes with ambiguous local figure-ground relations, we demonstrated that search can be efficient (with search slopes around 10 ms/item) or inefficient (with search slopes around 30-40 ms/item) with the same stimuli, depending on whether edges are assigned to concave or convex "figures." This assignment process can operate in a top-down manner, according to the task set. The results suggest that attention is allocated to spatial regions following the computation of figure-ground relations in parallel across the elements present. This computation can also be modulated by top-down processes.

  12. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Kaienburg, Pascal; Baran, Derya

    2018-01-01

    these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide

  13. Figures6&7_Tables2&3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file contains three netCDF formatted files containing simulation model results used to produce Figures 6 and 7 and tables 3 and 4. These data can be accessed...

  14. Self-Esteem and Children's Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, J. Thomas; Vale, Helen L.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen students in Grade 5 made human figure drawings which were compared with their scores on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and on teachers' ratings of the students' self-esteem. (Author)

  15. Noise destroys feedback enhanced figure-ground segmentation but not feedforward figure-ground segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, August; Arall, Marina; Supèr, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Figure-ground (FG) segmentation is the separation of visual information into background and foreground objects. In the visual cortex, FG responses are observed in the late stimulus response period, when neurons fire in tonic mode, and are accompanied by a switch in cortical state. When such a switch does not occur, FG segmentation fails. Currently, it is not known what happens in the brain on such occasions. A biologically plausible feedforward spiking neuron model was previously devised that performed FG segmentation successfully. After incorporating feedback the FG signal was enhanced, which was accompanied by a change in spiking regime. In a feedforward model neurons respond in a bursting mode whereas in the feedback model neurons fired in tonic mode. It is known that bursts can overcome noise, while tonic firing appears to be much more sensitive to noise. In the present study, we try to elucidate how the presence of noise can impair FG segmentation, and to what extent the feedforward and feedback pathways can overcome noise. We show that noise specifically destroys the feedback enhanced FG segmentation and leaves the feedforward FG segmentation largely intact. Our results predict that noise produces failure in FG perception. PMID:22934028

  16. Brand logo design: Examining consumer responses to figurativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, J. C.; Vacas-Carvalho, Leonor; Costa, P.; Torres, A.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous investigation, aimed at studying brand identity preferences in a merger context, researchers found the most preferred logos are figurative ones. Additionally, results suggested the aesthetic appeal of the logo significantly influences consumers’ identity choices. These results find support in logo strategy literature. The main purpose of this study is to investigate more thoroughly the influence of logo design characteristics, and particularly of figurativeness, o...

  17. Figure-ground: history and practice of a planning technique

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbert, M.

    2016-01-01

    Figure-ground plans show the footprints of buildings and the pattern of unbuilt voids in urban space. Compared historically they reveal the erosion of the public realm over time and provide an analytical basis for tissue repair. The paper traces the communicative power of figure-ground technique to its roots in gestalt psychology, and follows its revival from Colin Rowe’s studio at Cornell through to controversies in post-reunification Berlin. The impact of computerisation is discussed and th...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 223—Georgia TED EC01JY91.048 [52 FR...

  19. Attention and competition in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Salvagio, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    What are the roles of attention and competition in determining where objects lie in the visual field, a phenomenon known as figure-ground perception? In this chapter, we review evidence that attention and other high-level factors such as familiarity affect figure-ground perception, and we discuss models that implement these effects. Next, we consider the Biased Competition Model of Attention in which attention is used to resolve the competition for neural representation between two nearby stimuli; in this model the response to the stimulus that loses the competition is suppressed. In the remainder of the chapter we discuss recent behavioral evidence that figure-ground perception entails between-object competition in which the response to the shape of the losing competitor is suppressed. We also describe two experiments testing whether more attention is drawn to resolve greater figure-ground competition, as would be expected if the Biased Competition Model of Attention extends to figure-ground perception. In these experiments we find that responses to targets on the location of a losing strong competitor are slowed, consistent with the idea that the location of the losing competitor is suppressed, but responses to targets on the winning competitor are not speeded, which is inconsistent with the hypothesis that attention is used to resolve figure-ground competition. In closing, we discuss evidence that attention can operate by suppression as well as by facilitation.

  20. Figurativeness in the Sense of Distraction (Studies by Lithuanian Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutė Monginaitė

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sense of distraction and the feature of figurativeness in it are analysed with the help of phenomenological description, the concept of sense of Juozas Mureika and the conception of imagination of Kristupas Sabolius. The position is followed that the acts of sense and the being of those existing found in them cannot be known in a purely rational way. Knowing is reached with intuitive insights. The experiencing of distraction is approached as one of the norms or intentions of consciousness. The sense of distraction is acknowledged to be a basic value becoming more and more important in a modern stressful life. The article indicates that the intentional beings of the sense of distraction are expressed in really various human activities and are distinguished with mono-subjectivity and unrepeatable feeling. Figurativeness is perceived as the result of imaginary, creative activity of the imagination and aesthetical quality. The peculiarities of the formation of figurativeness are revealed through the phenomenological description of imagination by Sabolius. Four features of the act of visualisation, determining the quality of figurativeness, are emphasized: intentionality, power of transformation, relation with emotions and the symbolism of the image. The conclusion is made that figurativeness, being the result of the creative act (visualisation of imagination, appears as aesthetical quality or the ensemble of qualities. Figurativeness sharpens the sense of distraction and calls the wave of new experiences.

  1. Local figure-ground cues are valid for natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Charless C; Martin, David R; Malik, Jitendra

    2007-06-08

    Figure-ground organization refers to the visual perception that a contour separating two regions belongs to one of the regions. Recent studies have found neural correlates of figure-ground assignment in V2 as early as 10-25 ms after response onset, providing strong support for the role of local bottom-up processing. How much information about figure-ground assignment is available from locally computed cues? Using a large collection of natural images, in which neighboring regions were assigned a figure-ground relation by human observers, we quantified the extent to which figural regions locally tend to be smaller, more convex, and lie below ground regions. Our results suggest that these Gestalt cues are ecologically valid, and we quantify their relative power. We have also developed a simple bottom-up computational model of figure-ground assignment that takes image contours as input. Using parameters fit to natural image statistics, the model is capable of matching human-level performance when scene context limited.

  2. Fetal development of the pulley for muscle insertion tendons: A review and new findings related to the tensor tympani tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Honkura, Yohei; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The existence of hard tissue pulleys that act to change the direction of a muscle insertion tendon is well known in the human body. These include (1) the trochlea for the extraocular obliquus superior muscle, (2) the pterygoid hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle, (3) the deep sulcus on the plantar aspect of the cuboid bone for the peroneus longus tendon, (4) the lesser sciatic notch for the obturator internus muscle, and (5) the bony trochleariformis process for the tensor tympani muscle tendon. In addition, (6) the stapedius muscle tendon shows a lesser or greater angulation at the pyramidal eminence of the temporal bone. Our recent studies have shown that the development of pulleys Nos. 1 and 2 can be explained by a change in the topographical relationship between the pulley and the tendon, that of pulley No. 3 by the rapidly growing calcaneus pushing the tendon, and that of pulley No. 4 by migration of the insertion along the sciatic nerve and gluteus medius tendon. Therefore, in Nos. 1-4, an initially direct tendon curves secondarily and obtains an attachment to the pulley. In case No. 6, the terminal part of the stapedius tendon originates secondarily from the interzone mesenchymal tissue of the incudostapedial joint. In the case of pulley No. 5, we newly demonstrated that its initial phase of development was similar to No. 6, but the tensor tympani tendon achieved a right-angled turn under guidance by a specific fibrous tissue and it migrated along the growing malleus manubrium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. [The role of intense physical activity in the formation of body shape - research based on female figure skaters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluchowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The article concerns figure skating competitors. Figure skating is a very demanding discipline. It requires a combination of endurance, strength and flexibility. The training ground is ice, which puts strain on the muscles and skeleton. Young children often train more than is healthy for a young and growing body. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of training on the height and weight of female skaters. 181 measurements were taken from three skating clubs, and a survey was conducted among skaters' parents about skaters' siblings. Female skaters are relatively shorter and lighter than their peers, but the differences were not statistically significant. Significant differences were noted between girls whose sisters do not do sports. The results suggest the influence of genetic factors and selection processes on the morphology of the skaters' body.

  4. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of head muscles and glands correlated with cranial nerves and surface and sectional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Johnson, Aleksandra; Qian, Guoyu; Poh, Lan Eng; Yi, Su Hnin Wut; Bivi, Aminah; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2013-04-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relationships between head muscles and cranial nerves innervating them are complicated. Existing sources present these relationships in illustrations, radiologic scans, or autopsy photographs, which are limited for learning and use. Developed electronic atlases are limited in content, quality, functionality, and/or presentation. We create a truly 3D interactive, stereotactic and high quality atlas, which provides spatial relationships among head muscles, glands and cranial nerves, and correlates them to surface and sectional neuroanatomy. The head muscles and glands were created from a 3T scan by contouring them and generating 3D models. They were named and structured according to Terminologia anatomica. The muscles were divided into: extra-ocular, facial, masticatory and other muscles, and glands into mouth and other glands. The muscles, glands (and also head) were placed in a stereotactic coordinate system. This content was integrated with cranial nerves and neuroanatomy created earlier. To explore this complex content, a scalable user interface was designed with 12 modules including central nervous system (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord), cranial nerves, muscles, glands, arterial system, venous system, tracts, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, white matter, visual system, head. Anatomy exploration operations include compositing/decompositing, individual/group selection, 3D view-index mapping, 3D labeling, highlighting, distance measuring, 3D brain cutting, and axial/coronal/sagittal triplanar display. To our best knowledge, this is the first truly 3D, stereotactic, interactive, fairly complete atlas of head muscles, and the first attempt to create a 3D stereotactic atlas of glands. Its use ranges from education of students and patients to research to potential clinical applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Winkler, István

    2016-11-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A; Hearst, Marti A

    2010-04-14

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  7. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P.; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Winkler, István

    2017-01-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased – i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. PMID:27421185

  8. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Divoli

    Full Text Available When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  9. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Liu

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1 First Author, (2 Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3 Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or

  10. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  11. Inhibitory competition in figure-ground perception: context and convexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Salvagio, Elizabeth

    2008-12-15

    Convexity has long been considered a potent cue as to which of two regions on opposite sides of an edge is the shaped figure. Experiment 1 shows that for a single edge, there is only a weak bias toward seeing the figure on the convex side. Experiments 1-3 show that the bias toward seeing the convex side as figure increases as the number of edges delimiting alternating convex and concave regions increases, provided that the concave regions are homogeneous in color. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 rule out a probability summation explanation for these context effects. Taken together, the results of Experiments 1-3 show that the homogeneity versus heterogeneity of the convex regions is irrelevant. Experiment 4 shows that homogeneity of alternating regions is not sufficient for context effects; a cue that favors the perception of the intervening regions as figures is necessary. Thus homogeneity alone does not alone operate as a background cue. We interpret our results within a model of figure-ground perception in which shape properties on opposite sides of an edge compete for representation and the competitive strength of weak competitors is further reduced when they are homogeneous.

  12. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  13. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  14. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  15. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2007; Energilaeget 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-15

    Energy in Sweden 2007: Facts and Figures contains the tabular for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. 2001 statistics for the period 1983-1999 where revised compared to data for previous editions. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two last published years (2005 and 2006). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data is used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts. Please note that the figures have been rounded up or down, therefore totals do not always comply with the sum of individual figures

  16. A method of shadow puppet figure modeling and animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fang HUANG; Shou-qian SUN; Ke-jun ZHANG; Tian-ning XU; Jian-feng WU; Bin ZHU

    2015-01-01

    To promote the development of the intangible cultural heritage of the world, shadow play, many studies have focused on shadow puppet modeling and interaction. Most of the shadow puppet figures are still imaginary, spread by ancients, or carved and painted by shadow puppet artists, without consideration of real dimensions or the appearance of human bodies. This study proposes an algorithm to transform 3D human models to 2D puppet figures for shadow puppets, including automatic location of feature points, automatic segmentation of 3D models, automatic extraction of 2D contours, automatic clothes matching, and animation. Experiment proves that more realistic and attractive figures and animations of the shadow puppet can be generated in real time with this algorithm.

  17. Figure drawing as an expression of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, S; Sakai, D; Beardslee, B; Coopersmith, A

    1976-08-01

    Figure drawings were obtained from 97 preadolescent males who differed in self and behavioral assessments of self-esteem. These subjects had been selected from a much larger sample and represented five different types of self-esteem. The figure drawings were scored for 15 variables, dealing with formal characteristics, content, and global-interpretations of the total drawings. Five significant differences were obtained, with the content and global-interpretative categories proving more differentiating between self-esteem groups than did the formal characteristics. Behavioral expressions of self-esteem were more associated with figure drawing characteristics than were subjective evaluations. Discussion focuses on the nature of self-concept and self-esteem in children as a sensorimotor rather than symbolic expression.

  18. Brief report: human figure drawings by children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no differences between the diagnostic groups on the tree or house drawing scores. The human figure drawing scores of children with Asperger's syndrome were significantly lower than those of the typically developing children, and there was a positive correlation between human figure drawing scores and communication sub-scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, for the Asperger's group. These results suggest that the selective deficit in generating human figure representations may derive from a relative lack of interest in the social world, and/or limited practice in drawing people.

  19. Cutting solid figures by plane - analytical solution and spreadsheet implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-07-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and cosine rules. The basic problem is to find the section of the figure by a plane that is defined by three points related to the figure. In this article, a formula is derived that gives the positions of the intersection points of such a plane and the figure edges, that is, the vertices of the section polygon. Spreadsheet implementations of the formula for cuboid and right rectangular pyramids are presented. The user can check his/her graphical solution, or proceed if he/she is not able to complete the section.

  20. Novel figurative phrases and idioms: phrase characteristics over multiple presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Wendy A; Cintron, Jennifer; Sullivan, Karin; Ilic, Emily; Ellis, Shannon; Dobrowits, Carrie; Roberts, Crystal

    2003-07-01

    In a series of three studies, characteristics of novel figurative phrases were compared with those of established idioms. Studies 1 and 2 found that certain correlations were found to be strong and in one direction for familiar idioms and comparably strong but in the opposite direction for novel figurative phrases, with the correlations for less familiar idioms usually falling partway between these extremes. Study 2 also noted that written or auditory presentation had minimal effects on characteristic ratings. In Study 3 the correlations among characteristics stayed relatively constant for familiar idioms after one, three, or six presentations, but for the novel figurative phrases, after multiple presentations the correlations changed in the direction of the established idioms.

  1. Stochastic correlative firing for figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe

    2005-03-01

    Segregation of sensory inputs into separate objects is a central aspect of perception and arises in all sensory modalities. The figure-ground segregation problem requires identifying an object of interest in a complex scene, in many cases given binaural auditory or binocular visual observations. The computations required for visual and auditory figure-ground segregation share many common features and can be cast within a unified framework. Sensory perception can be viewed as a problem of optimizing information transmission. Here we suggest a stochastic correlative firing mechanism and an associative learning rule for figure-ground segregation in several classic sensory perception tasks, including the cocktail party problem in binaural hearing, binocular fusion of stereo images, and Gestalt grouping in motion perception.

  2. Perceptual multistability in figure-ground segregation using motion stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Simone; Giora, Enrico; Pedersini, Riccardo

    2008-11-01

    In a series of experiments using ambiguous stimuli, we investigate the effects of displaying ordered, discrete series of images on the dynamics of figure-ground segregation. For low frame presentation speeds, the series were perceived as a sequence of discontinuous, static images, while for high speeds they were perceived as continuous. We conclude that using stimuli varying continuously along one parameter results in stronger hysteresis and reduces spontaneous switching compared to matched static stimuli with discontinuous parameter changes. The additional evidence that the size of the hysteresis effects depended on trial duration is consistent with the stochastic nature of the dynamics governing figure-ground segregation. The results showed that for continuously changing stimuli, alternative figure-ground organizations are resolved via low-level, dynamical competition. A second series of experiments confirmed these results with an ambiguous stimulus based on Petter's effect.

  3. Central display system of figures in fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shaohong; Zhu Zicheng; Zhu Liqun; Ren Yi; Yu Hongmei; Du Chengbao; Xie Guoxue

    1997-01-01

    A new type of 'central display system of figures in fire alarm' includes two parts: (1) software package of drawing picture; (2) real time processing and operate system (POS). Main function of the software package is to draw floor plane figures, fire-fighting facility signs and room numbers; and then all pictures are used in POS. Main functions of POS are to process fire alarm, faults and activation of fire fighting control facility, save and print reports, look over floor plane figures, look over concrete condition of fire fighting facilities, and to show appropriate prompt according to different case. This system realizes many functions, such as, control with mouse, operation with push-button, menu operation interface, flip windows to prompt, and chinese character. It have won acclaim for its amazing interface, its convenience to operate, its reliability and flexibility

  4. School-age children's fears, anxiety, and human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.

  5. Les figures de l'usager de Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Domenget , Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    International audience; L’analyse des figures de l’usager de Twitter représente un enjeu de recherche pour comprendre la construction de ces représentations diverses. L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser la notion d’usager dans le cadre de ce dispositif et d’interroger ses relations avec les notions de public(s), d’audience(s) et de communautés. Les quatre principales figures distinguées (twitto, consommateur, abonné, expert) sont étudiées à partir de deuxcritères majeurs : les principes ...

  6. Correlates of figure-ground segregation in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiera, G; Petersen, D; Skalej, M; Fahle, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated which correlates of figure-ground-segregation can be detected by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Five subjects were scanned with a Siemens Vision 1.5 T system. Motion, colour, and luminance-defined checkerboards were presented with alternating control conditions containing one of the two features of the checkerboard. We find a segregation-specific activation in V1 for all subjects and all stimuli and conclude that neural mechanisms exist as early as in the primary visual cortex that are sensitive to figure-ground segregation.

  7. Exploring ELT Students’ Perception of Mobile Phone through Figurative Language

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENEL, Müfit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate, analyze and evaluate the mobile phone perceptions of ELT students by the help of figurative language. The participants of this study are Grade 3 and Grade 4 students of ELT Department at Samsun 19 Mayıs University, Faculty of Education, involving 139 students in total. In this research students were asked to use “simile” as a figurative language and complete the sentence “Mobile phone is as ……as…….”  in the target language.  According to content analys...

  8. Energy management and renewable energies. Key figures for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having recalled the different French, European and world objectives in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction (globally or for different sectors: industry, housing and offices, transport, agriculture), and of renewable energy production and consumption, this document proposes data tables and figures describing the energy consumption evolution in France since 1970 (with respect to sectors as well as with respect to energy sources), the greenhouse gas emission evolution since 1990 and the share of each sector in these emissions. Other tables and figures give a more precise description of the housing sector, of the office buildings sector, of the transportation sector, of the manufacturing industry, and of renewable energies (production capacity, purchase tariffs)

  9. Discrimination Features of Chromatic Figures in Various Background Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y A Chudina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual recognition features of images with different figure-ground segregation have been considered in the article. The research was carried out within the framework of Sokolov and Izmaylov’s spherical model and was based on the construction of color objects discrimination models depending on the changes of background characteristics. The research has revealed the specific influence of the background on figure discrimination. The derived models reflect the mechanisms of the all-in-one perception of the visual space.

  10. Threshold Differences on Figure and Ground: Gelb and Granit (1923).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinateder, Max; Nelson, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    In 1923, Gelb and Granit, using a method of adjustment for a small red light, reported a lower threshold for the target when presented on a ground region than on an adjacent figural region. More recent work in perceptual organization has found precisely the opposite-a processing advantage seems to go to items presented on the figure, not the ground. Although Gelb and Granit continue to be cited for their finding, it has not previously been available as an English translation. Understanding their methodology and results is important for integrating early Gestalt theory with more recent investigations.

  11. Threshold Differences on Figure and Ground: Gelb and Granit (1923)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinateder, Max

    2017-01-01

    In 1923, Gelb and Granit, using a method of adjustment for a small red light, reported a lower threshold for the target when presented on a ground region than on an adjacent figural region. More recent work in perceptual organization has found precisely the opposite—a processing advantage seems to go to items presented on the figure, not the ground. Although Gelb and Granit continue to be cited for their finding, it has not previously been available as an English translation. Understanding their methodology and results is important for integrating early Gestalt theory with more recent investigations. PMID:28286640

  12. Mathematical Modeling: Challenging the Figured Worlds of Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a report on a teacher study group that focused on three elementary teachers' perceptions of mathematical modeling in contrast to typical mathematics instruction. Through the theoretical lens of figured worlds, I discuss how mathematics instruction was conceptualized across the classrooms in terms of artifacts, discourse, and…

  13. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter T.

    1971-01-01

    Human figures drawn by psychiatric patients were evaluated. It was hypothesized that differences in performance, particularly differences reflecting a lower level of cognitive maturity, would be associated with the sociocultural background variables, and that these differences might well be such as to be misinterpreted as psychopathologically…

  14. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    Eiras, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  15. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 1.xlsx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figure summarizes diurnal profiles of uncertainty in the chemical gradient and transfer velocity measurements from which fluxes are calculated. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Rumsey, I. Application of an online ion chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 9(6): 2581-2592, (2016).

  16. Higher Education in Facts & Figures: Research and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This edition of Higher education in facts and figures focusses on Research and innovation. Research and innovation are crucial to the future of the UK's competitiveness. Universities are the prime drivers for this, both through producing, and acting as a magnet for, the best knowledge and talent. The UK's research performance is exceptionally…

  17. Descriptive Analysis Of Nigerian Children Human Figure Drawings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Art is a symbolic means of communication through which man can communicate his inner needs, desires and worries. Children find art a good means of communicating what ordinarily, they may not be able to describe orally. This study was on description of Nigerian children human figure art using Lowenfeld and Brittain ...

  18. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figures of Speech are expressions which depart from the acceptable literary sense that are employed to give particular emphasis to an idea or a sentiment in order to beautify a literary work such as poetry and proverbs. These devices occupy an important position in proverbs and they perform functions which make the ...

  19. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Monster Figures and Unhappy Endings in Inuit Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Examines the incidence of frightening figures and unhappy endings in traditional and modern Inuit stories and identifies purpose for these elements. Monsters and unhappy endings apparently are tools to help children come to terms with Eskimo environment and values. Studies the conclusions and implications for Indian education. (TES)

  1. Education and Six-Figure Salaries. The Iconoclast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, John

    1996-01-01

    Criticizes the recent trend of six-figure-plus salaries for higher education administrators in Canada. Maintains that these salaries reflect neither market value nor individual performance but rather result from aggressive self-promotion and institutional chicanery. Argues that those individuals motivated primarily by money should work in the…

  2. The role of figure-ground segregation in change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Rogier; Spekreijse, Henk; Lamme, Victor A F

    2004-04-01

    Partial report methods have shown that a large-capacity representation exists for a few hundred milliseconds after a picture has disappeared. However, change blindness studies indicate that very limited information remains available when a changed version of the image is presented subsequently. What happens to the large-capacity representation? New input after the first image may interfere, but this is likely to depend on the characteristics of the new input. In our first experiment, we show that a display containing homogeneous image elements between changing images does not render the large-capacity representation unavailable. Interference occurs when these new elements define objects. On that basis we introduce a new method to produce change blindness: The second experiment shows that change blindness can be induced by redefining figure and background, without an interval between the displays. The local features (line segments) that defined figures and background were swapped, while the contours of the figures remained where they were. Normally, changes are easily detected when there is no interval. However, our paradigm results in massive change blindness. We propose that in a change blindness experiment, there is a large-capacity representation of the original image when it is followed by a homogeneous interval display, but that change blindness occurs whenever the changed image forces resegregation of figures from the background.

  3. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Roelfsema, P.R.; Spekreijse, H.; Bosch, H.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a model of how the visual brain segregate textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped together

  4. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Spekreijse, Henk; Bosch, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Here we propose a model of how the visual brain segregates textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped

  5. Forces on a magnet moving past figure-eight coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.H.; He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.; Rossing, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    For the first time, the lift, drag, and guidance forces acting on a permanent magnet are measured as the magnet passes over different arrays of figure-eight (null-flux) coils. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of dynamic circuit theory, which is used to explain more optimal coil arrays

  6. Graphics of polar figure; Graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-11-15

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  7. Ion beam figuring of CVD silicon carbide mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Collette, J.-P.; Fleury Frenette, K.; Jamar, C.

    2017-11-01

    Optical and structural elements made of silicon carbide are increasingly found in space instruments. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD-SiC) is used as a reflective coating on SiC optics in reason of its good behavior under polishing. The advantage of applying ion beam figuring (IBF) to CVD-SiC over other surface figure-improving techniques is discussed herein. The results of an IBF sequence performed at the Centre Spatial de Liège on a 100 mm CVD-SiC mirror are reported. The process allowed to reduce the mirror surface errors from 243 nm to 13 nm rms . Beside the surface figure, roughness is another critical feature to consider in order to preserve the optical quality of CVD-SiC . Thus, experiments focusing on the evolution of roughness were performed in various ion beam etching conditions. The roughness of samples etched at different depths down to 3 ≠m was determined with an optical profilometer. These measurements emphasize the importance of selecting the right combination of gas and beam energy to keep roughness at a low level. Kaufman-type ion sources are generally used to perform IBF but the performance of an end-Hall ion source in figuring CVD-SiC mirrors was also evaluated in this study. In order to do so, ion beam etching profiles obtained with the end-Hall source on CVD-SiC were measured and used as a basis for IBF simulations.

  8. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    commending or reproving the person or thing to which it is applied, and often containing some ... association or the comparison of two things. 2. Figures of ..... to absorb the club while the peacemaker says he is as hard (difficult) as a piece of ...

  9. Figuring the Past : Period Film and the Mannerist aesthetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, Belén

    2012-01-01

    Figuring the Past geeft een nieuwe kijk op kostuumdrama's die aan het begin van deze eeuw gemaakt zijn en onderzoekt de manieren waarop de hedendaagse cinema het historische verleden herschept. De auteur verkent de relatie tussen visuele motieven en culturele representaties in een aantal belangrijke

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Frame EC03OC91.005 ...

  11. Inhibitory Competition between Shape Properties in Figure-Ground Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A.; Skow, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Theories of figure-ground perception entail inhibitory competition between either low-level units (edge or feature units) or high-level shape properties. Extant computational models instantiate the 1st type of theory. The authors investigated a prediction of the 2nd type of theory: that shape properties suggested on the ground side of an edge are…

  12. A feedback model of figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Drazen; Setić, Mia

    2008-05-30

    A computational model is proposed in order to explain how bottom-up and top-down signals are combined into a unified perception of figure and background. The model is based on the interaction between the ventral and the dorsal stream. The dorsal stream computes saliency based on boundary signals provided by the simple and the complex cortical cells. Output from the dorsal stream is projected to the surface network which serves as a blackboard on which the surface representation is formed. The surface network is a recurrent network which segregates different surfaces by assigning different firing rates to them. The figure is labeled by the maximal firing rate. Computer simulations showed that the model correctly assigns figural status to the surface with a smaller size, a greater contrast, convexity, surroundedness, horizontal-vertical orientation and a higher spatial frequency content. The simple gradient of activity in the dorsal stream enables the simulation of the new principles of the lower region and the top-bottom polarity. The model also explains how the exogenous attention and the endogenous attention may reverse the figural assignment. Due to the local excitation in the surface network, neural activity at the cued region will spread over the whole surface representation. Therefore, the model implements the object-based attentional selection.

  13. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, D.; Self, M.W.; Roelfsema, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether

  14. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code

  15. Body figure preference in South African adolescent females: A cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study sought to explore body figure preference in a cross cultural South African sample, given the established relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Methods: The sample comprised a community based, multi-racial adolescent population in both urban (n=1353) and rural ...

  16. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1999; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1999, STEM-ET-82-1999). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English.

  17. Epidemiology of Figure Skating Injuries: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Julie S; Geminiani, Ellen T; Micheli, Lyle J

    2018-05-01

    As the popularity and technical demands of figure skating increase, so will the number of athletes presenting with sport-related problems. Searches were performed across PubMed from 1980 to 2017. The keywords searched were skating, skaters, incidence, and injuries. The search was limited to English-language articles and human participants. Relevant articles were cross-referenced. Clinical review. Level 5. Previous studies suggest an increase in incidence of figure skating injuries from 1982 to 2003. When combining all disciplines of figure skating, there is a similar proportion of acute and overuse injuries. Within disciplines, overuse injuries appear to be more common in singles skating, while acute injuries are more common in pairs skating, ice dancing, and synchronized skating. Lower extremity injuries are more common than upper extremity injuries in all disciplines, and pairs skating accounts for the majority of upper extremity injuries. Ankle sprains are the most common skating injury, and patellar tendinitis is the most common overuse injury across all disciplines. Stress fractures are the most common overuse injury in female singles skaters. The predominance of overuse injuries in singles disciplines reflects their increasing technical difficulty, with more difficult jumps and longer training hours. Partner disciplines are more likely to involve acute injuries and upper extremity injuries due to high-risk throws and lifts. Emphasis should be placed on properly fitting skating boots, intrinsic foot and ankle strengthening, and lower extremity flexibility, which may prevent many of the common lower extremity and back injuries in figure skating.

  18. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  19. The thermoelectric figure of merit of poor thermal conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations are given to show that for low thermal conductivity materials the radiation losses at even moderate temperatures preclude the use of the Harman technique for measuring the thermoelectric figure of merit. Measurements on liquid Tl 66 Se 34 , which has suitable thermoelectric properties, confirm this. (author)

  20. Figure Drawing as an Expression of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Stanley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Results of the study show that several features of figure drawing identify the children who differ in self esteem. These differentiating features are associated with behavioral expressions of esteem rather than with self-appraisals of personal worth. (Author/DEP)

  1. Maternal and perinatal mortality figures in 249 South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the PMR for the black population is considerably hi9her than for the other ethnic groups. That said, perinatal mortality levels in South African blacks still compare favourably with figures from other African cQuntries.12. In conclusion, the MMRs and PMRs found in our survey of. 249 South African hospitals - though not truly.

  2. Assessment of the Volume and Value of Slaughter Animals Figures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 2003 – 2005 cattle and goats slaughter figures for Rivers State was obtained from the meat inspection records of the Department of Veterinary Services, Rivers State Ministry of Agriculture, Port Harcourt. Total number of cattle and goats inspected and slaughtered at Rumueme slaughter slab, in Port Harcourt ...

  3. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adami Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC. The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1 to obese (contour 8. Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity. Results Results showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction. Conclusion We provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.

  4. Executive Functioning and Figurative Language Comprehension in Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…

  5. Analysis of moire figures using interferometric lattices with Airy perfils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabal, H.J.; Garavaglia, M.

    1979-01-01

    Using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a spectrograph, iluminated with white light, ondulatory spectra are obtained. The componentes are not equidistance among them and the intensity distribution obeys the Airy's law. It is been made preliminar experiments to determinate if the moire figures, generated by the ondulatory spectra interaction, allows to measure displacements, rotations, etc [es

  6. Research as Art: Using figures to make science approachable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, H. S.; Barth, A.; Russell, J. B.; Frischkorn, K.; Yehudai, M.

    2017-12-01

    As scientists, we spend a significant amount of time thinking about how best to express the results of our research through figures. These can range from graphs to microscope images to movies, but they all serve the purpose of communicating complicated ideas to our colleagues in the scientific community. One component of scientific data representation that is often overlooked is the aesthetic of the image. Many images produced for data communication and publication are visually engaging even to a lay audience, allowing them to serve as a point of entry to learning about scientific research for the non-specialist. To help researchers embrace this secondary goal of scientific figures, we have instituted an annual event at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) called Research as Art. For this event, scientists submit figures from their work that they see as artistic. These figures are displayed in a gallery-type exhibit for the community to appreciate. This year, the exhibit included movie and sculpture categories, allowing for attendees to interact with a broader range of scientific work. Each piece is accompanied by a brief, non-technical caption. Research as Art provides a gateway for scientists from a broad range of disciplines within the Earth Sciences to learn about work that is entirely unrelated to their own. After the event, attendees commented that they had never before thought about how a non-specialist would view their figures and that they would keep this in mind when making future figures. Thus, one of the biggest benefits of exhibits such as this is to teach scientists to view our work through a non-specialist's eyes. However, future plans for Research as Art include establishing a temporary exhibit at a local bar to expand the reach to a broader segment of the Columbia University area community. Our figures are art, and when we start to treat them that way, we open a world of possibilities for teaching the public about our

  7. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  8. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  9. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: The ASD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila eVulchanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle.Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Brock et al., 2008; Norbury, 2005 to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010. We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b, as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and van Petten, 2002. This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome. This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  10. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  11. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation. PMID:25741261

  12. Generation of coordinates in PC for graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-10-01

    The preferential orientation, not alone it exists in metals, but also in minerals or in general in crystalline materials, notwithstanding in the metals it can be transformed by means of those processes of having mechanical worked such as laminate, wrapping, etc. To the preferable orientation of the crystals is also known as texture and since the properties of the crystalline materials lens depend on the orientation that present its glasses, it is important to know its texture. The difficulty for to represent and to describe the grade of preferential orientation in textured materials take to F. Weber to adapt the stereo graphic projection of a monocrystal to a poles figure. Later on, its appeared but methods to obtain the polar figure, among them, that of reflection of L. G. Schultz, but again a technique appears it specifies for its obtaining. In all the cases, the methodology is the following one: a) It is obtained by means of the diffraction process, the correspondent spectra in digitized form. b) it is applied process of having softened mathematician of the spectrum. c) there are determined the fi coordinates, beta and intensity for graph nts of the polar figure. d) Its are graph the points generated in c obtaining the polar figures. The objective of this work, is leaving of a softened spectra, to generate the coordinated fi, beta and corresponding intensity to proceed to their graph and generation of the polar figure. In this specific work, the methodology of Philips is used that consists in making a sweeping in hairspring form with the radiation to detect in these points the execution of the Bragg law. (Author)

  13. The effect of recognizability on figure-ground processing: does it affect parsing or only figure selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, David

    2011-03-01

    Though figure-ground assignment has been shown to be probably affected by recognizability, it appears sensible that object recognition must follow at least the earlier process of figure-ground segregation. To examine whether or not rudimentary object recognition could, counterintuitively, start even before the completion of the stage of parsing in which figure-ground segregation is done, participants were asked to respond, in a go/no-go fashion, whenever any out of 16 alternative connected patterns (that constituted familiar stimuli in the upright orientation) appeared. The white figure of the to-be-attended stimulus-target or foil-could be segregated from the white ambient ground only by means of a frame surrounding it. Such a frame was absent until the onset of target display. Then, to manipulate organizational quality, the greyness of the frame was either gradually increased from zero (in Experiment 1) or changed abruptly to a stationary level whose greyness was varied between trials (in Experiments 2 and 3). Stimulus recognizability was manipulated by orientation angle. In all three experiments the effect of recognizability was found to be considerably larger when organizational quality was minimal due to an extremely faint frame. This result is argued to be incompatible with any version of a serial thesis suggesting that processing aimed at object recognition starts only with a good enough level of organizational quality. The experiments rather provide some support to the claim, termed here "early interaction hypothesis", positing interaction between early recognition processing and preassignment parsing processes.

  14. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  15. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  16. Figural medley: At the origins of XIXth Century anthropological portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Baldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the XIXth century, Europe, the United States and Russia witnessed a blossoming interest in the use of photography in the anthropological field, its specific use was not very clear and defined yet; as a consequence, its heuristic methodologies, technical shooting modalities, stylistic elements and figurative conventions were not clear either. We range goes from anthropometric photography to an ethnographic and folkloric portrait painting signed at the same time by anthropologists and travellers, professional photographers looking for exotic subjects, amateur photographers and soldiers who encourage a figural medley characterised by scientific, commercial and artistic veins that slowly finds its definition in some of its prevailing features, in primis those of the portrait with pictorial origins, however continuously declined and reinterpreted in several ways. In this context Anthropology seeks some links with aesthetics.

  17. Thermoelectric figure of merit of chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah-Buandoh, G.K.; Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Twum, A.K.

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectrical properties of chiral carbon nanotube and numerically evaluated the figure of merit. We observed that the properties are highly anisotropic and depend on the geometric chiral angle (GCA) θ h , temperature and the overlapping integrals (exchange energy) for the jumps along the tubular axis Δ z and the base helix Δ s . The thermopower α exhibited giant values with the peak occurring between 100 K and 150 K. The electron thermal conductivity showed unusually high value with the peaks shifting towards high temperature. We attribute the high peak values to electron-phonon interactions. Finally we noted that by changing the Δ s and Δ z it is possible to get a figure of merit greater than 1. (author)

  18. Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect in incomplete figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Tadashi; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Sakai, Ko

    2007-01-01

    A recent physiological finding of neural coding for border ownership (BO) that defines the direction of a figure with respect to the border has provided a possible basis for figure-ground segregation. To explore the underlying neural mechanisms of BO, we investigated stimulus configurations that activate BO circuitry through psychophysical investigation of the BO-dependent tilt aftereffect (BO-TAE). Specifically, we examined robustness of the border ownership signal by determining whether the BO-TAE is observed when gestalt factors are broken. The results showed significant BO-TAEs even when a global shape was not explicitly given due to the ambiguity of the contour, suggesting a contour-independent mechanism for BO coding.

  19. Electrophysiological correlates of purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Inhomogenous displays, in contrast to homogenous ones, evoke a specific potential in the VEP (tsVEP) which appears across different classical visual stimulus dimensions defining figure-ground segregation, such as luminance, orientation, (first-order) motion, and stereoscopic depth. This negative potential has a peak latency of about 200-300 ms and a peak amplitude of about -3 to -10 microV [Doc Ophthalmol. 95 (1998) 335]. Previously, we demonstrated that human subjects reliably segregate figure from ground, even in the absence of the classical cues, leaving time of change as the only cue for segregation. The results of the present study demonstrate that also purely temporally defined checkerboards evoke a tsVEP resembling the motion-defined tsVEP regarding polarity (negative), latency (two peaks at 180 and 270 ms, respectively), amplitude of the first negativity (-5.6 microV), and overall form of its components.

  20. Polarization preservation and control in a figure-8 ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kondratenko, A. M. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058; Kondratenko, M. A. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058; Filatov, Yuri [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab's proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider's experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.

  1. The Biomechanics of Cranial Forces During Figure Skating Spinning Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David H; Kostyun, Regina O; Solomito, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Several facets of figure skating, such as the forces associated with jumping and landing, have been evaluated, but a comprehensive biomechanical understanding of the cranial forces associated with spinning has yet to be explored. The purpose of this case study was to quantify the cranial rotational acceleration forces generated during spinning elements. This case report was an observational, biomechanical analysis of a healthy, senior-level, female figure skating athlete who is part of an on-going study. A triaxial accelerometer recorded the gravitational forces (G) during seven different spinning elements. Our results found that the layback spin generated significant cranial force and these forces were greater than any of the other spin elements recorded. These forces led to physical findings of ruptured capillaries, dizziness, and headaches in our participant.

  2. Constellation Stick Figures Convey Information about Gravity and Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Leod, David Matthew; Mc Leod, Roger David

    2008-10-01

    12/21/98, at America's Stonehenge, DMM detected, and drew, the full stick-figure equivalent of Canis Major, CM, as depicted by our Wolf Clan leaders, and many others. Profound, foundational physics is implied, since this occurred in the Watch House there, hours before the ``model rose.'' Similar configurations like Orion, Osiris of ancient Egypt, show that such figures are projected through solid parts of the Earth, as two-dimensional equivalents of the three-dimensional star constellations. Such ``sticks'' indicate that ``line equivalents'' connect the stars, and the physical mechanism projects outlines detectable by traditional cultures. We had discussed this ``flashlight'' effect, and recognized some of its implications. RDM states that the flashlight is a strong, distant neutrino source; the lines represent neutrinos longitudinally aligned in gravitational excitation, opaque, to earthbound, transient, transversely excited neutrinos. ``Sticks'' represent ``graviton'' detection. Neutrinos' longitudinal alignment accounts for the weakness of gravitational force.

  3. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  4. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 2.xlsx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figure summarizes uncertainty (error) in hourly gradient flux measurements by individual analyte. Flux uncertainty is derived from estimates of uncertainty in chemical gradients and turbulent transfer velocity.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Rumsey, I. Application of an online ion chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 9(6): 2581-2592, (2016).

  5. Urban Regeneration Partnerships: A Figurational Critique of Governmentality Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lever, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critique of governmentally inspired accounts of urban regeneration and partnership working. Drawing on the work of Norbert Elias and prominent figurational sociologists, it discusses the changes taking place within and through the many partnerships set up by New Labour around the notion of ‘community safety’. Although recognizing the important insights provided by accounts of urban regeneration emerging through studies of governmentality, the article argues that such a...

  6. An Overview of Human Figure Modeling for Army Aviation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    space reach and vision analyses, while others are used to examine biomechanics or strength issues, for example. Still other human figure modeling...identified that the crewstation design did not allow small pilots to reach the pedals and instrument panels. Small females were unable to view the...the ECLs; improved seat adjustment to allow access to the pedals and front instrument panels for small female aviators; and increased volume of space

  7. Die Figur des 'Wetteifers' und ihre Funktion in Kants Ethik

    OpenAIRE

    Schönwälder-Kuntze, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Im Zentrum des Aufsatzes steht die systematische Funktion des ‚Wetteifers‛ in der praktischen Philosophie Kants. Zwar taucht der ‚Wetteifer‛ in vielfältigem Zusammenhang in Kants Anthropologischen Schriften auf, dennoch wird er in Bezug auf ethische Fragen selten in Betracht gezogen. Auch wenn es richtig ist, dass ‚Wetteifer‛ dort nicht im Sinne des marktwirtschaftlichen Wettbewerbs verwendet wird, handelt es sich doch strukturell um die gleiche interaktionsbasierte Figur – wie wir sie auch i...

  8. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  9. Separating figure from ground with a parallel network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienker, P K; Sejnowski, T J; Hinton, G E; Schumacher, L E

    1986-01-01

    The differentiation of figure from ground plays an important role in the perceptual organization of visual stimuli. The rapidity with which we can discriminate the inside from the outside of a figure suggests that at least this step in the process may be performed in visual cortex by a large number of neurons in several different areas working together in parallel. We have attempted to simulate this collective computation by designing a network of simple processing units that receives two types of information: bottom-up input from the image containing the outlines of a figure, which may be incomplete, and a top-down attentional input that biases one part of the image to be the inside of the figure. No presegmentation of the image was assumed. Two methods for performing the computation were explored: gradient descent, which seeks locally optimal states, and simulated annealing, which attempts to find globally optimal states by introducing noise into the computation. For complete outlines, gradient descent was faster, but the range of input parameters leading to successful performance was very narrow. In contrast, simulated annealing was more robust: it worked over a wider range of attention parameters and a wider range of outlines, including incomplete ones. Our network model is too simplified to serve as a model of human performance, but it does demonstrate that one global property of outlines can be computed through local interactions in a parallel network. Some features of the model, such as the role of noise in escaping from nonglobal optima, may generalize to more realistic models.

  10. Francis Bacon: The Real's Brutality. The Figure and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mannucci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Getting in front of painting by Francis Bacon touches you deeply. I’m talking about aesthetics, sensations: resounding flow that strikes abruptly, making futile any search for meaning. Francis Bacon circumvents the figurative, the meaning, he aims to the figural: to feelings, not words. Beauty, in his paintings, shows itself in the peaceful union of the positive and of its contrary; if the negative wasn’t there, though, his paintings wouldn’t exude such a brutal sense of reality. This essay investigates the figure of Francis Bacon and the spectator – the Other – as he tries to confront the painting. Bacon will be analysed using a purely phenomenological approach, with references that range from Merleau-Ponty to Martin Heidegger; the meeting-collision between the spectator and the painting, instead, will be examined taking inspiration from the Winnicott’s thesis on the relationship between Bacon and mirrors in the painter’s childhood. In order to take distance from Winnicott’s psychoanalytical approach, this essay will focus on the relationship between spectator and painting from a more anthropological point of view. 

  11. Figuring out’ in science and the humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to enquire into the notion of change in figures of speech, concepts, topics, and technical instruments-models when they are “travelling” through different milieus, contexts, systems or disciplines. I conceive of this travelling as a basic exchange of energy/information, amounting to an event which can reshape a given field of experience. My argument is based on the premise that our experience happens at multiple levels and areas, and develops along different phases, which imperceptibly flow into each other and bear at times barely decipherable traces of the events that have constituted them. The processes happening at a different level from that of present perception can only be conceived of as infractions of the world tissue and of the related universe of discourse. Therefore in any field of enquiry the process of discovery can develop only through figures of discourse. My thesis is that, at the present stage of techno-science, Scriptural Figurality, which constitutes the basis of both Western epistemology and hermeneutics, is superseded and has to be replaced by a new hypermedial rhetoric, capable to cope with complexity, infraction and emergence, both in science and the humanities.

  12. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; Lamme, Victor A F; Spekreijse, Henk; Bosch, Holger

    2002-05-15

    Here we propose a model of how the visual brain segregates textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped together. Boundary detection and grouping of image regions require different connection schemes, which are accommodated in a single network architecture by implementing them in different layers. As a result, all units carry signals related to boundary detection as well as grouping of image regions, in accordance with cortical physiology. Boundaries yield an early enhancement of network responses, but at a later point, an entire figural region is grouped together, because units that respond to it are labeled with enhanced activity. The model predicts which image regions are preferentially perceived as figure or as background and reproduces the spatio-temporal profile of neuronal activity in the visual cortex during texture segregation in intact animals, as well as in animals with cortical lesions.

  13. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  14. Mitotic Figure Recognition: Agreement among Pathologists and Computerized Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Malon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prognostic importance of mitotic count as one of the components of the Bloom – Richardson grade [3], several studies ([2, 9, 10] have found that pathologists’ agreement on the mitotic grade is fairly modest. Collecting a set of more than 4,200 candidate mitotic figures, we evaluate pathologists' agreement on individual figures, and train a computerized system for mitosis detection, comparing its performance to the classifications of three pathologists. The system’s and the pathologists’ classifications are based on evaluation of digital micrographs of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast tissue. On figures where the majority of pathologists agree on a classification, we compare the performance of the trained system to that of the individual pathologists. We find that the level of agreement of the pathologists ranges from slight to moderate, with strong biases, and that the system performs competitively in rating the ground truth set. This study is a step towards automatic mitosis count to accelerate a pathologist's work and improve reproducibility.

  15. How Iconic Figures Influence Thinking ? : Comparison of University and Lower Secondary Students

    OpenAIRE

    添田, 佳伸; 藤井, 良宜

    1992-01-01

    In learning geometry we often use iconic figures to give children conditions and questions in word problems. But the figure becomes an object of thinking after finishing plaing the role of giving some information. Children think the problem by using the given figure. If figures influence chidren's thinking, a rate of correct answer of each problem must be different according to being presented each figure. ### Thus we investigated the differences of rates of correct answer by using three type...

  16. Figure-ground representation and its decay in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Lars; Lavell, Cheryl; Vilis, Tutis

    2012-04-01

    We used fMRI to study figure-ground representation and its decay in primary visual cortex (V1). Human observers viewed a motion-defined figure that gradually became camouflaged by a cluttered background after it stopped moving. V1 showed positive fMRI responses corresponding to the moving figure and negative fMRI responses corresponding to the static background. This positive-negative delineation of V1 "figure" and "background" fMRI responses defined a retinotopically organized figure-ground representation that persisted after the figure stopped moving but eventually decayed. The temporal dynamics of V1 "figure" and "background" fMRI responses differed substantially. Positive "figure" responses continued to increase for several seconds after the figure stopped moving and remained elevated after the figure had disappeared. We propose that the sustained positive V1 "figure" fMRI responses reflected both persistent figure-ground representation and sustained attention to the location of the figure after its disappearance, as did subjects' reports of persistence. The decreasing "background" fMRI responses were relatively shorter-lived and less biased by spatial attention. Our results show that the transition from a vivid figure-ground percept to its disappearance corresponds to the concurrent decay of figure enhancement and background suppression in V1, both of which play a role in form-based perceptual memory.

  17. CT, Magnetic Resonance, and {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Imaging Features of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Involving Medial Rectus Muscle: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the medial rectus muscle in a 47-year-old man along with CT, MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/CT ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and pathologic features. The lesion was manifested as a fusiform enlargement isolated to the right medial rectus muscle with involvement of its tendinous insertion. The lesion was isoattenuating to the brain on non-enhanced CT images, showing as isointense to gray matter on fast spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images with fat saturation, and showed homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR images. The maximum stan- dardized uptake value on 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 4.9 g/mL. The results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the specimen obtained by biopsy of the right medial rectus muscle were consistent with MALT lymphoma. It should be noted that the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare location for the involvement of MALT lympho- ma, and MALT lymphoma of the EOM may mimic thyroid orbitopathy.

  18. CT, Magnetic Resonance, and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Imaging Features of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Involving Medial Rectus Muscle: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the medial rectus muscle in a 47-year-old man along with CT, MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/CT ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and pathologic features. The lesion was manifested as a fusiform enlargement isolated to the right medial rectus muscle with involvement of its tendinous insertion. The lesion was isoattenuating to the brain on non-enhanced CT images, showing as isointense to gray matter on fast spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images with fat saturation, and showed homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR images. The maximum stan- dardized uptake value on 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 4.9 g/mL. The results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the specimen obtained by biopsy of the right medial rectus muscle were consistent with MALT lymphoma. It should be noted that the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare location for the involvement of MALT lympho- ma, and MALT lymphoma of the EOM may mimic thyroid orbitopathy.

  19. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  20. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... CASE REPORT. CASE. 72. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2009. CASE R. Introduction ... tion is being given to imaging the medial breast, and the sternalis muscle will be revealed with increasing ... The origin of this muscle is uncertain, with pectoralis major, rectus abdominus and sternomastoid ...

  1. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  2. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent e...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.......Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  3. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  4. Vacuum-Flex Figuring of Primary Telescope Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, E. F. M.

    2004-12-01

    In the current investigation, details on the construction and performance of a vacuum-flexed (i.e., figured) 51 cm (20-inch) mirror, with a fast f/4 focal ratio, are presented. A vacuum has the chief advantage of being able to pull with a uniform or isotropic stress across a large surface area, which will naturally form a parabolic surface. The essence of the idea is to grind and polish a spherical mirror and then warp or flex it into a near perfect paraboloid, thus avoiding tedious figuring altogether. To date, telescope makers around the globe have experimented with small flexed mirrors with considerable success. In these instances, mirrors have been flexed by exerting tension on a bolt or sponge-pad adhered to the back of the mirror. The prototype mirror consists of two 51 cm disks of plate glass -- each slumped to an f/4 focal ratio. The front-plate (19 mm in thickness) is separated from the back-plate (13 mm in thickness) back a flexible 9.5 mm air filled gasket. Although the rubber gasket makes a fairly good vacuum seal, silicon cement was placed about the outer edge in order to produce a perfectly tight seal. A vacuum of 8 kPa on the back of the mirror resulted in approximately 164 kilograms of negative pressure, which is required to flex the mirror into the required paraboloid. Ronchi test show a nice smooth paraboloid free from astigmatism while foucault zonal measurements display a figure better than 1/20 wave. Preliminary star testing show promising results as well. Vacuum-flexed mirrors may have benefits for both amateur and professional telescope makers alike. A US patent is pending on the aforementioned design.

  5. Mechanisms of time-based figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal information, that is, on short temporal delays between positional changes of elements in figure and ground (Kandil, F.I. & Fahle, M. (2001) Eur. J. Neurosci., 13, 2004-2008). Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms by measuring temporal segregation thresholds for various kinds of motion cues. Segregation can rely on monocular first-order motion (based on luminance modulation) and second-order motion cues (contrast modulation) with a high temporal resolution of approximately 20 ms. The mechanism can also use isoluminant motion with a reduced temporal resolution of 60 ms. Figure-ground segregation can be achieved even at presentation frequencies too high for human subjects to inspect successive frames individually. In contrast, when stimuli are presented dichoptically, i.e. separately to both eyes, subjects are unable to perceive any segregation, irrespective of temporal frequency. We propose that segregation in these displays is detected by a mechanism consisting of at least two stages. On the first level, standard motion or flicker detectors signal local positional changes (flips). On the second level, a segregation mechanism combines the local activities of the low-level detectors with high temporal precision. Our findings suggest that the segregation mechanism can rely on monocular detectors but not on binocular mechanisms. Moreover, the results oppose the idea that segregation in these displays is achieved by motion detectors of a higher order (motion-from-motion), but favour mechanisms sensitive to short temporal delays even without activation of higher-order motion detectors.

  6. Magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of Co/Cu multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, X. K., E-mail: xiukun.hu@ptb.de; Krzysteczko, P.; Liebing, N.; Schumacher, H. W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Serrano-Guisan, S. [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Rott, K.; Reiss, G. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Kimling, J.; Böhnert, T.; Nielsch, K. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    The switching of the magnetic configuration of giant magnetoresistance multilayers not only changes the electrical and thermal conductivities but also the thermopower. We study the magnetotransport and the magnetothermoelectric properties of Co/Cu multilayer devices in a lateral thermal gradient. The Seebeck coefficient reaches values up to −18 μV/K at room temperature and shows a magnetic field dependence up to 28.6% upon spin reversal. In combination with thermal conductivity data of the same Co/Cu stack, we find a magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of up to 65%. Furthermore, a magneto-power factor of up to 110% is derived.

  7. The use of rhetorical figures in political marketing in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    İlgün, Ayşe

    2005-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, i -- SUMMARY, ii -- CONTENTS, vi -- LIST OF FIGURES, ix -- LIST OF T ABLES, x -- 1. INTRODUCTION, 1 -- 1.0. Overview, 1 -- 1.1. The Title of the Study, 1 -- 1.2. The Scope of the Study, 1 -- 1.3. The Purpose and Research Rationale, 1 -- 1.4. The Research Methodology, 2 -- 1.5. Sources of Data, 2 -- 1.6. Benefits Expected from the Thesis, 2 -- 1.7. Limits of the Thesis, 3 -- 1.8. Structure of the Thesis, 3 -- 2. POLITICAL MARKETING, 5 -- 2.0. Overview, 5 -- 2.1. Theoretical Ba...

  8. Reversing the attention effect in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2009-10-01

    Human visual perception is sometimes ambiguous, switching between different perceptual structures, and shifts of attention sometimes favor one perceptual structure over another. It has been proposed that, in figure-ground segmentation, attention to certain regions tends to cause those regions to be perceived as closer to the observer. Here, we show that this attention effect can be reversed under certain conditions. To account for these phenomena, we propose an alternative principle: The visual system chooses the interpretation that maximizes simplicity of the attended regions.

  9. Criteria for eliminating items of a Test of Figural Analogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Blum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the steps taken to eliminate two of the items in a Test of Figural Analogies (TFA. The main guidelines of psychometric analysis concerning Classical Test Theory (CTT and Item Response Theory (IRT are explained. The item elimination process was based on both the study of the CTT difficulty and discrimination index, and the unidimensionality analysis. The a, b, and c parameters of the Three Parameter Logistic Model of IRT were also considered for this purpose, as well as the assessment of each item fitting this model. The unfavourable characteristics of a group of TFA items are detailed, and decisions leading to their possible elimination are discussed.

  10. Figure del desiderio: l'amore fra distruzione e sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Franzone

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso due racconti di Cortázar, l'analisi di due figure del desiderio ci permette esplorare due estremi seguendo una verticalità. La distruzione, doppio tenebroso della nostra anima, ci rivela un erotismo legato alla morte e al desiderio morboso di possedere l'Altro; il suo contraltare è un'ascesa vertiginosa accompagnata da un godimento estetico, dall'amore sublime prossimo all'esperienza mistica che si concluderà con una discesa progressiva e nel rispetto di questo Altro. La creazione letteraria si presenta come uno sfogo alle nostre angosce, che sono anche una sorta d'espressione dell'erotismo.

  11. Figures of merit for measuring aging management program effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, R.; Sciacca, F.; Walsh, R.; Zigler, G.

    1991-01-01

    One of the requirements for nuclear plant license renewal may be the establishment and demonstration of an effective aging management program. An analysis of both qualitative and quantitative information will be required to define the contents of this aging management program. The authors propose two quantitative figures of merit, Mean Event Detection Frequency and Mean Renewal Rate, that can be used to compare the effectiveness of various inspection, surveillance, test, and monitoring (ISTM) activities for aging mitigation. An example showing the relative effectiveness of an enhanced Loose Parts Monitoring System with current ISTM activities for steam generators and reactor internals is provided. (author)

  12. The Anadyomene Movement: metamorphics of figure-ground

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Figure-ground’ is about the production of meaning based on the perception of contrasts or binary oppositions and segregations. Viewers of my paintings, and of the kind of paintings that interest me, have the impression that the ‘figure’ subsides or slips or fades into ‘ground’, or that the ‘ground’ is more powerful or dominant than the‘figure’, or that the ‘figure’ is insecurely attached, suggesting it is incapable, unwilling, too acquiescent or complicit to fully differentiate itself from t...

  13. Muscles and their myokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-15

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases.

  14. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  15. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  16. Texture segregation, surface representation and figure-ground separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, S; Pessoa, L

    1998-09-01

    A widespread view is that most texture segregation can be accounted for by differences in the spatial frequency content of texture regions. Evidence from both psychophysical and physiological studies indicate, however, that beyond these early filtering stages, there are stages of 3-D boundary segmentation and surface representation that are used to segregate textures. Chromatic segregation of element-arrangement patterns--as studied by Beck and colleagues--cannot be completely explained by the filtering mechanisms previously employed to account for achromatic segregation. An element arrangement pattern is composed of two types of elements that are arranged differently in different image regions (e.g. vertically on top and diagonally on the bottom). FACADE theory mechanisms that have previously been used to explain data about 3-D vision and figure-ground separation are here used to simulate chromatic texture segregation data, including data with equiluminant elements on dark or light homogeneous backgrounds, or backgrounds composed of vertical and horizontal dark or light stripes, or horizontal notched stripes. These data include the fact that segregation of patterns composed of red and blue squares decreases with increasing luminance of the interspaces. Asymmetric segregation properties under 3-D viewing conditions with the equiluminant elements close or far are also simulated. Two key model properties are a spatial impenetrability property that inhibits boundary grouping across regions with non-collinear texture elements and a boundary-surface consistency property that uses feedback between boundary and surface representations to eliminate spurious boundary groupings and separate figures from their backgrounds.

  17. Constructions of the patient in healthcare communications: six patient figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how strategic, patient-centred communication plays a part in the discursive management of expectations posed to patients and healthcare organizations. The paper provides an analysis of four documents collected as part of an ethnographic case study regarding "The Perspective of the Patient" - a Danish Hospital's patient-centred communication programme. Mapping methods inspired by Grounded Theory are used to qualify the analysis. The paper shows that strategic patient-centred communication addresses both a care-oriented approach to the patient and deploys market perceptions of patients. Market and care is seen as co-existing organizing modes that entail expectations to the patient. In the communication programme the patient is constructed in six information-seeking patient figures: affective patient; target group patient; citizen with rights; patient as a competent resource; user as active partner; and consumer. As a result, the patient-centred communication programme renders the patient as a flexible figure able to fit organizational demands of both care orientation and market concerns. This study contributes to qualitative research in organizational health communication by combining two subfields - patient-centredness and health communication - in an empirical study of how market and care are intertwined in a patient-centred communication programme. The argument goes beyond the prevalent prescriptive approaches to patient-centredness and healthcare communication, instead providing a critical analytical perspective on strategic communication and patient-centredness and showing how expectations are posed to both patient and organization.

  18. A new principle of figure-ground segregation: The accentuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-02-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also consider it autonomous as it can agree with or oppose them. We consider three dynamic aspects of the principle, namely: attraction, accentuation and assignment. Each creature needs to attract, fascinate, seduce, draw attention (e.g., a mate or a prey animal) or distract, refuse, dissuade, discourage, repulse (e.g., a predator). Similarly, each organism needs to accentuate, highlight, stress, underline, emphasize or distract from another. Thus, accentuation assigns meaning to a visual pattern such as a coat, a plumage or a flower. False eyes (ocelli) and dots (diematic patterns) demonstrate "deceiving camouflage by accentuation" that confuses predators/preys and hides or highlights vital body parts (butterflies/flowers). They also display the deceiving appearance and exhibition of biological fitness. The same accents may serve different or even opposite goals. We conclude that accentuation improves the adaptive fitness of organisms in multifarious ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surreal and Canny Selves: Photographic Figures in Claude Cahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Zachmann

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In her 1975 essay, Le Rire de la méduse , Hélène Cixous enthusiastically announced that it was high time for women to enter into discourse. A full half-century earlier, Claude Cahun (1894-1954, a powerful writer and a haunting photographer and artist, was already inscribing herself, Woman, and a woman's voice in visual and verbal self-portraits, photomontages, prose texts, poetry, and aesthetic and political treatises. Cahun's uncanny interventions in both verbal and visual discourse cannily interrogate conventions of literary and pictorial representation and the constructions of self, gender and culture that they exhibit. Insistently asking readers and spectators, "What's wrong with this picture?," her carnivalesque play with the doxa and the politics of identity, destabilizes not only gender and genre norms, but the boundaries and distinctions between visual and verbal representation. Surreal and Canny Selves explores the aesthetic frameworks of writer/artist Claude Cahun. Elucidating how Cahun's questioning of her self and Surrealist representations of woman were part of a much more expansive adventure that questioned more than femininity—the manuscript moves on to trace how and what Cahun's foregrounding of figuration and, more specifically, photographic figuration, might signify for the uncanny aesthetic practices deployed in the hybrid text Aveux non avenus .

  20. The enigmatic figure of Dr Henry Maudsley (1835-1918).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelidou, Maria; Demetriades, Andreas K

    2014-08-01

    In spite of his contribution to psychiatry in 19th century Britain, Henry Maudsley remains a mysterious figure, a man mostly known for his donation to the London County Council for the building of the Maudsley Hospital and for The Maudsley Annual Lecture created in honour of his benevolence. Besides Sir Aubrey Lewis' article in 1951 and Michael Collie's attempt in 1988 to construct a biographical study on Maudsley, there does not seem to be any current endeavour to tell the story of his life, whereas Trevor Turner's contribution to the 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives a somewhat scathing but unattributed account of Maudsley's personality. This essay attempts to explore his contributions to the Medico-Psychological Association (MPA), the current Royal College of Psychiatrists, his editorship of the Journal of Mental Health (currently named the British Journal of Psychiatry), his literary contributions and his vision for a psychiatric hospital. This essay is an attempt to demystify his figure and to explore some of the rumours and criticisms surrounding his name and the reasons why so little has been written about him. It is also a venture to unravel his complex personality and his intricate philosophy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Climate, air and energy - Release 2015 - Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    After an indication of some remarkable key figures (general data, data about office building, housing, industries, renewable energies, wastes, transports, agriculture and forests, and households, indication of some French and European objectives for 2020 and 2030), and a table containing indications of some international official texts (Kyoto protocol and its amendment, European directives) and of their content and scope (bio-fuels in transports, energy efficiency, buildings, labelling and eco-design, transports, renewable energies, energy and climate, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes), and national texts (laws, plans) regarding the same issues, this publication presents figures and data under the form of graphs and tables to illustrate their evolution. They are general data on energy consumptions and intensities (data per sector and per country in Europe), markets and jobs related to renewable energies, certificates of energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, regional data for France. The other chapters present large sets of graphs and tables of relevant data concerning housing buildings, office buildings, transports, industries, agriculture and forests, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, and households. Generally, these data are presented in terms of evolution since the 1970's or the 1990's. They propose a detailed analytical point of view of the various energy and energy-related issues in these different sectors and fields

  2. The Emergence of Figural Effects in the Watercolor Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    The watercolor illusion is characterized by a large-scale assimilative color spreading (coloration effect) emanating from thin colored edges. The watercolor illusion enhances the figural properties of the colored areas and imparts to the surrounding area the perceptual status of background. This work explores interactions between cortical boundary and surface processes by presenting displays and psychophysical experiments that exhibit new properties of the watercolor illusion. The watercolor illusion is investigated as supporting a new principle of figure-ground organization when pitted against principles of surroundedness, relative orientation, and Prägnanz. The work demonstrated that the watercolor illusion probes a unique combination of visual processes that set it apart from earlier Gestalt principles, and can compete successfully against them. This illusion exemplifies how long-range perceptual effects may be triggered by spatially sparse information. All the main effects are explained by the FACADE model of biological vision, which clarifies how local properties control depthful filling-in of surface lightness and color.

  3. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  4. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone......-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases....

  5. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilly, John

    2000-01-01

    This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

  6. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  7. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  8. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  9. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head are damaged, you may have difficulty chewing and swallowing or closing your eyes. In these ... Medical Professional Muscle paralysis always requires immediate medical attention. If you notice gradual weakening or problems with ...

  10. Correcting Surface Figure Error in Imaging Satellites Using a Deformable Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Configuration for Collecting Influence Function Data ..................11 3. 4D Interferometer...24 3. Influence Function Using Interferometer ........................................25 4. Determining the Influence Matrix...10 Figure 12. Influence function configuration with flip mirror (from [6]). ..........................11 Figure 13. Interferometer

  11. The Figures of Speech, "Ethos," and Aristotle: Notes toward a Rhetoric of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallendorf, Craig; Kallendorf, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrates that business writers rely far more heavily than expected on classical figures of speech. Uses Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to show that figures of speech offer a powerful tool for the persuasive function of modern business communication. (PD)

  12. The edge complex: implicit memory for figure assignment in shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Enns, James T

    2005-05-01

    Viewing a stepped edge is likely to prompt the perceptual assignment of one side of the edge as figure. This study demonstrates that even a single brief glance at a novel edge gives rise to an implicit memory regarding which side was seen as figure; this edge complex enters into the figure assignment process the next time the edge is encountered, both speeding same-different judgments when the figural side is repeated and slowing these judgments when the new figural side is identical to the former ground side (Experiments 1A and 1B). These results were obtained even when the facing direction of the repeated edge was mirror reversed (Experiment 2). This study shows that implicit measures can reveal the effects of past experience on figure assignment, following a single prior exposure to a novel shape, and supports a competitive model of figure assignment in which past experience serves as one of many figural cues.

  13. Figure/ground segregation from temporal delay is best at high spatial frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Haruyuki

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of spatial frequency in performance of a figure/ground segregation task based on temporal cues. Figure orientation was much easier to judge when figure and ground portions of the target were defined exclusively by random texture composed entirely of high spatial frequencies. When target components were defined by low spatial frequencies only, the task was nearly impossible except with long temporal delay between figure and ground. These results are incons...

  14. Teaching Geometrical Figures in Waray: The LNU-ILS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Q. Oyzon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Waray children are “unconsciously shifting from their mother language to English and/or Tagalog in their vocabulary use”. English vocabularies are more familiar to Waray educands of today than are the indigenous Waray terms, for instance, for geometrical figures, colors, numbers, etc. Still, “it is an ongoing debate of what type of language should be used in the implementation of MTBMLE.” Should educators use a Waray that borrows heavily from English and other languages or a Waray that uses exclusively its own indigenous terms and concepts? The researchers formulate a single lesson plan using an inductive method incorporating the Montessori Approach. We have two types of pupils at LNU-ILS: Waray pupils whose language at home is Waray, and Waray pupils who are exposed to English at home.

  15. Optimization principles and the figure of merit for triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Kang, Stephen Dongmin; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Energy harvesting with triboelectric nanogenerators is a burgeoning field, with a growing portfolio of creative application schemes attracting much interest. Although power generation capabilities and its optimization are one of the most important subjects, a satisfactory elemental model that illustrates the basic principles and sets the optimization guideline remains elusive. We use a simple model to clarify how the energy generation mechanism is electrostatic induction but with a time-varying character that makes the optimal matching for power generation more restrictive. By combining multiple parameters into dimensionless variables, we pinpoint the optimum condition with only two independent parameters, leading to predictions of the maximum limit of power density, which allows us to derive the triboelectric material and device figure of merit. We reveal the importance of optimizing device capacitance, not only load resistance, and minimizing the impact of parasitic capacitance. Optimized capacitances can lead to an overall increase in power density of more than 10 times.

  16. Ethical considerations in psychiatric profiling of political figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jerrold M

    2002-09-01

    Questions concerning such matters as the effects of health and alcoholism on Boris Yeltsin's decision making; the mind of the Unabomber; the psychology and decision making of Saddam Hussein of Iraq, who was initially characterized by the US Government as "the madman of the Middle East"; the psychology of David Koresh and the Branch Davidians, who were involved in an extended siege with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and the Federal Bureau of Investigation that ended tragically on April 19, 1993; and, most recently, the psychology of the nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists responsible for the tragic events of September 11, 2001 in which they claimed thousands of lives while giving their own, "killing in the name of God," and of their charismatic leader Osama bin Laden have led journalists to turn to social scientists, including psychiatrists, to offer commentary on public figures.

  17. Unheimlich. From Wax Figures to the Uncanny Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Conte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his pioneering History of Portraiture in Wax, Julius von Schlosser traced back the age-old history of a material which at that time seemed to be already antiquated, if not obsolete. Wax sculptures were rejected and ousted from art history because of their excessive similarity and adherence to models. One hundred years later, however, hyperrealism got its revenge with Maurizio Cattelan’s celebrated hanging children. Moving from that controversial artwork and focusing on the heated polemics over it, my paper will address the question of the well-known Unheimlichkeit of wax figures, investigated by Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud in the early Twentieth Century and nowadays becoming increasingly topical thanks to the recent debate about the existence and nature of the so called Uncanny Valley.

  18. The Human Figure and Urban Ground: Cyborgs and the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have seen developments in cyborgian movements in which people play and experiment with the boundaries of human flesh and aesthetic realities. Some individuals develop novel intimate relationships with devices that, each in their own way, interfere with human subjectivity. Public dissemination of these movements often proposes notions of transcendence, therapy, post-humanism and trans-humanism, but often fails to outline the lived-experience of those who explore cyborgian identity as an alternative mode of being in the world. This paper briefly follows self-described cyborgs who delimit the body through sensory 'enhancement' in an effort to disrupt common relationships between the human figure and the urban ground. Borrowing from Lewis Mumford's concepts of biotechnics, I propose cyborgian engagement as a type of psychodynamic living. Rather than focus on post-human discourses, these cyborgs turn to the natural world for inspiration in shaping the terms of engagement between their bodies and the city.

  19. Energy predictions. [Briefs on 33 charts, figures, and graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Briefs describe 33 charts, graphs, and schematics offering some recent history and perspectives on the world and U.S. energy situation and the problems for survival facing the world. Of interest is Figure 28, showing the Club of Rome's model of the earth in terms of resource consumption, food, money, people, pollution, etc. A computer was asked to extend recent history into the future and results indicate a collapse of the industrialized system towards an agrarian culture around the year 2025. It is noted that the model did not consider technological initiative or man's willingness to change lifestyles. The final (33) schematic is a guesstimate of noticeable impact timescales, indicating when research projects on transition or ultimate energy sources at LASL might be expected to yield impact. (MCW)

  20. Attachment Figure's Regulation of Infant Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina M

    2017-01-01

    Altricial infants (i.e., requiring parental care for survival), such as humans and rats, form an attachment to their caregiver and receive the nurturing and protections needed for survival. Learning has a strong role in attachment, as is illustrated by strong attachment formed to non-biological caregivers of either sex. Here we summarize and integrate results from animal and human infant attachment research that highlights the important role of social buffering (social presence) of the stress response by the attachment figure and its effect on infant processing of threat and fear through modulation of the amygdala. Indeed, this work suggests the caregiver switches off amygdala function in rodents, although recent human research suggests a similar process in humans and nonhuman primates. This cross-species analysis helps provide insight and unique understanding of attachment and its role in the neurobiology of infant behavior within attachment.

  1. Beyond the dichotomy of figurative and abstract art in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring; Mullins, Michael Finbarr

    2017-01-01

    from two experimental case studies on 98 patients’ well-being in relation to their experience and use of visual art during hospitalization. The case studies employed a mixed-method approach, including interviews and observations informed by thermal video recording, surveys and psychophysiological......Within the evidence-based design discourse, and deriving particularly from the theory of emotional congruence, abstract art has been indicated as unsuitable for hospitals. As patients may often experience unfamiliarity, vulnerability, stress, unpredictability and uneasiness in hospitals......, these negative factors in terms of patients’ well-being are predicted to be detrimentally reinforced by abstract art, but alleviated by particular forms of figurative art. The present paper focuses particularly on this question of the suitability of abstract art in Danish hospital settings and presents findings...

  2. Renewables in figures. National and international trends in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    This publication provides information for the fields electricity / heat / fuels in detail on the expansion of renewable energies and illustrates this with tables and graphs. Basis of the data are the results of the Working Group on Renewable Energy Sources Statistics (AGEE-Stat), on behalf of the BMWi working out the balance of renewable energy in Germany. In addition you will also find information about Renewable Energy Law and to promote renewable Energy for heating purposes as well as for research and Development. In addition to the figures for Germany are also developments in the use of renewable energy in the European Union documented which also has set ambitious targets. Data for global Development are also included. [de

  3. To discuss radiation without the use of units and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern

    1989-01-01

    The public is unreasonably concerned and anxious about ionizing radiation. This undefined, irrational, but still real fear of something you know is there even if you cannot perceive it with your five senses is one of the greatest problems the nuclear industry has to attack today. The major problem in this case may be the technical language used by experts. The man in the street has no idea of the technical terms experts use. However, it is possible to make our message clear without the use of any units or figures. A lot can be done for the understanding and confidence by making comparisons to familiar concepts and situations, by taking off our doctors' coats and stepping down to the grass-root level to talk with people in their own everyday language. (author)

  4. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  5. Positive Feedback From Male Authority Figures Boosts Women's Math Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Ward, Deborah E; Streamer, Lindsey

    2018-03-01

    People often search for cues in the environment to determine whether or not they will be judged or treated negatively based on their social identities. Accordingly, feedback from gatekeepers-members of majority groups who hold authority and power in a field-may be an especially important cue for those at risk of experiencing social identity threat, such as women in math settings. Across a series of studies, women who received positive ("Good job!") versus objective (score only) feedback from a male (vs. female) authority figure in math reported greater confidence; belonging; self-efficacy; more favorable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) attitudes/identification/interest; and greater implicit identification with math. Men were affected only by the type of math feedback they received, not by the source of feedback. A meta-analysis across studies confirmed results. Together, these findings suggest that positive feedback from gatekeepers is an important situational cue that can improve the outcomes of negatively stereotyped groups.

  6. Figure and finish characterization of high performance metal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1991-10-01

    Most metal mirrors currently used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines to reflect soft x-rays are made of electroless nickel plate on an aluminum substrate. This material combination has allowed optical designers to incorporate exotic cylindrical aspheres into grazing incidence x-ray beam-handling systems by taking advantage of single-point diamond machining techniques. But the promise of high-quality electroless nickel surfaces has generally exceeded the performance. We will examine the evolution of electroless nickel surfaces through a study of the quality of mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source over the past seven years. We have developed techniques to assess surface quality based on the measurement of surface roughness and figure errors with optical profiling instruments. It is instructive to see how the quality of the surface is related to the complexity of the machine operations required to produce it

  7. The bricoleur’s figure in artistic practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Resende Côrrea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Art as process and reflection of the lived moment deals many times with issues that refers to its context and with the available materials in the current scenario. In a society marked by consumption and ephemerality, this article promotes a reflection on the use of disposed and collected products in works of visual artists. The bricoleur appears in this context as a central figure for the understanding and the analysis of some of the many artistic practices realized recently. By bricolage, artists like Joseph Cornell, Farnese de Andrade, Amanda Mei and Courtney Smith performed works with hybrid content that reflect the lived moment and issues contained in the materials available in the current scenario.

  8. Figures of merit for the evaluation of regenerative power converters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083258; Rossini, Stefano; Le Godec, Gilles; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Carrica, Daniel; Retegui, Rogeli Garcia

    2016-01-01

    In some applications, like those for particle accelerators and transfer lines, electromagnet loads operate in cycling mode i.e. absorbing or extracting energy from or to a power source. Built-in energy storage such as electrochemical capacitors can be used whose lifetime is heavily depended on the current ripple and depth of discharge. Moreover, the sizing of this storage element is a trade-off between power taken from the grid and energy stored. Additionally, the adopted power conversion structure and control strategy impact on such decision process. In this work, a number of topologies have been evaluated for these applications and the key metrics used to compare them. The proposed figures of merit are used through examples to highlight the trade-offs related with the choice of dc-bus regulation topology and control strategy.

  9. Key Figures on Climate France and Worldwide 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Each year, CDC Climate Research publishes in partnership with the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing (MEDDTL) the Key Figures on Climate - France and Worldwide, in the Highlights Series. This publication aims at gathering all the relevant data relating the scientific analysis of climate change, greenhouses gas emissions, in particular CO 2 emissions linked to energy use, and the emissions reduction-targeted economic policies. Contents: Part 1 - Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect - Humans and the Greenhouse Effect - Stocks and Flows of GHGs: The Example of CO 2 - Increase in Atmospheric GHG Levels - Concentrations and Temperatures - Global Warming - Warming Differentiated by Latitude - Consequences of Global Warming. Part 2 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Snapshot of Global GHG Emissions - European Panorama of GHGs - French Panorama of GHGs. Part 3 - Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the World: Energy-related CO 2 emissions - CO 2 Emissions due to Electricity Production including CHP Plants - CO 2 Emission Factors. Part 4 - CO 2 Emissions by Sector in Europe and in France: Fuel Combustion: the Largest Emitter of CO 2 - CO 2 Emissions due to Energy Production and Conversion - Transportation-related CO 2 Emissions - Industry-related CO 2 Emissions - CO 2 Emissions in the Other Sectors - CO 2 Emissions excluding Fuel Combustion. Part 5 - Climate Policies: The Kyoto Protocol - The Tradable Permit Market - Project Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol - Other Initiatives to Reduce Emissions - The European Union's Commitment - The European CO 2 Market (EU ETS) - The Carbon Price in the EU ETS - States Climate Policy: The Case of France. Practical information: CO 2 Key Figures - Glossary of Terms - Useful Links

  10. Intersectional Analysis in Critical Mathematics Education Research: A Response to Figure Hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Erika C.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, I use figure hiding as a metaphor representing the processes of exclusion and suppression that critical mathematics education (CME) seeks to address. Figure hiding renders identities and modes of thought in mathematics education and mathematics education research invisible. CME has a commitment to addressing figure hiding by…

  11. The Public/Private Figure Status of Corporate and Executive Libel Plaintiffs after "Gertz."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, Robert E.; Moon, Deborah

    Since 1974, when the Supreme Court concluded in "Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc." that public figures and private figures deserve different treatment under libel law (with private figures needing a lower standard of proof), most lower courts have had to sort out the two categories. From the results in "Gertz" and other cases, three…

  12. Immagini e Concetti in Geometria=The Figural and the Conceptual Components of Geometrical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    1992-01-01

    Discusses geometrical reasoning in the framework of the theory of Figural Concepts to highlight the interaction between the figural and conceptual components of geometrical concepts. Examples of students' difficulties and errors in geometrical reasoning are interpreted according to the internal tension that appears in figural concepts resulting…

  13. "We All We Got": Describing and Connecting Football and Classroom Figured Worlds and Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Lynn L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use literacies in order to build identities in a variety of figured worlds. Some identities become more powerful than others as adolescents attempt to understand and successfully utilize the valuations and literacies of the diverse figured worlds in which they participate. The goals of this study were to describe the figured worlds of…

  14. Figurative Language and Multicultural Education: Metaphors of Language Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Linguistics has long recognised that figurative language in the form of metaphorical expressions structures and communicates attitudes towards the ideas and concepts being expressed and that multilingual students also employ linguistic figures frequently in their writing. In this study, multilingual students use figurative language to both…

  15. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-11-01

    The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure-ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activity in early visual cortex to different stages of figure-ground segregation, we briefly disrupted activity in areas V1/V2 at various moments in time using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to stimulation we presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between figure border detection and surface segregation. We concurrently recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to examine how neural correlates of figure-ground segregation were affected by TMS. Results show that disruption of V1/V2 in an early time window (96-119 msec) affected detection of figure stimuli and affected neural correlates of figure border detection, border ownership, and surface segregation. TMS applied in a relatively late time window (236-259 msec) selectively deteriorated performance associated with surface segregation. We conclude that areas V1/V2 are not only essential in an early stage of figure-ground segregation when figure borders are detected, but subsequently causally contribute to more sophisticated stages of figure-ground segregation such as surface segregation.

  16. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, M.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    .The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual

  17. Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.

    2012-01-01

    This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…

  18. Feedback enhances feedforward figure-ground segmentation by changing firing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Romeo, August

    2011-01-01

    In the visual cortex, feedback projections are conjectured to be crucial in figure-ground segregation. However, the precise function of feedback herein is unclear. Here we tested a hypothetical model of reentrant feedback. We used a previous developed 2-layered feedforward spiking network that is able to segregate figure from ground and included feedback connections. Our computer model data show that without feedback, neurons respond with regular low-frequency (∼9 Hz) bursting to a figure-ground stimulus. After including feedback the firing pattern changed into a regular (tonic) spiking pattern. In this state, we found an extra enhancement of figure responses and a further suppression of background responses resulting in a stronger figure-ground signal. Such push-pull effect was confirmed by comparing the figure-ground responses with the responses to a homogenous texture. We propose that feedback controls figure-ground segregation by influencing the neural firing patterns of feedforward projecting neurons.

  19. Feedback enhances feedforward figure-ground segmentation by changing firing mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Supèr

    Full Text Available In the visual cortex, feedback projections are conjectured to be crucial in figure-ground segregation. However, the precise function of feedback herein is unclear. Here we tested a hypothetical model of reentrant feedback. We used a previous developed 2-layered feedforward spiking network that is able to segregate figure from ground and included feedback connections. Our computer model data show that without feedback, neurons respond with regular low-frequency (∼9 Hz bursting to a figure-ground stimulus. After including feedback the firing pattern changed into a regular (tonic spiking pattern. In this state, we found an extra enhancement of figure responses and a further suppression of background responses resulting in a stronger figure-ground signal. Such push-pull effect was confirmed by comparing the figure-ground responses with the responses to a homogenous texture. We propose that feedback controls figure-ground segregation by influencing the neural firing patterns of feedforward projecting neurons.

  20. Biased figure-ground assignment affects conscious object recognition in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Driver, Jon; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-09-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a disorder of attention and spatial representation, in which early visual processes such as figure-ground segmentation have been assumed to be largely intact. There is evidence, however, that the spatial attention bias underlying neglect can bias the segmentation of a figural region from its background. Relatively few studies have explicitly examined the effect of spatial neglect on processing the figures that result from such scene segmentation. Here, we show that a neglect patient's bias in figure-ground segmentation directly influences his conscious recognition of these figures. By varying the relative salience of figural and background regions in static, two-dimensional displays, we show that competition between elements in such displays can modulate a neglect patient's ability to recognise parsed figures in a scene. The findings provide insight into the interaction between scene segmentation, explicit object recognition, and attention.

  1. The role of shape recognition in figure/ground perception in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah; Jubran, Rachel; Heck, Alison; Chroust, Alyson; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2018-04-30

    In this study we sought to determine whether infants, like adults, utilize previous experience to guide figure/ground processing. After familiarization to a shape, 5-month-olds preferentially attended to the side of an ambiguous figure/ground test stimulus corresponding to that shape, suggesting that they were viewing that portion as the figure. Infants' failure to exhibit this preference in a control condition in which both sides of the test stimulus were displayed as figures indicated that the results in the experimental condition were not due to a preference between two figure shapes. These findings demonstrate for the first time that figure/ground processing in infancy is sensitive to top-down influence. Thus, a critical aspect of figure/ground processing is functional early in life.

  2. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  3. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  4. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  5. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  6. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  7. Eccentric figure-eight coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Masaki; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Takiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Keita; Matsuzaki, Taiga; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Hosomi, Koichi; Saitoh, Youichi

    2015-01-01

    Previously we proposed an eccentric figure-eight coil that can cause threshold stimulation in the brain at lower driving currents. In this study, we performed numerical simulations and magnetic stimulations to healthy subjects for evaluating the advantages of the eccentric coil. The simulations were performed using a simplified spherical brain model and a realistic human brain model. We found that the eccentric coil required a driving current intensity of approximately 18% less than that required by the concentric coil to cause comparable eddy current densities within the brain. The eddy current localization of the eccentric coil was slightly higher than that of the concentric coil. A prototype eccentric coil was designed and fabricated. Instead of winding a wire around a bobbin, we cut eccentric-spiral slits on the insulator cases, and a wire was woven through the slits. The coils were used to deliver magnetic stimulation to healthy subjects; among our results, we found that the current slew rate corresponding to motor threshold values for the concentric and eccentric coils were 86 and 78 A/µs, respectively. The results indicate that the eccentric coil consistently requires a lower driving current to reach the motor threshold than the concentric coil. Future development of compact magnetic stimulators will enable the treatment of some intractable neurological diseases at home. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Human figure drawings and children's recall of touching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Maggie

    2009-12-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children's poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. Copyright 2009 APA

  9. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  10. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013 has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013. Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their communication skills in the daily context (Beloussova, 2015. Investigating how idiomatic expressions are dealt with and processed in a second language or foreign language is an issue worth examining further since it may give language teachers a better idea of some of the strategies language learners use in order to interpret figurative language. Despite their importance, learning and using English idioms by Arab EFL learners have not been investigated extensively, and no research has been conducted on Jordanian students’ idiomatic competency. Thus, the researcher decided to work on these un-tackled issues in the Jordanian context. Most idioms-based investigations are the difficulties Jordanians learners of English face when translating them into Arabic (Hussein, Khanji, and Makhzoumi, 2000; Bataineh and Bataineh, 2002; Alrishan and Smadi, 2015. The analysis of the test showed students’ very poor idiomatic competence; particularly a very limited awareness of the most frequently used idioms despite their overwhelming desire to learn them. Data analysis of the questionnaire revealed the strategies students use and the problems they face in understanding and learning idioms.

  11. Stereographic processing of CT figures in the hip joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomihara, Mitsuo (Kinki Univ., Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    CT scan is widely used in orthopedic examinations. By three-dimentional display of the form of bone and joint, the change of form can be identified and the lesion can be located. CT figures were stereographically processed using a personal computer to display the images of the hip joints. The outlines of the bone seen on the CT film were directly traced with a digitizer, then the A/D converted coordinate data were obtained. The data for each slice were input to the personal computer. After conversion to normal coordinate and magnification, the data were filed on the floppy disc. These data were regained from the disk and made affin transformation to display the stereographic images of the hip joints. In a case of solitary bone cyst of the coxal bone, this method helped us to decide the appropriated surgical approach. For the congenital dysplasia of the hip, acetabular coverage was examined three-dimensionally and postoperative changes were assessed in the cases of shelf operation and intertrochanteric extension osteotomy. In the cases of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, location and size of the necrotic area were clearly visualized and the appropriate surgical procedure could be decided. Moreover, it was useful to decide the degree of rotation of the femoral head in rotational osteotomy. (author) 61 refs.

  12. Morbidity figures from general practice: sex differences in traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine; Grosicar, Janja

    2010-08-01

    Trauma prevention starts with to find out the extent of the problem and who it affects. Insight into morbidity figures is therefore necessary. To explore sex differences in traumatology and secondary medical care utilization in primary care related to age and socio-economic status (SES). Data were obtained from an academic continuous morbidity registration project in the Netherlands in the period from 1996 to 2006, in which 13,000 patients were followed in 10 successive years. Sex differences showed a male excess from childhood to 45 years and women showing almost double trauma rates in the elderly. Low SES was associated with the greatest incidence of traumas. The largest sex difference in incidence above 65 years appeared in the high SES with more traumas in women compared with men. From this age on, female morbidity in traumatology outnumbered male morbidity regardless of SES. Considering use of referrals, we found that in the age group 15-45 years men made a greater use of secondary medical care. However, the vastest gender influence in medical care utilization was noticed in the age group over 65 years, outnumbered with women. Young men and old women are the most at risk for traumatic health problems: men presenting with traumata of the skull, the tibia and ocular trauma's and women with fractures of the femur, humerus and wrist. For both men and women the greatest incidence is in the low SES. Family physicians can play a pivotal role in prevention to focus on their patients with high risks.

  13. The figure of the teacher in Estonian school discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Puumeister

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns itself with the figure of the teacher in Estonian society. We do not concentrate on the educational system as a whole, but on one specific and crucial element in this apparatus - the teacher. We begin by offering a brief historical overview of the conditions of pedagogues in the 20th century before moving on to describe the adoption of neo-liberal free market policies since the 1990s and the effects these policies had and still have on education. Our main concern is to understand the teacher as an actor in power relations; to achieve this understanding we have selected as our examples 1 surveillance techniques in school environment that have direct relations to the state and the market; and 2 the 2012 educational workers' strike that made it quite clear that the teachers have been fixed to a position of wage workers. The overall and more abstract aim of the paper is to think about the social role of the teacher in Estonia.

  14. Factors associated with escalation and problematic approaches toward public figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; James, David V; Mullen, Paul E; Pathé, Michele T; Farnham, Frank R; Preston, Lulu F; Darnley, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Detailed comparison of factors associated with abnormal approach to the prominent and with escalation from communication to approach has not hitherto been undertaken. This partially reflects the failure of individual studies to adopt compatible terminologies. This study involves a careful dissection of six public figure studies, three involving U.S. politicians, two Hollywood celebrities, and one the British Royal Family. Common findings were unearthed across six headings. Approachers were significantly more likely to exhibit serious mental illness, engage in multiple means of communication, involve multiple contacts/targets, and to incorporate into their communication requests for help. They were significantly less likely to use threatening or antagonistic language in their communications, except in those cases involving security breaches. These results emphasize the importance of integrating mental health findings and preventive measures into risk management. Approach should not be regarded as a single behavioral category and has multiple motivations. Future studies should adopt standard terminology, preferably taken from the general stalking research. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A estrutura fatorial do Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar evidências de validade do Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil, instrumento que visa avaliar 12 características criativas (Fluência, Flexibilidade, Elaboração, Originalidade, Expressão de Emoção, Perspectiva Incomum, Perspectiva Interna, Fantasia, Movimento, Uso de Contexto, Extensão de Limites e Títulos Expressivos, uma análise fatorial foi realizada visando uma melhor compreensão acerca do agrupamento dessas características. Estudantes de 1a a 8a séries do Ensino Fundamental (n=1253, 599F / 654M responderam ao instrumento. A análise fatorial apontou uma estrutura composta por quatro fatores (enriquecimento de idéias, aspectos cognitivos, emotividade e preparação criativa, que foi adotado como modelo de interpretação do instrumento devido à sua consistência com a literatura científica.

  16. Re-accumulation of Asteroids to Equilibrium Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, D.; Tanga, P.; Richardson, D. C.; Berthier, J.; Cellino, A.; Durech, J.; Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    Since their formation, asteroids since their formation have experienced little physical, geological or thermal evolution. Like comets they are thought to be among the most pristine remnants of the early solar system. One physical process, however, has played a major role since the ancient times: collisions. Dynamical families were produced by catastrophic collisions involving large enough energy to break the parent body. Other lines of evidence suggest that catastrophic collisions can also produce rubble-piles, i.e., loosely bound of post-collisional aggregates that re-accumulate to form a single body, and are kept together by gravity. The main objective of this work is to understand if—and under what conditions—Jacobi ellipsoids or other equilibrium figures can be obtained naturally by this way. This is done by performing numerical experiments simulating the re-accumulation process, and by performing high-angular resolution observations in order to better constrain the shape and density of the targets. It is shown that the outcomes of reaccumulation events tend to produce a rather narrow variety of possible shapes, and in some cases also binary systems.

  17. Documents and detachment in the figurational sociology of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy Dolan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological implications of using a figurational approach to the study of Gaelic games (the Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football and their organisation and governance from the late nineteenth century onwards. Following Norbert Elias, we argue that data generation guided by theories, and potentially modifying such theories, are essential components of research endeavours. The problem of generalisation or representativeness of historical documents can be addressed by treating documents as part of a fi guration of evidence, thereby constituting a mutually supporting network of data that serves as a scaffold or structure for theoretical and empirical findings. Based on the experience of using documents such as newspaper and referee reports of matches, and also organisational documents such as the minutes of meetings at various levels of governance, we contribute to the discussion concerning borders and boundary maintenance between history, sociology and historical sociology. While we elaborate on the Eliasian perspective on emotional detachment, and secondary involvement, when conducting research, we also note the dificulties in avoiding ‘preferred’ readings of national history given that Gaelic games have been intertwined with the narrative and project of national self-determination in Ireland. Researchers are compelled to recognise the theoretical significance of sports as a motor and symbol of emotional identifications, but must also create distance from their own national habitus in order to prioritise participation in intergenerational knowledge generation over further national myth-making.

  18. Key figures on climate France and Worldwide. 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a synthesis on the climate in France and in the World. Contents: 1 - Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect, Humans and the Greenhouse Effect, Stocks and Flows of GHGs: The Example of CO 2 , Increase in Atmospheric GHG Levels, Concentrations and Temperatures, Global Warming, Warming Differentiated by Latitude, Consequences of Global Warming; 2 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Snapshot of Global GHG Emissions, European Panorama of GHGs, French Panorama of GHGs; 3 - Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the World: 3.1 Energy-related CO 2 emissions, CO 2 Emissions due to Electricity Production including CHP Plants, CO 2 Emission Factors; 4 - CO 2 Emissions by Sector in Europe and in France: Fuel Combustion: the Largest Emitter of CO 2 , CO 2 Emissions due to Energy Production and Conversion, Transportation-related CO 2 Emissions, Industry-related CO 2 Emissions, CO 2 Emissions in the Other Sectors, CO 2 Emissions excluding Fuel Combustion; 5 - Climate Policies: The Kyoto Protocol, The Tradable Permit Market, Project Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, The European Union's Commitment, European CO 2 Market (EU ETS), Towards a Price Signal for CO 2 Emissions, States Climate Policy: The Case of France, Other Initiatives to Reduce Emissions; 6 - Practical information: CO 2 Key Figures, Glossary of Terms, Useful Links

  19. A neural model of figure-ground organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Edward; Schütze, Hartmut; Niebur, Ernst; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    Psychophysical studies suggest that figure-ground organization is a largely autonomous process that guides--and thus precedes--allocation of attention and object recognition. The discovery of border-ownership representation in single neurons of early visual cortex has confirmed this view. Recent theoretical studies have demonstrated that border-ownership assignment can be modeled as a process of self-organization by lateral interactions within V2 cortex. However, the mechanism proposed relies on propagation of signals through horizontal fibers, which would result in increasing delays of the border-ownership signal with increasing size of the visual stimulus, in contradiction with experimental findings. It also remains unclear how the resulting border-ownership representation would interact with attention mechanisms to guide further processing. Here we present a model of border-ownership coding based on dedicated neural circuits for contour grouping that produce border-ownership assignment and also provide handles for mechanisms of selective attention. The results are consistent with neurophysiological and psychophysical findings. The model makes predictions about the hypothetical grouping circuits and the role of feedback between cortical areas.

  20. Theatre as a Figure and a Place of Cultural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kapushevska-Drakulevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultural memory is the starting point for studying culture. Theatre, on the other hand, is a multidimensional play with memory; it is an emblem of a certain culture, and of the overall blending of various discourses within it. Hence the relation between theatre and memory is rather complex and multifaceted. Theatre is a medium synthesising text and performance, speech and gesture (play, acting, as well as establishing direct, at least doubly articulated communication: among the actors on stage on the one hand, and between the actors and the audience on the other. They are all subjects of theatrical memory. Theatre not only uses memory in order to create the plot, develop the characters or establish communication with the audience, but also becomes a figure of memory itself: a culturally modelled, socially mandated (iconic, narrative, etc. memory image (Assman. Additionally, theatre may be considered a place of memory, as well. But theatre is not a simple mnemonic of repeating reality—it is not merely a simulacrum, but also a quotation of reality; it does not aim to copy or memorise reality, but to represent it and interpret it critically. This is particularly true of the contemporary rough theatre of brutality.

  1. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchartz, Thomas

    2018-03-02

    While substantial progress in the efficiency of polymer-based solar cells was possible by optimizing the energy levels of the polymer and more recently also the acceptor molecule, further progress beyond 10% efficiency requires a number of criteria to be fulfilled simultaneously, namely, low energy-level offsets at the donor–acceptor heterojunction, low open-circuit voltage losses due to nonradiative recombination, and efficient charge transport and collection. In this feature article we discuss these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide applicability, we focus on FOMs that are easily accessible from common experiments. We demonstrate the relevance of these FOMs by looking at the historic and recent achievements of organic solar cells. We hope that the presented FOMs are or will become a valuable tool to evaluate, monitor, and guide further development of new organic absorber materials for solar cells.

  2. Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-06-03

    Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Hirotaka; Kono, Reika; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the position of rectus muscle pulleys in Japanese eyes and to evaluate the effect of oblique muscle surgery on rectus muscle pulleys. Quasi-coronal plane MRI was used to determine area centroids of the 4 rectus muscles. The area centroids of the rectus muscles were transformed to 2-dimensional coordinates to represent pulley positions. The effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley positions in the coronal plane were evaluated in 10 subjects with cyclovertical strabismus and, as a control, pulley locations in 7 normal Japanese subjects were calculated. The mean positions of the rectus muscle pulleys in the coronal plane did not significantly differ from previous reports on normal populations, including Caucasians. There were significant positional shifts of the individual horizontal and vertical rectus muscle pulleys in 3 (100%) patients with inferior oblique advancement, but not in eyes with inferior oblique recession and superior oblique tendon advancement surgery. The surgical cyclorotatory effect was significantly correlated with the change in the angle of inclination formed by the line connecting the vertical rectus muscles (p=0.0234), but weakly correlated with that of the horizontal rectus muscles. The most important factor that affects the pulley position is the amount of ocular torsion, not the difference in surgical procedure induced by oblique muscle surgery. (author)

  4. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  6. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  7. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  8. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  9. Human figure drawing distinguishes Alzheimer's patients: a cognitive screening test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani Maserati, Michelangelo; D'Onofrio, Renato; Matacena, Corrado; Sambati, Luisa; Oppi, Federico; Poda, Roberto; De Matteis, Maddalena; Naldi, Ilaria; Liguori, Rocco; Capellari, Sabina

    2018-05-01

    To study human figure drawing in a group of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and compare it with a group of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls. We evaluated consecutive outpatients over a one-year period. Patients were classified as affected by AD or by MCI. All patients and controls underwent a simplified version of the human-figure drawing test and MMSE. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of all human figures was obtained. 112 AD, 100 MCI patients and 104 controls were enrolled. AD patients drew human figures poor in details and globally smaller than MCI patients and controls. Human figures drawn by MCI patients are intermediate in body height between those of the AD patients and the healthy subjects. The head-to-body ratio of human figures drawn by AD patients is greater than controls and MCI patients, while the human figure size-relative-to-page space index is significantly smaller. Body height is an independent predictor of cognitive impairment correlating with its severity and with the number of the figure's details. Human figures drawn by AD patients are different from those drawn by healthy subjects and MCI patients. Human figure drawing test is a useful tool for orienting cognitive impairment's diagnosis.

  10. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  11. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here and still get the great care and treatment I received in Michigan.” MDA Is Here to Help You T he Muscular Dystrophy Association offers a vast array of services to help you and your family deal with metabolic diseases of muscle. The staff at your local MDA office is ...

  12. Thirteen years of the fight against doping in figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Millán; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Plata, María Del Mar; Del Coso, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Every year, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes the main statistics reported by the accredited laboratories, which provide very valuable information for assessing changes in the patterns of doping in sports over time. Using the information provided since 2003 as the basis for the analysis, the evolution of doping/anti-doping figures over the last decade can be examined in reasonable detail, at least in reference to samples analyzed and categories of substances more commonly found in athletes' samples. This brief analysis of the WADA statistical reports leads us to the following outcomes: the increase in anti-doping pressure from 2003 to 2015, as evidenced by increased numbers of samples analyzed and banned substances, has not directly produced a higher frequency of adverse/atypical findings. Although this could be interpreted as steady state in the capacity to detect doping through this whole period, it also resulted in a significant increase in the absolute number of samples catalogued as doping (from 2247 in 2003 to 5912 in 2015). Anabolic agents have been the most common doping substances detected in all statistics reports while the remaining groups of substances are much less frequently found in doping control samples. Given that one might have expected the enhancement of the anti-doping programme led by WADA over this last decade to have increased the percentage of adverse/atypical findings, the fact that it did not might indicate the need to take another step in sampling strategies, such as 'more intelligent testing' based on the differences in the prevalence of doping substances among sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Key figures on climate France, Europe and Worldwide. Edition 2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Duvernoy, Jerome; Vailles, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    In line with previous years, the 2018 edition of 'Key figures on climate' has been written in the context of the 22. Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) held in Bonn from 6 to 17 November 2017. This latest version was updated relative to the 2017 edition. New data sources have been used for emissions factors and the part on the carbon footprint was further developed. The part on climate policies notably deals with the Paris Agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP 21. Several data sets, displayed in graphs in this document are also available in tables on the web version. Content: 1 - What is climate change? This part summarizes the scientific basis of climate change, including indicators, causes and possible consequences of global warming. 2 - Which amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted globally? The focus here is on the most relevant data related to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, in particular the geographic distribution of these emissions. 3 - How much greenhouse gas is emitted in Europe and in France? A complete overview of GHG emissions statistics in Europe and in France is presented in this part as well as estimates of the carbon footprint of French people. 4 - What is the sectoral distribution of GHG emissions in Europe and in France? This part features the detailed evolution since 1990 of GHG emissions in the following economic sectors: energy sector, transports, industry, residential and tertiary, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste management. 5 - Which climate policies in the world, in Europe and in France? The main climate policies are described at each level: global, European and French

  14. Key Figures of the Russian Vanguard: Historical Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Lapshina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article activity of sign figures of the Russian vanguard of Vladimir Evgrafovich Tatlin, the first Soviet designer, and Efim Vladimirovich Ravdel, the first rector of the Highest state art and technical workshops is considered. The special attention is paid to the Penza period of their life. In 1905 Tatlin began the vocational education in Penza in Art school of N.D. Seliverstov upon termination of whom gained the diploma of the artist with the right of teaching drawing, drawing and calligraphy. During training he was admitted to school in Tsege's salon, participated in an exhibition of the third salon of the Golden Fleece magazine in Moscow. Then Tatlin moves to Moscow where arranges own workshop. Revolutionary events found Tatlin in St. Petersburg where he became the informal leader of «futurists». In April, 1918 he was appointed the chairman of the Moscow art board of Department FROM Narkompros. He taught in picturesque workshops of the Moscow and Petrograd Svomas. Ravdel since 1918 was the head of department of arts of Board of National education of the Penza provincial council of country and working deputies; I organized drama studio, national conservatory, the museum; I participated in exhibitions, debates, etc. In detail the reform of the Penza art school (1918-1920 which was carried out by it, attraction of pedagogical shots (D.P. Buryshkin, D.M. Iofan, etc., a set of entrants, etc. is considered; creation of an architectural workshop of the Penza free state art workshops. In 1920 Ravdel went to Moscow where held the rector's position of Highest state art and technical workshops (1920-1923.

  15. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  16. Key figures on climate France and Worldwide - 2017 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Duvernoy, Jerome; Vailles, Charlotte; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Hiblot, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    In line with previous years, the 2017 edition of 'Key figures on climate' has been written in the context of the 22. Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) held in Marrakech from 7 to 18 November 2016. This latest version, published as part of the new 'datalab' collection of the General commission for sustainable development was updated and expanded relative to the 2016 edition. New data sources have been used for the part on global CO_2 emissions. The part on climate policies was further developed, and notably deals with the Paris agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP 21. Moreover, the analysis of climate finance (current climate investments and climate finance needs) has been expanded. About the form, and with a goal of simplification, some data previously displayed in both a graph and a table is now presented only in a graph. Content: Part 1: What is climate change? This part summarizes the scientific basis of climate change, including indicators, causes and possible consequences of global warming. Part 2: Which amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted globally? The focus here is on the most relevant data related to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, in particular the geographic distribution of these emissions. Part 3: How much greenhouse gas is emitted in Europe and in France? A complete overview of GHG emissions statistics in Europe and in France is presented in this part as well as estimates of the carbon footprint of French people. Part 4: What is the sectoral distribution of GHG emissions in Europe and in France? This part features the detailed evolution since 1990 of GHG emissions in the following economic sectors: energy sector, transports, industry, residential and tertiary, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste management. Part 5: Which climate policies in the world, in Europe and in France? The main climate policies are described at each level: global, European and French

  17. Figures of desire and repression in the Conformist by Bertolucci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ivaldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il Conformista di Moravia (1951, ambientato in epoca fascista, narra la vicenda di Marcello, membro dell’OVRA ossessionato dalla necessità di sentirsi uguale agli altri. Si tratta di un romanzo a tesi che lega l’omosessualità alla repressione e al fascismo. L’operazione di riscrittura di Bertolucci (1970 potenzia la chiave freudiana: sul grande schermo, la ferrea progressione temporale e causale del romanzo è scardinata attraverso un uso spregiudicato del flashback, mentre scompare ogni accenno al fato e Marcello diventa filtro dell'intera narrazione. La psicoanalisi rappresenta la chiave di volta che regge il film, sostituendo la meccanicità progressiva del fato con la bi-logica dell’inconscio. Per tacitare la propria omosessualità – non accettata a livello sociale ma, prima di tutto, dal protagonista stesso – Marcello tenta di conformarsi in tutto e per tutto alla società e al particolare momento storico-politico. Il matrimonio e l’adesione al fascismo sono i due strumenti di questa strategia di conformismo; le figure femminili, in particolare, attraverso un gioco di duplicazioni e rispecchiamenti, ricoprono un ruolo cardine, configurandosi ora come oggetto di un desiderio reale ora invece di un desiderio mediato dalla volontà di rimozione e negazione delle pulsioni non accettabili, dei ricordi indicibili e dei sensi di colpa. Giocando con l’immagine, il montaggio e le interferenze col sonoro, Bertolucci sembra suggerire infatti significati profondi, che contrastano con la superficie del testo, e proporre una particolare declinazione della “retorica freudiana” del testo: richiamandosi all’approccio critico psicanalitico offerto da Francesco Orlando, l’intervento indaga le manifestazioni semiotico-linguistiche della formazione di compromesso fra desiderio e negazione da parte del protagonista ed analizza alcuni momenti del film che riflettono simultaneamente le due forze psichiche in contrasto.

  18. [The spirometry figures of bronchoobstructive syndrome in concomitant intestinal parasitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, K; Aliyeva, G; Gadjiyeva, N

    2010-02-01

    The aim of research is to study of the spirometry figures of bronchoobstructive syndrome in concomitant intestinal parasitosis. There are 81 patients aged from 5 to 61 years (male 43, female 38) were examined. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 group - patients treated only with bronchodilator therapy (14 patients with protozoa, 14 - with helminth, 12 - with combination of parasitosis); 2 group - patients treated with bronchodilator therapy in common with anti-parasitic therapy (14 patients with protozoa, 17 - with helminth, 10 - with combination of parasitosis). There are 22 patients with bronchoobstructive syndrome without parasites were included in control group. Functional disorders at the initial examination are not significantly distinguished between patients with protozoa, helminth, with combined parasitosis and patients without parasites. Considerable differences manifested in dynamics after treatment: only bronchodilator therapy of patients infected with parasites is not lead to sufficient increase of the indices of external respiration function, even the decreasing of the most parameters were observed in patients with helminth. The least growth of spirometric indices were observed in patients from group 1 - 2,17/ 5,09% predicted volumes (-6,81min; 10,54max), the highest growth were observed in patients from group 2 - 20,26/ 12,45% p.v. (2,77min; 43,85max). The spirographic indicators increase after treatment in the control group was more moderate in comparison with 1 and 2 groups - 5,96/ 2,97% p.v. (0,39min; 9,59max). Thus, using antiparasitic therapy in common with bronchodilator therapy in treatment of patients with intestinal parasitosis (group 2) is lead to the reliably significant positive dynamic of spirometry parameters in comparison not only to 1 group (<0,05 for many parameters) but also to control group (<0,01 for many parameters).

  19. Preliminary investigations on the effects of a Strongylus vulgaris larval extract, mononuclear factors and platelet factors on equine smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S J; Storts, R W; Stromberg, P C; Sowa, B A; Lay, J C

    1989-01-01

    Factors involved in the proliferation of equine vascular smooth muscle cells were studied in vitro. The most prominent proliferative responses in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells were induced by Strongylus vulgaris larval antigen extract (LAE) and platelet-derived factors. Less significant proliferative responses were obtained with conditioned media from S. vulgaris LAE stimulated and from unstimulated equine mononuclear leukocytes. Additionally, vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to S. vulgaris LAE developed numerous perinuclear vacuoles and were more spindle-shaped than control or smooth muscle cells exposed to other factors. Equine mononuclear leukocytes exposed to LAE developed prominent morphological changes, including enlargement, clumping and increased numbers of mitotic figures.

  20. Recovery Effect of the Muscle Fatigue by the Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kousuke; Nuruki, Atsuo; Tsujimura, Sei-Ichi; Tamari, Youzou; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of magnetic stimulation for muscle fatigue. The six healthy subjects participated in the experiment with the repetition grasp using a hand dynamometer. The measurement of EMG (electromyography) and MMG (mechanomyography) is performed on the left forearm. All subjects performed MVC (maximum voluntary contraction), and repeated exercise in 80%MVC after the MVC measurement. The repetition task was entered when display muscular strength deteriorated. We used an EMG and MMG for the measurement of the muscle fatigue. Provided EMG and MMG waves were calculated integral calculus value (iEMG, and iMMG). The result of iEMG and iMMG were divided by muscular strength, because we calculate integral calculus value per the unit display muscular strength. The result of our study, we found recovery effect by the magnetic stimulation in voluntarily muscular strength and iEMG. However, we can not found in a figure of iMMG.

  1. Altered figure-ground perception in monkeys with an extra-striate lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Lamme, Victor A F

    2007-11-05

    The visual system binds and segments the elements of an image into coherent objects and their surroundings. Recent findings demonstrate that primary visual cortex is involved in this process of figure-ground organization. In the primary visual cortex the late part of a neural response to a stimulus correlates with figure-ground segregation and perception. Such a late onset indicates an involvement of feedback projections from higher visual areas. To investigate the possible role of feedback in figure-ground perception we removed dorsal extra-striate areas of the monkey visual cortex. The findings show that figure-ground perception is reduced when the figure is presented in the lesioned hemifield and perception is normal when the figure appeared in the intact hemifield. In conclusion, our observations show the importance for recurrent processing in visual perception.

  2. Feed-forward segmentation of figure-ground and assignment of border-ownership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Supèr

    Full Text Available Figure-ground is the segmentation of visual information into objects and their surrounding backgrounds. Two main processes herein are boundary assignment and surface segregation, which rely on the integration of global scene information. Recurrent processing either by intrinsic horizontal connections that connect surrounding neurons or by feedback projections from higher visual areas provide such information, and are considered to be the neural substrate for figure-ground segmentation. On the contrary, a role of feedforward projections in figure-ground segmentation is unknown. To have a better understanding of a role of feedforward connections in figure-ground organization, we constructed a feedforward spiking model using a biologically plausible neuron model. By means of surround inhibition our simple 3-layered model performs figure-ground segmentation and one-sided border-ownership coding. We propose that the visual system uses feed forward suppression for figure-ground segmentation and border-ownership assignment.

  3. Feed-forward segmentation of figure-ground and assignment of border-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Romeo, August; Keil, Matthias

    2010-05-19

    Figure-ground is the segmentation of visual information into objects and their surrounding backgrounds. Two main processes herein are boundary assignment and surface segregation, which rely on the integration of global scene information. Recurrent processing either by intrinsic horizontal connections that connect surrounding neurons or by feedback projections from higher visual areas provide such information, and are considered to be the neural substrate for figure-ground segmentation. On the contrary, a role of feedforward projections in figure-ground segmentation is unknown. To have a better understanding of a role of feedforward connections in figure-ground organization, we constructed a feedforward spiking model using a biologically plausible neuron model. By means of surround inhibition our simple 3-layered model performs figure-ground segmentation and one-sided border-ownership coding. We propose that the visual system uses feed forward suppression for figure-ground segmentation and border-ownership assignment.

  4. Feedback Enhances Feedforward Figure-Ground Segmentation by Changing Firing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supèr, Hans; Romeo, August

    2011-01-01

    In the visual cortex, feedback projections are conjectured to be crucial in figure-ground segregation. However, the precise function of feedback herein is unclear. Here we tested a hypothetical model of reentrant feedback. We used a previous developed 2-layered feedforwardspiking network that is able to segregate figure from ground and included feedback connections. Our computer model data show that without feedback, neurons respond with regular low-frequency (∼9 Hz) bursting to a figure-ground stimulus. After including feedback the firing pattern changed into a regular (tonic) spiking pattern. In this state, we found an extra enhancement of figure responses and a further suppression of background responses resulting in a stronger figure-ground signal. Such push-pull effect was confirmed by comparing the figure-ground responses withthe responses to a homogenous texture. We propose that feedback controlsfigure-ground segregation by influencing the neural firing patterns of feedforward projecting neurons. PMID:21738747

  5. Shape recognition contributions to figure-ground reversal: which route counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M A; Harvey, E M; Weidenbacher, H J

    1991-11-01

    Observers viewed upright and inverted versions of figure-ground stimuli, in which Gestalt variables specified that the center was figure. In upright versions, the surround was high in denotivity, in that most viewers agreed it depicted the same shape; in inverted versions, the surround was low in denotivity. The surround was maintained as figure longer and was more likely to be obtained as figure when the stimuli were upright rather than inverted. In four experiments, these effects reflected inputs to figure-ground computations from orientation-specific shape representations only. To account for these findings, a nonratiomorphic mechanism is proposed that enables shape recognition processes before figure-ground relationships are determined.

  6. CHANGES AND MODIFICATIONS OF THE TROUSERS PATENS FOR NON-STANDARD FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDACEVSCHI SVETLANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems faced by the constructors of clothing goods are the non-standard figures of the human body. The present article examines the possibilities of modifying the curve of women’s trousers. The author proposes methods of chang­ing the basic drawing of the women’s trousers for figures with non-standard figures and to use these methods in the process of training in specialized educational institutions.

  7. Neural Dynamics of Feedforward and Feedback Processing in Figure-Ground Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver W. Layton; Ennio eMingolla; Arash eYazdanbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation) is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with feedback playing only a modulatory role. We present a dynamical model of figure-ground segregation in the primate ventral stream wherein feedba...

  8. Contextual effects on perceived contrast: figure-ground assignment and orientation contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Matthew W; Mookhoek, Aart; Tjalma, Nienke; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2015-02-02

    Figure-ground segregation is an important step in the path leading to object recognition. The visual system segregates objects ('figures') in the visual scene from their backgrounds ('ground'). Electrophysiological studies in awake-behaving monkeys have demonstrated that neurons in early visual areas increase their firing rate when responding to a figure compared to responding to the background. We hypothesized that similar changes in neural firing would take place in early visual areas of the human visual system, leading to changes in the perception of low-level visual features. In this study, we investigated whether contrast perception is affected by figure-ground assignment using stimuli similar to those in the electrophysiological studies in monkeys. We measured contrast discrimination thresholds and perceived contrast for Gabor probes placed on figures or the background and found that the perceived contrast of the probe was increased when it was placed on a figure. Furthermore, we tested how this effect compared with the well-known effect of orientation contrast on perceived contrast. We found that figure-ground assignment and orientation contrast produced changes in perceived contrast of a similar magnitude, and that they interacted. Our results demonstrate that figure-ground assignment influences perceived contrast, consistent with an effect of figure-ground assignment on activity in early visual areas of the human visual system. © 2015 ARVO.

  9. Plotter of pole figure using data from x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any polycrystalline aggregate normally has a preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture which depends on its thermal and or mechanical history. Preferred orientation is best described by means of a pole figure. A pole figure is a stereographic projection which shows the variation in pole density with pole orientation, for a selected set of crystal planes. In this work, computer programs was developed to plot pole figures. The corrected intensities are calculated and directly transmitted to the plotter. The different intensities levels are represented by different colors in the pole figure. (author)

  10. Bruxas: figuras de poder Witches: figures of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Basso Menna Barreto Gomes Zordan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As mulheres que tanto a história como a imaginação popular mitificaram como "bruxas" constituem figuras que expurgam as fobias da Contra Reforma. As bruxas foram torturadas e queimadas para sinalizar os perigos de práticas e saberes à margem da Igreja e de outras instituições dominantes na Idade Moderna. Parteiras, curandeiras e carpideiras, as bruxas misturam em seu caldeirão os mistérios da vida e da morte herdados das tradições pagãs. Este artigo percorre textos de historiadores, em especial o de Jules Michelet, que no século XIX construiu a imagem romântica e martirizada da bruxa, e o manual de inquisidores do século XIV, o Malleus Maleficarum, que descreve os poderes da bruxa, sua aliança com o demônio e sua ameaça para o cristianismo. Os discursos instaurados por tais textos constroem tanto a imagem que glorifica a bruxa quanto aquela que a execra, mostrando ambas o potencial transformador de suas práticas e de sua ligação com a sexualidade.The women whom history and popular imagination mythicized as "witches" constitute figures that purge the phobias of the Counter Reformation. Witches were tortured and burned to signal the dangers of practices and knowledge in the margins of the Church and other dominant institutions in the Modern Age. Midwives, healers and weepers, the witches blend in their large kettle the mysteries of life and death inherited from pagan traditions. This paper examines some historians' texts, especially that of Jules Michelet, who created the witch's romantic and martyred image, and the inquisitors' manual Malleus Maleficarum, that describes the witch's powers, her alliance with the demon and her threat to Christianity. These texts establish, through their different discourses, two opposing images: one that glorifies witches and another that execrates them, in order to show the transforming potential of their practices and their connection with sexuality.

  11. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  12. Muscle cooling delays activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T

    1997-11-01

    Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.

  13. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scient...

  14. MUSCLE TENSION DYSPHONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hočevar Boltežar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD is the cause of hoarseness in almost one half of the patients with voice disorders. The otorhinolaryngologic examination discovers no evident organic lesions in the larynx at least in the beginning of the voice problems. The reason for the hoarse voice is a disordered and maladjusted activity of the muscles taking part in phonation and/or articulation. In some patients, the irregular function of the larynx results in mucosal lesions on vocal folds. The factors participating in the development of MTD, directly or indirectly influence the quality of laryngeal mucosa, the activity of the phonatory muscles and/or increase of the vocal load. In the diagnostics and treatment of the MTD a phoniatrician, a speech and language therapist and a psychologist closely cooperate with the patient who must take an active role. The treatment is a long-lasting one but resulted in a high percentage of clinical success.Conclusions. Most likely, MTD is not a special disease but only a reflection of any disorder in the complicated system of regulation and realization of phonation. The prognosis of treatment is good when all unfavourable factors participating in development of MTD are eliminated and a proper professional voice- and psychotherapy started.

  15. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGES USED IN COELHOS’S NOVEL ENTITLED “ALCHEMIST”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Dinillah Harya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The title of this study is, “An Analysis of Figurative Languages Used in Paulo Coelho’s novel Entitled “The Alchemist”. The objectives of the study are to describe the types of the figurative language found in the book and to identify the contextual meaning of the figurative language. The method used in collecting the data related to the subject of this research is documentation method because the researcher collected the data from novel. This study was conducted by collecting any relevant data and information about the topic or problem of the study from novels and internet that are available for the analysis. The data collection used the following steps: reading the novel, and then selecting the data that used the types of figurative language. While the steps to analyze the data are identifying the types of figurative language according to Leech, identifying the contextual meaning of the figurative language, and the last is interpreting the data.The result shows that there are 70 sentences that have figurative language. From all the sentences, there are 30 items or 42.9% of simile, 27 items or 38.6% of personification, 12 items or 17.1% of metaphor, and 1 item or 1.4% of hyperbole. It can be indicated that the dominant type of figurative language in the novel is simile. The author uses simile to explain circumstances, to describe the characters, to express emotion of the characters, and to make his writing more vivid and entertaining. It can be concluded that figurative language has important roles in this novel. That‘s why the author used so many sentences that have figurative language in this novel. Using figurative language makes the novel more interesting to read, and helps the readers to imagine the story, the character based on the illustration that the author has already given in the story.

  17. Extraocular myositis in a female puppy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... ventral, ventromedial or medial strabismus have been reported (Allgoewer et al., 2000). The pathogenesis of this condition is not fully understood, but the one dominant histopathologic picture of the condition is that of mononuclear cellular infiltration (Carpenter et al.,. 1989; Ramsey et al., 1995; Evans et al., ...

  18. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  19. Vitamin D and muscle trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, discrepancies still exist about an enhancement or a decrease of muscle proliferation and differentiation by the vitamin D. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. Finally, apart from its genomic and nongenomic effects, recent investigations have demonstrated a genetic contribution of vitamin D to muscle functioning. Recent studies support the importance of vitamin D in muscle health, and the impact of its deficiency in regard to muscle mass and function. These 'trophic' properties are of particular importance for some specific populations such as elderly persons and athletes, and in situations of loss of muscle mass or function, particularly in the context of chronic diseases.

  20. Figurative and Operative Bases of Memory: Evidence from Normal and Learning Disabled Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Mary L.; Liben, Lynn S.

    A set of studies investigated the relative importance of operative schemes and figurative (rote) memory. In Study I, 60 concrete operational children from grades 1-4 were asked to reconstruct two types of stimuli from memory. In order to separate the effects of operative and figurative skill use, learning disabled children with poor figurative…