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Sample records for extraocular muscle enlargement

  1. Extraocular muscle function testing

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    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  2. Orbital T-Cell Lymphoma with Discrete Enlargements of All Extraocular Muscles Bilaterally in Patient with Moon Face Countenance

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    Hideaki Kawakami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report our findings in a case of orbital T-cell lymphoma in which all of the extraocular muscles (EOMs were bilaterally and discretely enlarged and the patient had a moon face countenance. Case. A 59-year-old woman presented with visual disturbances in her left eye, hyperemia in both eyes, and a moon face countenance. Examinations showed limited upward gaze in the right eye, blepharoptosis, hypertropia, and limited downward and rightward gaze in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed only chemosis and hyperemia of both eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed discrete enlargements of the muscle bellies in all EOMs without abnormalities of the orbital fat in both eyes. Blood examinations excluded thyroid- and IgG4-related ophthalmopathy, and EOM biopsy revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. After beginning aggressive chemotherapy, the enlarged EOMs, limited eye motility, and moon face countenance improved. Unfortunately, the patient died of sepsis during the chemotherapy. Conclusions. A lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of eyes with enlarged EOMs. Because lymphomas can lead to death, it is important for clinicians to consider lymphomas in eyes with enlarged EOMs.

  3. Extraocular muscle architecture in hawks and owls.

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    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Segev, Tamar; Grow, Wade; Hall, Margaret I

    2018-02-06

    A complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. This is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. To better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically. This sample was composed of two each of the following species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and barn owl (Tyto alba). All extraocular muscles were dissected and weighed. To analyze muscle fiber architecture, the superior oblique and quadratus muscles were dissected, weighed, and sectioned at 5 μm thickness in the transverse plane. We calculated the physiologic cross-sectional area and the ratio of muscle mass to predicted effective maximum tetanic tension. Hawk and owl extraocular muscles exhibit significant physiological differences that play roles in ocular movements and closure of the nictitating membrane. Owls, which do not exhibit extraocular movement, have muscle architecture suited to stabilize the position of a massive, tubular eye that protrudes significantly from the orbit. Hawks, which have a more globose eye that is largely contained within the orbit, do not require as much muscular stability and instead have muscle architecture that facilitates rapid eye movement. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles

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    Leyla Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM is a rare disorder characterized by hereditary non-progressive restrictive strabismus and blepharoptosis. Although most of the cases are bilateral and isolated, some patients may have systemic findings. CFEOM is divided into three groups as CFEOM 1, 2, and 3 according to the phenotype. Primary responsible genes are KIF21A for CFEOM type 1 and 3 and PHOX2A/ARIX gene for CFEOM type 2. Studies suggest that abnormal innervation of the extraocular muscles is the cause of muscle fibrosis. Early treatment is important because of the risk of amblyopia. Surgery is the primary treatment option for strabismus and blepharoptosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 312-5

  5. Determinants of Extraocular Muscle Volume in Patients with Graves' Disease

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    Samer El-Kaissi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To examine factors contributing to extraocular muscle (EOM volume enlargement in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Methods. EOM volumes were measured with orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 39 patients with recently diagnosed Graves’ disease, and compared to EOM volumes of 13 normal volunteers. Thyroid function tests, uptake on thyroid scintigraphy, anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity and other parameters were then evaluated in patients with EOM enlargement. Results. 31/39 patients had one or more enlarged EOM, of whom only 2 patients had clinical EOM dysfunction. Compared to Graves’ disease patients with normal EOM volumes, those with EOM enlargement had significantly higher mean serum TSH (0.020±0.005 versus 0.007±0.002 mIU/L; P value 0.012, free-T4 (52.9±3.3 versus 41.2±1.7 pmol/L; P value 0.003 and technetium uptake on thyroid scintigraphy (13.51±1.7% versus 8.55±1.6%; P value 0.045. There were no differences between the 2 groups in anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity, the proportion of males, tobacco smokers, or those with active ophthalmopathy. Conclusions. Patients with recently diagnosed Graves’ disease and EOM volume enlargement have higher serum TSH and more severe hyperthyroidism than patients with normal EOM volumes, with no difference in anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity between the two groups.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the development of a particular branch of cranial nerve III, which emerges from the brain and controls ... nerve cells, preventing the normal development of these cranial nerves and the extraocular muscles they control. Abnormal function ...

  7. Radiologic measurement of extraocular muscle volumes in patients with Graves' orbitopathy: a review and guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Ward R.; Mourits, Maarten Ph

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare techniques for extraocular muscle (EOM) volume measurement and to provide guidelines for future measurements. DESIGN: Systematic review. RESULTS: Existing techniques used to measure extraocular muscle volumes on radiologic scans can be divided into manual

  8. Muscle spindle autogenetic inhibition in the extraocular muscles of lamb.

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    Pettorossi, V E; Filippi, G M

    1981-09-01

    The role of extraocular muscle (EOM) proprioceptors on eye motility has been investigated in lambs on "encéphale isolé", by evaluating the tension of EOMs at various lengths and velocities of stretch before and after proprioceptive blocks. The EOM tension, in the absence of proprioceptive input, was higher than in normal conditions. Such an effect occurred at lengthening values greater than 3 mm of stretch from resting muscle length, corresponding to 18 degrees of eye deviation and was dependent on the velocity of the stretch, being more effective at high velocity. The muscle receptors responsible for this effect was determined by comparing the sensitivity to vibratory stimulation of spindles and tendon organs to the amount of inhibition provoked by the same stimulation on an EOM electromyographic activity. The tension inhibition appeared to be correlated to muscle spindle activation. Thus, the presence of muscle spindles can determine a reduction of the tension within the stretched muscles. This result suggests that the EOM length and velocity signals operate moment to moment reduction on the stiffness of the muscle which antagonizes eye displacement, thus facilitating the ocular movements.

  9. Bilateral multiple extraocular muscle metastasis from breast carcinoma

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    Ramesh Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare presentation of an initially misdiagnosed case of a pseudotumor, which on histopathology was diagnosed as bilateral breast metastases of lobular carcinoma involving multiple extraocular muscles. A 61-year-old lady presented with external ophthalmoplegia and diplopia. Incisional biopsy was performed using a lid crease approach and the patient received radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Following prolonged hormonal therapy, complete remission was achieved, with improvement in ocular motility and resolution of diplopia, about 18 months after the initial presentation. Multiple extraocular muscle involvement by breast carcinoma metastasis is very rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients with a prior history of breast carcinoma.

  10. Traumatic avulsion of extraocular muscles: case reports

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    Nilza Minguini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We described the clinical, surgical details and results (motor and sensory of the retrieving procedure of traumatically avulsed muscles in three patients with no previous history of strabismus or diplopia seen in the Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Campinas, Brazil. The slipped muscle portion was reinserted at the original insertion and under the remaining stump, which was sutured over the reinserted muscle. For all three cases there was recovery of single binocular vision and stereopsis.

  11. MRI estimation of extraocular muscle swelling in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Hatakeyama, Masayuki; Asanagi, Kaoru

    1988-01-01

    The thickness and width of superior, inferior and medial rectus muscles were measured via T1-weighted coronal images using a 0.5 T superconducting MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) system in 10 patients with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy and 27 normal orbits. Lateral rectus muscles were not measured because the partial volume effect obscured their contours. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of ophthalmopathy. Group A had no ophthalmopathy, group B had corneal involvement or restricted eye movement, group C had optic nerve involvement. Mean muscle thickness increased in the order A, B and C. Mean rectus muscle width was normal in group A, but dramatically increased in group C, results suggesting that swelling of the extraocular muscles is a characteristic pathologic change in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. It is concluded that MRI is a safe and useful method of evaluating the severity of and prognosing dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. (author)

  12. Extraocular muscle proprioception and eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Draicchio, F; Errico, P; Santarelli, R; Manni, E

    1995-03-01

    In the lamb, acute unilateral section of the ophthalmic branch induced in the ipsilateral eye occasional oscillations of the resting position and misalignment of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) with respect to the stimulus. Additional electrolytic lesion of the cells innervating the proprioceptors of the medial rectus muscle, or of the lateral rectus muscle in the contralateral semilunar ganglion, provoked a 4 degrees-7 degrees consensual eye deviation towards and away from the lesioned side, respectively. The optokinetic beating field was similarly deviated. Under these experimental conditions, HVOR showed enhanced gain and marked misalignment in both eyes. Therefore, the selective suppression of muscular proprioceptive input deviated both eyes towards the direction opposite to the muscle whose gangliar proprioceptive representation has been destroyed.

  13. Comparative anatomy of the extraocular muscles in four Myliobatoidei rays (Batoidea, Myliobatiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Carlo M; Oliveira, Luciano E; Kfoury, José R

    2016-05-01

    Extraocular muscles are classically grouped as four rectus and two oblique muscles. However, their description and potential associations with species behavior are limited. The objective was to characterize extraocular muscles in four Myliobatoidei rays from diverse habitats with divergent behaviors. Heads (10 per species) of Dasyatis hypostigma, Gymnura altavela, Mobula thurstoni and Pteroplatytrygon violacea were decalcified and dissected to characterize and describe extraocular muscles. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate relationships between muscle length and species; for P. violacea, D. hypostigma and G. altavela, these were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the general pattern of extraocular muscles in vertebrates. In contrast, for M. thurstoni, the two oblique muscles were completely fused and there was a seventh extraocular muscle, named m. lateral rectus β (both were apparently novel findings in this species). There were also significant differences in eye disposition in the chondrocranium. The PCA axis 1 (rectus muscles) and PCA axis 2 (oblique muscles) accounted for 98.47% of data variability. Extraocular muscles had significant differences in length and important anatomical differences among sampled species that facilitated grouping species according to their life history. In conclusion, extraocular muscles are not uniform in all vertebrate species, thereby providing another basis for comparative studies. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  14. Morphometry of extraocular muscles in Basedow disease by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masato

    1996-01-01

    We measured the thickness of extraocular muscles in 35 patients diagnosed as Basedow disease by physicians. We used the coronal images of computed tomography in measuring the thickness at four points for each muscle. The mean thickness was 3.2±1.0 mm for superior rectus, 3.4±0.8 mm for medial rectus and 4.1 mm±13 mm for inferior rectus. These values were significantly larger than in normal eyes (p<0.01). The value for inferior rectus was significantly larger than for the other two muscles (p<0.01). Thickness of inferior rectus at its posterior portion was significantly correlated with limitation of supraduction of the affected eye (r=0.7). (author)

  15. A new teaching model for demonstrating the movement of the extraocular muscles.

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    Iwanaga, Joe; Refsland, Jason; Iovino, Lee; Holley, Gary; Laws, Tyler; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    The extraocular muscles consist of the superior, inferior, lateral, and medial rectus muscles and the superior and inferior oblique muscles. This study aimed to create a new teaching model for demonstrating the function of the extraocular muscles. A coronal section of the head was prepared and sutures attached to the levator palpebral superioris muscle and six extraocular muscles. Tension was placed on each muscle from a posterior approach and movement of the eye documented from an anterior view. All movements were clearly seen less than that of the inferior rectus muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first cadaveric teaching model for demonstrating the movements of the extraocular muscles. Clin. Anat. 30:733-735, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Successful repair of injury to the eyelid, lacrimal passage, and extraocular muscle

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    Shah, Shreya Mehul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury is a known cause of monocular blindness. Ocular trauma may affect lacrimal canaliculi and the extraocular muscle. We report this case as it includes injury to lid, lacrimal canaliculi and inferior rectus. Case description: A 25-year-old male presented with an injury caused by a sharp object that resulted in a conjunctival tear, lid tear involving the lacrimal canal, and rupture of the inferior rectus muscle. All of the structures were repaired successfully during a single procedure. Conclusion: An extraocular injury involving the conjunctiva, lid, lacrimal passages, and extraocular muscles can be repaired successfully during a single procedure.

  17. A new MRI method for the quantitative evaluation of extraocular muscle size in thyroid ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, K.; Gueven, K.; Sencer, S.; Minareci, O.; Cikim, A.; Guel, N.

    2003-01-01

    In cross section, extraocular muscles are more or less elliptical, with short and long diameters. We studied the ratio (R) of short to long diameter and investigated its use in quantitative assessment of the extraocular muscles in patients with Graves's disease. We measured the diameters on T1-weighted axial and coronal MRI and computed R for each extraocular muscle in 80 patients without and 40 with Graves's disease. We compared the measurements and R of the right and left orbits, and of men and women. The short diameter of all extraocular muscles apart from the superior oblique showed significant differences between men and women, and that of the inferior rectus varied significantly with age. R, however, was unrelated to sex or age. All patients with Graves's disease and an increased short diameter also had an increased R, but 6% of the muscles showed an increase in R, even though their short diameter was within the normal range. (orig.)

  18. Anterior uveitis and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles in a patient with Noonan syndrome

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    Elgohary Mostafa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Noonan syndrome who presented with Human Leukocyte Antigen B27-associated recurrent acute anterior uveitis and manifestations of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, which has not been reported before.

  19. Site-dependent distribution of macrophages in normal human extraocular muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, E. D.; van der Gaag, R.; Mourits, M. P.; Koornneef, L.

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: Clinical data indicate that extraocular muscles have different susceptibilities for some orbital immune disorders depending on their anatomic location. The resident immunocompetent cells may be important mediators in the local pathogenesis of such disorders so the distribution of these

  20. Contractile Force of Human Extraocular Muscle: A Theoretical Analysis

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    Hongmei Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The length-contractile force relationships of six human extraocular muscles (EOMs in primary innervations should be determined during eye movement modeling and surgery of clinical EOMs. This study aims to investigate these relationships. Method. The proposal is based on the assumption that six EOMs have similar constitutive relationships, with the eye suspended in the primary position. The constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained by optimizing from previous experimental data and the theory of mechanical equilibrium using traditional model. Further, simulate the existing experiment of resistance force, and then compare the simulated results with the existing experimental results. Finally, the mechanical constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained. Results. The results show that the simulated resistance forces from the other four EOMs except for the horizontal recti well agree with previous experimental results. Conclusion. The mechanical constitutive relationships of six EOMs in primary innervations are obtained, and the rationality of the constitutive relationships is verified. Whereafter, the active stress-strain relationships of the six EOMs in the primary innervations are obtained. The research results can improve the eye movement model to predict the surgical amounts of EOMs before EOM surgery more precisely.

  1. MRI of idiopathic orbital inflammation and lymphoid disease with lesions in extraocular muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Chiharu; Kotake, Fumio; Kawanishi, Masayuki; Saito, Kazuhiro; Abe, Kimihiko

    2004-01-01

    Of the disorders accompanied by hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, differentiating between idiopathic orbital inflammation and malignant lymphoma is difficult but important to treatment and prognosis. In this study using MRI, shape, signal intensity, and enhancement effects were compared between idiopathic orbital inflammation and lymphoproliferative lesions. The subjects were 27 patients (8 with idiopathic orbital inflammation, 1 with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 3 with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, and 15 with malignant lymphoma) and 10 normal controls. The evaluation items were: thickness of extraocular muscles, number of extraocular muscles involved signal intensity of extraocular muscles, and enhancement effects on extraocular muscles. When compared to control subjects (p<0.05) the attachment portion of extraocular muscles were significantly thicker in the patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, or malignant lymphoma; the most marked hypertrophy was observed in patients with malignant lymphoma. The number of extraocular muscles involved was 1.5 (mean) in the patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation, 1 in the patient with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 1.7 (mean) in the patients with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, and 5.1 (mean) in those with malignant lymphoma. The signal intensity ratio on T1W-images did not significantly differ between the patients and controls for all the disorders investigated. Signal intensity ratio on T2W-images significantly differed between patients with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia or malignant lymphoma and the controls (p<0.05) but not between patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation and controls. Signal intensity ratio after contrast enhancement differed significantly only between patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation and controls (p<0.05). (author)

  2. Superior ophthalmic vein enlargement and increased muscle index in dysthyroid optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Breno da Rocha; Perry, Julian D

    2013-01-01

    To compare superior ophthalmic vein diameter and extraocular muscle index in patients with thyroid eye disease with or without optic neuropathy. High-resolution CT scan images of 40 orbits of 20 patients with history of thyroid eye disease (with or without optic neuropathy), who underwent orbital decompression surgery from January 2007 to November 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Superior ophthalmic vein diameter was measured in coronal and axial planes. Extraocular muscle index was calculated according to the method proposed by Barrett et al. The clinical diagnosis of optic neuropathy was based on characteristic signs that included afferent pupillary defect, decreased visual acuity, visual field defects, and dyschromatopsia. Orbits were divided in 2 groups based on presence or absence of optic neuropathy. Superior ophthalmic vein diameter was significantly higher in orbits with concomitant optic neuropathy (mean 2.4 ± 0.4mm, p optic neuropathy (mean 57.9% ± 5.7%, p = 0.0002). Muscle index greater than 50% was present in all patients with dysthyroid optic neuropathy. This study suggests that patients with thyroid eye disease with enlarged superior ophthalmic vein and increased extraocular muscle index are more likely to have concomitant optic neuropathy.

  3. Orbital Floor Fracture with Atypical Extraocular Muscle Entrapment Pattern and Intraoperative Asystole in an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Farhan I.; Grant, Michael P.; Mahoney, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscle entrapment in a nondisplaced orbital fracture, although a well-known entity in pediatric trauma, is atypical in adults. It can present with a triad of bradycardia, nausea, and in rare cases, syncope, and result in severe fibrosis of damaged and incarcerated muscle. We present a case of muscle entrapment in a partially nondisplaced two-wall orbital fracture with accompanying preoperative bradycardia and intraoperative asystole in an adult PMID:26576246

  4. Rectus extraocular muscle paths and decompression surgery for Graves orbitopathy: mechanism of motility disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kalmann, Rachel; de Graaf, Mieke E. L.; Stilma, Jan S.; Mourits, Maarten P.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study possible causes of motility disturbances that may result from orbital decompression surgery in patients with Graves orbitopathy and especially the role of rectus extraocular muscle paths. METHODS: Sixteen patients with Graves orbitopathy were studied before and 3 to 6 months after

  5. Volume measurement of the horizontal extraocular muscles using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Osamu; Nishida, Eri; Murata, Toyotaka; Aoki, Yoshiko; Inatomi, Akihiro; Kani, Kazutaka (Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)); Mabuchi, Norihisa; Furutani, Yoshiaki

    1993-07-01

    The volume of the horizontal extraocular muscles of 11 normal adults and three patients with ophthalmoplegia was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI examinations were carried out with a Signa Advantage, 1.5 tesla superconductive magnetic system manufactured by General Electric. This method employs the spin echo technique with a 3.0 mm gapless slice, a 350 ms. repetition time, and a 17.0 ms. echo time. The MRI films were projected and magnified on Kent paper using an overhead projector. Then the shapes of the horizontal extraocular muscles were traced. The volume of the muscles was measured as the total weight of Kent papers which were cut out from muscle shapes in all the slices. The average volume of the normal medial and lateral rectus muscles was 690[+-]87 mm[sup 3] and 734[+-]77 mm[sup 3], respectively. Two cases of peripheral nerve palsy showed typical atrophy of the paretic muscles. A case of orbital myositis showed typical hypertrophy of the inflamed muscles. This measurement may prove useful in the analysis and evaluation of extraocular muscles, especially in ophthalmoplesia.(author).

  6. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

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    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  7. Use of extraocular muscle flaps in the correction of orbital implant exposure.

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    Hsueh-Yen Chu

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: The study is to describe a new surgical technique for correcting large orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps and to propose a treatment algorithm for orbital implant exposure. METHODS: In a retrospective study, seven patients with orbital implant exposure were treated with extraocular muscle flaps. All data were collected from patients in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan during 2007-2012. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon (Y.J.T. Patient demographics, the original etiology, details of surgical procedures, implant types, and follow-up interval were recorded. Small exposure, defined as exposure area smaller than 3 mm in diameter, was treated conservatively first with topical lubricant and prophylactic antibiotics. Larger defects were managed surgically. RESULTS: Seven patients consisting of two males and five females were successfully treated for orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps. The average age was 36.4 (range, 3-55 years old. Five patients were referred from other hospitals. One eye was enucleated for retinoblastoma. The other six eyes were eviscerated, including one for endophthalmitis and five for trauma. Mean follow-up time of all seven patients was 19.5 (range, 2-60 months. No patient developed recurrence of exposure during follow-up. All patients were fitted with an acceptable prosthesis and had satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. CONCLUSIONS: The most common complication of orbital implant is exposure, caused by breakdown of the covering layers, leading to extrusion. Several methods were reported to manage the exposed implants. We report our experience of treating implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps to establish a well-vascularized environment that supplies both the wrapping material and the overlying ocular surface tissue. We believe it can work as a good strategy to manage or to prevent orbital implant exposure.

  8. A comparative study of different amniotic membrane orientations during extraocular muscle surgery in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Rehab Rashad; El-Mofty, Randa Mohamed Abdel-Moneim; Khodeir, Mustafa Mahmoud; Hamza, Wael Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    To histopathologically compare the effect of different orientations of cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (AM) transplant during extraocular muscle surgery in rabbits. Fifty-two albino rabbit eyes underwent 4-mm resection of the superior rectus. Eyes were randomly divided into four groups. In Group C (Control group, 16 eyes) the muscle was not wrapped with amniotic membrane. In the three AM groups, cryopreserved AM was wrapped around the muscle, oriented with either its stroma (Group S, 15 eyes) or epithelium (Group E, nine eyes) towards the muscle, or folded on itself with the epithelium externally (Group F, 12 eyes). The rabbits were sacrificed and the eyes were enucleated 6 weeks after surgery. Histopathological examination was conducted for periamniotic, foreign body, scleral, and conjunctival inflammation, conjunctival vascularity, adhesions and muscle fibrosis. In all AM eyes, the AM was surrounded by periamniotic inflammation, with no adhesions detected between the muscle and surrounding tissues in the segment where the AM was present, but detected elsewhere. Adhesions were detected in all group C eyes. Foreign body inflammation was significantly less in Group C than in each of the AM groups (p  .05). Scleral inflammation was absent in all specimens. No significant differences were noted among all groups in terms of conjunctival vascularity, conjunctival inflammation, or muscle fibrosis (p > .05). All AM orientations were equally effective in preventing the development of postoperative adhesions between the extraocular muscle and surrounding tissues.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in dissociated strabismus complex demonstrates generalized hypertrophy of rectus extraocular muscles.

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    Rajab, Ghada Z; Suh, Soh Youn; Demer, Joseph L

    2017-06-01

    Dissociated strabismus complex (DSC) is an enigmatic form of strabismus that includes dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) and dissociated horizontal deviation (DHD). We employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the extraocular muscles in DSC. We studied 5 patients with DSC and mean age of 25 years (range, 12-42 years), and 15 age-matched, orthotropic control subjects. All patients had DVD; 4 also had DHD. We employed high-resolution, surface coil MRI with thin, 2 mm slices and central target fixation. Volumes of the rectus and superior oblique muscles in the region 12 mm posterior to 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction were measured in quasi-coronal planes in central gaze. Patients with DSC had no structural abnormalities of rectus muscles or rectus pulleys or the superior oblique muscle but exhibited modest, statistically significant increased volume of all rectus muscles ranging from 20% for medial rectus to 9% for lateral rectus (P muscles. DSC is associated with generalized rectus extraocular muscle hypertrophy in the absence of other orbital abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiologic measurement of extraocular muscle volumes in patients with Graves' orbitopathy: a review and guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Ward R; Mourits, Maarten Ph

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate and compare techniques for extraocular muscle (EOM) volume measurement and to provide guidelines for future measurements. Systematic review. Existing techniques used to measure extraocular muscle volumes on radiologic scans can be divided into manual outlining, computer assisted and automated segmentation. Both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) image datasets can be used. On CT scans, one best measures muscle volume using region grow segmentation, accepting an overestimation of true volume by inevitable inclusion of non-muscular tissue. On high resolution MRI scans, single muscles can be outlined manually, but measurements include only part of the muscle due to poor tissue contrast at the orbital apex. Measurement errors can be reduced 3.5% by exact horizontal repositioning. A measured volume change of at least 6-17% is required to demonstrate a significant difference. Currently the best choice for EOM volume measurements on CT images is computer assisted grey value segmentation and on MRI images is manual outlining of individual muscles. Because of the time required and the complexity of the measurements, present EOM volume measurement is as yet only suitable for research purposes.

  11. Influence of the extraocular muscle proprioceptors on the orientation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Manni, E

    1996-03-01

    In the intact brain lamb, unilateral electrolytic lesion of the medial dorso-lateral portion of the semilunar ganglion containing the first order neurons of the eye muscle proprioception induced modifications of the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR and VVOR) which consisted in marked alterations of the trajectories of the quick phases, while the slow phases were scarcely affected. Similar results were observed after section of the branches described by Winckler in the retrobulbar region along the extraocular muscle proprioceptive information travels. These findings extend those of previous investigations carried out in decorticate animals.

  12. Transcriptional and functional differences in stem cell populations isolated from Extraocular and Limb muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco-Pinedo, Eugenia Cristina; Budak, Murat T; Zeiger, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a distinct muscle group that displays an array of unique contractile, structural and regenerative properties. They also have differential sensitivity to certain diseases and are enigmatically spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The EOMs are so distinct...... from other skeletal muscles that the term: allotype has been coined to highlight EOM-group-specific properties. We hypothesized that increased and distinct stem cells may underlie the continual myogenesis noted in EOM. The side population (SP) stem cells were isolated and studied. EOMs had 15x higher...... SP cell content compared to limb muscles. Expression profiling revealed 348 transcripts that define the EOM-SP transcriptome. Over 92% of transcripts were SP-specific, as they were absent in previous whole-muscle microarray studies. Cultured EOM-SP cells revealed superior in vitro proliferative...

  13. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  14. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Geraldo de Barros; Almeida, Henderson Celestino de; Velarde, David Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U), each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections) was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD). When the dose was 4U (2 applications) the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  15. Evaluation of dysthyroid optic neuropathy using T2-relaxation time of extraocular muscle as parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Toshine; Inoue, Toyoko; Inoue, Yoichi

    2001-01-01

    The T2 value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in evaluating the activity of dysthyroid ophthlamopathy. We applied this method in evaluating dysthyroid optic neuropathy in 15 affected eyes of 15 patients. Another group of 40 eyes of 20 patients of dysthyroid opthalmopathy without hypertrophy of extraocular muscles served as control. The T2 value in dysthyroid optic neuropathy significantly decreased following treatment with corticosteroid but the value was still higher than that in control eyes. The findings show that the T2 value of MRI is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of dysthyroid optic neuropathy. (author)

  16. Evaluation of dysthyroid optic neuropathy using T2-relaxation time of extraocular muscle as parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Toshine; Inoue, Toyoko; Inoue, Yoichi [Olympia Eye Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The T2 value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in evaluating the activity of dysthyroid ophthlamopathy. We applied this method in evaluating dysthyroid optic neuropathy in 15 affected eyes of 15 patients. Another group of 40 eyes of 20 patients of dysthyroid opthalmopathy without hypertrophy of extraocular muscles served as control. The T2 value in dysthyroid optic neuropathy significantly decreased following treatment with corticosteroid but the value was still higher than that in control eyes. The findings show that the T2 value of MRI is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of dysthyroid optic neuropathy. (author)

  17. Site-dependent effects of experimental hypo- and hyperthyroidism on resident macrophages in extraocular muscles of rats: a quantitative immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, E. D.; van Hogerwou, G.; van der Gaag, R.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Asmussen, G.; Koornneef, L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that the effects of dysthyroidism on resident immunocompetent cells of the extraocular muscles may play a role in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The distribution of such cells was therefore studied in extraocular muscles of rats that were made hyper- or hypothyroid

  18. Composition, Architecture, and Functional Implications of the Connective Tissue Network of the Extraocular Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K.; Vicente, André; Fitzpatrick, Krysta R.; Lindström, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally. Methods Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Rabbit EOMs were examined for levels of force transmission longitudinally and transversely using in vitro force assessment. Results Collagens I, III, and VI localized to the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium. Collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin localized to the basal lamina surrounding all myofibers. All collagens localized similarly in the orbital and global layers throughout the muscle length. Elastin had the most irregular pattern and ran longitudinally and circumferentially throughout the length of all EOMs. Scanning electron microscopy showed these elements to be extensively interconnected, from endomysium through the perimysium to the epimysium surrounding the whole muscle. In vitro physiology demonstrated force generation in the lateral dimension, presumably through myofascial transmission, which was always proportional to the force generated in the longitudinally oriented muscles. Conclusions A striking connective tissue matrix interconnects all the myofibers and extends, via perimysial connections, to the epimysium. These interconnections are significant and allow measurable force transmission laterally as well as longitudinally, suggesting that they may contribute to the nonlinear force summation seen in motor unit recording studies. This provides strong evidence that separate compartmental movements are unlikely as no region is independent of the rest of the muscle. PMID:29346490

  19. Extraocular muscle regeneration in zebrafish requires late signals from Insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Louie, Ke'ale W; Sha, Cuilee; Kelly, Ryan M; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2018-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (Igfs) are key regulators of key biological processes such as embryonic development, growth, and tissue repair and regeneration. The role of Igf in myogenesis is well documented and, in zebrafish, promotes fin and heart regeneration. However, the mechanism of action of Igf in muscle repair and regeneration is not well understood. Using adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration as an experimental model, we show that Igf1 receptor blockage using either chemical inhibitors (BMS754807 and NVP-AEW541) or translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) reduced EOM regeneration. Zebrafish EOMs regeneration depends on myocyte dedifferentiation, which is driven by early epigenetic reprogramming and requires autophagy activation and cell cycle reentry. Inhibition of Igf signaling had no effect on either autophagy activation or cell proliferation, indicating that Igf signaling was not involved in the early reprogramming steps of regeneration. Instead, blocking Igf signaling produced hypercellularity of regenerating EOMs and diminished myosin expression, resulting in lack of mature differentiated muscle fibers even many days after injury, indicating that Igf was involved in late re-differentiation steps. Although it is considered the main mediator of myogenic Igf actions, Akt activation decreased in regenerating EOMs, suggesting that alternative signaling pathways mediate Igf activity in muscle regeneration. In conclusion, Igf signaling is critical for re-differentiation of reprogrammed myoblasts during late steps of zebrafish EOM regeneration, suggesting a regulatory mechanism for determining regenerated muscle size and timing of differentiation, and a potential target for regenerative therapy.

  20. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Miao

    Full Text Available To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1 patients using multimodal MRI imaging.T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls.Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (p<0.001 uncorrected in the left precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus.CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  1. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wen; Man, Fengyuan; Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  2. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A.; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. Methods T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Results Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. Conclusions CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1. PMID:26186732

  3. Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K; Willoughby, Christy L; Anderson, Jill S; Bothun, Erick D; Stager, David; Felius, Joost; Lee, Helena; Gottlob, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles. Extraocular muscles removed during normal surgery on children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were immunostained for neuromuscular junctions, myofiber type, the immature form of the acetylcholine receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and compared to age-matched controls. Muscles from both the idiopathic INS and INS and albinism groups had neuromuscular junctions that were 35% to 71% smaller based on myofiber area and myofiber perimeter than found in age-matched controls, and this was seen on both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform-expressing myofibers (all P albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent in the INS muscles. These studies suggest that, relative to the final common pathway, INS is not the same between different patient etiologies. It should be possible to modulate these final common pathway abnormalities, via exogenous application of appropriate drugs, with the hope that this type of treatment may reduce the involuntary oscillatory movements in these children.

  4. A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis

    KAUST Repository

    Heckmann, J M; Uwimpuhwe, H; Ballo, R; Kaur, M; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Prince, S

    2009-01-01

    Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of severe extraocular

  5. The extraocular muscle stem cell niche is resistant to ageing and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eFormicola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific muscles are spared in many degenerative myopathies. Most notably, the extraocular muscles (EOMs do not show clinical signs of late stage myopathies including the accumulation of fibrosis and fat. It has been proposed that an altered stem cell niche underlies the resistance of EOMs in these pathologies, however, to date, no reports have provided a detailed characterization of the EOM stem cell niche. PW1/Peg3 is expressed in progenitor cells in all adult tissues including satellite cells and a subset of interstitial non-satellite cell progenitors in muscle. These PW1-positive interstitial cells (PICs include a fibroadipogenic progenitor population (FAPs that give rise to fat and fibrosis in late stage myopathies. PICs/FAPs are mobilized following injury and FAPs exert a promyogenic role upon myoblasts in vitro but require the presence of a minimal population of satellite cells in vivo. We and others recently described that FAPs express promyogenic factors while satellite cells express antimyogenic factors suggesting that PICs/FAPs act as support niche cells in skeletal muscle through paracrine interactions. We analyzed the EOM stem cell niche in young adult and aged wild-type mice and found that the balance between PICs and satellite cells within the EOM stem cell niche is maintained throughout life. Moreover, in the adult mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the EOM stem cell niche is unperturbed compared to normal mice, in contrast to Tibialis Anterior (TA muscle, which displays signs of ongoing degeneration/regeneration. Regenerating mdx TA shows increased levels of both PICs and satellite cells, comparable to normal unaffected EOMs. We propose that the increase in PICs that we observe in normal EOMs contributes to preserving the integrity of the myofibers and satellite cells. Our data suggest that molecular cues regulating muscle regeneration are intrinsic properties of EOMs.

  6. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.

  7. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: A myogenic precursor cell hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallestad, Kristen M.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McDonald, Abby A.; Daniel, Mark L.; Cu, Sharon R.; McLoon, Linda K., E-mail: mcloo001@tc.umn.edu

    2011-04-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin{sup -/-} (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a

  8. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: A myogenic precursor cell hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallestad, Kristen M.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McDonald, Abby A.; Daniel, Mark L.; Cu, Sharon R.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin -/- (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a subpopulation of

  9. Extra-ocular muscle MRI in genetically-defined mitochondrial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitceathly, Robert D.S.; Morrow, Jasper M.; Hanna, Michael G.; Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S.; Woodward, Cathy; Sweeney, Mary G.; Rahman, Shamima; Plant, Gordon T.; Ali, Nadeem; Bremner, Fion; Davagnanam, Indran

    2016-01-01

    Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease, to characterise MRI findings in the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) and investigate whether quantitative MRI provides clinically relevant measures of disease. Patients with CPEO due to single mitochondrial DNA deletions were compared with controls. Range of eye movement (ROEM) measurements, peri-orbital 3 T MRI T1-weighted (T1w) and short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR) images, and T2 relaxation time maps were obtained. Blinded observers graded muscle atrophy and T1w/STIR hyperintensity. Cross-sectional areas and EOM mean T2s were recorded and correlated with clinical parameters. Nine patients and nine healthy controls were examined. Patients had reduced ROEM (patients 13.3 , controls 49.3 , p < 0.001), greater mean atrophy score and increased T1w hyperintensities. EOM mean cross-sectional area was 43 % of controls and mean T2s were prolonged (patients 75.6 ± 7.0 ms, controls 55.2 ± 4.1 ms, p < 0.001). ROEM correlated negatively with EOM T2 (rho = -0.89, p < 0.01), whilst cross-sectional area failed to correlate with any clinical measures. MRI demonstrates EOM atrophy, characteristic signal changes and prolonged T2 in CPEO. Correlation between elevated EOM T2 and ROEM impairment represents a potential measure of disease severity that warrants further evaluation. (orig.)

  10. Extra-ocular muscle MRI in genetically-defined mitochondrial disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitceathly, Robert D.S.; Morrow, Jasper M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Woodward, Cathy; Sweeney, Mary G. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Neurogenetics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Rahman, Shamima [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, Mitochondrial Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Plant, Gordon T.; Ali, Nadeem [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Moorfields Eye Hospital, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Bremner, Fion [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Davagnanam, Indran [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, The Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease, to characterise MRI findings in the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) and investigate whether quantitative MRI provides clinically relevant measures of disease. Patients with CPEO due to single mitochondrial DNA deletions were compared with controls. Range of eye movement (ROEM) measurements, peri-orbital 3 T MRI T1-weighted (T1w) and short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR) images, and T2 relaxation time maps were obtained. Blinded observers graded muscle atrophy and T1w/STIR hyperintensity. Cross-sectional areas and EOM mean T2s were recorded and correlated with clinical parameters. Nine patients and nine healthy controls were examined. Patients had reduced ROEM (patients 13.3 , controls 49.3 , p < 0.001), greater mean atrophy score and increased T1w hyperintensities. EOM mean cross-sectional area was 43 % of controls and mean T2s were prolonged (patients 75.6 ± 7.0 ms, controls 55.2 ± 4.1 ms, p < 0.001). ROEM correlated negatively with EOM T2 (rho = -0.89, p < 0.01), whilst cross-sectional area failed to correlate with any clinical measures. MRI demonstrates EOM atrophy, characteristic signal changes and prolonged T2 in CPEO. Correlation between elevated EOM T2 and ROEM impairment represents a potential measure of disease severity that warrants further evaluation. (orig.)

  11. Expression of somatostatin receptors subtype 2 and 5 in extraocular muscle tissue of hypothyroidism animal induced by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangdu; Chu Qiaomei; Xu Peikang; Yao Xiaohong; Shen Jiangfan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the expression and distribution of somatostatin receptors 2 and 5 (SSTR2, 5) in extraocular muscle in hypothyroidism and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) Wister rats induced by 131 I. Methods: 20 Wister rats were randomly divided into experimental group and normal group(group D). According to 131 I doses of intraperitoneal injection, the experimental groups were divided into low (group A), middle (group B) and high dose group (group C). After 8 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and orbital tissue sections were applied to HE staining and Immunohistochemistry for the analysis of rat orbital tissue changes and SSTR2 and 5 distribution in extraocular muscle. Results: The serum FT 4 levels in group A (16.98±2.92 pmol / L), group B (1.84±0.44 pmol / L) and group C (1.35 ±0.37 pmol /L) eight weeks after 131 I injection were decreased, and had significant difference compared with group D (P 4 levels in group B and C were significantly lower than that in group A (P 0.05). Orbital tissue in experimental group showed mucoid degeneration and edema, the extent was about 25% in group A, 50% in group B, 70% in group C. The rats in group B and group C appeared obvious proliferation of fibrous and adipose tissue, muscle fibers degeneration fracture, even extraocular muscles in group C have vacuole formation. Immunohistochemical analysis displayed highest SSTR5 distribution and strongest expression was in extraocular muscle of group C, second in A B combination group (A and B groups)and weakest in group D. There were significant differences between A B combination group,group C and group D (P 0.05). Conclusion: This study observed the distribution and expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 in extraocular muscle on the established hypothyroidism animal model. It is some significance for understanding the mechanism of somatostatin receptors in occurrence and development of TAO, similar to provide a reference for the use of somatostatin analogue orbital imaging

  12. Expression of schizophrenia biomarkers in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus: an explanation for the link between exotropia and schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have implicated exotropia as a risk factor for schizophrenia. We determined whether schizophrenia biomarkers have abnormal levels of expression in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus and explored whether differences in gene expression between medial and lateral rectus muscles may explain the specific association of schizophrenia with exotropia but not esotropia. Samples from horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with age- and muscle type-matched normal muscles from organ donors. We used PCR arrays to identify differences in gene expression among 417 signaling molecules. We then focused on established schizophrenia-related growth factors, cytokines, and regulators of the extracellular matrix. Among 36 genes with significantly altered gene expression in dysfunctional horizontal rectus muscles, over one third were schizophrenia-related: CTGF, CXCR4, IL1B, IL10RA, MIF, MMP2, NPY1R, NRG1, NTRK2, SERPINA3, TIMP1, TIMP2, and TNF (adjusted p value ≤ 0.016667. By PCR array, expression of three of these genes was significantly different in medial rectus muscles, while eleven were significantly altered in lateral rectus muscles. Comparing baseline levels between muscle types, three schizophrenia-related genes (NPY1R, NTRK2, TIMP2 had lower levels of expression in medial rectus muscles. Despite the surprisingly large number of schizophrenia-related genes with altered gene expression levels in dysfunctional muscles, the lack of specificity for medial rectus muscles undermines a model of shared, region-specific gene expression abnormalities between exotropia and schizophrenia, but rather suggests consideration of the alternative model: that exotropia-induced aberrant early visual experiences may enable and/or contribute as a causative factor to the development of schizophrenia.

  13. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of extraocular muscles in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy using turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, A; Togao, O; Yamashita, K; Kikuchi, K; Momosaka, D; Honda, H

    2018-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to correlate diffusivity of extraocular muscles, measured by three-dimensional turbo field echo (3DTFE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation, with their size and activity in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy. Twenty-three patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy were included. There were 17 women and 6 men with a mean age of 55.8±12.6 (SD) years (range: 26-83 years). 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium MR images were obtained with b-values of 0 and 500s/mm 2 . The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of extraocular muscles was measured on coronal reformatted MR images. Signal intensities of extraocular muscles on conventional MR images were compared to those of normal-appearing white matter, and cross-sectional areas of the muscles were also measured. The clinical activity score was also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed with Pearson correlation and Mann-Whitney U tests. On 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation, the mean ADC of the extraocular muscles was 2.23±0.37 (SD)×10 -3 mm2/s (range: 1.70×10 -3 -3.11×10 -3 mm 2 /s). There was a statistically significant moderate correlation between ADC and the size of the muscles (r=0.61). There were no statistically significant correlations between ADC and signal intensity on conventional MR and the clinical activity score. 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation technique allows quantifying diffusivity of extraocular muscles in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy. The diffusivity of the extraocular muscles on 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation MR images moderately correlates with their size. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Analysis of Spontaneous and Nerve-Evoked Calcium Transients in Intact Extraocular Muscles in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Hennig, Grant W.; Corrigan, Robert D.; Smith, Terence K.; von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) have unique calcium handling properties, yet little is known about the dynamics of calcium events underlying ultrafast and tonic contractions in myofibers of intact EOMs. Superior oblique EOMs of juvenile chickens were dissected with their nerve attached, maintained in oxygenated Krebs buffer, and loaded with fluo-4. Spontaneous and nerve stimulation-evoked calcium transients were recorded and, following calcium imaging, some EOMs were double-labeled with rhodamine-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin (rhBTX) to identify EOM myofiber types. EOMs showed two main types of spontaneous calcium transients, one slow type (calcium waves with 1/2max duration of 2–12 s, velocity of 25–50 μm/s) and two fast “flash-like” types (Type 1, 30–90 ms; Type 2, 90–150 ms 1/2max duration). Single pulse nerve stimulation evoked fast calcium transients identical to the fast (Type 1) calcium transients. Calcium waves were accompanied by a local myofiber contraction that followed the calcium transient wavefront. The magnitude of calcium-wave induced myofiber contraction far exceeded those of movement induced by nerve stimulation and associated fast calcium transients. Tetrodotoxin eliminated nerve-evoked transients, but not spontaneous transients. Alpha-bungarotoxin eliminated both spontaneous and nerve-evoked fast calcium transients, but not calcium waves, and caffeine increased wave activity. Calcium waves were observed in myofibers lacking spontaneous or evoked fast transients, suggestive of multiply-innervated myofibers, and this was confirmed by double-labeling with rhBTX. We propose that the abundant spontaneous calcium transients and calcium waves with localized contractions that do not depend on innervation may contribute to intrinsic generation of tonic functions of EOMs. PMID:22579493

  15. Echographic monitoring of response of extraocular muscles to irradiation in graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Beth A.; Harris, Gerald J.; Lewandowski, Michael F.; Murray, Kevin J.; Massaro, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Confirmation of the efficacy of orbital irradiation in Graves' ophthalmopathy is needed due to the unpredictable natural history of the disease, the variation in individual clinical presentations, the contribution of other simultaneous treatments, and the lack of controlled studies using objective criteria to classify and assess response over time. Orbital echography before and at select intervals following orbital irradiation is proposed as an objective parameter of tissue response to orbital irradiation over time. Methods and Materials: From January, 1983 to September, 1993, 55 patients with progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy underwent 20 Gy retrobulbar irradiation. On retrospective review, standardized orbital echography was performed randomly prior to irradiation in 37 of the 55 patients to assess the acoustic characteristics of the extraocular muscles and to quantitate their individual and summed diameters. Twenty-one patients had at least one follow-up echographic evaluation at random intervals of 0 to 27.5 months following completion of irradiation. Twelve patients received steroids before or during irradiation, which were tapered in proximity to completion of radiation. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 65 months with the majority followed at least 6 months (18 patients). Results: Of the 21 patients with serial studies, 18 showed an interval decrease in individual and summed muscle size over time and return of symmetry. Interval improvement was documented as early as the 1 month follow-up study, with continued improvement seen during the 3-9 month studies, with stability typically achieved within 12 months. One patient had further changes between the 21 and 27.5 month follow-up studies. Exacerbation of disease was, however, echographically demonstrated in three patients at 6.5, 8.5, and 13 months. Follow-up studies in two of these patients again revealed improvement, one following tapered steroids. The third patient required orbital decompression

  16. Cloning of a neonatal calcium atpase isoform (SERCA 1B) from extraocular muscle of adult blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londraville, R L; Cramer, T D; Franck, J P; Tullis, A; Block, B A

    2000-10-01

    Complete cDNAs for the fast-twitch Ca2+ -ATPase isoform (SERCA 1) were cloned and sequenced from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) extraocular muscle (EOM). Complete cDNAs for SERCA 1 were also cloned from fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the same species. The two sequences are identical over the coding region except for the last five codons on the carboxyl end; EOM SERCA 1 cDNA codes for 996 amino acids and the fast-twitch cDNAs code for 991 aa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EOM SERCA 1 clusters with an isoform of Ca2+ -ATPase normally expressed in early development of mammals (SERCA 1B). This is the first report of SERCA 1B in an adult vertebrate. RNA hybridization assays indicate that 1B expression is limited to extraocular muscles. Because EOM gives rise to the thermogenic heater organ in marlin, we investigated whether SERCA 1B may play a role in heat generation, or if 1B expression is common in EOM among vertebrates. Chicken also expresses SERCA 1B in EOM, but rat expresses SERCA 1A; because SERCA 1B is not specific to heater tissue we conclude it is unlikely that it plays a specific role in intracellular heat production. Comparative sequence analysis does reveal, however, several sites that may be the source of functional differences between fish and mammalian SERCAs.

  17. Adaptation of slow myofibers: the effect of sustained BDNF treatment of extraocular muscles in infant nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Christy L; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M; Mustari, Michael J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated promising new treatment options for strabismus. Neurotrophic factors have emerged as a potential treatment for oculomotor disorders because of diverse roles in signaling to muscles and motor neurons. Unilateral treatment with sustained release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to a single lateral rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop in correlation with extraocular muscle (EOM) changes during the critical period for development of binocularity. The lateral rectus muscles of one eye in two infant macaques were treated with sustained delivery of BDNF for 3 months. Eye alignment was assessed using standard photographic methods. Muscle specimens were analyzed to examine the effects of BDNF on the density, morphology, and size of neuromuscular junctions, as well as myofiber size. Counts were compared to age-matched controls. No change in eye alignment occurred with BDNF treatment. Compared to control muscle, neuromuscular junctions on myofibers expressing slow myosins had a larger area. Myofibers expressing slow myosin had larger diameters, and the percentage of myofibers expressing slow myosins increased in the proximal end of the muscle. Expression of BDNF was examined in control EOM, and observed to have strongest immunoreactivity outside the endplate zone. We hypothesize that the oculomotor system adapted to sustained BDNF treatment to preserve normal alignment. Our results suggest that BDNF treatment preferentially altered myofibers expressing slow myosins. This implicates BDNF signaling as influencing the slow twitch properties of EOM.

  18. Phenothiourea sensitizes zebrafish cranial neural crest and extraocular muscle development to changes in retinoic acid and IGF signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Bohnsack

    Full Text Available 1-Phenyl 2-thiourea (PTU is a tyrosinase inhibitor commonly used to block pigmentation and aid visualization of zebrafish development. At the standard concentration of 0.003% (200 µM, PTU inhibits melanogenesis and reportedly has minimal other effects on zebrafish embryogenesis. We found that 0.003% PTU altered retinoic acid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF regulation of neural crest and mesodermal components of craniofacial development. Reduction of retinoic acid synthesis by the pan-aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor diethylbenzaldehyde, only when combined with 0.003% PTU, resulted in extraocular muscle disorganization. PTU also decreased retinoic acid-induced teratogenic effects on pharyngeal arch and jaw cartilage despite morphologically normal appearing PTU-treated controls. Furthermore, 0.003% PTU in combination with inhibition of IGF signaling through either morpholino knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptor phosphorylation, disrupted jaw development and extraocular muscle organization. PTU in and of itself inhibited neural crest development at higher concentrations (0.03% and had the greatest inhibitory effect when added prior to 22 hours post fertilization (hpf. Addition of 0.003% PTU between 4 and 20 hpf decreased thyroxine (T4 in thyroid follicles in the nasopharynx of 96 hpf embryos. Treatment with exogenous triiodothyronine (T3 and T4 improved, but did not completely rescue, PTU-induced neural crest defects. Thus, PTU should be used with caution when studying zebrafish embryogenesis as it alters the threshold of different signaling pathways important during craniofacial development. The effects of PTU on neural crest development are partially caused by thyroid hormone signaling.

  19. Structural functional associations of the orbit in thyroid eye disease: Kalman filters to track extraocular rectal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L.; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention, and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  20. Agreement between intraoperative measurements and optical coherence tomography of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Pablo-Gómez-de-Liaño, L; Fernández-Vigo, J I; Ventura-Abreu, N; Morales-Fernández, L; García-Feijóo, J; Gómez-de-Liaño, R

    2016-12-01

    To assess the agreement between intraoperative measurements of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles with those measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. An analysis was made of a total of 67 muscles of 21 patients with strabismus. The limbus-insertion distance of the horizontal rectus muscles were measured using pre-operative SD-OCT and intra-operatively in 2 ways: 1) direct, after a conjunctival dissection in patients who underwent surgery, or 2) transconjunctival in patients who were treated with botulinum toxin, or in those who were not going to be operated. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were calculated to determine the concordance between the 2 methods. The mean age was 45.9 ±20.9 years (range 16 to 85), with 52% being women. The percentage of identification by direct intraoperative measurement was 95.6% (22/23), by transconjunctival intraoperative measurement 90.9% (40/44), and by OCT 85% (57/67), with 22 muscles finally being analysed for the agreement study between direct intraoperative measurement and OCT measurements, and 35 muscles for the agreement between transconjuctival intraoperative measurement and OCT. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good agreement with OCT and direct intraoperative measurements (0.931; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.839-0.972; P<.001), and with transconjunctival intraoperative measurements (0.889; 95% CI: 0.790-0.942; P<.001). The SD-OCT is an effective technique to measure the distance from the insertion of the horizontal rectus muscles to the limbus, with a high agreement with intraoperative measurements being demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Vitreous hemorrhage and Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that developed after botulinum toxin injection to the extraocular muscle: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Han, Jinu; Han, Sueng-Han; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Min

    2017-12-13

    The authors report a case of a rare complication that occurred after botulinum toxin injection to the extraocular muscle, which was easily overlooked and successfully corrected by surgery. A 34-year-old female patient visited our clinic for diplopia and ocular motility disorder after removal of an epidermoid tumor of the brain. At her initial visit, her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 for both eyes. An alternate cover test showed 45 prism-diopter esotropia and 3 prism-diopter hypertropia in the right eye. Following 6 months of observation, the deviation of the strabismus did not improve, and botulinum toxin was injected into the right medial rectus (RMR). After 6 days, she visited our clinic with decreased visual acuity of her right eye. The BCVA was found to be 20/50 for her right eye. Funduscopic examination presented a retinal tear inferonasal to the optic disc with preretinal hemorrhage. Subretinal fluid nasal to the fovea was seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Barrier laser photocoagulation was done around the retinal tear; however, her visual acuity continued to decrease, and vitreous hemorrhage and subretinal fluid at the lesion did not improve. In addition, a newly developed epiretinal membrane was seen on OCT. An alternate cover test presented 30 prism-diopter right esotropia. 19 weeks after RMR botulinum toxin injection, she received pars plana vitrectomy, membranectomy, endolaser barrier photocoagulation, and intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®) injection. After 4 months, her visual acuity improved to 20/20, and only 4 prism-diopter of right hypertropia and 3 prism-diopter of exotropia were noted. Vitreous opacity and the epiretinal membrane were completely removed, as confirmed by funduscopic and examination. Sudden loss of vision after injection of botulinum toxin into the extraocular muscle may suggest a serious complication, and a prompt, thorough ophthalmic examination should be performed. If improvements are not observed

  2. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.OBJETIVO: A crotoxina é a principal neurotoxina da cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e sua ação neurotóxica caracteriza-se por um bloqueio pr

  3. Specific Metabolic Properties of Rat Oculorotatory Extraocular Muscles Can Be Linked to Their Low Force Requirements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asmussen, G.; Punkt, K.; Bartsch, B.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2008), s. 4865-4871 ISSN 0146-0404 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSH-CT-2004-511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : oculomotor mechanics * muscle fiber types * cytophotometry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2008

  4. Signal intensity and T2 time of extraocular muscles in assessment of their physiological status in MR imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pająk, Michał; Loba, Piotr; Wieczorek-Pastusiak, Julia; Antosik-Biernacka, Aneta; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2012-01-01

    Lack of standardised orbital MR protocols leads to a situation, when each institution/centre may arbitrarily choose sequence parameters. Therefore, the results obtained and published by the authors may not be compared freely, and what is most important may not be considered fully reliable. Signal intensity (IS) and T2 time (T2) are important parameters in estimation of inflammatory processes of extraocular muscles in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the reference values (i.e. cut-off values) for absolute signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in healthy subjects, their relativised values to white matter (WM) and temporal muscles (TM) and to evaluate the correlation between those parameters. The orbital examination was performed in healthy volunteers according to the protocol prepared in the Radiology-Imaging Diagnostic Department of the Medical University of Lodz for patients with suspected/diagnosed thyroid orbitopathy. Using two of the standard sequences IS and T2 time were calculated for the muscles and two relativisation tissues in realtion to WM and TM. Subsequently cut-off values for healthy volunteers were calculated. The differences between muscles for IS, IS MAX, IS/TM, IS/WM, IS MAX/TM, IS MAX/WM and T2 MAX/WM were not statistically significant. Therefore one cut-off value of these parameters for all the rectus muscles was calculated. T2-relaxation time and T2 relativised to white matter had to be calculated separately for each muscle. No statistical correlation was found between IS and T2-time for extraocular muscles in healthy volunteers. We calculated the reference ranges (cut-off values) for absolute IS and T2-time values and relativised parameters. In the clinical practice the objectification of IS and T2-time values should be done to WM, than to IS or T2 of the temporal muscle. The T2 MAX/WM seems to have the highest clinical utility for the assessment of the pathophysiological status of extraocular muscles

  5. CT in the diagnosis of isolated cysticercal infestation of extraocular muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauniyar, R.K.; Thakur, S.K.D.; Panda, A.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) to diagnose orbital cysticercosis, and present the diagnostic features. METHOD: US and CT were used to evaluate patients with proptosis. Four patients were diagnosed as having orbital myocysticercosis and treated with oral albendazole and corticosteroid. Follow-up was undertaken with US and CT. RESULT: US features were confirmatory of myocysticercosis in two eyes where as CT was effective in diagnosing the condition in all four eyes. In two patients the medial rectus was involved, in one the superior rectus and, in the other, the inferior rectus muscles. Serial US and CT revealed complete resolution of the lesions in 3 months. CONCLUSION: CT is useful method in diagnosing isolated orbital myocysticercosis. Our report demonstrated that ophthalmic signs and symptoms in the presence of proptosis, especially in an endemic region, should alert the clinician to the possibility of myocysticercosis. Though CT is superior, US can be used as a economical follow-up investigation. Rauniyar, R. K. etal. (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 154--156

  6. CT in the diagnosis of isolated cysticercal infestation of extraocular muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauniyar, R.K.; Thakur, S.K.D.; Panda, A

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) to diagnose orbital cysticercosis, and present the diagnostic features. METHOD: US and CT were used to evaluate patients with proptosis. Four patients were diagnosed as having orbital myocysticercosis and treated with oral albendazole and corticosteroid. Follow-up was undertaken with US and CT. RESULT: US features were confirmatory of myocysticercosis in two eyes where as CT was effective in diagnosing the condition in all four eyes. In two patients the medial rectus was involved, in one the superior rectus and, in the other, the inferior rectus muscles. Serial US and CT revealed complete resolution of the lesions in 3 months. CONCLUSION: CT is useful method in diagnosing isolated orbital myocysticercosis. Our report demonstrated that ophthalmic signs and symptoms in the presence of proptosis, especially in an endemic region, should alert the clinician to the possibility of myocysticercosis. Though CT is superior, US can be used as a economical follow-up investigation. Rauniyar, R. K. etal. (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 154--156.

  7. Effects of extraocular muscle surgery in children with monocular blindness and bilateral nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Hejcmanova, Marketa; Landau, Klara

    2014-11-20

    Monocular infantile blindness may be associated with bilateral horizontal nystagmus, a subtype of fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome (FMNS). Patients often adopt a significant anomalous head posture (AHP) towards the fixing eye in order to dampen the nystagmus. This clinical entity has also been reported as unilateral Ciancia syndrome. The aim of the study was to ascertain the clinical features and surgical outcome of patients with FMNS with infantile unilateral visual loss. In this retrospective case series, nine consecutive patients with FMNS with infantile unilateral visual loss underwent strabismus surgery to correct an AHP and/or improve ocular alignment. Outcome measures included amount of AHP and deviation at last follow-up. Eye muscle surgery according to the principles of Kestenbaum resulted in a marked reduction or elimination of the AHP. On average, a reduction of AHP of 1.3°/mm was achieved by predominantly performing combined horizontal recess-resect surgery in the intact eye. In cases of existing esotropia (ET) this procedure also markedly reduced the angle of deviation. A dosage calculation of 3 prism diopters/mm was established. We advocate a tailored surgical approach in FMNS with infantile unilateral visual loss. In typical patients who adopt a significant AHP accompanied by a large ET, we suggest an initial combined recess-resect surgery in the intact eye. This procedure regularly led to a marked reduction of the head turn and ET. In patients without significant strabismus, a full Kestenbaum procedure was successful, while ET in a patient with a minor AHP was corrected by performing a bimedial recession.

  8. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  9. Extraocular Muscles Tension, Tonus, and Proprioception in Infantile Strabismus: Role of the Oculomotor System in the Pathogenesis of Infantile Strabismus—Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Schiavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role played by the extraocular muscles (EOMs in the etiology of concomitant infantile strabismus is still debated and it has not yet definitively established if the sensory anomalies in concomitant strabismus are a consequence or a primary cause of the deviation. The commonest theory supposes that most strabismus results from abnormal innervation of the EOMs, but the cause of this dysfunction and its origin, whether central or peripheral, are still unknown. The interaction between sensory factors and innervational factors, that is, esotonus, accommodation, convergence, divergence, and vestibular reflexes in visually immature infants with family predisposition, is suspected to create conditions that prevent binocular alignment from stabilizing and strengthening. Some role in the onset of fixation instability and infantile strabismus could be played by the feedback control of eye movements and by dysfunction of eye muscle proprioception during the critical period of development of the visual sensory system. A possible role in the onset, maintenance, or worsening of the deviation of abnormalities of muscle force which have their clinical equivalent in eye muscle overaction and underaction has been investigated under either isometric or isotonic conditions, and in essence no significant anomalies of muscle force have been found in concomitant strabismus.

  10. A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis

    KAUST Repository

    Heckmann, J M

    2009-08-13

    Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of severe extraocular muscle (EOM) dysfunction among African MG subjects reported earlier may result from altered DAF expression. To test this hypothesis, we screened the DAF gene sequences relevant to the classical complement pathway and found an association between myasthenics with EOM paresis and the DAF regulatory region c.-198CG SNP (odds ratio8.6; P0.0003). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results in a twofold activation of a DAF 5?-flanking region luciferase reporter transfected into three different cell lines. Direct matching of the surrounding SNP sequence within the DAF regulatory region with the known transcription factor-binding sites suggests a loss of an Sp1-binding site. This was supported by the observation that the c.-198CG SNP did not show the normal lipopolysaccharide-induced DAF transcriptional upregulation in lymphoblasts from four patients. Our findings suggest that at critical periods during autoimmune MG, this SNP may result in inadequate DAF upregulation with consequent complement-mediated EOM damage. Susceptible individuals may benefit from anti-complement therapy in addition to immunosuppression. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Restrictive extraocular myopathy: A presenting feature of acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Heireman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with binocular diplopia in primary gaze for 1 year. Orthoptic evaluation showed 10-prism diopter right eye hypotropia and 6-prism diopter right eye esotropia. The elevation and abduction of the right eye were mechanically restricted. This was associated with systemic features suggestive of acromegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma. An elevated serum insulin-like growth factor I level and the failure of growth hormone suppression after an oral glucose load biochemically confirmed the diagnosis of acromegaly. Computed tomography (CT of the orbit demonstrated bilateral symmetrical enlargement of the medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle bellies. All tests regarding Graves-Basedow disease were negative. Although rare, diplopia due to a restrictive extraocular myopathy could be the presenting symptom of acromegaly.

  12. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model Estudo da crotoxina na indução de paralisia da musculatura extraocular em modelo animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.OBJETIVO: A

  13. Autologous grafting of extraocular muscles: experimental study in rabbits Transplante autólogo de musculatura ocular extrínseca: estudo experimental em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Meireles-Teixeira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of autologous extraocular muscle grafting as a type of muscle expansion surgery. METHODS: The left superior rectus muscle of twenty-nine rabbits was resected and this fragment was attached to the endpoint of the respective right superior rectus (test group. Thereafter, the superior rectus of the left eye was reattached to the sclera (control group. Both groups were examined during different postoperative periods in order to assess their outcomes. RESULTS: The presence of hyperemia was slightly more frequent in the grafted group. Secretion and muscle atrophy were negligible in both groups. Fibrosis was greater in grafted animals. These muscles were weaker than the control muscles, although the force required to split muscular parts was always greater than the physiological one. CONCLUSIONS: This surgical technique was reliable and useful if one intends to achieve muscle expansion without the intrinsic risks of dealing with heterologous/artificial materials.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade do uso de segmentos de músculos oculares extrínsecos como expansores de tendões musculares. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove coelhos tiveram seu músculo reto superior esquerdo ressecado e o fragmento de cada um foi transplantado para o reto superior contralateral (grupo-teste. Então, o reto superior esquerdo foi reinserido na esclera (grupo-controle. Os animais foram então examinados em diversos períodos pós-operatórios, até os seus sacrifícios, para que se avaliasse o desenrolar dessa técnica cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: A hiperemia foi maior entre os testes. A secreção e a atrofia muscular foram mínimas nos dois grupos. Houve maior presença de fibrose no grupo-teste, mas não tão expressiva a ponto de inviabilizar os efeitos da cirurgia. Esses músculos também se romperam mais facilmente do que os do grupo-controle, porém, a força de rompimento foi sempre bem maior do que aquela presente numa contração muscular normal

  14. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  15. Evaluation of rectus extraocular muscles using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy for assessment of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hong; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qinghua; Ai, Likun

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is important to assess the activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) for planning optimal treatment strategy. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is a technique for assessment of microcirculation status. The correlation between disease activity and the microcirculation characteristics of extraocular muscles (EOMs) has been demonstrated in GO. Purpose. To investigate the changes of rectus EOMs in patients with active vs. inactive GO using DCE-MRI, and to evaluate the value of DCE-MRI in assessing the activity of GO. Material and Methods. Rectus EOMs of 20 healthy controls, 18 patients with active GO, and 16 patients with inactive GO were studied. The signal intensity (SI) of rectus EOMs on T 2 W images was evaluated. Regions of interest were placed on each rectus on DCE-MRI images. The DCE-MRI parameters including time to peak enhancement (T peak ), enhancement ratio (ER), and wash-out ratio (WR) were calculated. Results. There were significant differences in SI and T peak , ER and WR values among the three groups (P = 0.000). However, there was no significant difference in SI between the active and inactive groups (P = 0.07). Tpeak values of each rectus were significantly increased in inactive group compared with the active group (P peak ), maximum ER (maxER) and maximum WR (maxWR) (P peak , maxER and maxWR were 156.98s, 1.31 and 13.50% respectively, giving positive predictive values of 68.00%, 88.90%, and 94.44% for the assessment of disease activity. Conclusion. DCE-MRI could demonstrate the micro circulatory changes of rectus EOMs in both active and inactive GO, and this MRI method is a useful tool in differentiating active from inactive GO

  16. Accommodation: The role of the external muscles of the eye: A consideration of refractive errors in relation to extraocular malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, B K

    2014-11-01

    Speculation as to optical malfunction has led to dissatisfaction with the theory that the lens is the sole agent in accommodation and to the suggestion that other parts of the eye are also conjointly involved. Around half-a-century ago, Robert Brooks Simpkins suggested that the mechanical features of the human eye were precisely such as to allow for a lengthening of the globe when the eye accommodated. Simpkins was not an optical man but his theory is both imaginative and comprehensive and deserves consideration. It is submitted here that accommodation is in fact a twofold process, and that although involving the lens, is achieved primarily by means of a give - and - take interplay between adducting and abducting external muscles, whereby an elongation of the eyeball is brought about by a stretching of the delicate elastic fibres immediately behind the cornea. The three muscles responsible for convergence (superior, internal and inferior recti) all pull from in front backwards, while of the three abductors (external rectus and the two obliques) the obliques pull from behind forwards, allowing for an easy elongation as the eye turns inwards and a return to its original length as the abducting muscles regain their former tension, returning the eye to distance vision. In refractive errors, the altered length of the eyeball disturbs the harmonious give - and - take relationship between adductors and abductors. Such stresses are likely to be perpetuated and the error exacerbated. Speculation is not directed towards a search for a possible cause of the muscular imbalance, since none is suspected. Muscles not used rapidly lose tone, as evidenced after removal of a limb from plaster. Early attention to the need for restorative exercise is essential and results usually impressive. If flexibility of the external muscles of the eyes is essential for continuing good sight, presbyopia can be avoided and with it the supposed necessity of glasses in middle life. Early attention

  17. Analysis of diet optimization models for enabling conditions for hypertrophic muscle enlargement in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Matijević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mathematical models were created and used in diet optimization for an athlete – recreational bodybuilder for pretournament period. The main aim was to determine weekly menus that can enable conditions for the hypertrophic muscle enlargement and to reduce the fat mass in a body. Each daily offer was planned to contain six to seven meals but with respect to several user’s personal demands. Optimal carbohydrates, fat and protein ratio in diet for enabling hypertrophy, recommended in literature, was found to be 43:30:27 and was chosen as the target in this research. Variables included in models were presented dishes and constraints, observed values of the offers; price, mass of consumed food, energy, water and content of different nutrients. The general idea was to create the models and to compare different programs in solving a problem. LINDO and MS Excel were recognized as widely spread and were chosen for model testing and examination. Both programs were suggested weekly menus that were acceptable to the user and were met all recommendations and demands. Weekly menus were analysed and compared. Sensitivity tests from both programs were used to detect possible critical points in the menu. Used programs produced slightly different results but still with very high correlation between proposed weekly intakes (R2=0.99856, p<0.05 so both can be successfully used in the pretournament period of bodybuilding and recommended for this complex task.

  18. Bilateral enlargement of the orbital muscles: first manifestation of renal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolosker, Angela M. Borri; Bekhor, Daniel; Goes, Paulo; Attie, Greicie Cristina Gerra

    2000-01-01

    The authors present an unusual case of a patient with orbital metastases from renal carcinoma involving the extra ocular muscles bilaterally. The importance of computed tomography for the differential diagnosis with other orbital lesions is emphasized. (author)

  19. 4D-visualization of the orbit based on dynamic MRI with special focus on the extra-ocular muscles and the optic nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, C.; Boerner, B.I.; Buitrago, C.; Klarhoefer, M.; Scheffler, K.; Kunz, C.; Zeilhofer, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    By recording time dependent patients' behaviour, dynamic radiology is dedicated to capturing functional anatomy. Dynamic ''quasi-continuous'' MRI data of lateral eye movements of a healthy volunteer were acquired using SE imaging sequence (Siemens, 1.5 T). By means of combined application of several image processing and visualization techniques, namely shaded and transparent surface reconstruction as well as direct volume rendering, 4D-visualization of the dynamics of the extra ocular muscles was possible. Though the original MRI data were quite coarse vascular structures could be recognized to some extent. For the sake of 4D-visualization of the optic nerve, the optic cavity was opened by axial clipping of the visualization. Superimposition of the original MRI slices to the visualization, either transparently or opaque, served as validation and comparison to conventional diagnosis. For facilitation of the analysis of the visualization results, stereoscopic rendering was rated as quite significant especially in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  20. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  1. Enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for drugs that may make your symptoms worse : SAW PALMETTO Many herbs have been tried for treating an enlarged prostate. Many men use saw palmetto to ease symptoms. Some studies have shown that ...

  2. Gingival Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cover the crowns of the teeth causing periodontal (gum) disease (due to difficulty in keeping the teeth clean) ... localized and/or generalized gingival enlargement such as pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, and leukemia. To the right is ...

  3. Enlarged adenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lips Dry mouth Persistent runny nose or nasal congestion Enlarged adenoids may also cause sleep problems. A ... in the mouth or by inserting a flexible tube (called an endoscope) placed through the nose. Tests ...

  4. NATO Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallis, Paul E

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the last round of NATO enlargement. The report analyzes the key military and political issues in the debate over seven prospective members named at NATO's Prague summit...

  5. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  6. Extraocular myositis in a female puppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Adegboye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraocular myositis (EOM is not commonly encountered in dogs. It is generally diagnosed based on clinical features of exophthalmos without third eyelid protrusion, pain or vision loss. The traditional treatment of choice is prednisolone. This report describes a case of a mixed-breed puppy with clinical signs consistent with EOM, the use of ascorbic acid as an adjuvant to traditional corticosteroid therapy and rapid resolution of the condition without recurrence. It also shows that prolapse of the third eyelid and ptosis of the lower eyelids are possible signs of EOM during recovery. This is the first report of this sort from Africa and therefore the report is of epidemiological significance.

  7. Calf enlargement associated with neurologic disease: two uncommon cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, S C; Honet, J C

    1988-01-01

    Muscle enlargement and hypertrophy are rare findings in neurogenic lesions. The two in combination have been reported in cases of peripheral nerve lesions, polyneuropathy, and poliomyelitis. True and pseudo muscle hypertrophy are the two possible etiologies, whereas infiltration, stretch, or exercise of the muscle are the causative factors. We report two cases of unilateral calf enlargement, one occurring after surgery for S1 radiculopathy with associated cramping, and the other after poliomyelitis.

  8. Enlarged prostate - after care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000398.htm Enlarged prostate - after care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that ...

  9. Comparação entre os métodos de injeção de toxina botulínica em músculo ocular externo com o uso do eletromiógrafo e com o uso da pinça de Mendonça Electromyograph assistance and Mendonça's forceps - a comparison between two methods of botulinum toxin A injection into the extraocular muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Fernando Scalamandré Mendonça

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar dois métodos de aplicação de toxina botulínica A (TBA em músculo ocular externo: com auxílio de eletromiógrafo (EMG e com a pinça de Mendonça. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados no Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP 29 pacientes que apresentavam estrabismo e baixa acuidade visual em um olho. Foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I - 17 pacientes que receberam a toxina botulínica A por meio de injeção com auxílio da pinça de Mendonça e grupo II - 12 pacientes que receberam a toxina botulínica A por injeção guiada pelo eletromiógrafo. Os pacientes dos dois grupos foram avaliados no 7º e no 14º dia após aplicação. Compararam-se os resultados dos dois grupos neste período de tempo. Os testes de correlação de Friedman e Mann-Whitney foram usados para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatística entre as médias de desvio pré-aplicação e em pelo menos um período (7º ou 14º dia após aplicação, tanto no grupo dos pacientes em que foi utilizada a pinça, quanto no grupo de pacientes em que foi utilizado o eletromiógrafo. Não houve diferença estatística dos desvios pré-aplicação e pós-aplicação entre os dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Os dois métodos de aplicação da toxina botulínica A são equivalentes e portanto, o uso da pinça de Mendonça pode ser método alternativo ao uso do eletromiógrafo, para guiar a injeção de toxina botulínica A.PURPOSE: To compare two methods of botulinum toxin A (BTA injection into the extraocular muscle (EOM: the electromyographically (EMG guided injection and the injection using Mendonça's forceps. METHODS: Twenty-nine (29 patients with strabismus and low visual acuity in one eye were examined at the Department of Ophthalmology of UNIFESP. They were divided into 2 groups - group I with 17 patients receiving the botulinum toxin A injection using Mendonça's forceps, and group II with 12 patients receiving the toxin with electromyographical

  10. Enlarged Adenoids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent "sinus" symptoms ongoing middle ear infections or middle ear fluid in a school-aged child If enlarged adenoids are suspected, the doctor may ... apnea repeated infections frequent sinus infections ear infections, ... your child's adenoids removed is especially important if repeated infections ...

  11. Norrie disease: extraocular clinical manifestations in 56 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon E; Mullen, Thomas E; Graham, Dionne; Sims, Katherine B; Rehm, Heidi L

    2012-08-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness, progressive sensorineural hearing loss and cognitive impairment. The ocular phenotype has been well described, while the extraocular manifestations of the disorder are not well understood. We present the data from the Norrie Disease Registry, which consists of 56 patients with detailed clinical histories and genotype data. This study represents the largest, detailed investigation into the phenotypic spectrum of ND to date and more importantly expands knowledge of the extraocular clinical manifestations. We identify several novel aspects of the syndrome that will improve the management of these patients. In particular, we expand our understanding of the neurologic manifestations in ND and identify a chronic seizure disorder in approximately 10% of all patients. In addition, details of the hearing phenotype are described including the median age of onset (12 years of age) and how genotype affects onset. Moreover, we find vascular disease to be a significant component of ND; and vascular health should be, in the future, a component of patient clinical care. In summary, the results expand our understanding of the phenotypic variability and genotypic heterogeneity in ND patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Next Round of NATO Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    .... Political, geostrategic, and technical factors will frame policy options on enlargement though the shifting importance of these factors will likely influence any decision on enlarging the Alliance...

  13. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  14. Botox facial slimming/facial sculpting: the role of botulinum toxin-A in the treatment of hypertrophic masseteric muscle and parotid enlargement to narrow the lower facial width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Woffles T L

    2010-02-01

    Botulinum toxin A is a highly efficacious and cost-effective, nonsurgical option for reducing the width and shape of the lower face and jawline. The results can vary from the subtlest thinning of the face to an extremely thin, cachectic appearance. Many nuances can be achieved. The administration is simple, and the process takes barely 5 minutes in an office setting. Botulinum toxin A can also be effectively used to reduce the bulk of an enlarged parotid gland without affecting saliva production. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  16. Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of the Ferret Lateral Rectus Muscle and Abducena Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    from the ferret LR Slow Resistant group is larger than the typically powerful Fast Fatigable motor units in the cat. Whole Muscle Contractile...623-632, 1990. 21. HESS A and PILAR G. SLOW FIBRES IN THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES OF THE CAT. J Physiol 169: 780-798, 1963. 22. Jacoby J, Chiarandini DJ...were split between the LR and retractor bulbi (RB) muscle slips. In addition to individual motor units, the whole LR muscle was evaluated for twitch

  17. CT, Magnetic Resonance, and {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Imaging Features of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Involving Medial Rectus Muscle: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the medial rectus muscle in a 47-year-old man along with CT, MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/CT ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and pathologic features. The lesion was manifested as a fusiform enlargement isolated to the right medial rectus muscle with involvement of its tendinous insertion. The lesion was isoattenuating to the brain on non-enhanced CT images, showing as isointense to gray matter on fast spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images with fat saturation, and showed homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR images. The maximum stan- dardized uptake value on 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 4.9 g/mL. The results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the specimen obtained by biopsy of the right medial rectus muscle were consistent with MALT lymphoma. It should be noted that the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare location for the involvement of MALT lympho- ma, and MALT lymphoma of the EOM may mimic thyroid orbitopathy.

  18. CT, Magnetic Resonance, and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Imaging Features of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Involving Medial Rectus Muscle: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the medial rectus muscle in a 47-year-old man along with CT, MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/CT ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and pathologic features. The lesion was manifested as a fusiform enlargement isolated to the right medial rectus muscle with involvement of its tendinous insertion. The lesion was isoattenuating to the brain on non-enhanced CT images, showing as isointense to gray matter on fast spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images with fat saturation, and showed homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR images. The maximum stan- dardized uptake value on 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 4.9 g/mL. The results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the specimen obtained by biopsy of the right medial rectus muscle were consistent with MALT lymphoma. It should be noted that the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare location for the involvement of MALT lympho- ma, and MALT lymphoma of the EOM may mimic thyroid orbitopathy.

  19. Penis-Enlargement Products: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and surgeries. By Mayo Clinic Staff Ads for penis-enlargement products and procedures are everywhere. A plethora of ... your penis. Companies offer many types of nonsurgical penis-enlargement treatments, and often promote them with serious-looking ...

  20. Value of Free-Run Electromyographic Monitoring of Extraocular Cranial Nerves during Expanded Endonasal Surgery (EES) of the Skull Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  1. Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besch, D; Sachs, H; Szurman, P; Gülicher, D; Wilke, R; Reinert, S; Zrenner, E; Bartz-Schmidt, K U; Gekeler, F

    2008-10-01

    Due to low energy levels in microphotodiode-based subretinal visual prostheses, an external power supply is mandatory. We report on the surgical feasibility and the functional outcome of the extraocular part of an approach to connect a subretinal prosthesis to an extracorporeal connector in the retro-auricular space via a trans-scleral, transchoroidal cable. Seven volunteers with retinitis pigmentosa received an active subretinal implant; energy was supplied by gold wires on a trans-sclerally, transchoroidally implanted polyimide foil leading to the lateral orbital rim where it was fixated and connected to a silicone cable. The cable was implanted subperiostally beneath the temporal muscle using a trocar to the retro-auricular space where it penetrated the skin for connection to a stimulator. To avoid subretinal movement of the implant, three tension relief points have been introduced. All implantations were performed as planned without complications, and no serious adverse events occurred in the postoperative period. Fixation of the implants was stable throughout the entire study duration of 4 weeks; permanent skin penetration proved to be uncomplicated. Motility was minimally restricted in downgaze and ab-/adduction. Explantation was uneventful. The above-described procedure provides a method for stable fixation of a subretinal device with a trans-scleral, transchoroidal cable connection to an extracorporeal connector.

  2. Penis enlargement: complication of lipotransfer

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, C.G.; Soria, J.H.; Orduna, O.D.; Alcoba, E.

    2012-01-01

    La solicitud de engrosamiento del pene por parte de los pacientes tiene un crecimiento sostenido. El empleo de grasa autóloga como relleno puede causar una deformidad que provoca un menoscabo funcional y estético. Presentamos un caso de complicación que requirió de tratamiento quirúrgico.Penis enlargement is a practice widely requested by the patients. The use of autologous fat transplantation can produce deformity and functional and aesthetic deficiency. The authors present a clinical case o...

  3. An application of dynamic CT for diagnosis of abnormal external ocular muscle movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Kazumi; Ogura, Yuuko; Takeshita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the movements of retrobulbar structures radiologically, we have developed a new technique called 'external ocular muscle movement CT' (EOM CT), in which dynamic CT scanning is performed while the patient performs controlled eye movements. This new technique was applied in one volunteer and 72 patients with external ophthalmoplegia due to orbital mass lesion, hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, blowout fracture, and other retrobulbar lesions. EOM CT permits the assessment of extraocular muscle contraction in cases of blowout fracture, the evaluation of muscular contraction in hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, and the diagnosis of adhesions between the extraocular muscles and intraorbital masses. Radiation dose to the lens from EOM CT was measured using a phantom and TLD, and was compared with that of conventional CT scanning with a 5 mm slice thickness. The dose to the lens from EOM CT was three times higher than that for conventional CT in axial scanning, but in the coronal section of the retrobulbar region, the dose to the lens from EOM CT decreases to one twelfth of that of conventional CT. EOM CT promises to be a powerful modality for functional evaluation of the extraocular muscles and other retrobulbar structures. (author)

  4. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  5. Enlargement of the iliopsoas comportment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Relea, A.; Narajo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The iliopsoas or iliopectineal comportment is a normal structure that occasionally communicates with the synovial cavity of the hip. Rarely, in association with certain pathologies that raise the intraarticular pressure, it becomes enlarged, producing an inguinal or pelvic mass, also referred to as iliopsas bursitis. We present five cases of this pathology detected over the past year in our hospitals. Three of the patients had undergone previous vascular punctures in the hip involved, one presented brucellosis-related arthropathy and the fifth had generative joint abnormalities. The plain radiography, arthrography, ultrasound, CT,CT-guided arthrography and MR images are provided and discussed. We present an etiological factor of this process (previous vascular puncture) that has not been previously reported in the literature. 13 refs

  6. Naturally Protected Muscle Phenotypes: Development of Novel Treatment Strategies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Paul; Doran, Philip; Lohan, James; Culligan, Kevin; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2004-01-01

    Primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene underlie x-linked muscular dystrophy. However, the absence of the dystrophin isoform Dp427 does not necessarily result in a severe dystrophic phenotype in all muscle groups. Distal mdx muscles, namely extraocular and toe fibres, appear to represent a protected phenotype in muscular dystrophy. Thus, a comparative analysis of affected versus naturally protected muscle cells should lead to a greater knowledge of the molecular pathogenes...

  7. Hilar enlargement in respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odita, J.C.; Aghahowa, J.E.; Nwankwo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of ten children with hilar enlargement in association with proven Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection are described. Hilar enlargement was seen in 10/35 children with RSV infection, and was invariably unilateral and right sided. It is recommended that RSV pneumonia be considered in children with unilateral hilar enlargement if tuberculosis has been excluded, and the onset of disease is rapid. (orig.)

  8. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  9. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... scholars, should engage with it. This publication will be of key interest to scholars and students of modern European history and politics, the European integration process, EU studies, and more broadly multilateral international institutions, history, law and the social sciences....

  10. Enlarged facial pores: an update on treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Joanna; Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Enlarged facial pores remain a common dermatologic and cosmetic concern from acne and rosacea, among other conditions, that is difficult to treat due to the multifactorial nature of their pathogenesis and negative impact on patients' quality of life. Enlarged facial pores are primarily treated through addressing associative factors, such as increased sebum production and cutaneous aging. We review the current treatment modalities for enlarged or dense facial pores, including topical retinoids, chemical peels, oral antiandrogens, and lasers and devices, with a focus on newer therapies.

  11. Airport Performance and Construction Enlargement Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanun, Y.; Setiawan, M. I.; Kurniasih, N.; Hasyim, C.; Ahmar, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of transportation infrastructure project should consider the contribution towards infrastructure growth. This research aims to analyze the effect of Construction enlargement activities towards airport performance. This research is correlation study. The population includes 148 airports in Indonesia. By using total sampling, there were 148 sample airports. The result shows that the construction enlargement activities variable has relatively strong relationship to Airport Performance variable, while the adjusted R Square score shows the increasing construction enlargement activities that affected by the other factors aside from airport performance.

  12. Subacute sarcoid myositis with ocular muscle involvement; a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y; Ishii, Yoshiki; Nagasawa, J; Arai, S; Okada, H; Ohmi, F; Umetsu, T; Machida, Y; Kurasawa, K; Takemasa, A; Suzuki, S; Senoh, T; Sada, T; Hirata, K

    2016-10-07

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect multiple organs. The lungs, eyes, and skin are known to be highly affected organs in sarcoidosis. There have been reports based on random muscle biopsy that 32-80% of systemic sarcoidosis comprises noncaseating granulomas; however, muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is generally asymptomatic and has an unknown frequency. We describe a case of acute to subacute sarcoid myositis of the skeletal and extraocular muscles. Typical ophthalmic involvement (manifested by infiltration of the ocular adnexa, intraocular inflammation, or infiltration of the retrobulbar visual pathways) and extraocular sarcoid myositis (as with the present case) is infrequently reported. It is important to keep in mind the rare yet perhaps underestimated entity of sarcoid myositis, and to utilize muscle biopsy and imaging tests for appropriate diagnosis and management of patients with sarcoidosis.

  13. NATO Enlargement: Balancing Economic and Military Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bostick, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The military requirements of NATO Enlargement should be tied to NATO's overall goal of seeking stability in all of Europe such that it does not undermine political and economic success in new member countries...

  14. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized.

  15. Enlargement of filtration with finance in view

    CERN Document Server

    Aksamit, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents classical results of the theory of enlargement of filtration. The focus is on the behavior of martingales with respect to the enlarged filtration and related objects. The study is conducted in various contexts including immersion, progressive enlargement with a random time and initial enlargement with a random variable.  The aim of this book is to collect the main mathematical results (with proofs) previously spread among numerous papers, great part of which is only available in French. Many examples and applications to finance, in particular to credit risk modelling and the study of asymmetric information, are provided to illustrate the theory. A detailed summary of further connections and applications is given in bibliographic notes which enables to deepen study of the topic.  This book fills a gap in the literature and serves as a guide for graduate students and researchers interested in the role of information in financial mathematics and in econometric science. A basic knowledge of...

  16. Thymic enlargement in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Jae Sung; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [College of medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Young [Sejong General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yang Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings and clinical feasibility of thymic enlargement in patients with hyperthyroidism. Seven patients with hyperthyroidism and anterior mediastinal bulging revealed by chest radiography were evaluated. The CT findings were analyzed with regard to the shape of the anterior mediastinal mass, surrounding infiltration, and enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. Whether or not tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, and chorionic embryonic antigen) showed increased levels was determined, and the size and thickness of the anterior mediastinal mass were measured and compared with previously described age-matched thymus data. In addition, changes in the thyroid gland were evaluated. In all seven patients, anterior mediastinal masses were bi-lobed, with no surrounding infiltration or enlarged mediastinal lymph node, and tumor marker levels showed no increase. The masses were therefore considered to be thymus. In six patients, the size of the thymus exceeded two upper standard deviations of mean value and in one patient, it was smaller than this. In three patients, PCNB (percutaneous needle biopsy) revealed normal thymic tissue and in two, follow-up chest PA demonstrated no interval change. CT showed that in three patients, the thyroid glands were diffusely enlarged. In patients with hyperthyroidism, an anterior mediastinal mass seen on chest radiographs was due to thymic enlargement. The recognition of CT findings of thymic enlargement in such patients may avoid unnecessary biopsy. (author)

  17. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (pmyasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and morphological study of calf enlargement following S-1 radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Calf enlargement following sciatica is a rare condition. It is reported the case of a 28-year-old woman who complained of repeated episodes of lower back pain radiating into the left buttock and foot. One year after the beginning of her symptoms, she noticed enlargement of her left calf. X-ray studies disclosed L5-S1 disk degeneration. EMG showed muscle denervation with normal motor conduction velocity. Open biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles were performed. The left gastrocnemius muscle showed hypertrophic type 2 fibers in comparison with the right gastrocnemius. Electron microscopy showed mildly increased number of mitochondria in these fibers. A satisfactory explanation for denervation hypertrophy has yet to be provided.

  19. Extraocular light via the ear canal does not acutely affect human circadian physiology, alertness and psychomotor vigilance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromundt, Vivien; Frey, Sylvia; Odermatt, Jonas; Cajochen, Christian

    2014-04-01

    We aimed at testing potential effects of extraocular bright light via the ear canals on human evening melatonin levels, sleepiness and psychomotor vigilance performance. Twenty healthy young men and women (10/10) kept a regular sleep-wake cycle during the 2-week study. The volunteers reported to the laboratory on three evenings, 2 h 15 min before usual bedtime, on average at 21:45 h. They were exposed to three different light conditions, each lasting for 12 min: extraocular bright light via the ear canal, ocular bright light as an active control condition and a control condition (extraocular light therapy device with completely blacked out LEDs). The timing of exposure was on average from 22:48 to 23:00 h. During the 2-h protocol, saliva samples were collected in 15-min intervals for melatonin assays along with subjective sleepiness ratings, and the volunteers performed a 10-min visual psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) prior to and after each light condition. The evening melatonin rise was significantly attenuated after the 12-min ocular bright light exposure while no significant changes were observed after the extraocular bright light and sham light condition. Subjective sleepiness decreased immediately over a short period only after ocular light exposure. No significant differences were observed for mean reaction times and the number of lapses for the PVT between the three light conditions. We conclude that extraocular transcranial light exposure in the late evening does not suppress melatonin, reduce subjective sleepiness or improve performance, and therefore, does not acutely influence the human circadian timing system.

  20. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Dumani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  1. Sushruta in 600 B.C. introduced extraocular expulsion of lens material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2014-03-01

    It is generally accepted that Jacques Daviel introduced in the 18th century the extracapsular technique of extraction of the lens while the couching method of cataract operation had already been practiced since ancient times. Present study analyses the first known cataract surgery description in three translations into English from the original Sanskrit Sushruta textbook and all the available literature on the subject. We found evidences that some sort of extraocular expulsion of lens material through a limbal puncture (paracentesis) was described by the Indian surgeon. Nevertheless, this incision cannot be considered as a classic extracapsular procedure because it was not large enough to allow the extraction of the entire lens. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  2. Liver enlargement demonstrated by scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiger, L.H.; Gordon, M.H.; Ehrlich, G.E.; Shapiro, B.

    1976-03-01

    Scintigraphic scanning employing technetium-99m sulfur colloid was used to assess the size of the liver and spleen in 32 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The data were correlated with clinical and laboratory assessment. Seven patients had enlarged livers, three enlarged spleens. An expected correlation of liver enlargement with Sjogren's syndrome did not materialize. Splenic enlargement and liver enlargement were discordant. Liver enlargement correlation best with elevations of rheumatoid factor as measured by latex fixation. As liver enlargement is not an appreciated feature of rheumatoid arthritis, these findings suggest that hepatomegaly need not necessarily imply adverse treatment results or the development of lymphoproliferative disorders.

  3. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  4. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  5. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  6. Penile Enlargement : From Medication to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, Helena M.; Balkema, G. T.; Pascal, A. L.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Nijman, J. M.; Van Driel, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient

  7. Etiologic significance of enlargement of the left atrial appendage in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.E.; Kelley, M.J.; Higgins, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one patients were divided into two groups: 20 patients with proven rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) and 31 patients with left atrial enlargement (LAE) of a nonrheumatic etiology. The latter group included patients with ischemic papillary muscle dysfunction, mitral valve prolapse, and congestive cardiomyopathy. Radiographic studies showed that enlargement of the left atrial appendage (LAAE) was present in 18 of 20 rheumatics but in only one of 31 nonrheumatics. There was no direct relationship between enlargement of the LAA and radiographic or echocardiographic left atrial size, degree of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH), or presence of atrial fibrillation. It is postulated that rheumatic influammation of the LAA allows it to dilate out of proportion to the body of the left atrium. In the adult patient with radiographic findings of PVH, LAAE is a valuable and specific radiographic sign of rheumatic mitral valve disease

  8. Irradiation followed by muscle surgery for dysthyroid ophthalmopathy with diplopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Satoko; Asakura, Akiko [Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kosuke; Mori, Toshiro; Shibuya, Masako; Kurihara, Hideo; Tazawa, Yutaka

    1995-10-01

    We obtained favorable therapeutic outcome in 12 cases of dysthyroid ophthalmopathy with diplopia. All the patients underwent Lineac irradiation to the retrobulbar tissue totalling 15 to 20 Gy over 10 days. Extraocular muscle surgery was performed 30 days after irradiation. Diplopia at the primary position almost disappeared one day after surgery. An additional surgery was necessary in one case. The interval between onset of diplopia and surgery averaged 6.1 months. Irradiation prior to muscle surgery appeared to be beneficial in allowing an early surgery and in avoiding surgical overcorrection. (author).

  9. Aortic Root Enlargement or Sutureless Valve Implantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos G. Baikoussis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aortic valve replacement (AVR in patients with a small aortic annulus is a challenging issue. The importance of prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM post aortic valve replacement (AVR is controversial but has to be avoided. Many studies support the fact that PPM has a negative impact on short and long term survival. In order to avoid PPM, aortic root enlargement may be performed. Alternatively and keeping in mind that often some comorbidities are present in old patients with small aortic root, the Perceval S suturelles valve implantation could be a perfect solution. The Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis provides reasonable hemodynamic performance avoiding the PPM and providing the maximum of aortic orifice area. We would like to see in the near future the role of the aortic root enlargement techniques in the era of surgical implantation of the sutureless valve (SAVR and the transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI.

  10. Penile enlargement: from medication to surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugteren, Helena M; Balkema, G T; Pascal, A L; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M; van Driel, M F

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient selection, outcome evaluation, and techniques applied. In our view, sexological counseling and detailed explanation of risks and complications are mandatory before any operative intervention.

  11. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  12. Ventricular enlargement in patients with affective disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murashita, Jun; Kato, Tadafumi; Shioiri, Toshiki; Hamakawa, Inubushi, Toshiro; Hiroshi; Takahashi, Saburo

    1994-01-01

    Ventricular enlargement was determined using linear measurement on MR images in a total of 71 patients with affective disorders, including bipolar affective disorder (41) and depression (30). Fourty-one healthy persons served as controls. Evans ratio, Huckman number and minimum distance of caudate nuclei (MDCN) were used as indices for ventricular enlargment. No significant difference in Evans ratio was observed between both the group of bipolar affective disorder and the group of depression and the control group. Nor did it correlate with age in any of the groups. Huckman number was significantly higher in the group of bipolar affective disorder than the other two groups. It positively correlated with age in the group of depression. MDCN was significantly increased in the group of bipolar affective disorder, as compared with the control group; and there was a positive correlation between MDCN and age in both the group of dipolar affective disorder and the group of depression. In conclusion, ventricular enlargement was dependent upon aging in affetive disorder patients. This tendency was more noticeable in the group of depression. In addition, atrophy of the caudate nuclei was likely to be severer in the group of dipolar affective disorder than the group of depression. (N.K.)

  13. Long-term medical outcomes in survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Sklar, Charles A; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Kernan, Nancy A; Khakoo, Yasmin; Marr, Brian P; Wolden, Suzanne L; Abramson, David H; Dunkel, Ira J

    2013-04-01

    Data on long-term outcomes of survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma are lacking. The authors sought to provide the first report characterizing long-term outcomes among survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective analysis of long-term medical outcomes in 19 survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma treated between 1992 and 2009. Severity of outcomes was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. All patients received intensive multimodality therapy for their extra-ocular disease after management of their primary intra-ocular disease, including conventional chemotherapy (n = 19, 100%), radiotherapy (n = 15, 69%), and/or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (n = 17, 89%). The median follow-up was 7.8 years from diagnosis of extra-ocular retinoblastoma (range 2-17.8 years). The most common long-term non-visual outcomes were hearing loss (n = 15, 79%), short stature (n = 7, 37%), and secondary malignancies [SMN] (n = 6, 31%). Sixty-eight percent of survivors exhibited ≥2 non-visual long-term outcomes of any grade. Except short stature, which was not graded for severity, Grade 3-4 outcomes were limited to: ototoxicity (n = 8; n = 4 require hearing aids), SMNs (n = 6), and unequal limb length (n = 1). Five patients who developed SMNs carried a known RB1 mutation. SMNs developed at a median of 11.1 years after initial diagnosis; two patients died of their SMN. Long-term cardiac, pulmonary, hepatobiliary, or renal conditions were not identified in any survivors. Long-term outcomes are commonly seen in extra-ocular retinoblastoma survivors but the majority are mild-moderate in their severity. Longer comprehensive follow-up is needed to fully assess treatment-related outcomes but the information collected to date may affect management decisions for children with extra-ocular disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Case of Blunt Trauma of the Eyeball Associated With an Inferior Oblique Muscle and an Inferior Rectus Muscle Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keisuke; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Miura, Fumihide; Hiroe, Takashi; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the extraocular muscle in the absence of significant injury to the eyeball and adnexa is uncommon. The authors report a case of blunt trauma of the eyeball associated with an inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle rupture. A 55-year-old man slipped and fell down hitting his eye on an extended windshield wiper blade. Although he had treatment in the emergency room, he complained of diplopia in the primary position 1 day postoperatively. After noticing ruptures of the inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle during exploratory surgery, the authors carefully repaired it. Diplopia in the primary position had disappeared within 1 month after the operation and by 6 months postoperatively. The movement of the eye had almost completely recovered.

  15. Parotid enlargement in children with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberman, N.; Leonidas, J.C.; Berdon, W.E.; Haller, J.O.; Posner, M.; Bonagura, V.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Painless parotid enlargement has been recently reported as a sign of AIDS, but little is known of the imaging characteristics of parotid involvement in affected children. The aim of this paper is to use US, CT and MR imaging to determine the anatomic changes of the parotid; study their possible association with pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH); and define the immunologic parameters and clinical course. Eighteen children were evaluated clinically, radiologically, and immunologically. All patients underwent US of the parotids and chest radiography; some children had CT of the chest and MR imaging of the parotids

  16. Enlargement of thalamic nuclei in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Ann M; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: The basal ganglia and thalamus together connect in parallel closed-loop circuits with the cortex. Previous imaging studies have shown modifications of the basal ganglia and cortical targets in individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS), but less is known regarding the role of the thalamus......-subcortical circuits constitute an anatomical crossroad wherein enlargement of motor nuclei may represent activity-dependent hypertrophy within this component of cortical-subcortical motor circuits, or an adaptive response within a larger putative compensatory system that could thereby directly modulate activity...

  17. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong

    2007-01-01

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers

  18. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers.

  19. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  20. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  1. An enlarged superfluid model of atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, O.; Horoi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The well known superfluid model (or quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (QPNM)) of atomic nucleus is enlarged by including an adequate four-nucleon effective interaction in addition to the pairing and long-range effective residual interactions. New experimental data can be explained without affecting those observables already described by the QPNM and in addition new features can be enumerated: 1) superfluidities of the neutron and proton systems may be generated by one another; 2) the phase structure is enriched by a new superfluid phase dominated by alpha-type correlations (ATC) and 3) superfluid isomers and their bands of elementary excitations are predicted. Unusual large two-nucleon and alpha transfer reactions cross sections as well as some unusual large alpha decay widths can be explained. (author). 46 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Streamlining Education System Through Waqf Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Bahroni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing the development of education systembased on the Waqf Empowerment. It is an experience of Gontor ModernIntegrated Islamic Institution to maintain its existence through the activitiesof Waqf Enlargement. The spirit of self-reliance which has been implementedby Gontor through various economic enterprise activities inside the campus isthe total processes of educational activities, carried out by students andteachers themselves. They act as the subjects and objects of the education atthe same time. They teach themselves through various activities, creativitiesand social interaction for their character and personality building. Thislearning process is purposely undertaken in Gontor, because the basicprinciple of this system is to actualize the community orientation throughwhich the students in the campus guided and prepared to have a spirit ofself reliance. So when they back to the society to undertake the real life theyconfidently take their role to develop their society for the sake of Allah andunity of muslim ummah.

  3. Subsidy policy and the enlargement of choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sunderasan

    2009-01-01

    Development is the enlargement of people's choices. Optimal subsidy policy is intended to create the right incentives for each of the value chain participants. This paper contends that the interest subsidy offered by the Indian federal Ministry of New and Renewable Energy for solar thermal systems, through mainstream banking channels is superior in intent and outcome compared to the capital subsidy as currently offered for solar PV systems, routed through government controlled delivery channels. The interest subsidy enhances innovation, improves service delivery and expands the range of product available to consumers enjoying a wide range of endowments, thus leading to more inclusive development. The simple monopoly model developed by Atkinson [Atkinson AB. Capabilities, exclusion and the supply of goods. In: Basu K, Pattanaik P, Suzumura K, editor, Choice, Welfare and Development. Oxford University Press; 1995] is applied to the context of solar home systems to demonstrate price reduction and choice expansion in a liberalized market, facilitated by an interest subsidy scheme. (author)

  4. Patient with bilateral breast enlargement and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Ahmed, T; Rashid, M M

    2009-01-01

    A 20 year old man was admitted in the surgical unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital on August 2007 presented with Hypospadias & underdeveloped penis from childhood, gradual enlargement of both breasts for the last 10 years, absence of axillary and pubic hair from puberty & painful swelling of both testes for the last 3 years. The patient was regarded as a female upto the age of 10 years. He has got no voice change since puberty. On examination he had average body built, there was bilateral gynaecomastia, hypospadias, rudimentary penis & absence of pubic and axillary hair. His testosterone level, serum prolactin level, serum progesterone level, serum estradiol level was done. Cytology on buccal smear done and ultrasonography revealed no ovary and uterus. Ultimately patient was diagnosed as a case of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience.

  5. Otolithic and extraocular muscle proprioceptive influences on the spatial organization of the vestibulo- and cervico-ocular quick phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Manni, E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Bortolami, R

    1997-03-01

    The cervico-ocular reflex (COR) was studied alone or in combination with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in the rabbit. Step stimulations of the body with respect to the fixed head induced small slow compensatory responses followed by large compensatory quick phases (QP). These responses remained aligned with the horizon at different head pitch angles. The QP reorientation in space was due to the gravity influence on the otolithic receptors. The vestibular induced QPs exhibit a similar pattern. Because of this reorientation, the reduction of the amplitude of the vestibular induced QPs, due to the addition of the COR, was maintained even at different static head positions. The electrolytic lesion of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve deeply affected the space orientation of the COR. In particular, the cervically induced compensatory QPs of the eye ipsilateral to the lesion showed a remarkable variability of their trajectories and they lost space reorientation. These findings suggest that the coordinate system controlling the QPs is influenced by signals originating from both head position in space and eye position in the orbit.

  6. A Subset of Palisade Endings Only in the Medial and Inferior Rectus Muscle in Monkey Contain Calretinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienbacher, Karoline; Ono, Seiji; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael; Horn, Anja K. E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To further chemically characterize palisade endings in extraocular muscles in rhesus monkeys. Methods Extraocular muscles of three rhesus monkeys were studied for expression of the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR) in palisade endings and multiple endings. The complete innervation was visualized with antibodies against the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa and combined with immunofluorescence for CR. Six rhesus monkeys received tracer injections of choleratoxin subunit B or wheat germ agglutinin into either the belly or distal myotendinous junction of the medial or inferior rectus muscle to allow retrograde tracing in the C-group of the oculomotor nucleus. Double-immunofluorescence methods were used to study the CR content in retrogradely labeled neurons in the C-group. Results A subgroup of palisade and multiple endings was found to express CR, only in the medial and inferior rectus muscle. In contrast, the en plaque endings lacked CR. Accordingly, within the tracer-labeled neurons of the C-group, a subgroup expressed CR. Conclusions The study indicates that two different neuron populations targeting nontwitch muscle fibers are present within the C-group for inferior rectus and medial rectus, respectively, one expressing CR, one lacking CR. It is possible that the CR-negative neurons represent the basic population for all extraocular muscles, whereas the CR-positive neurons giving rise to CR-positive palisade endings represent a specialized, perhaps more excitable type of nerve ending in the medial and inferior rectus muscles, being more active in vergence. The malfunction of this CR-positive population of neurons that target nontwitch muscle fibers could play a significant role in strabismus.

  7. An extraocular non-invasive transscleral LED-endoilluminator for eye speculum integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl, Philipp Simon; Lindner, Christoph; Lingenfelder, Christian; Deuchler, Svenja; Singh, Pankaj; Koch, Frank; Hessling, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Conventional chandelier-endoilluminators used for pars-plana vitrectomy consist of a light-emitting tip attached to an optical fibre. The tip requires introduction into the ocular space through an incision. To achieve complete illumination of the intraocular space, the introduction of more than just one tip is sometimes necessary. An extraocular vitreoretinal LED-endoilluminator discussed in this paper represents a new approach to illuminate the intraocular space. The light source is integrated into a speculum and firmly apposed to the sclera. This approach offers the advantage of effectively illuminating the interior of the eye even though the procedure is non-invasive. Furthermore, this approach significantly reduces the risk of damage to the retina by phototoxic effects. A round white LED was used as a light source. By integrating the light source into a speculum, the LED was firmly held against the sclera. Thus, the ocular space was illuminated transsclerally. As a result, indirect uniform illumination of the complete intraocular space was achieved. The prototype was developed considering the relevant international standards. Porcine eyes were used because their properties are similar to those of human eyes. Porcine eyes could be acceptably illuminated with the selected LED. The LED-endoilluminator conforms with international standards for endoillumination. Thus, possible photochemical and thermal risks are considered and reduced to a minimum. A novel LED-endoilluminator which can be attached to a speculum was developed. The system does not need any connection to an external light source and, consequently, also avoids usage of an optical fibre. Regular and uniform illumination of the intraocular space was achieved by transmitted and scattered visible irradiation, avoiding an incision. The duration of potential light exposure, compared to existing illumination systems, can be significantly increased. This is also true when the illuminator is not directly placed

  8. [Enlargement in managment of lumbar spinal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steib, J P; Averous, C; Brinckert, D; Lang, G

    1996-05-01

    Lumbar stenosis has been well discussed recently, especially at the 64th French Orthopaedic Society (SOFCOT: July 1989). The results of different surgical treatments were considered as good, but the indications for surgical treatment were not clear cut. Laminectomy is not the only treatment of spinal stenosis. Laminectomy is an approach with its own rate of complications (dural tear, fibrosis, instability... ).Eight years ago, J. Sénégas described what he called the "recalibrage" (enlargement). His feeling was that, in the spinal canal, we can find two different AP diameters. The first one is a fixed constitutional AP diameter (FCAPD) at the cephalic part of the lamina. The second one is a mobile constitutional AP diameter (MCAPD) marked by the disc and the ligamentum flavum. This diameter is maximal in flexion, minimal in extension. The nerve root proceeds through the lateral part of the canal: first above, between the disc and the superior articular process, then below, in the lateral recess bordered by the pedicle, the vertebral body and the posterior articulation. With the degenerative change the disc space becomes shorter, the superior articular process is worn out with osteophytes. These degenerative events are complicated by inter vertebral instability increasing the stenosis. The idea of the "recalibrage" is to remove only the upper part of the lamina with the ligamentum flavum and to cut the hypertrophied anterior part of the articular process from inside. If needed the disc and other osteophytes are removed. The surgery is finished with a ligamentoplasty reducing the flexion and preventing the extension by a posterior wedge.Our experience in spine surgery especially in scoliosis surgery, showed us that it was possible to cure a radicular compression without opening the canal. The compression is then lifted by the 3D reduction and restoration of an anatomy as normal as possible. Lumbar stenosis is the consequence of a degenerative process. Indeed, hip

  9. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  10. Generalised Leukaemic Gingival Enlargement: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechery Reenesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myeloblastic leukaemia is a malignant bone marrow neoplasm of myeloid precursors of white blood cells. Due to its high morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy is essential. Methods: The article highlights normal blood alterations like anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis and advanced diagnostic aids like flow cytometry, special staining as a diagnostic modality as well as for prognostic information in acute leukaemia, particularly as a tool for assigning lineage and facilitating further pathologic classification which may be helpful in influencing treatment strategies.Results: On clinical examination the case presented with features of inflammatory gingival enlargement with presence of local deposits and calculus. Routine blood examination anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis with haemoglobin 5.6 gm% and total leukocyte count of 1,12,000 / cu mm suggestive of leukaemia. Myeloperoxidase and leukocyte nonspecific esterase (NSE special stain were used which showed presence of myeloblasts in the peripheral smear suggestive of acute myelocytic leukaemia. Flow cytometry were done which further helped in interpretation of these cells which showed to be strongly positive for CD45, CD13, CD14, and anti HLADR and moderately positive for CD4, CD34 and Anti MPO confirming to be case of AML-M4 with 57.73% gating.Conclusions: Fact that gingival alterations are sometimes the first manifestations of the disease implies that dental professionals must be sufficiently familiarized with the clinical manifestations of systemic diseases. The timely referral by the general dentist for a suspicious lesion provided an early diagnosis and early intervention reducing the patient morbidity.

  11. Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daszkiewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)

  12. Enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-01-01

    A unified analysis of the enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste (RW) repository RADONS considers the interplay of the existing engineering, safety and infrastructure premises, with the foreseen newly socio-technical features. This enlargement consists in construction of two additional RW disposal vaults and in building a long-term storage facility for spent sealed sources at the RADONS territory. Our approach is based on consecutive analysis of following basic elements: - the origin of enlargement - the RADONS safety analysis and a set of optimal socio-technical solutions of Salaspils research reactor decommissioning waste management; - the enlargement - a keystone of the national RW management concept, including the long-term approach; - the enlargement concept - the result of international co-operation and obligations; - arrangement optimization of new disposal and storage space; - environmental impact assessment for the repository enlargement - the update of socio-technical studies. The study of the public opinion revealed: negative attitude to repository enlargement is caused mainly due to missing information on radiation level and on the RADONS previous operations. These results indicate: basic measures to improve the public attitude to repository enlargement: the safety upgrade, public education and compensation mechanisms. A detailed stakeholders engagement and public education plan is elaborated. (author)

  13. Normalization of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Enlargement after Treatment for Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Muraoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and can cause enlargement of the adrenal glands, although the morphologic changes after treatment have not been reported in detail. We report the case of 24-year-old man with fevers, headaches, and impaired consciousness who had been treated with glucocorticoids for a protein-losing gastroenteropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed cryptococcal meningitis. Computed tomography showed bilateral adrenal enlargement. A retrospective analysis revealed that the enlargement had been detected 5 months before admission and gradually increased. The enlargement was improved with antifungal therapy and normalized 6 months later. This is the first report describing morphological changes in the adrenal glands associated with cryptococcal meningitis. Adrenal enlargement by cryptococcosis can be improved without any abnormal findings, including calcifications, which may be a unique characteristic from other diseases, including tuberculosis.

  14. The oculomotor system of decapod cephalopods: eye muscles, eye muscle nerves, and the oculomotor neurons in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelmann, B U; Young, J Z

    1993-04-29

    Fourteen extraocular eye muscles are described in the decapods Loligo and Sepioteuthis, and thirteen in Sepia; they are supplied by four eye muscle nerves. The main action of most of the muscles is a linear movement of the eyeball, only three muscles produce strong rotations. The arrangement, innervation and action of the decapod eye muscles are compared with those of the seven eye muscles and seven eye muscle nerves in Octopus. The extra muscles in decapods are attached to the anterior and superior faces of the eyes. At least, the anterior muscles, and presumably also the superior muscles, are concerned with convergent eye movements for binocular vision during fixation and capture of prey by the tentacles. The remaining muscles are rather similar in the two cephalopod groups. In decapods, the anterior muscles include conjunctive muscles; these cross the midline and each presumably moves both eyes at the same time during fixation. In the squids Loligo and Sepioteuthis there is an additional superior conjunctive muscle of perhaps similar function. Some of the anterior muscles are associated with a narrow moveable plate, the trochlear cartilage; it is attached to the eyeball by trochlear membranes. Centripetal cobalt fillings showed that all four eye muscle nerves have fibres that originate from somata in the ipsilateral anterior lateral pedal lobe, which is the oculomotor centre. The somata of the individual nerves show different but overlapping distributions. Bundles of small presumably afferent fibres were seen in two of the four nerves. They do not enter the anterior lateral pedal lobe but run to the ventral magnocellular lobe; some afferent fibres enter the brachio-palliovisceral connective and run perhaps as far as the palliovisceral lobe.

  15. Conduit enlargement in an eogenetic karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul J.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Neuhoff, Philip S.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryMost concepts of conduit development have focused on telogenetic karst aquifers, where low matrix permeability focuses flow and dissolution along joints, fractures, and bedding planes. However, conduits also exist in eogenetic karst aquifers, despite high matrix permeability which accounts for a significant component of flow. This study investigates dissolution within a 6-km long conduit system in the eogenetic Upper Floridan aquifer of north-central Florida that begins with a continuous source of allogenic recharge at the Santa Fe River Sink and discharges from a first-magnitude spring at the Santa Fe River Rise. Three sources of water to the conduit include the allogenic recharge, diffuse recharge through epikarst, and mineralized water upwelling from depth. Results of sampling and inverse modeling using PHREEQC suggest that dissolution within the conduit is episodic, occurring only during 30% of 16 sampling times between March 2003 and April 2007. During low flow conditions, carbonate saturated water flows from the matrix to the conduit, restricting contact between undersaturated allogenic water with the conduit wall. When gradients reverse during high flow conditions, undersaturated allogenic recharge enters the matrix. During these limited periods, estimates of dissolution within the conduit suggest wall retreat averages about 4 × 10 -6 m/day, in agreement with upper estimates of maximum wall retreat for telogenetic karst. Because dissolution is episodic, time-averaged dissolution rates in the sink-rise system results in a wall retreat rate of about 7 × 10 -7 m/day, which is at the lower end of wall retreat for telogenetic karst. Because of the high permeability matrix, conduits in eogenetic karst thus enlarge not just at the walls of fractures or pre-existing conduits such as those in telogenetic karst, but also may produce a friable halo surrounding the conduits that may be removed by additional mechanical processes. These observations stress the

  16. Fetal adrenal gland enlargement - prenatal and postnatal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackova, Eliska; Cunderlik, Anton; Ticha, Lubica; Gabor, Maria

    2017-11-01

    The enlargement of suprarenal gland is related to preterm birth and the birth weight. The ultrasound measurement of fetal adrenal gland volume may identify women at risk for impending preterm birth. The aim of our study was to investigate the newborns in the region of western Slovakia followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. To set the ratio of prenatally diagnosed suprarenal gland enlargment, postnatal managment and treatment and interventions. The newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. We have analyzed 6 years of medical records of all cases from the western Slovakia region of suprarenal gland enlargement encountered to 1st Pediatric Department, Children's University Hospital Bratislava Republic in the time period of January 2010 to Janurary 2016. The diagnosis of suprarenal gland enlargement was set by ultrasound examination performed on the 4th postnatal day as an overall screening test. Newborns with positive laboratory screening on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were excluded from our study. We analyzed the origin of surarenal gland enlargement, gestation week on the due date, the birth weight and other comorbidities and genetic pathologies in newborns with the enlarged suprarenal glands. There were 6 newborns followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. All of the patients had diagnosed the adrenal haemorrhage. Adrenal lesions like adrenal cysts or neuroblastomas were not confirmed. All of the adrenal enlargements were benign with no need of other medical or surgical intervention. None of the newborn patients had other genetic abnormalities, mineral or hormonal imbalances, problems with arterial pressure or haemodynamic instability. All of the patients underwent at least 5 prenatal ultrasound tests and at least 2 postnatal ultrasound measurements. The avarage birth weight was 3030 grams (2700 grams - to 3750 grams). The avarage birth lenght was 50 cm (47 centimeter to 53 cm).The average gestation week (gw) on due date

  17. Prolactin deficiency, obesity, and enlarged testes--a new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, A; Assa, S; Kauli, R; Laron, Z

    1980-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy is described who was obese and slightly mentally retarded. His testes were enlarged. The only endocrine disorder present was a failure to increase plasma prolactin after stimulation. Images Figure PMID:7436524

  18. North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Implications Related to Eastward Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaagland, John

    1997-01-01

    ... Truman's Marshall Plan. The study concludes that the main issue as far as Western security is concerned is not a hasty enlargement of NATO but rather how to guarantee peaceful relations between Russia and NATO...

  19. Morphology of lesions in striated muscle fibres from the beige mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S

    1982-01-01

    Lesions in striated muscle fibres from the beige mouse are described at both the light- and electronmicroscopical levels. The muscles have two types of lesions, one is well defined cores in the fibres and the other is diffusely enlarged intermyofibrillar spaces (IMS). The cores can be filled...... with membrane-like structures or a fluffy unstructured material. In the areas with enlarged IMS comparatively few organelles are present and the muscle fibres seem to be fragmented....

  20. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers subst...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  1. Reversible enlargement of the hypophysis in clinically latent hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C.

    1982-12-01

    A case is reported, in which the combination of high TT/sub 3/- and FT/sub 4/ plasma levels, increased TSH basal secretion and enlargement of the pituitary gland did not reflect secondary hyperthyroidism, but was cuased by clinically latent hypothyroidism, probably due to thyroid hormone antibodies. High doses of thyroid hormones lowered the TSH and prolactin basal secretion, and reduced the enlargement of the pituitary gland.

  2. Reversible enlargement of the hypophysis in clinically latent hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuemichen, C.

    1982-01-01

    A case is reported, in which the combination of high TT 3 - and FT 4 plasma levels, increased TSH basal secretion and enlargement of the pituitary gland did not reflect secondary hyperthyroidism, but was cuased by clinically latent hypothyroidism, probably due to thyroid hormone antibodies. High doses of thyroid hormones lowered the TSH and prolactin basal secretion, and reduced the enlargement of the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  3. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  4. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook [Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah [Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  5. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Kyeong Ah

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  6. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunxi; Song Lingwang; Jia Yakui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. → Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. → Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  7. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chunxi, E-mail: leechunxi@163.com [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 071003 Baoding, Hebei (China); Song Lingwang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 071003 Baoding, Hebei (China); Jia Yakui [Hebei Electric Power Design and Research Institute, 050031 Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. {yields} Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. {yields} Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  8. Use of Macrolane VRF 30 in emicircumferential penis enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sito, Giuseppe; Marlino, Sergio; Santorelli, Adriano

    2013-02-01

    Penis enlargement is increasingly in demand. Methods for penis enlargement can be classified into surgical, nonsurgical (filling), and mechanical. Each method has shown only relatively successful results. A new formulation of injectable, stabilized, hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, nonanimal gel is available that may have applications for this use. The authors propose a new technique for emicircumferential-injection filling of the penis and assess the safety and efficacy of this procedure compared with lipofilling. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 83 patients who underwent penis enlargement with either their HA-injection technique or lipofilling between December 2007 and July 2011. Safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction were assessed. The circumferential enlargement obtained from both techniques ranged from 3.2 to 4.5 cm, with a decrement during erection. In all patients, the increase in penis length ranged from 1.8 to 3.6 cm. No complications were seen in patients treated with HA, whereas 8 patients treated with lipofilling developed granuloma, and another experienced fat necrosis. The vast majority (n = 72) of patients reported being "very satisfied" with the results. The ideal technique for penis enlargement should be nonsurgical, with a satisfactory and predictable result, a low rate of complications, and long-term stability. Emicircumferential enlargement with HA filler meets these requirements. However, results have been durable but not definitive, and repeated treatment (with associated costs) is necessary.

  9. Distal mdx muscle groups exhibiting up-regulation of utrophin and rescue of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins exemplify a protected phenotype in muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Paul; Culligan, Kevin; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2002-02-01

    Unique unaffected skeletal muscle fibres, unlike necrotic torso and limb muscles, may pave the way for a more detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of inherited neuromuscular disorders and help to develop new treatment strategies for muscular dystrophies. The sparing of extraocular muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is mostly attributed to the special protective properties of extremely fast-twitching small-diameter fibres, but here we show that distal muscles also represent a particular phenotype that is more resistant to necrosis. Immunoblot analysis of membranes isolated from the well established dystrophic animal model mdx shows that, in contrast to dystrophic limb muscles, the toe musculature exhibits an up-regulation of the autosomal dystrophin homologue utrophin and a concomitant rescue of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. Thus distal mdx muscle groups provide a cellular system that naturally avoids myofibre degeneration which might be useful in the search for naturally occurring compensatory mechanisms in inherited skeletal muscle diseases.

  10. Surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement - a case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.U.; Nazir, A.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore; Kiran, S.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore

    2014-01-01

    Generalized gingival enlargement is characterized by massive and exuberant gingival overgrowth that poses social, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems for the patient. Therefore, it requires meticulous management. Objective: To describe the surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement by electrosurgical excision of patients presenting to a tertiary care centre. Study Design: Case series. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2012. A total of sixteen patients were operated by using electrosurgical approach under general anaesthesia for surgical excision of generalized gingival enlargement. Results: All of the sixteen patients, 11 males and 5 females, showed excellent healing postoperatively without any recurrent gingival overgrowth. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, the current study presents the largest case series of generalized gingival enlargement. Most of these cases were with massive disease due to lack of information of the study population about their disease, delay in referral by the general dental practitioners, painless and innocent nature of the problem. Early referral of such patients to tertiary care centers can prevent the patients from social and psychological embarrassment. Conclusion: Electrosurgical excision is an excellent surgical technique for management of generalized gingival enlargement. Moreover, cross comparative studies are required to establish some diagnostic and therapeutic standards for such patients. (author)

  11. Peculiar enlargement of the nasopharynx in patients with anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.; Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S.; Kuwabara, G.; Nishihara, M.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the nasopharynx and brain in 17 patients with anorexia nervosa by CT and compared the findings with those of 44 normal subjects and of 5 patients of the same age with marked emaciation caused by various psychiatric disorders. An enlarged nasopharyngeal space with a flattened posterior wall and enlarged lateral pharyngeal recesses were demonstrated in all patients with anorexia nervosa whose weight was lowest at the time of the CT examination, and these CT features regressed or became normal quickly after they had gained some weight. This characteristic enlargement of the nasopharynx and lateral pharyngeal recesses was observed neither in the markedly emaciated patients (2 with schizophrenia, 1 with major depression, 1 with stupor and the other with an extremely unbalanced diet) nor in 44 normal subjects without emaciation. These features were therefore thought to be characteristic and of diagnostic significance. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. The prevalence of incidentally detected adrenal enlargement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.Z.; Bharwani, N.; Micco, M.; Akker, S.; Rockall, A.G.; Sahdev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and the department's detection rate of adrenocortical hyperplasia. Materials and methods: All computed tomography (CT) examinations of the adrenal glands between February and April 2011 were reviewed. The study excluded patients with known underlying cancer, abdominal trauma, or endocrine disease. The adrenal gland was deemed enlarged if its body was greater than 10 mm diameter, or a limb greater than 5 mm. Results: There were a total of 564 eligible CT studies during this period. A total of 64 cases of incidental adrenal enlargement were found giving a prevalence of 11.3%. Only nine cases were reported in the contemporaneous CT report. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that incidental adrenal enlargement has a significant prevalence. It is often dismissed during reporting, and awareness needs to be raised in the radiological community. Equally, the clinical and biochemical significance needs to be assessed with endocrine correlation

  13. Peculiar enlargement of the nasopharynx in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Ito, J. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Kuwabara, G. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Nishihara, M. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    We examined the nasopharynx and brain in 17 patients with anorexia nervosa by CT and compared the findings with those of 44 normal subjects and of 5 patients of the same age with marked emaciation caused by various psychiatric disorders. An enlarged nasopharyngeal space with a flattened posterior wall and enlarged lateral pharyngeal recesses were demonstrated in all patients with anorexia nervosa whose weight was lowest at the time of the CT examination, and these CT features regressed or became normal quickly after they had gained some weight. This characteristic enlargement of the nasopharynx and lateral pharyngeal recesses was observed neither in the markedly emaciated patients (2 with schizophrenia, 1 with major depression, 1 with stupor and the other with an extremely unbalanced diet) nor in 44 normal subjects without emaciation. These features were therefore thought to be characteristic and of diagnostic significance. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Pure myopathy with enlarged mitochondria associated to a new mutation in MTND2 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Zanolini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, only few mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-encoded ND2 subunit of Complex I have been reported, usually presenting a severe phenotype characterized by early onset encephalomyopathy and early death. In this report, we describe a new mutation in the MTND2 gene in a 21-year-old man with a mild myopathic phenotype characterized by exercise intolerance and increased plasma lactate at rest. Electromyography and brain NMR were normal, and no cardiac involvement was present. Muscle biopsy showed a massive presence of ragged red – COX-positive fibres, with enlarged mitochondria containing osmiophilic inclusions. Biochemical assays revealed a severe isolated complex I deficiency. We identified a novel, heteroplasmic mutation m.4831G>A in the MTND2 gene, causing the p.Gly121Asp substitution in the ND2 protein. The mutation was present in the 95% of mitochondrial genomes from patient's muscle tissue, at a lower level in cells from the urinary tract and at a lowest level in lymphocytes from patient's blood; the base substitution was absent in fibroblasts and in the tissues from proband's healthy mother and brother. The specific skeletal muscle tissue involvement can explain the childhood-onset and the relatively benign, exclusively myopathic course of the disease.

  15. The dilemmas of tax coordination in the enlarged European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Jens; Jensen, Jesper; Svensson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic effects of corporate tax coordination in the enlarged European Union (EU) using a computable general equilibrium model. Our main findings are as follows: (i) Corporate tax coordination can yield modest aggregate welfare gains. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has...... elaborate compensation mechanisms. (iii) The large and diverse country effects suggest that Enhanced Cooperation for a subset of the Member States may be the most likely route towards tax coordination. (iv) Identifying winners and losers from coordination for the purpose of a compensation mechanism may...

  16. Gingival enlargement unveiling sarcoidosis: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeeha Abbas Kadiwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is classified as an acquired systemic granulomatous disease. Because of the fact that sarcoidosis affects multiple tissues and organs, it is characterized by many potential signs and symptoms, as well as by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in the organs involved. Although oral sarcoidosis is relatively rare, it may however, present in the oral cavity. This report presents a rare case of sarcoidosis with the initial presenting symptom as severe generalized gingival enlargement. The gingival enlargement was treated by gingivectomy. After histopathological examination of gingival biopsy and certain special investigations, a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made.

  17. Mitral-aortic annular enlargement: modification of Manouguian's technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Mario Gesteira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby present a technical modification for mitral-aortic annular enlargement. The mitral valve is replaced through the retro-septal approach, avoiding patches for left atrial roof closure. We report a mitral-aortic valve replacement in a patient whose original annuli would preclude adequate prostheses. The simultaneous annular enlargement may be necessary for avoiding patient-prosthesis mismatch and for reconstructing destroyed mitral and aortic annuli. The technique may minimize the risk of bleeding and of paravalvular leakage, using an approach well known to cardiac surgeons.

  18. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of radionuclide studies in cases of enlarged prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhvi, S.D.; Shrimali, R.; Singhal, N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present study of radionuclide 131 I hyppuran in 30 positive cases of enlarged prostate and 10 normal subjects has been found effective in giving information about functional status of the kidneys and presence of obstructive unropathy by renography, enlargement of the prostate causing bladder base contour deformity in bladder scan and the presence of residual urine by external counting method over bladder. It is a non-invasive method of investigation and can be undertaken safely in cases sensitive iodine-containing contrast medium. It is also cheap, easy to perform and does not require any pre-examination preparation and can be repeated frequently. (author)

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers.

  1. Progression of Fatty Muscle Degeneration in Atraumatic Rotator Cuff Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert-Davies, Jonah; Teefey, Sharlene A; Steger-May, Karen; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Middleton, William; Robinson, Kathryn; Yamaguchi, Ken; Keener, Jay D

    2017-05-17

    The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the progression of fatty muscle degeneration over time in asymptomatic shoulders with degenerative rotator cuff tears. Subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear in 1 shoulder and pain due to rotator cuff disease in the contralateral shoulder were enrolled in a prospective cohort. Subjects were followed annually with shoulder ultrasonography, which evaluated tear size, location, and fatty muscle degeneration. Tears that were either full-thickness at enrollment or progressed to a full-thickness defect during follow-up were examined. A minimum follow-up of 2 years was necessary for eligibility. One hundred and fifty-six shoulders with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were potentially eligible. Seventy shoulders had measurable fatty muscle degeneration of at least 1 rotator cuff muscle at some time point. Patients with fatty muscle degeneration in the shoulder were older than those without degeneration (mean, 65.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 64.0 to 67.6 years] compared with 61.0 years [95% CI, 59.1 to 62.9 years]; p tears at baseline was larger in shoulders with degeneration than in shoulders that did not develop degeneration (13 and 10 mm wide, respectively, and 13 and 10 mm long; p Tears with fatty muscle degeneration were more likely to have enlarged during follow-up than were tears that never developed muscle degeneration (79% compared with 58%; odds ratio, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.29 to 5.39]; p muscle degeneration occurred more frequently in shoulders with tears that had enlarged (43%; 45 of 105) than in shoulders with tears that had not enlarged (20%; 10 of 51; p tears with enlargement and progression of muscle degeneration were more likely to extend into the anterior supraspinatus than were those without progression (53% and 17%, respectively; p tear size (p = 0.56). The median time from tear enlargement to progression of fatty muscle degeneration was 1.0 year (range, -2.0 to 6.9 years) for the

  2. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  3. Amygdala and hippocampus enlargement during adolescence in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Teluij, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tendolkar, I.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal

  4. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: Series of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Manzur-Villalobos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gingival enlargement (GA is a benign condition of the oral cavity that is characterized by the excessive growth of the gingiva in mass and volume. This lesion is not only caused by hereditary factors or poor oral hygiene, but also by the intake of medications, including antihypertensive, anticonvulsant and immunosuppressive drugs. Objective: To sensitize the prevention or early care in patients with pathologies that merit the use of antihypertensive and anticonvulsants in conjunction with the dentist, to treat or avoid the drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE. Materials and methods: A series of clinical cases of patients with gingival enlargement by various drugs are reported, including Phenytoin, Amlodipine and Nifedipine. Periodontal and gingivectomy hygienic phase measures were applied to obtain better effects. Results: Satisfactory results were obtained with a considerable decrease in DIGE. Conclusions: The integral management is important in conjunction with the treating physician to follow up the drug that can be generating gingival enlargement. It is necessary to employ an initial approach with strategies of periodontal hygiene, and in severe cases and, as last resort, the periodontal surgery with gingivectomy and gingivoplasty.

  5. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...

  6. Diagnosis Of Thyroid Enlargement: Use Of Fine Needle Aspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ten Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies (FNAC) obtained from 87 patients with thyroid enlargement or nodules were retrospectively reviewed. Aspiration biopsy was accomplished using 21-gauge needle attached with 20-ml plastic syringe. There were 14 males and 73 females involved in the study. Sixty- four ...

  7. Amygdala and Hippocampus Enlargement during Adolescence in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wouter; Teluij, Michelle; Buitelaar, Jan; Tendolkar, Indira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal volume, findings in adolescence are sparse.…

  8. Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

  9. Strategy to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch: aortic root enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Dharmendra Kumar; Sanki, Prokash; Bhattacharya, Subhankar; Siddique, Javed Veqar

    2014-02-01

    The choice of a valve with an effective orifice area matching the body surface area and providing efficient hemodynamics is an important factor affecting mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. Our preventative strategy was to implant a larger prosthetic valve by aortic root enlargement using the Nunez procedure in 17 patients between February 2010 and January 2011. The decision to enlarge the aortic root was taken when the 19-mm sizer could not be negotiated easily through the aortic root, or on the basis of body surface area of the patient or type of prosthesis available. Postoperative reductions in peak and mean pressure gradients across aortic valve of 12.8-16.5 and 10.2-12.6 mm Hg, respectively, were observed. Postoperative effective orifice areas of the aortic valves were 1.1-1.5 cm(2). By upsizing the aortic valve, we were able to eliminate patient-prosthesis mismatch in 5 patients, and reduce severe patient-prosthesis mismatch to moderate in 11. Aortic root enlargement is a safe procedure. Therefore, cardiac surgeons should not be reluctant to enlarge the aortic root with an autologous pericardial patch to permit implantation of an adequate size of aortic valve prosthesis, with minimal additional aortic crossclamp time and no added cost.

  10. Trade integration and synchronization of shocks : implications for EU enlargement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babetskii, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2005), s. 105-138 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : EU enlargement * business cycle * trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.774, year: 2005

  11. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  12. [Transient enlargement of craniopharyngioma cysts after stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerkina, N A; Savateev, A N; Gorelyshev, S K; Konovalov, A N; Trunin, Yu Yu; Golanov, A V; Medvedeva, O A; Kalinin, P L; Kutin, M A; Astafieva, L I; Krasnova, T S; Ozerova, V I; Serova, N K; Butenko, E I; Strunina, Yu V

    Stereotactic radiotherapy/radiosurgery (RT/ES) is an effective technique for treating craniopharyngiomas (CPs). However, enlargement of the cystic part of the tumor occurs in some cases after irradiation. The enlargement may be transient and not require treatment or be a true relapse requiring treatment. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of 79 pediatric patients who underwent stereotactic RT or RS after resection of craniopharyngioma. Five-year relapse-free survival after complex treatment of CP was 86%. In the early period after irradiation, 3.5 months (2.7-9.4) on average, enlargement of the cystic component of the tumor was detected in 10 (12.7%) patients; in 9 (11.4%) of them, the enlargement was transient and did not require treatment; in one case, the patient underwent surgery due to reduced visual acuity. In 8 (10.1%) patients, an increase in the residual tumor (a solid component of the tumor in 2 cases and a cystic component of the tumor in 6 cases) occurred in the long-term period after irradiation - after 26.3 months (16.6-48.9) and did not decrease during follow-up in none of the cases, i.e. continued growth of the tumor was diagnosed. A statistical analysis revealed that differences in the terms of transient enlargement and true continued growth were statistically significant (pcraniopharyngioma cyst in the early period (up to 1 year) after RT/RS is usually transient and does not require surgical treatment (except cases where worsening of neurological symptoms occurs, or occlusive hydrocephalus develops).

  13. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  14. Mice lacking cystathionine beta synthase have lung fibrosis and air space enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelet, Julien; Maurin, Nicole; Fulchiron, Romain; Delabar, Jean-Maurice; Janel, Nathalie

    2007-10-01

    Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) is a crucial regulator of plasma concentrations of homocysteine. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to CBS deficiency confers diverse clinical manifestations, notably pulmonary thrombotic disease. However, the association between hyperhomocysteinemia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not well understood. To investigate the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, we analyzed the lung of CBS-deficient mice, a murine model of severe hyperhomocysteinemia. The degree of lung injury was assessed by histologic examination. Analysis of profibrogenic factors was performed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. CBS-deficient mice develop fibrosis and air space enlargement in the lung, concomitant with an enhanced expression of heme oxygenase-1, pro(alpha)1 collagen type I, transforming growth factor-beta1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin. However, lung fibrosis was found in the absence of increased inflammatory cell infiltrates as determined by histology, without changes in gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and interleukin 6. The increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-beta1 emphasizes the role of myofibroblasts differentiation in case of lung fibrosis due to CBS deficiency in mice.

  15. Asymmetric Meckel Cave Enlargement: A Potential Marker of PHACES Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J N; Wycoco, V

    2017-06-01

    PHACES syndrome is a complex of morphologic abnormalities of unknown cause and includes posterior fossa abnormalities; head and neck infantile hemangiomas; arterial, cardiac, and eye anomalies; and sternal or abdominal wall defects. Accurate identification of the syndrome is important for optimal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement, a potential novel imaging marker, in a population of patients referred for evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome. Eighty-five patients referred for neuroimaging evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome were identified and stratified on the basis of their ultimate clinical PHACES diagnosis categorization into PHACES, possible PHACES, or not PHACES. MR imaging studies were subsequently reviewed for the presence or absence of unilateral Meckel cave enlargement, with the reviewer blinded to the ultimate PHACES syndrome categorization. Twenty-five of 85 patients (29%) were ultimately categorized as having PHACES or possible PHACES according to consensus guidelines. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was present in 76% (19/25) of these patients and in 82% (19/23) of only those patients with definite PHACES. This finding was present in none of the 60 patients determined not to have PHACES syndrome. In 7/19 patients (37%) with this finding, subtle MR imaging abnormalities consistent with PHACES were missed on the initial MR imaging interpretation. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was a common feature of patients with PHACES in our cohort and may serve as a novel imaging marker. Increased awareness of this imaging feature has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of PHACES. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Kong, Fanyi [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  17. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June; Kong, Fanyi; Laor, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  18. Dissolution-Enlarged Fractures Imaging Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siami-Irdemoosa, Elnaz

    In recent years the electrical imaging techniques have been largely applied to geotechnical and environmental investigations. These techniques have proven to be the best geophysical methods for site investigations in karst terrain, particularly when the overburden soil is clay-dominated. Karst is terrain with a special landscape and distinctive hydrological system developed by dissolution of rocks, particularly carbonate rocks such as limestone and dolomite, made by enlarging fractures into underground conduits that can enlarge into caverns, and in some cases collapse to form sinkholes. Bedding planes, joints, and faults are the principal structural guides for underground flow and dissolution in almost all karstified rocks. Despite the important role of fractures in karst development, the geometry of dissolution-enlarged fractures remain poorly unknown. These features are characterized by an strong contrast with the surrounding formations in terms of physical properties, such as electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used as the primary geophysical tool to image the subsurface in a karst terrain in Greene County, Missouri. Pattern, orientation and density of the joint sets were interpreted from ERT data in the investigation site. The Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method and coring were employed to validate the interpretation results. Two sets of orthogonal visually prominent joints have been identified in the investigation site: north-south trending joint sets and west-east trending joint sets. However, most of the visually prominent joint sets are associated with either cultural features that concentrate runoff, natural surface drainage features or natural surface drainage.

  19. Enlarged thalamostriate vein causing unilateral Monro foramen obstruction. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Jody; Grand, Walter

    2009-06-01

    Causes of unilateral hydrocephalus resulting from an obstruction at the Monro foramen include foraminal atresia, tumors, gliosis, contralateral shunting, and infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, few reports in the literature cite vascular lesions as the cause of the obstruction. To their knowledge, the authors present the first report of unilateral hydrocephalus occurring due to an abnormally enlarged thalamostriate vein independent of an arteriovenous malformation or developmental venous angioma. The condition was treated successfully by endoscopic septum pellucidum fenestration. A 28-year-old man was referred for evaluation due to a 10-year history of chronic headaches that worsened in severity over the past year. A CT scan of the head revealed unilateral right ventricular dilation. Cranial MR imaging with and without contrast administration showed a dilated right thalamostriate-internal vein complex without any evidence of associated arteriovenous malformation or venous angioma. Endoscopic exploration of the right lateral ventricle showed an enlarged subependymal thalamostriate vein obstructing the Monro foramen. An endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum was performed, resulting in alleviation of the patient's symptoms. Abnormally enlarged venous structures may cause obstructive unilateral hydrocephalus and can be a rare cause of chronic, intermittent headaches in adults. Endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum is an effective treatment.

  20. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  1. THE IMPACT OF EU ENLARGEMENT ON THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred E. Kellermann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available EU Enlargement is a consequence of the success story of the creation of the European Communities, as many applicant countries were attracted to the new legal order based on the rule of law, rather than to an order or disorder based on the rule of politics. As from May 1st 2004, the EU enlargement, unprecedented in its size, marks a historic milestone for the European Union and its Member States, and also for the whole continent. Given this new context, the EU has to find and define new cooperation partnerships with its neighbours. A major partner, not to be neglected in this new policy is by all means Russia. The first Summit between the enlarged EU and Russia held in Moscow on 21 May 2004 was the first high-level meeting of the 25 EU and Russia following the successful conclusion of negotiations between the European Commission and Russia on the extension of the EU-Russia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA to the ten new EU Member States. The Summit calls for the reinforcement of EU-Russia relations via the creation of Four Common Spaces: a common economic space (with specific reference to environment and energy; a common space of Freedom, Security and Justice; a field of external security; as well as a space of research and education including culture. The next step will be to define shared priorities and concrete measures for each of the Four Common Spaces in a mutually agreed Action Plan.

  2. Eye muscle proprioception is represented bilaterally in the sensorimotor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Albert, Neil B; Miall, Chris

    2011-01-01

    eye after a virtual lesion with rTMS over the left somatosensory area. However, it is possible that the proprioceptive representation of the EOM extends to other brain sites, which were not examined in these previous studies. The aim of this fMRI study was to sample the whole brain to identify...... the proprioceptive representation for the left and the right eye separately. Data were acquired while passive eye movement was used to stimulate EOM proprioceptors in the absence of a motor command. We also controlled for the tactile stimulation of the eyelid by removing from the analysis voxels activated by eyelid......The cortical representation of eye position is still uncertain. In the monkey a proprioceptive representation of the extraocular muscles (EOM) of an eye were recently found within the contralateral central sulcus. In humans, we have previously shown a change in the perceived position of the right...

  3. Isolated amygdala enlargement in temporal lobe epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, S M Jessica; Cook, Mark J; D'Souza, Wendyl J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the seizure characteristics and treatment outcomes in patient groups with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) identified with isolated amygdala enlargement (AE) on magnetic resonance imaging studies. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies using the keywords 'amygdala enlargement', 'epilepsy', and 'seizures' in April 2015. Human studies, written in English, that investigated cohorts of patients with TLE and AE were included. Of 204 abstracts initially identified using the search strategy, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria (11 epilepsy studies and 3 psychiatry studies). Ultimately, 8 full studies on AE and TLE involving 107 unique patients were analyzed. Gender distribution consisted of 50 males and 57 females. Right amygdala enlargement was seen in 39 patients, left enlargement in 58 patients, and bilateral enlargement in 7 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 28 patients, with the most common finding being dysplasia/hamartoma or focal cortical dysplasia. Most studies involved small samples of less than 12 patients. There was a wide discrepancy in the methods used to measure amygdala volume, in both patients and controls, hindering comparisons. Most TLE with AE studies observed a later age of seizure onset (mean: 32.2years) compared with studies involving TLE with HS (mean of mid- to late childhood). A higher frequency of complex partial seizures compared with that of convulsive seizures is seen in patients with AE (67-100% vs. 26-47%), and they have an excellent response to antiepileptic drugs (81.8%-100% of seizure-free patients). All studies that included controls also found a significant difference in frequency of seizure types between their cases and controls. Reliable assessment of amygdala volume remains a critical issue hindering better understanding of the clinical management and research of this focal epilepsy syndrome. Within these limitations, the literature suggests

  4. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  5. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-04-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  6. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental oc...

  7. Hearing loss and enlarged internal auditory canal in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Saturnino; Domínguez, M Jesús; Cervera, Javier; Suárez, Alicia; Bueno, Antonio; Bartolomé, Margarita; López, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Among the temporal bone abnormalities that can be found in the etiological study of paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by imaging techniques, those related to the internal auditory canal (IAC) are the least frequent. The most prevalent of these abnormalities that is associated with SNHL is stenotic IAC due to its association with cochlear nerve deficiencies. Less frequent and less concomitant with SNHL is the finding of an enlarged IAC (>8mm). Retrospective and descriptive review of clinical associations, imaging, audiological patterns and treatment of 9 children with hearing loss and enlarged IAC in the period 1999 to 2012. Two groups of patients are described. The first, without association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, consisted of: 2 patients with SNHL without other temporal bone or systemic abnormalities, one with bilateral mixed HL from chromosome 18q deletion, one with a genetic X-linked DFN3 hearing loss, one with unilateral hearing loss in neurofibromatosis type 2 with bilateral acoustic neuroma, and one with unilateral hearing loss with cochlear nerve deficiency. The second group, with association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, was comprised of: one patient with moderate bilateral mixed hearing loss in branchio-oto-renal syndrome, one with profound unilateral SNHL with recurrent meningitis, and another with profound bilateral SNHL with congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of an enlarged IAC in children can be found in different clinical and audiological settings with relevancies that can range from life-threatening situations, such as recurrent meningitis, to isolated hearing loss with no other associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI of enlarged dorsal ganglia, lumbar nerve roots, and cranial nerves in polyradiculoneuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, M.; Mukherji, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the MRI findings in four patients with a clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic polyradiculoneuropathies. In two examination of the lumbar spine showed enlarged nerve roots and dorsal ganglia, and similar findings were present in the cervical spine in a third. The cisternal portions of the cranial nerves were enlarged in another patient. MRI allows identification of enlarged nerves in hypertrophic polyradiculopathies. (orig.)

  9. Explosive (chemical) substances. 6. rev. and enlarged ed. Explosivstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R

    1985-01-01

    The sixth edition of this review manual again has been enlarged and actualized, the proved concept has been maintained. The text describes in large more than 550 items alphabetically, among them about 120 chemical compounds attributed with structure formulas and data. The properties, preparation procedures, and application possibilities of these substances and of about 70 additives, fuels and oxidants are presented for the reader. By nearly 1500 keywords in the index, English and French translations, and explanations of abbreviations, this book becomes a comprehensive and actual dictionary, not only for the specialist, but also for translators, interpreters, newspaper editors, and patent lawyers. (orig./HK).

  10. Principles of veterinary radiography. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.W.; Herrtage, M.E.; Williamson, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    This book by Douglas and Williamson about the physical-technical fundamentals of radiology in veterinary medicine was first published in 1977 and the second edition now available has been revised and enlarged. Part 1 gives coverage of the basic physical and technical requirements of the necessary equipment and installations as well as the laws governing radiation protection. In Part 2, exposure techniques and special examinations procedures are described in detail. Contrast-enhanced examinations are dealt with exhaustively. (orig./MG) With 166 figs., 10 tabs [de

  11. Coil embolization of an enlarging fusiform myxomatous cerebral aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Lazarow, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxomatous cerebral aneurysms are rare sequelae of cardiac atrial myxoma. These aneurysms are generally fusiform, multiple, and distal. Pathogenesis and evolution of these aneurysms is still debated. There are currently no guidelines on the management of aneurysms secondary to atrial myxoma. We present a case of a 52-year-old man with multiple fusiform aneurysms 3 years after resection of a left atrial myxoma. One of these aneurysms was followed with cerebral angiography and showed substantial interval enlargement. This aneurysm was subsequently embolized. All aneurysms were stable 6 months post-embolization. Keywords: Myxomatous aneurysm, Fusiform, Coil embolization

  12. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...... on questionnaires sent out to a wide researcher network in regions of an enlarged Europe, we found differences with regard to ‘input factors’ such as human resources, animal and laboratory facilities and national and international research funding and ‘output factors’ such as inter/national collaboration...

  13. Unusual presentation of hidradenitis suppurativa with massive enlargement of penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Steven M; Cespedes, R Duane

    2004-08-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease affecting the cutaneous apocrine glands and resulting in their obstruction. This enigmatic disease causes recurrent episodes of infection, edema, scarring, and fibrosis of surrounding tissues. We present the case of a 55-year-old man with two decades of inguinal hidradenitis suppurativa that resulted in extensive penile subcutaneous lymphedema and enlargement secondary to scarring and obstructive lymphadenopathy. Reconstructive phalloplasty to restore normal penile function was required. Minimal recurrent induration, normal cutaneous sensation, and normal voiding and erectile function were noted at 3 years of follow-up.

  14. Enlargement gingival treatment on teeth 11 and 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Ghoni Tjiptoningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement in the interdental papillae, thickened, rounded gingival contour and discomfort became major issues that must be treated in order to be optimal appearance and function. Gingival enlargement that experienced fibrosis would not disappear with only plaque control, but required surgery that is gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The 24-year-old woman came to the periodonsia clinic with complaints maxillary anterior gingiva swelled at teeth 11-21 with plaque index 52%. The depth of the tooth pocket 11: labial (mesial: 4, medial: 1, distal: 3. Palatal (mesial: 3, medial: 2, distal 1. The depth of the tooth pocket 21 is labial (mesial: 4, medial: 1, distal: 1, palatal (mesial: 3, medial: 1, distal 1. Gingivectomy treatment and gingivoplasty were performed with the aim of eliminating pockets and restore physiologic gingival contour which can help prevent the recurrence of the disease periodontal. In performing surgical gingivectomy and gingivoplasty, which must be considered is to minimize the disposal of gingival tissue to maintain the aesthetic, adequate access to the bone defect in order to make good corrections, and the minimization of bleeding and discomfort after surgery.

  15. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. CHANGING FROM WITHIN? THE INTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor JAKOVLESKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper opens up the black box of enlargement, focusing on how the intra-organizational relationships among the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, and the European Parliament affect the process of enlargement. Formally speaking, enlargement is an intergovernmental process, suggesting that member states are firmly in control of its outcomes. However, the EU’s supranational actors, specifically the European Parliament and European Commission also attempt to influence enlargement at various stages. I posit that the process of enlargement to the Western Balkans has evolved, influenced by changing constraints which are operating on the aforementioned actors. The added value of this work is in disaggregating the enlargement process based on its institutionalized relationships in both a vertical and horizontal dimension. It provides a supply-side argument for how enlargement policy has evolved from within the EU, rather than simply as a function of external factors.

  18. A Digitally Programmable Differential Integrator with Enlarged Time Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Debroy

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Operational Amplifier (OA-RC integrator network is described. The novelties of the design are used of single grounded capacitor, ideal integration function realization with dual-input capability and design flexibility for extremely large time constant involving an enlargement factor (K using product of resistor ratios. The aspect of the digital control of K through a programmable resistor array (PRA controlled by a microprocessor has also been implemented. The effect of the OA-poles has been analyzed which indicates degradation of the integrator-Q at higher frequencies. An appropriate Q-compensation design scheme exhibiting 1 : |A|2 order of Q-improvement has been proposed with supporting experimental observations.

  19. The Staff Association (SA) in the Enlarged Directorate (ED) meeting!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The Vice-President and the President presented the plan of activities of the Staff Association for 2017 and expressed the Staff Association’s concerns at the meeting of the Enlarged Directorate (Directors and Heads of Departments and Units) on 3 April. Five topics were presented, starting with the implementation of the decisions made during the 2015 Five-Yearly Review. Five-Yearly Review – Follow-up (see Echo No. 257) 2016 – Key points of implementation Several changes were already implemented in 2016: review of the Staff Rules and Regulations in January 2016 for the diversity aspects, and in September 2016 to incorporate the new career structure and the new salary grid with grades; review of the Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 11) on the “Recognition of Merit”; placement in grades and provisional placement in benchmark jobs of all staff members; definition of guidelines for the 2017 MERIT exercise. The Staff Association was extensively involved in the...

  20. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-01-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T 3 -RU, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  1. Hemorrhage from an enlarged emphysematous bulla during commercial air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Li, Min-Hui; Yan, Horng-Chin; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary bullae are a common late complication in patients with emphysema. Non-communicating emphysematous bullae may expand during air travel when the ambient pressure is reduced, resulting in various forms of barotrauma including pneumothorax and air embolism. We report a 62-yr-old man with emphysema who developed hemoptysis during international commercial air travel. CT scan of the chest obtained after the travel showed air-fluid level in an enlarged bulla. He underwent resection of the bulla and had a full recovery. This is a unique presentation of stretch injury of a bulla as a form of pulmonary barotrauma occurring during commercial air travel. With the most recent ruling by the Federal Aviation Administration to allow patients with advanced chronic obstructive lung disease to travel by air with their own supplemental oxygen devices, physicians need to be aware of this type of pulmonary barotrauma and properly advise such patients who are planning to travel by air.

  2. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase......The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...

  3. An introduction to environmental law. 2. enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Mueller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The author outlines the environmental law in the Federal Republic of Germany and surveys the main legal regulations in the field of environmental protection. Inter alia he deals with problems of installations subject to permission and with legal questions of transfrontier environmental pollution. This second edition brings up to date or enlarges the first by information and facts concerning in particular the deficits in enforcement, informal acts of the administration, the protection of animals and endangered species of wild fauna and flora, the environmental impact statement, liability for environmental pollution, the problems involved in the management of waste found at abandoned industrial sites or dumps, radiological protection issues, and environmental protection provided by the EEC Treaty. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-08-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T/sub 3/-RU, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06.

  5. Acrolein Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Causes Airspace Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Masayuki; Natarajan, Ramesh; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the relative abundance and toxic potential of acrolein in inhaled cigarette smoke, it is surprising how little is known about the pulmonary and systemic effects of acrolein. Here we test the hypothesis whether systemic administration of acrolein could cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and lung cell apoptosis, leading to the enlargement of the alveolar air spaces in rats. Methods Acute and chronic effects of intraperitoneally administered acrolein were tested. Mean alveolar airspace area was measured by using light microscopy and imaging system software. TUNEL staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active caspase 3 and Western blot analysis for active caspase 3, and caspase 12 were performed to detect apoptosis. The ER-stress related gene expression in the lungs was determined by Quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Acrolein-protein adducts in the lung tissue were detected by IHC. Results Acute administration of acrolein caused a significant elevation of activated caspase 3, upregulation of VEGF expression and induced ER stress proteins in the lung tissue. The chronic administration of acrolein in rats led to emphysematous lung tissue remodeling. TUNEL staining and IHC for cleaved caspase 3 showed a large number of apoptotic septal cells in the acrolein-treated rat lungs. Chronic acrolein administration cause the endoplasmic reticulum stress response manifested by significant upregulation of ATF4, CHOP and GADd34 expression. In smokers with COPD there was a considerable accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts in the inflammatory, airway and vascular cells. Conclusions Systemic administration of acrolein causes endoplasmic reticulum stress response, lung cell apoptosis, and chronic administration leads to the enlargement of the alveolar air spaces and emphysema in rats. The substantial accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts in the lungs of COPD patients suggest a role of acrolein in the pathogenesis of emphysema. PMID:22675432

  6. Enlarging the underground hydroelectric plant at Villarino, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriard, L.L.

    1997-05-01

    Near the village of Villarino de los Aires, in the province of Salamanca, Spain, was an existing underground hydroelectric power plant. A major enlargement was undertaken to increase the electrical generating capacity, under a contract awarded to a joint venture of Dragados y Construcciones, S. A. (Spain), Entrecanales y Tavora, S. A. (Spain), and S.A. Conrad Zschokke (Switzerland). The enlargement required the excavation of a large and complex underground system of tunnels, shafts and chambers adjacent to existing facilities and interconnected with these facilities. The existing machine hall and transformer chamber were both extended, requiring the blasting of the existing end walls. The drilling, blasting and excavating of the underground system had to be done without damage to existing underground chambers and tunnels, or any of the existing structures, equipment or instrumentation facilities, often within just a few feet of the blasting. This required careful control of vibrations, airblast overpressures and dust. Because the only available non-electric detonating systems were found to be unreliable and unsafe, electric systems would be preferred if they could be used in a safe manner at this site. High electrical potentials existed at the site, and the facilities could not be shut down. Electrical fields were studied carefully, both in the underground environment and above the ground surface. Based on these results, it was concluded that electric detonators could be used if special blasting procedures were developed and followed. In accord with contracting practices of this Spanish agency, the contract was not awarded to the lowest bidder, but to the bidder who demonstrated the best understanding of the project and who presented the best technical proposal for conducting the work to a conclusion that would be satisfactory to the owner. The development of the technical proposal was a two-month effort for a technical group and support staff, prepared in Madrid.

  7. Central projections and entries of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Torre, G; Lucchi, M L; Brunetti, O; Pettorossi, V E; Clavenzani, P; Bortolami, R

    1996-03-25

    The entry pathway and central distribution of A delta and C muscle afferents within the central nervous system (CNS) were investigated by combining electron microscopy and electrophysiological analysis after intramuscular injection of capsaicin. The drug was injected into the rat lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and extraocular (EO) muscles. The compound action potentials of LG nerve and the evoked field potentials recorded in semilunar ganglion showed an immediate and permanent reduction in A delta and C components. The morphological data revealed degenerating unmyelinated axons and terminals in the inner sublamina II and in the border of laminae I-II of the dorsal horn at L4-L5 and C1-C2 (subnucleus caudalis trigemini) spinal cord segments. Most degenerating terminals were the central bouton (C) of type I and II synaptic glomeruli. Furthermore, degenerating peripheral axonal endings (V2) presynaptic to normal C were found. Since V2 were previously found degenerated after cutting the oculomotor nerve (ON) or L4 ventral root, we conclude that some A delta and C afferents from LG and EO muscles entering the CNS by ON or ventral roots make axoaxonic synapses on other primary afferents to promote an afferent control of sensory input.

  8. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  9. The analysis of initial cranial CT of early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    BEI Yu-zhang; CHEN Ben-yang; QI Hao-bo; ZHOU Zheng-ping; LI Yu-bo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive effect of initial cranial CT on early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods Three hundred patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 6 hours after onset were studied. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to detect the related factors which may indicate hematoma enlargement. Results Sixty-one (20.33% ) patients presented hematoma enlargement on cranial CT. Single factor and multivariate...

  10. Analysis of the number of enlarged pores according to site, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ahn, J Y; Lee, J I; Bae, J Y; Kim, H L; Suh, H Y; Youn, J I; Park, M Y

    2018-02-02

    Increasing the number of enlarged pores causes cosmetic problems. The difference in the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex is unclear. To analyze the distribution of the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex. We analyzed the number of the enlarged pores and the percentage of wrinkles in the nose, forehead, and cheek from 434 polarized images. The measurement results were analyzed according to site, age, and sex. Relationship between enlarged pore counts and wrinkle severity was also analyzed. The study was conducted by using DermaVision,™ which can take cross-polarization, parallel polarization, and ultraviolet light images. The enlarged pores of the nose and forehead were more prominent than in the cheeks. Pore counts were increased with age, and the increment was significant between the 30's and 40's. There was no significant difference by gender. Enlarged pore counts were related to wrinkle severity. The number of enlarged pores differs depending on body site and increased with age. The enlarged pore counts correlate with wrinkle severity and the correlation varies depending on the body site. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Flap tear of rectus muscles: an underlying cause of strabismus after orbital trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Irene H; Brown, Mark S

    2002-11-01

    To present an avulsion injury of the rectus muscle after orbital trauma, usually the inferior rectus, and detail its diagnosis and operative repair. Forty-three patients underwent repair of flap tears of 62 rectus muscles. During surgery, we found the muscle abnormality was often subtle, with narrowing or thinning of the remaining attached global layer of muscle. The detached flap of external (orbital) muscle was found embedded in surrounding orbital fat and connective tissue. Retrieval and repair were performed in each case. The causes of orbital trauma were as follows: orbital fractures (15 patients), blunt trauma with no fracture (11 patients), suspected trauma but did not undergo computerized tomographic scan (12 patients), and status after retinal detachment repair (5 patients). Of note, 15 of the 43 patients (35%) underwent repair of the flap tear alone, without any additional orbital or strabismus surgery. Diagnostically, the predominant motility defect in 45 muscles was limitation toward the field of action of the muscle, presumably as a result of a tether created by the torn flap; these tethers simulated muscle palsy. Seventeen muscles were restricted away from their field of action, simulating entrapment. The direction taken by the flap during healing determined the resultant strabismus pattern. All patients with gaze limitation toward an orbital fracture had flap tears. The worst results after flap tear repair were seen in patients (1) who had undergone orbital fracture repair before presentation, (2) who had undergone previous attempts at strabismus repair, and (3) who had the longest intervals between the precipitating event and the repair. The best results were obtained in patients who underwent simultaneous fracture and strabismus repair or early strabismus repair alone. Avulsion-type flap tears of the extraocular muscles are a common cause of posttraumatic strabismus. Early repair produces the best results, but improvement is possible despite long

  12. Amygdala enlargement: Temporal lobe epilepsy subtype or nonspecific finding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Anny; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; McDonald, Carrie R; Jackson, Graeme D; Vaughan, David N; Blackmon, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Amygdala enlargement (AE) is observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which has led to the suggestion that it represents a distinct TLE subtype; however, it is unclear whether AE is found at similar rates in other epilepsy syndromes or in healthy controls, which would limit its value as a marker for focal epileptogenicity. We compared rates of AE, defined quantitatively from high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, in a large multi-site sample of 136 patients with nonlesional localization related epilepsy (LRE), including TLE and extratemporal (exTLE) focal epilepsy, 34 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and 233 healthy controls (HCs). AE was found in all groups including HCs; however, the rate of AE was higher in LRE (18.4%) than in IGE (5.9%) and HCs (6.4%). Patients with unilateral LRE were further evaluated to compare rates of concordant ipsilateral AE in TLE and exTLE, with the hypothesis that rates of ipsilateral AE would be higher in TLE. Although ipsilateral AE was higher in TLE (19.4%) than exTLE (10.5%), this difference was not significant. Furthermore, among the 25 patients with unilateral LRE and AE, 13 (52%) had either bilateral AE or AE contralateral to seizure onset. Results suggest that AE, as defined with MRI volumetry, may represent an associated feature of nonlesional localization related epilepsy with limited seizure onset localization value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Field-Theoretic Weyl Deformation Quantization of Enlarged Poisson Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Schlafer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available C*-algebraic Weyl quantization is extended by allowing also degenerate pre-symplectic forms for the Weyl relations with infinitely many degrees of freedom, and by starting out from enlarged classical Poisson algebras. A powerful tool is found in the construction of Poisson algebras and non-commutative twisted Banach-*-algebras on the stage of measures on the not locally compact test function space. Already within this frame strict deformation quantization is obtained, but in terms of Banach-*-algebras instead of C*-algebras. Fourier transformation and representation theory of the measure Banach-*-algebras are combined with the theory of continuous projective group representations to arrive at the genuine C*-algebraic strict deformation quantization in the sense of Rieffel and Landsman. Weyl quantization is recognized to depend in the first step functorially on the (in general infinite dimensional, pre-symplectic test function space; but in the second step one has to select a family of representations, indexed by the deformation parameter h. The latter ambiguity is in the present investigation connected with the choice of a folium of states, a structure, which does not necessarily require a Hilbert space representation.

  14. Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.

  15. Reconstruction of deformities resulting from penile enlargement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, G J

    1997-12-01

    More than 30 patients presented for reconstruction of penile deformities secondary to penile enlargement surgery performed by other physicians. Lengthening was performed by releasing the suspensory ligament of the penis and advancing pubic skin with a V-Y advancement flap. Girth was increased by injecting autologous fat. Specific complaints relating to the lengthening procedure involve hypertrophic and/or wide scars, a proximal penile hump from a thick, hair-bearing V-Y flap, and a low hanging penis. Complications relating to autologous fat injections include disappearance of fat, penile lumps and nodules, and shaft deformities. The repair of these deformities is described. From 1994 through October 1996, 19 men underwent 24 various combinations of reconstructive operations, such as scar revisions, V-Y advancement flap reversal, and removal of fat nodules and asymmetrical fat deposits. Penile appearance and function were improved. Complications include 1 hematoma requiring drainage, minor wound complications and 1 inadequately reversed V-Y flap. The methods of various repairs are discussed, including reconstructive limitations, timing and staging. Significant improvement can be achieved with proper reconstruction of penile deformities.

  16. Recurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma isolated to the right masticator and left psoas muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Chavda, S.V.; West, R.

    2000-01-01

    We present the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a patient who, following treatment for pancreatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), relapsed with apparently isolated involvement of the right masticator space and left psoas muscles. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising from the masticator space muscles is very rare. In addition, simultaneous lymphomatous involvement of multiple discrete skeletal muscle sites, in the absence of disease elsewhere, has previously only been reported in the limb or limb girdle muscles. Lymphoma should be considered as a cause of isolated enlarged skeletal muscles, even when involving such distant sites. (orig.)

  17. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  18. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  19. Vestibular Dysfunction in Patients with Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Chris K; Chien, Wade W; King, Kelly A; Muskett, Julie A; Baron, Rachel E; Butman, John A; Griffith, Andrew J; Brewer, Carmen C

    2015-08-01

    Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the most common inner ear malformation. While a strong correlative relationship between EVA and hearing loss is well established, its association with vestibular dysfunction is less well understood. In this study, we examine the effects of EVA on the vestibular system in patients with EVA. Prospective, cross-sectional study of a cohort ascertained between 1999 and 2013. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, a federal biomedical research facility. In total, 106 patients with unilateral or bilateral EVA, defined as a midpoint diameter greater than 1.5 mm, were referred or self-referred to participate in a study of the clinical and molecular aspects of EVA. Clinical history was ascertained with respect to the presence or absence of various vestibular signs and symptoms and history of head trauma. Videonystagmography (VNG), cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP), and rotational vestibular testing (RVT) were performed to assess the vestibular function. Of the patients with EVA, 45% had vestibular signs and symptoms, and 44% of tested patients had abnormal VNG test results. An increased number of vestibular signs and symptoms was correlated with the presence of bilateral EVA (P = .008) and a history of head injury (P VNG results also correlated with a history of head injury (P = .018). Vestibular dysfunction is common in patients with EVA. However, not all patients with vestibular signs and symptoms have abnormal vestibular test results. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of vestibular dysfunction in patients with EVA. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. Gingival enlargement in orthodontic patients: Effect of treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Maltz, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 10 6 . The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions

  2. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hagen (Germany); Kirchner, Esther Maria [Staedtisches Klinikum Wedau, Clinic for Medicine, Duisburg (Germany); Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  3. U.S. Decision Making and Post-Cold War NATO Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    interactions with one another and by external events. Additionally, enlarging NATO entails modifying the North Atlantic Treaty, which, by constitutional ...III discusses NATO’s second enlargement round, which welcomed Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia into the...membership for Romania and Slovenia , it might give the impression that Russian objections carried weight, discouraging the future pursuit of membership and

  4. The fifth wave of the European Union enlargement: pro et contra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the principal complex of economic and political motivations of the states of Central and Eastern Europe and the EU members related to the EU enlargement towards the East. Special attention is paid to the discussion on the reasonableness of the EU enlargement and the positions of certain EU members.

  5. Immunoglobulin G4-related dacyroadenitis presenting as bilateral chorioretinal folds from severely enlarged lacrimal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Kurokawa

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions and importance: This is the first account of chorioretinal fold formation by severely enlarged lacrimal glands appearing in IgG4-related dacryoadenitis. Chorioretinal fold formation by an enlarged lacrimal gland occurring bilaterally may represent a basis for suspecting IgG4-related dacryoadenitis. Prompt treatment is recommended for patients presenting with very large lacrimal glands to avoid visual impairment.

  6. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma; Kirchner, Esther Maria; Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  7. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyashita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species.

  8. The future of nuclear energy in the enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Mingiuc, C.; Paraschiva, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the future of nuclear energy at the European level taking into account the main factors which influence its development among which the most important are: - enlargement of EU to 30 member states with different energy structure; - the increase of energy consumption; - the constant increasing of external dependence for energy which is estimated at 70% in the next 20-30 years; - liberalisation of the energy sources and supply sector; - environmental concerns, including climate change. In the Green Paper, nuclear is grouped together with coal, oil, gas and renewables as 'less than perfect' energy options and together with coal it is classed as an 'undesirable' and referred to as a 'source of energy in doubt ' which is ' tainted by the original sin of dual usage (civil and military) in the fuel cycle'. The final conclusion is 'the future of nuclear energy in Europe is uncertain'. It depends on several factors beyond energy demand; including: a solution to the problems of managing nuclear waste, the economic viability of the new generation of power stations, the safety of reactors in Eastern Europe, in particular applicant countries and policies to combat global warming. The 'essential questions' for nuclear is 'How can the community develop fusion technology and reactors for the future, reinforce nuclear safety and find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste?' There are a number of very important factors that will influence the future of nuclear energy inside the European Union. The first and foremost of these is continuing the safe operation of the existing nuclear facilities. The second is the demand for energy, in particular electricity. The third is the nuclear sector's ability to meet a share of this demand in a competitive way. If the demand materialises, there are likely to be reactors available that can further improve nuclear competitiveness while maintaining its recent excellent safety record. It will be the market that

  9. Referred pain elicited by manual exploration of the lateral rectus muscle in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Gerwin, Robert D; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the presence of referred pain elicited by manual examination of the lateral rectus muscle in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). A case-control blinded study. It has been found previously that the manual examination of the superior oblique muscle can elicit referred pain to the head in some patients with migraine or tension-type headache. However, a referred pain from other extraocular muscles has not been investigated. Fifteen patients with CTTH and 15 healthy subjects without headache history were included. A blinded assessor performed a manual examination focused on the search for myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the right and left lateral rectus muscles. TrP diagnosis was made when there was referred pain evoked by maintained pressure on the lateral corner of the orbit (anatomical projection of the lateral rectus muscle) for 20 seconds, and increased referred pain while the subject maintained a medial gaze on the corresponding side (active stretching of the muscle) for 15 seconds. On each side, a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to assess the intensity of referred pain at both stages of the examination. Ten patients with CTTH (66.6%) had referred pain that satisfied TrPs diagnostic criteria, while only one healthy control (0.07%) reported referred pain upon the examination of the lateral rectus muscles (P < 0.001). The elicited referred pain was perceived as a deep ache located at the supraorbital region or the homolateral forehead. Pain was evoked on both sides in all subjects with TrPs, with no difference in pain intensity between the right and the left. The average pain intensity was significantly greater in the patient group (P < 0.001). All CTTH patients with referred pain recognized it as the frontal pain that they usually experienced during their headache attacks, which was consistent with active TrPs. In some patients with CTTH, the manual examination of lateral rectus muscle TrPs elicits a referred pain that

  10. Effects of hyperthyroidism on the rectus muscles in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyong Jy eNien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Structural details of vertebrate extraocular muscles (EOMs have shown an anatomically and functionally distinct laminar organization into an outer orbital (OL and an inner global layer (GL. Since hyperthyroidism alters tissue oxidative metabolism through mitochondrial enzymes, it is expected that structural/mitochondrial changes may be seen in hyperthyroid EOMs. We investigated the alterations in the laminar organization and mitochondrial changes in hyperthyroid mouse EOMs. Methods: Hyperthyroidism was induced in C57BL/6 mice and fresh rectus muscles were obtained to identify functional mitochondria using MitoTracker® Green and confocal microscopy; frozen sections from rectus muscles were stained with anti-rabbit Troponin T (selectively present in the OL to demonstrate changes in the OL and GL of the EOMs. Ultrastructural features of EOMs were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM.Results: Of all 4 rectus EOMs studied, the maximum change was seen in the inferior rectus muscle (IR followed by medial rectus (MR. Myofiber cross sectional area measurements and Troponin T staining in the control IR EOMs demonstrated a smaller OL (113.2 ± 3.66 μm2 and higher density staining with Troponin T (90% and a larger GL (411 ± 13.84 μm2 with low intensity staining (10%, while hyperthyroidism resulted in an increased OL (205.9 ± 5.3 μm2 and decreased GL (271.7 ± 7.5 μm2 p=0.001. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an intense staining especially in the outer rims in the hyperthyroid IR which was confirmed by TEM showing structural alterations in the mitochondria and a subsarcolemmal migration. Conclusions: The outer, thinner, orbital layer (OL of the mouse EOM contains smaller diameter myofibers and fewer mitochondria while the inner, larger global layer (GL contains larger diameter myofibers and larger density of mitochondria. Hyperthyroidism results in a significant alteration in the laminar organization and mitochondria of

  11. Prognostic Factors of Orbital Fractures with Muscle Incarceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chan Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Among the various signs and symptoms of orbital fractures, certain clinical findings warrant immediate surgical exploration, including gaze restriction, computed tomographic (CT evidence of entrapment, and prolonged oculocardiac reflex. Despite proper surgical reconstruction, prolonged complications such as diplopia and gaze restriction can occur. This article evaluated the prognostic factors associated with prolonged complications of orbital fractures with muscle incarceration. Methods The medical records of 37 patients (37 orbits with an orbital fracture with muscle incarceration from January 2001 to January 2015 were reviewed. The presence of Incarcerated muscle was confirmed via CT, as well as by intraoperative findings. Various factors potentially contributing to complications lasting for over 1 year after the injury were categorized and analyzed, including age, cause of injury, injury-to-operation time, operative time, fracture type, nausea, vomiting and other concomitant symptoms and injuries. Results All patients who presented with extraocular muscle limitations, positive CT findings, and/or a positive forced duction test underwent surgery. Of the 37 patients, 9 (24% exhibited lasting complications, such as diplopia and gaze restriction. The mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (range, 1–108 months, while that of patients who experienced prolonged complications was 30.1 months (range, 13–36 months. Two factors were significantly associated with prolonged complications: injury-to-operation time and nausea/vomiting. Loss of vision, worsening of motility, and implant complication did not occur. Conclusions Patients who present with gaze limitations, with or without other signs of a blow-out fracture, require a thorough evaluation and emergent surgery. A better prognosis is expected with a shorter injury-to-operation time and lack of nausea and vomiting at the initial presentation.

  12. The paradox of EU enlargement and member states' policies: Dilemmas and challenges: The case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Santos Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of EU enlargement with its dual nature: of an intra-EU process, related to the consolidation of a democratic-peace based on collective security, and an external process, involving EU foreign policy and impact on relations with other major global players. Although enlargement is a multidimensional process that combines different perspectives - candidate countries' enlargement politics, member states' politics/policy, EU enlargement politics and external global impact - the paper focuses on Member States policies towards enlargement by looking at the case of Portugal, in particular in relation with the Big Bang Eastern enlargement, and aims at explaining the paradox of Portugal's strong political support to enlargement while it was one of the main potential losers in terms of economic interests. A 'foreign policy analysis' framework is adopted in order to understand the process of decision-making and the interaction between the domestic and the EU levels. The argument put forward is that an exclusive constructivist approach does not provide a satisfactory explanation, as there was also rationalist-interest logic at play. The Portuguese policy towards enlargement was determined not only by the 'solidaritysimilarity' logic, dominant in the formal political discourse but also by the consideration of long-term interests in the EU related to the preservation of the strategic alliance with Germany. The overall systemic impact of enlargement tends to weaken the EU as it presents a major paradox functioning as a double-edged sword. While it has a positive impact by contributing to the enhancement of the EU international profile as it grows in size raising expectations about its potential global role, it also leads to greater heterogeneity, undermining the EU cohesion and its ability to act together with a single voice becoming a robust global player, thus frustrating the expectations raised in the first place.

  13. Cooperative diplomacy: Citizens, sovereignty, and the logic of democratic enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Anthony Mark

    2000-12-01

    that intergovernmental agreement on compliance questions is most likely to occur when decision-making and policy-implementing processes are decentralized, and when governments establish and support decentralized intra- and trans-governmental institutions that enable private domestic groups of individuals to participate in international governance through two mechanisms. First, those decentralized institutions facilitate the formation of transnational coalitions of politically autonomous private domestic groups that can serve as a ``horizontal transmission belt'' for ideas and practices among private and public proponents of the major opposing domestic positions, thereby generating public transnational deliberation on compliance, monitoring and distributive questions. Second, politically autonomous private domestic groups can, by engaging in performance-based partnerships with senior government officials, also serve as a ``vertical transmission belt'' between domestic and intergovernmental regimes and vice versa, thereby encouraging their respective governments to adapt the social practices in issue-specific domestic regimes to international structural forces. These findings have significant ramifications for the concept of democratic enlargement, the institutionalization of competitive pluralism in non- liberal states. The robustness, across changes in administrations both at home and abroad, of the norms codified in international agreements may hinge on institutionalizing the participation of politically autonomous private domestic groups in decentralized intra- and trans-governmental decision-making and policy- implementing processes.

  14. Long term follow up of idiopathic gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis: A case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Girish P Nagarale; S Ravindra; Srinath Thakur; Swati Setty

    2013-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It may be associated with other diseases/conditions characterizing a syndrome, but rarely associated with periodontitis. Case Description: This case report describes an unusual clinical form of gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed diffuse gingival enlargement. The lesion was asymptomatic, firm, and pinkish red. Generalized pe...

  15. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-01

    structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges

  16. Chest CT findings in EBUS-TBNA-proven anthracosis in enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen (Germany). Dept. of Interventional and Diagnostic Radiology; Mueller, P. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen (Germany). Dept. of Medicine; Broll, M.; Kirchner, E.M. [Sana Klinikum Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Medicine; Pomjanski, N.; Biesterfeld, S. [University Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Liermann, D. [Marien Hospital, Herne (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Kickuth, R. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate the multislice computed tomography (MSCT) findings of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)-proven hilar and mediastinal lymph node enlargement with signs of anthracosis. 53 enlarged lymph nodes in 39 patients (28 male, 11 female) with EBUS-TBNA-confirmed anthracosis were analyzed retrospectively. The mean short axis diameter of the enlarged lymph nodes with signs of anthracosis was 13.7 mm. Lymph nodes most often showed an oval shape (84%) and were well defined in 66% of cases. Lymph node confluence was observed in 32% of cases. Calcifications were documented in 24.5% of cases. Contrast enhancement and fatty involution were seen seldom (3.8%). Lymph node necrosis was not seen. Lymph node anthracosis may be found most often in enlarged, well defined lymph nodes with an oval shape, frequently associated with confluence and calcifications.

  17. INDIUM AND ZINC MEDIATED ONE-ATOM CARBOCYCLE ENLARGEMENT IN WATER. (R822668)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSix-, seven-, eight-membered rings are enlarged by one carbon-atom into seven-, eight- and nine-membered ring derivatives respectively, via indium or zinc mediated reactions in aqueous medium.

  18. NATO Enlargement and the National Agendas of America, Great Britain, France, and Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irving, William

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the enlargement of NATO from the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, through the formation of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council and the Partnership for Peace...

  19. Enlarged perivascular spaces and cognitive impairment after stroke and transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba, Francesco; Quinn, Terence J; Hankey, Graeme J; Lees, Kennedy R; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Ali, Myzoon; Inzitari, Domenico

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggested that enlarged perivascular spaces are neuroimaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease. However, it is not clear whether enlarged perivascular spaces are associated with cognitive impairment. We aimed to determine the cross-sectional relationship between enlarged perivascular spaces and small vessel disease, and to investigate the relationship between enlarged perivascular spaces and subsequent cognitive impairment in patients with recent cerebral ischemic event. Methods Anonymized data were accessed from the virtual international stroke trial archive. We rated number of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, brain atrophy, and enlarged perivascular spaces with validated scales on magnetic resonance brain images after the index stroke. We defined cognitive impairment as a mini mental state examination score of ≤26, recorded at one year post stroke. We examined the associations between enlarged perivascular spaces and clinical and imaging markers of small vessel disease at presentation and clinical evidence of cognitive impairment at one year using linear and logistic regression models. Results We analyzed data on 430 patients with mean (±SD) age 64.7 (±12.7) years, 276 (64%) males. In linear regression analysis, age (β = 0.24; p cognitive impairment at one year after adjusting for clinical confounders (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.22-2.42) and for clinical and imaging confounders (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.03-2.31). Conclusions Our data show that in patients with ischemic cerebral events, enlarged perivascular spaces are cross-sectionally associated with age, hypertension, and white matter hyperintensities and suggest that enlarged perivascular spaces in the basal ganglia are associated with cognitive impairment after one year.

  20. The eastward enlargement of the eurozone: social and policy aspects in Portugal, Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Aurora; Caétano, José; Costa, Sofia; Liiv, Reilika

    2003-01-01

    This report explores some features of the social dimension of enlargement regarding the Southern EU-Member countries, namely Portugal, Spain and Italy. Economic theory suggests that integration may affect wages, employment and income distribution through changes on trade, FDI and migration flows. By removing all barriers to the free movement of goods and services, capital and labour, Eastward Enlargement will affect the location of economic activities, innovation, and technology. Subsequently...

  1. [Impacts of physical exercise on remodeling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Takayuki; Nikawa, Takeshi

    The skeletal muscle has high sensitivity for the mechanical stress. Because it is enlarged by training, whereas it is easily withered by lack of exercise. When we exercise, skeletal muscle cells per se sense mechanical loading, and muscular remodeling and the muscular hypertrophy occur. It has been revealed that the intracellular signaling through PGC-1α participates in the remodeling of the skeletal muscle, while PGC-1α4, an isoform of PGC-1α, and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex play important roles in muscular hypertrophy. This review describes the impact of physical exercise gives on the remodeling and hypertrophy of muscle through the signaling.

  2. Relationship between intracranial internal carotid artery calcification and enlarged cerebral perivascular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiao-Xiao [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); The First People' s Hospital of Wenling, Department of Neurology, Wenling (China); Li, Ge-Fei; Wu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhuang, Mei-Ting; Hou, Tian-Yu; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Feng-Di; Wang, Xue-Mei; Shen, Ying; Cui, Guo-Hong; Su, Jing-Jing; Chen, Wei [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Tang, Xue-Mei; Sun, Ji; Liu, Jian-Ren [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    The association between intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) calcification and lacunes, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has been well researched. However, enlarged cerebral perivascular space (PVS) has not yet been reported to correlate with intracranial internal carotid artery calcification. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. A total of 189 patients with ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory who presented within 7 days of ictus from 2012 to 2015 were enrolled respectively. All patients were required to have undergone head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, or computed tomography angiography. Clinical characteristics were recorded. IICA calcification and enlarged PVS were semi-quantitatively evaluated, and the presence of lacunes, WMH, and CMBs was recorded. Of the 189 patients, 63.5% were male. Mean age of the patients was 68.6 ± 12.2 years. There were 104 patients with IICA calcification. Age, diabetes mellitus, lacunes, and white matter hyperintensity were significantly associated with IICA calcification (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, diabetes mellitus, and lacunes were independent predictors of IICA calcification (P < 0.05). A lower risk of IICA calcification was found in patients with a higher enlarged PVS score (P = 0.004). Higher enlarged PVS scores were associated with a lesser degree of IICA calcification. There appears to be a relationship between reduced risk of IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. (orig.)

  3. Severe Gingival Enlargement with Coexisting Erosive Lichen Planus in Severe Chronic Periodontitis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaque induced gingival enlargement is most commonly seen and when encountered simultaneously with erosive lichen planus poses a challenge to the treating dentist. Prognosis of one condition may influence the prognosis of another condition. The presented case highlights the significance of proper diagnosis and the management of simultaneously occurring gingival lesions. A 49-year-old hypertensive female presented with painful enlarged bleeding and suppurating gums with burning sensation on eating food along with long-term usage of antihypertensive drug amlodipine known for its gingival enlargement effect. All these multiple factors led to diagnostic dilemma. Effective management of the gingival enlargement was done by using electrocautery to rehabilitate the functions and esthetics of the patient. Gingival condition was also complicated by the presence of coexisting lichen planus which was predominantly erosive for which topical corticosteroid, antifungal, and antimicrobial agents were prescribed. Eight-month follow-up did not show recurrence of gingival enlargement. Electrocautery is an effective tool for the gingivectomy in severe inflammatory type of gingival enlargement because of rapid postoperative hemostasis. For the management of erosive lichen planus, long-term use of topical corticosteroids is an effective approach. Maintenance of oral hygiene and regular follow-ups are essential for these conditions.

  4. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liangping; Peng Weijun; Tang Feng; Mao Jian; Yang Wentao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the imaging manifestations of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle and improve the recognition of this rare disease. Methods: Five cases of primary non- Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle proved pathologically underwent imaging exam, including MRI and CT in 3 cases, only MRI in 1 case, only CT in 1 case, X-ray in 2 cases and bone scintigraphy in 2 cases. Results: Diffuse enlargements of involved muscle with presentation of overall configuration were observed in all five cases. All 4 cases manifested as homogeneous soft masses, which is isoattenuating to normal muscle on unenhanced CT images. After intravenous injection of contrast media, the masses enhanced homogeneously and slightly (2 cases) or moderately (1 case) on CT images. The lesions were homogenous and had isointense or slightly low signal intensity compared with that of uninvolved muscle on T 1 -weighted images and high signal intensity on T 2 -weighted images. After intravenous injection of contrast media, all 2 cases enhanced homogeneously and moderately with the enhanced signal intensity of involved muscle greatly higher than that of uninvolved muscle on MR images. Two cases of X-ray plain showed no destruction of bone and 2 cases of bone scintigraphy exams showed increased radiotracer uptake of involved muscle with no infiltration of bone marrow. Conclusion: There are several characteristics on the imaging of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle. MRI is the optimal imaging method for the diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  5. Experimental investigation of impingement cooling with turbulators or surface enlarging elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Johan

    2000-02-01

    For the materials in modern gas turbines to sustain, a considerable amount of cooling is required. In cases where large amounts of heat need to be removed, impingement cooling with its high heat transfer coefficients may be the only alternative. In this work the possibilities of enhancing impingement cooling by introducing surface enlarging - turbulence enhancing elements are examined experimentally. A configuration consisting of a staggered array of 45 impingement jets distributed over 10 rows is used for the purpose. A thermo camera is used to measure the temperature distribution on the target plate, giving an opportunity to separately evaluate the Nusselt number enhancement for different areas. Experiments are conducted for five different area enlarging geometries: triangle, wing, cylinder, dashed rib, and angel, all made from aluminium. Comparison between each area enlarged surface and a flat plate is made, with results presented as Nusselt number enhancement factors. The effect of pumping power required is also investigated in order to maximize the cooling efficiency. Parameters varied are Reynolds number and jet to plate distance. Overall Nusselt number enhancement factors show values of 1 to 1.3, the trend being decreasing with increased jet to plane distance and Reynolds number. When taking into account pumping power the enhancement factors drop to 0.4 to 1.2. The best results are achieved with the rib geometry and when not using a too large value of enlarger height over jet to plate distance (h/z). Row wise evaluation of Nusselt number enhancement shows an increased enhancement with row number and thereby crossflow ratio (Gc/Gj). Typical increases in enhancement of 1 to 1.5 with Gc/Gj from 0 to 0.8 are found. The thermo camera pictures reveal that the enhancement is found in three different areas, on the enlarger base area, the area just downstream the enlarger and in diagonal streaks with increased turbulence caused by the enlargers. Tests using an

  6. Structure and function of masticatory muscles in a case of muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S; Jensen, B L

    1990-01-01

    Histologic examination of muscle biopsies and functional examination comprising electromyography and force measurements in a 19-yr-old boy with muscular dystrophy showed different wasting patterns of mandibular elevator and depressor muscles. Pronounced histopathologic changes were present...... depressor strength corresponded more to reference values. This difference of muscular wasting might be caused by protective enzymes in the digastric muscle and/or functionally induced damage of the masseter. As affection from muscular dystrophy may vary greatly between the masticatory muscles, structural...... in the masseter muscle, whereas pathologic findings in the anterior digastric muscle were limited to increased number of cells in slightly enlarged interfiber connective tissue. The masticatory pattern was distorted, and strength of mandibular elevator muscles was less than one third of the norm, whereas...

  7. Disappearance of enlarged nuchal translucency before 14 weeks' gestation: relationship with chromosomal abnormalities and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M A; Pajkrt, E; Bleker, O P; Bonsel, G J; Bilardo, C M

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the natural course of enlarged nuchal translucency (NT) and to determine if its disappearance before 14 weeks' gestation is a favorable prognostic sign in relation to fetal karyotype and pregnancy outcome. A total of 147 women with increased NT (> 95th centile) at first measurement were included in this study. A second measurement was performed in all cases, at an interval of at least 2 days. Both measurements were taken between 10 + 3 and 14 + 0 weeks. All women underwent chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis for subsequent karyotyping. In those women with a normal karyotype, a fetal anomaly scan was performed at 20 weeks' gestation. Pregnancy outcome was recorded in all cases. The finding of persistent or disappearing NT enlargement was analyzed in relation to fetal karyotype and pregnancy outcome. Of the 147 paired measurements, NT remained enlarged at the second measurement in 121 (82%) cases. An abnormal karyotype was found in 35% of these cases. In 26 (18%) fetuses the NT measurement was found to be below the 95th percentile at the second measurement and in only two of them an abnormal karyotype was found (8%). In the 103 chromosomally normal fetuses an adverse outcome (i.e. fetal loss or structural defects) was recorded in 22 fetuses with persistent enlargement (28%) and in four fetuses with disappearing enlargement (17%). Disappearance of an enlarged NT before 14 weeks' gestation is not a rare phenomenon and seems to be a favorable prognostic sign with respect to fetal karyotype. Overall, no significant difference in pregnancy outcome was found between chromosomally normal fetuses with persisting or disappearing NT enlargement. Copyright 2004 ISUOG

  8. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  9. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Costa Rodrigues de SA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods: Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20 and edentulous cadavers (n=20. The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p0.05. Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043. The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements.

  10. A case of the persistence of the primitive hypoglossal artery with an enlarged hypoglossal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, Noriaki; Inugami, Atsushi; Uemura, Kazuo; Asakura, Ken

    1987-01-01

    A case of the persistence of the primitive hypoglossal artery is reported, with a roentgenographic demonstration of the enlarged hypoglossal canal. A 63-year-old man was admitted to this hospital as a result of a malfunction of the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. At the age of 51, the patient had been operated on in this hospital for an aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery; at that time, the right primitive hypoglossal artery was observed on right carotid angiograms. On the day following admission, bilateral retrograde vertebral angiography was performed and the right persistent primitive hypoglossal artery was recognized again. Stenvers views of the skull demonstrated an enlargement of the hypoglossal canal, with a smooth sclerotic rim. High-resolution computed tomography with a contrast infusion delineated the right primitive hypoglossal artery through the enlarged hypoglossal canal. The diameter of the enlarged right hypoglossal canal and that of the left one were found to be 8 mm and 4 mm respectively on the CT. When an enlargement of the hypoglossal canal with a sclerotic rim is observed, the persistence of the primitive hypoglossal artery should be considered in the differential diagnosis. (author)

  11. Tumescent power liposuction in the treatment of the enlarged male breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Tumescent power liposuction is widely used on various parts of the body for minimal-access lipectomy. The undesired fat deposits are injected with tumescence fluid containing saline, epinephrine, bicarbonate and lidocaine; the latter is used as the only source of pain control. The fat is then removed using vibrating microcannulas. To evaluate the value of tumescent power liposuction in the treatment of the enlarged male breast. 38 male patients aged 23-64 years (mean age 39.8 +/- 9.7 years) with enlarged breasts were enrolled in the study. In 32 patients, breasts were enlarged due to fat tissue, and the ductal glands were not palpable (pseudogynecomastia). In 6 patients, the ductal glands were enlarged (gynecomastia). All patients were treated with tumescent liposuction over a 2-year period using a single entry site from the axillary fossa. Both fat as well as ductal and stromal tissue were removed by microcannulas. None of the patients had early postoperative complications of infection, hematoma or seroma. There were no treatment-induced asymmetries, contour deformities or irregularities. No open excision or skin reduction procedures were required. Tumescent liposuction using a single entry site in the axillary fossa is a minimally invasive technique to treat enlarged male breasts. Both fat (pseudogynecomastia in adipose patients) as well as ductal and stromal tissue (in gynecomastia) can be removed with tumescent liposuction, resulting in a high level of patient satisfaction. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Enlargement of lumbar spinal canal in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Evaluation with three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunishi, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that enlargement of the lumbar spinal canal is one of the effective surgical procedures for the treatment of the lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and provides a good result. In the present study, we have evaluated the long-term outcome of the enlargement of the lumbar canal without fusion in thirty eight patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) The improvement rate was excellent in 80% of the patients (mean improvement ratio, 83%) according to the Japanese Orthopedic Association scoring system. We found that the sufficient enlargement of the canal was obtained by the surgery and maintained for a long period of time. The results from 3D-CT suggested that a round shape was maintained in the canal after the surgery because of pressures of the dura mater against to the bony canal. None of patients showed lumbar instability. In conclusion, enlargement of lumbar canal without fusion is useful for the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, and the enlarged canal has been maintained for a long period of time after the surgery. The results demonstrated the clinical utility of 3D-CT to evaluate the preoperative and postoperative shape of the spine. (author)

  13. Pain following foraminal enlargement in mandibular molars with necrosis and apical periodontitis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, H R; Sangwan, P; Sangwan, A

    2016-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of foraminal enlargement during chemomechanical root canal preparation on postoperative pain. Seventy mandibular first molars with asymptomatic pulp necrosis and chronic apical periodontitis were randomized into two groups - foraminal enlargement (FE) and conventional nonforaminal enlargement (NFE). Canals were prepared according to the respective protocols, and the teeth were restored temporarily. Postoperatively, the patients were prescribed ibuprofen 400 mg, to be taken if required. Pain experience and analgesic intake were recorded for 7 days following chemomechanical preparation. The data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square tests. Pain experience was higher with foraminal enlargement than when using a conventional technique. A significant difference was observed in postoperative pain during the first 4 days and the sixth day (P  0.05). Enlargement of the apical foramen during root canal treatment increased the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Isobaric Tagging-Based Quantification for Proteomic Analysis: A Comparative Study of Spared and Affected Muscles from mdx Mice at the Early Phase of Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Yuri Matsumura

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common childhood myopathy, characterized by muscle loss and cardiorespiratory failure. While the genetic basis of DMD is well established, secondary mechanisms associated with dystrophic pathophysiology are not fully clarified yet. In order to obtain new insights into the molecular mechanisms of muscle dystrophy during earlier stages of the disease, we performed a comparative proteomic profile of the spared extraocular muscles (EOM vs. affected diaphragm from the mdx mice, using a label based shotgun proteomic approach. Out of the 857 identified proteins, 42 to 62 proteins had differential abundance of peptide ions. The calcium-handling proteins sarcalumenin and calsequestrin-1 were increased in control EOM compared with control DIA, reinforcing the view that constitutional properties of EOM are important for their protection against myonecrosis. The finding that galectin-1 (muscle regeneration, annexin A1 (anti-inflammatory and HSP 47 (fibrosis were increased in dystrophic diaphragm provides novel insights into the mechanisms through which mdx affected muscles are able to counteract dystrophy, during the early stage of the disease. Overall, the shotgun technique proved to be suitable to perform quantitative comparisons between distinct dystrophic muscles and allowed the suggestion of new potential biomarkers and drug targets for dystrophinopaties.

  15. The EU and ‘Enlargement Fatigue’: Why Has the European Union Not Been Able to Counter ‘Enlargement Fatigue’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szolucha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an up-to-date overview of the problems connected with European integration. It focuses on the phenomenon of ‘enlargement fatigue’ and examines its meaning as utilised by the media, EU officials and academics. The article argues that ‘enlargement fatigue’ is not a new concept since the EU has witnessed many 'symptoms' of fatigue at multiple times in its history. The two main arguments that are often presented in order to explain why the EU has not been able to counter ‘enlargement fatigue’, namely the insufficiently tight conditionality applied to prospective members and the EU's crisis of confidence and accountability after the failed attempt to introduce the Constitutional Treaty and prolonged Lisbon Treaty ratification process, are insufficient to explain why fatigue has been so persistent a phenomenon. This article argues that the EU's failure to develop a new vision of the organisation and adjust its structural design accordingly is a reason why the Union has not dealt successfully with fatigue. Such a vision would encompass notions of “variable geometry”, “avant-garde groups” and make European borders flexible and fuzzy.

  16. Analysis of reforming process of large distorted ring in final enlarging forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Takeshi; Murai, Etsuo

    2002-01-01

    In the construction of reactors or pressure vessels for oil chemical plants and nuclear power stations, mono block open-die forging rings are often utilized. Generally, a large forged ring is manufactured by means of enlarging forging with reductions of the wall thickness. During the enlarging process the circular ring is often distorted and becomes an ellipse in shape. However the shape control of the ring is a complicated work. This phenomenon makes the matter still worse in forging of larger rings. In order to make precision forging of large rings, we have developed the forging method using a v-shape anvil. The v-shape anvil is geometrically adjusted to fit the distorted ring in the final circle and reform automatically the shape of the ring during enlarging forging. This paper has analyzed the reforming process of distorted ring by computer program based on F.E.M. and examined the effect on the precision of ring forging. (author)

  17. Low-cost airlines in Europe: Network structures after the enlargement of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudas Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of the European air opened the strictly regulated European market, and contributed to the appearance and quick spread of the Low-Cost Carriers (LCCs. At the beginning of the 21st century the low cost traffic absolutely concentrated on the Western European market but after the enlargement of the European Union (EU LCCs started their operations in Eastern Europe enlarging and enriching the former evolved network structures. The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the route network as a result of EU expansion. During the study we came to the conclusion that in the time period after the EU enlargement the European LCC traffic showed dynamic development, route networks widened and the number of accessible destinations doubled. Comparing the LCCs network structures we defined three main characteristics, which represents the North-South flows, the West-East routes and the mixed network structure.

  18. Primary tuberculous gingival enlargement - A rare clinical entity: Case report and brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Majid Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a chronic specific granulomatous disease and a major cause of death in developing countries. The clinical presentation of TB lesions of the oral cavity varies widely and can manifest as ulcerations, diffuse inflammatory lesions, granulomas and fissures. Oral lesions generally appear secondary to primary TB infection elsewhere, although primary infection of the oral mucosa by Mycobacterium tuberculosis has also been described. We hereby report a case of primary TB of the gingiva manifesting as gingival enlargement. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination, complete blood count, X-ray chest and immunological investigations with detection of antibodies against M. tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy was carried out for over 6 months and was followed by surgical excision of the residual enlargement under local anesthesia. After 1-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the disease. This case report emphasizes the need for dentists to include TB in the differential diagnosis of various types of gingival enlargements.

  19. Acceleration-enlarged symmetries in nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant TH1"-->

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukierski, J.; Stichel, P. C.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2008-05-01

    By considering the nonrelativistic limit of de Sitter geometry one obtains the nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant and Newton Hooke (NH) symmetries. We show that the NH symmetry algebra can be enlarged by the addition of the constant acceleration generators and endowed with central extensions (one in any dimension (D) and three in D=(2+1)). We present a classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian framework for constructing models quasi-invariant under enlarged NH symmetries that depend on three parameters described by three nonvanishing central charges. The Hamiltonian dynamics then splits into external and internal sectors with new noncommutative structures of external and internal phase spaces. We show that in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant the system reduces to the one, which possesses acceleration-enlarged Galilean symmetries.

  20. Clinical biochemistry and MRI follow up study in postpartum pituitary enlargement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weipeng; Huang Shaoqiang; Lu Xiaofan; Cai Baimang; Liu Xuguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between enlargement of pituitary in postpartum females and the clinical biochemistry. Methods: In total 6 postpartum women were studied by MRI of pituitary and clinical biochemistry assessment, the data was collected especially in puerperium period. Results: Enlargement of pituitary gland was most remarkable in the first week of puerperium period, while endocrine changes including HCG, Progesterone, E 2 also reached considerable high peak in the same time especially the first and second day after labor. Prolactin also increased. βHCG, Progesterone, and E 2 rapidly decreased after the first week of puerperium period and the size of pituitary gland recovered to normal size. Conclusion: Postpartum enlargement of pituitary gland is physiological and related with internal environment change in gravitation, which is not to be misdiagnosed as a lesion

  1. A Rare Case Report of Amlodipine-Induced Gingival Enlargement and Review of Its Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. It is an unwanted side effect of certain systemic drugs given for nondental treatment. It is being reported with three main groups of drugs like calcium channel blockers (CCBs, immunosuppressants, and anticonvulsants. Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival hyperplasia in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine-, a third generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival hyperplasia is very limited. There are very few reports of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement at a dose of 5 mg. We report a case of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement in a 45-year-old hypertensive patient taking amlodipine at a dose of 5 mg.

  2. New predictor of aortic enlargement in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection based on elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshiro; Kuroda, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Toshitaka; Yasuda, Naomi; Nakazawa, Junji; Harada, Ryo; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to re-examine the conventional predictive factors for dissected aortic enlargement, such as the aortic and false lumen diameter and to consider whether the morphological elements of the dissected aorta could be predictors by quantifying the 'shape' of the true lumen based on elliptic Fourier analysis. A total of 80 patients with uncomplicated type B aortic dissection were included. The patients were divided into 'Enlargement group' and 'No Change group.' Between the 2 groups, the mean systolic blood pressure during follow-up, aortic and false lumen maximum diameters, and analysed morphological data were compared using each statistical method. The maximum aortic and false lumen diameters were significantly larger in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (39.3 vs 35.9 mm; P = 0.0058) (23.5 vs 18.2 mm; P = 0.000095). The principal component 1, which is the data calculated by elliptic Fourier analysis, was significantly lower in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (0.020 vs - 0.072; P = 0.000049). The mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg, aortic diameter, false lumen diameter and principal component 1 were included in the Cox proportional hazard model as covariates to determine the significant predictive variable. Principal component 1 demonstrated the only significance with aortic enlargement on multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.32; P = 0.048). The analysed and calculated morphological data of the shape of the true lumen can be more effective predictive factors of aortic enlargement of type B dissection than the conventional factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation of orbital muscle changes evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and thyroid-stimulating antibody in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Inada, M.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between eye changes and autoantibody to the thyrotropin receptor in patients with Graves' disease, the authors evaluated the eye changes using magnetic resonance imaging and the results were correlated with thyroid-stimulating antibody, thyrotropin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin and thyroid growth activity. Subjects were 15 patients with Graves' disease who had Graves' ophthalmopathy, including exophthalmos and other signs and symptoms, and 9 patients without ophthalmopathy; all were maintained in a euthyroid state by antithyroid drugs. The thyrotropin-binding inhibitor imunoglobulin was measured by a kit, and thyroid-stimulating antibody and thyroid growth activity were evaluated by cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate production and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, respectively, by cultured functional rat thyroid lined cells. The sum of the swelling ratios of the four extraocular muscles correlated well with the degree of exophthalmos. The thyrotropin-binding inhibitor immunoglobulin was positive in 9 out of 15 patients with ophthalmopathy; however, no correlation was observed between the activity and exophthalmos or muscle swelling. No significant correlation was observed between muscle changes and thyroid growth activity either. On the other hand, thyroid-stimulating antibody in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy was significantly higher than that in patients without ophthalmopathy. Moreover, the level of the stimulating activity in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy showed a significant positive correlation with the sum of the swelling ratios of the individual eight eye muscles. These results suggest that thyroid-stimulating antibody has a close relation to Graves' ophthalmopathy. 23 refs., 4 figs

  4. Compositional Approach to Designing Fcc High-Entropy Alloys that Have an Enlarged Equiaxed Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minju Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A compositional approach to designing alloys that have an enlarged equiaxed zone is suggested in this study. The partitioning of elements during the solidification of CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy (HEA was confirmed through a directional solidification quenching experiment. Several HEAs were designed to maximize the effects of constitutional and thermal undercooling by considering factors including solute enrichment at the columnar front and the melting temperatures and thermal conductivities of the individual elements. The newly designed HEAs were shown to have successfully enlarged equiaxed zones, and improved anisotropic properties.

  5. Obstructive Hydrocephalus Secondary to Enlarged Virchow-Robin Spaces: A Rare Cause of Pulsatile Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Christopher; Chatha, Gurkirat; Chandra, Ronil V; Goldschlager, Tony

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to enlarged Virchow-Robin Spaces (VRS) is a rare entity, with only a few cases reported in the literature. Presenting symptoms vary widely from headaches to dizziness. We report a case of a 31-year-old man who presented with pulsatile tinnitus and magnetic resonance imaging showing obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to tumefactive VRS. After a cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure in the form of an endoscopic third ventriculostomy, he had almost complete resolution of his symptoms. This is the first case of obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to enlarged VRS, presenting with pulsatile tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement associated with orthodontic therapy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Tanya; Bhat, K Mahalinga; Bhat, G Subraya; Varghese, Jothi M

    2013-02-01

    Gingival enlargement, also synonymous with the terms gingival hyperplasia or hypertrophy, is defined as an abnormal overgrowth of gingival tissues. A case of a 19-year-old male presenting with maxillary and mandibular chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement associated with prolonged orthodontic therapy is reported here. Surgical therapy was carried out to provide a good aesthetic outcome. No recurrence was reported at the end of 1 year. The importance of patient motivation and compliance during and after therapy as a critical factor in the success of treatment has also been highlighted through this case report.

  7. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shasha; Han, Dongyi; Yuan, Yongyi; Wang, Guojian; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yan, Xiaofei; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Min; Dai, Pu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter) or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity). The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged ...

  8. CT screening for lung cancer: Frequency of enlarged adrenal glands identified in baseline and annual repeat rounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Minxia [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Capital Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); Yip, Rowena; Yankelevitz, David Y.; Henschke, Claudia I. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To determine the frequency of adrenal enlargement of participants in a CT-screening program for lung cancer and demonstrate the progression during follow-up, separately for baseline and annual repeat rounds. HIPAA-compliant informed consent was obtained in 4,776 participants. The adrenal gland was defined as enlarged if it measured ≥6 mm at its largest diameter. Logistic regression analyses were performed. At baseline, 202 (4 %) of 4,776 participants had adrenal enlargement. Significant factors were age (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.2-1.7) and current smoker (OR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.4). Follow-up 7-18 months after baseline for 133 cases with adrenal enlargement <40 mm showed it decreased or was stable in 85 (64 %), and increased by <10 mm in 48 (36 %). Five (0.04 %) cases of adrenal enlargement were newly identified, none increased beyond 40 mm on follow-up. Adrenal enlargement was a significant predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer (OR = 2.0, 95 % CI: 1.2-3.4). Participants with adrenal enlargement <40 mm identified at baseline and on repeat screening could be reasonably assessed on subsequent annual screening. Adrenal enlargement increased with increasing pack-years of smoking. Adrenal enlargement was an independent predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer. (orig.)

  9. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  10. Spontaneous breast enlargement following liposuction of the abdominal wall : Does a link exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lei, Berend; Halbesma, Gert-Jan; van Nieuwenhoven, Christianne A.; van Wingerden, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the specific incidence of breast enlargement following liposuction of the abdomen (alone or in combination with the flanks), and to compare its effect with a control group of patients who had undergone abdominoplasty only and, where

  11. Spontaneous breast enlargement following liposuction of the abdominal wall: does a link exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lei, Berend; Halbesma, Gert-Jan; van Nieuwenhoven, Christianne A.; van Wingerden, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the specific incidence of breast enlargement following liposuction of the abdomen (alone or in combination with the flanks), and to compare its effect with a control group of patients who had undergone abdominoplasty only and, where possible,

  12. On bacteria oxidizing enlargement scale test for uranium in-situ leaching at. 381 mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Kaiguang; Wang Qingliang; Liu Yingjiu; Shi Wenge; Hu Shihe; Hu Yincai; Fang Qiu

    1999-01-01

    The results of enlarged scale test of bacteria as oxidizer for uranium in-situ leaching at No 381 mine showed that redox potential of the oxidized absorbed tailing water by bacteria is more than 510 mV, without any effects on after treatments by using bacteria as oxidizer and reduce oxidizer costs 70% compared with H 2 O 2 as oxidizer

  13. Ordering of ''ladder'' operators, the Wigner function for number and phase, and the enlarged Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luks, A.; Perinova, V.

    1993-01-01

    A suitable ordering of phase exponential operators has been compared with the antinormal ordering of the annihilation and creation operators of a single mode optical field. The extended Wigner function for number and phase in the enlarged Hilbert space has been used for the derivation of the Wigner function for number and phase in the original Hilbert space. (orig.)

  14. Validation of the Automated Method VIENA: An Accurate, Precise, and Robust Measure of Ventricular Enlargement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrenken, H.; Vos, E.K.; van der Flier, W.M.; Sluimer, I.C.; Cover, K.S.; Knol, D.L.; Barkhof, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In many retrospective studies and large clinical trials, high-resolution, good-contrast 3DT1 images are unavailable, hampering detailed analysis of brain atrophy. Ventricular enlargement then provides a sensitive indirect measure of ongoing central brain atrophy. Validated automated

  15. Morphological analysis of enlarged ventricle on CT image, using multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Satoru; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Otsuji, Hideyuki; Fukusumi, Akio; Kobayashi, Yasuo.

    1983-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of enlarged cerebral ventricle on CT was undertaken to study the characteristics of ventricular morphology. Several ventricular segments of enlarged ventricle, defined on the basis of the study of normal group, were linearly measured on CT image. Then the discriminant analysis with the increase and decrease of variable was applied. The following are the results obtained. The error ratio of discrimination between pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy was 8.4 %, and between obstructive hydrocephalus and communicating hydrocephalus was 11.3 %. Ventricular segments were divided into three groups according to their character of enlargement: (1) the temporal horn and trigone are large in pressure hydrocephalus; (2) the hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle and the body of lateral ventricle are larger in obstructive hydrocephalus than in communicating hydrocephalus; (3) the anterior horn, cellae mediae at the level of the head of caudate nuclei and thalamic segment of the third ventricle are relatively large in cerebral atrophy and communicating hydrocephalus. The hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle assumes a round or oval shape in pressure hydrocephalus but a rectangular or teardrop shape in cerebral atrophy. These findings are contributory to pathological evaluation of ventricular enlargement. (author)

  16. The Palm-Heart Diameter: A Prospective Simple Screening Tool for Identifying Heart Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya

    2017-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study establishes the correlation between the palm and heart diameters. Since the heart tissue and the upper limb share a similar embryonic origin, being the mesoderm, this study prospects the fact that heart enlargement could be preliminarily identified by measuring the size of the hand.

  17. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT scans in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joong Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Yu, Kyu In; Kim, Hyeong Seog; Kim, Dae Young; Yu, Pil Mun

    1992-01-01

    The increase in size of lymph node on CT scan is the single most important finding of lymphadenopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the size of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with no evidence of malignancy or current infection. CT scans of 70 patients (16 with conventional CT and 54 with high-resolution CT) were assessed for lymph node size and location. The duration of symptoms, and the extent and pattern of the parenchymal lung disease on CT scans were correlated with lymph node enlargement. In 54 of 70 patients, more than one lymph nodes were large than 1-1.5 cm. The prevalence of node enlargement increased significant with a longer duration of symptom (p=0.001), large extent of the disease (p=0.043), and with a greater proportion of honeycomb pattern (p=0.033). Right paratracheal, subcarinal, right tracheobronchial, and paraesophageal nodes were the most common sites of node enlargement. In conclusion, mediastinal lymph node enlargement is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is more frequently seen in patients with a longer duration of clinical symptoms, greater extent of the disease, and with a larger proportion of honeycomb pattern

  18. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth wer...

  19. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...

  20. Stabilizing model predictive control : on the enlargement of the terminal set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, F.D.; Lazar, M.; Allgöwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large terminal set leads to a large region where the model predictive control problem is feasible without the need for a long prediction horizon. This paper proposes a new method for the enlargement of the terminal set. Different from existing approaches, the method uses the

  1. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT scans in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joong Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Yu, Kyu In; Kim, Hyeong Seog [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Young [Chung Buk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    The increase in size of lymph node on CT scan is the single most important finding of lymphadenopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the size of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with no evidence of malignancy or current infection. CT scans of 70 patients (16 with conventional CT and 54 with high-resolution CT) were assessed for lymph node size and location. The duration of symptoms, and the extent and pattern of the parenchymal lung disease on CT scans were correlated with lymph node enlargement. In 54 of 70 patients, more than one lymph nodes were large than 1-1.5 cm. The prevalence of node enlargement increased significant with a longer duration of symptom (p=0.001), large extent of the disease (p=0.043), and with a greater proportion of honeycomb pattern (p=0.033). Right paratracheal, subcarinal, right tracheobronchial, and paraesophageal nodes were the most common sites of node enlargement. In conclusion, mediastinal lymph node enlargement is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is more frequently seen in patients with a longer duration of clinical symptoms, greater extent of the disease, and with a larger proportion of honeycomb pattern.

  2. Impact of EU Enlargement on Business Environment of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Marián Gál; Tomás Sabol

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of EU enlargement on business environment in the Slovak Republic. Integration of Slovakia into EU has significantly influenced operating conditions for small and medium enterprises. Prosperity of small and medium enterprises depends mainly on their ability to adapt themselves to these new conditions.

  3. Effect analysis of intradermal hyaluronic acid injection to treat enlarged facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Hou, Ying; Lyu, Wei; Cao, Qian; Li, Yan-Qi; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2017-08-08

    To investigate the clinical application and efficacy of intradermal injection of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) for treating enlarged facial pores. From January 2015 to May 2016, 42 subjects who sought aesthetic treatment underwent intradermal injection of LMW-HA to improve enlarged facial pores. For each treatment, 2.5 mL (25 mg) of LMW-HA was injected into the skin of the full face. The treatment was repeated 2-5 times with an interval of 1 to 1.5 months between consecutive treatments. The postoperative follow-up period was 1 to 6 months. Statistical analysis was used to compare the degree of enlargement of facial pores before and after injection. The clinical efficacy and adverse effects were recorded. The enlarged facial pores before and after treatment were categorized and subjected to the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. The difference was statistically significant (Pinjection sites in the subjects who sought aesthetic treatment. The overall satisfaction rate was 92.8%. Intradermal injection of LMW-HA can significantly improve skin texture, reduce pore size, and enhance skin radiance. The injection technique was simple, safe, and effective and could easily be extended to clinical practice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of a monetary union enlargement in the framework of linear-quadratic differential games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasmans, J.E.J.; Engwerda, J.C.; van Aarle, B.; Michalak, T.

    2009-01-01

    "This paper studies the effects of a monetary union enlargement using the techniques and outcomes from an extensive research project on macroeconomic policy coordination in the EMU. Our approach is characterized by two main pillars: (i) linear-quadratic differential games to capture externalities,

  5. The history of Latin terminology of human skeletal muscles (from Vesalius to the present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Vladimir; Suchomel, Zdenek; Malinova, Petra; Stingl, Josef; Vlcek, Martin; Vacha, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this literary search was to chart the etymology of 32 selected human skeletal muscles, representative of all body regions. In researching this study, analysis of 15 influential Latin and German anatomical textbooks, dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, was undertaken, as well as reference to four versions of the official Latin anatomical terminologies. Particular emphasis has been placed on the historical development of muscular nomenclature, and the subsequent division of these data into groups, defined by similarities in the evolution of their names into the modern form. The first group represents examples of muscles whose names have not changed since their introduction by Vesalius (1543). The second group comprises muscles which earned their definitive names during the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The third group is defined by acceptance into common anatomical vernacular by the late nineteenth century, including those outlined in the first official Latin terminology (B.N.A.) of 1895. The final group is reserved for six extra-ocular muscles with a particularly poetic history, favoured and popularised by the anatomical giants of late Renaissance and 1,700 s. As this study will demonstrate, it is evident that up until introduction of the B.N.A. there was an extremely liberal approach to naming muscles, deserving great respect in the retrospective terminological studies if complete and relevant results are to be achieved. Without this knowledge of the vernacular of the ages past, modern researchers can find themselves 'reinventing the wheel' in looking for their answers.

  6. Swelling of the temporal region: a case of benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecka, M; Weismann, K; Herning, Gudrun Margrethe

    1997-01-01

    A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tiss....... A small prolactinoma of the pituitary gland was incidentally found. The condition, designated benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy, should be distinguished from similar diseases affecting the skin and the subcutaneous tissue of the scalp. The cause remains unknown......A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tissue...

  7. Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy with Superior Oblique Muscle Involvement: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Jiun Wu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old male with a 5-year-history of hyperthyroidism complained of diplopia and proptosis. After subtotal thyroidectomy, he still had diplopia in a certain gaze. Computerized tomography showed inferior rectus muscle enlargement in the right eye and inferior rectus, medial rectus, and superior oblique muscle enlargement in the left eye. Ocular examination with the cover and uncover test revealed hyperphoria and exophoria in the left eye. The upward gaze of the right eye was more limited than that of the left eye. Since superior oblique muscle involvement in patients with thyroid orbitopathy is quite rare, we discuss its effect on ocular motility in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

  8. Bacterial Cell Enlargement Requires Control of Cell Wall Stiffness Mediated by Peptidoglycan Hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard; Turner, Robert D; Bailey, Richard G; Salamaga, Bartłomiej; Mesnage, Stéphane; Mohamad, Sharifah A S; Hayhurst, Emma J; Horsburgh, Malcolm; Hobbs, Jamie K; Foster, Simon J

    2015-07-28

    Most bacterial cells are enclosed in a single macromolecule of the cell wall polymer, peptidoglycan, which is required for shape determination and maintenance of viability, while peptidoglycan biosynthesis is an important antibiotic target. It is hypothesized that cellular enlargement requires regional expansion of the cell wall through coordinated insertion and hydrolysis of peptidoglycan. Here, a group of (apparent glucosaminidase) peptidoglycan hydrolases are identified that are together required for cell enlargement and correct cellular morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating the overall importance of this enzyme activity. These are Atl, SagA, ScaH, and SagB. The major advance here is the explanation of the observed morphological defects in terms of the mechanical and biochemical properties of peptidoglycan. It was shown that cells lacking groups of these hydrolases have increased surface stiffness and, in the absence of SagB, substantially increased glycan chain length. This indicates that, beyond their established roles (for example in cell separation), some hydrolases enable cellular enlargement by making peptidoglycan easier to stretch, providing the first direct evidence demonstrating that cellular enlargement occurs via modulation of the mechanical properties of peptidoglycan. Understanding bacterial growth and division is a fundamental problem, and knowledge in this area underlies the treatment of many infectious diseases. Almost all bacteria are surrounded by a macromolecule of peptidoglycan that encloses the cell and maintains shape, and bacterial cells must increase the size of this molecule in order to enlarge themselves. This requires not only the insertion of new peptidoglycan monomers, a process targeted by antibiotics, including penicillin, but also breakage of existing bonds, a potentially hazardous activity for the cell. Using Staphylococcus aureus, we have identified a set of enzymes that are critical for cellular enlargement. We

  9. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of liver damage. Medicinal herbs. Certain herbs, including comfrey, ma huang and mistletoe, can increase your risk ... herbs to avoid include germander, chaparral, senna, mistletoe, comfrey, ma huang, valerian root, kava, celandine and green ...

  10. Imaging characteristics of malignant and benign lesions of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Surov, A.

    2017-01-01

    There are many different tumors and tumor-like lesions with variable biological behavior that may affect the skeletal musculature. The aim of this study was to review the different intramuscular lesions and to provide a classification based on their radiological patterns. Intramuscular lesions can present as solid, liquid, semiliquid or fat equivalent manifestations and also as diffuse muscle enlargement and muscle calcification. Additionally, lesions with mixed patterns of the aforementioned alterations can also occur. Benign and malignant muscle lesions can often manifest with identical radiological patterns, which is why a certain differentiation is often difficult. A systematic radiological description and when possible assignment with respect to etiology and dignity depending on the patient history is necessary in order to recommend a subsequent histological confirmation or to avoid unnecessary confirmation. (orig.) [de

  11. The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ruozhen; Li Yuhua; Gong Wuxian; Wu Lebin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

  12. Characteristics and significance of D-tagatose-induced liver enlargement in rats: An interpretative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, A

    1999-04-01

    This review addresses the issue of asymptomatic liver enlargement in rats. It was necessitated by the observation of significantly increased liver weights in rats fed diets with 10 to 20% D-tagatose, a potential new bulk sweetener, for between 28 and 90 days. Increases of liver size without accompanying histopathological changes or impairment of organ function have been observed in rats in response to the ingestion of various xenobiotic compounds (including some food additives), changes of dietary composition (e.g. , high doses of fructose and sucrose), metabolic aberrations (e.g., diabetes), as well as normal pregnancy and lactation. The underlying mechanism(s) are not yet understood in detail but peroxisome proliferation, microsomal enzyme induction, increased storage of glycogen or lipids, and hyperfunction due to an excessive workload are well-established causes of hepatomegaly in rats. In D-tagatose- and fructose-fed rats, a treatment-related increase of hepatic glycogen storage was identified as a likely cause of the liver enlargement. Dietary levels of 5% and about 15-20% were determined as no-effect levels (NOEL) for D-tagatose- and fructose-induced liver enlargement, respectively. At doses above the NOEL, D-tagatose is about four times more efficient than fructose in inducing liver enlargement. On the other hand, the estimated intake of D-tagatose from its intended uses in food is about four times lower than the actual fructose intake. Consequently, a similar safety margin would apply for both sugars. Considering the similarity of the liver effects in rats of fructose, a safe food ingredient, and D-tagatose, the absence of histopathological changes in rats fed a diet with 20% D-tagatose for 90 days, and the absence of adverse long-term consequences of glycogen-induced liver enlargement in rats, it is concluded that the observed liver enlargement in D-tagatose-fed rats has no relevance for the assessment of human safety of this substance. Copyright 1999

  13. Long term follow up of idiopathic gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish P Nagarale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It may be associated with other diseases/conditions characterizing a syndrome, but rarely associated with periodontitis. Case Description: This case report describes an unusual clinical form of gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed diffuse gingival enlargement. The lesion was asymptomatic, firm, and pinkish red. Generalized periodontal pockets were observed. Radiographic evaluation revealed generalized severe alveolar bone loss. Histopathological investigations revealed atrophic epithelium with dense fibrocollagenous tissue. Lesions healed successfully following extraction and surgical excision, and no recurrence was observed after 1 year follow-up but recurrence was observed at 3 and 5-years follow-up. Clinical Implications: Successful treatment of idiopathic gingival enlargement depends on proper identification of etiologic factors and improving esthetics and function through surgical excision of the over growth. However, there may be recurrence.

  14. Long term follow up of idiopathic gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis: A case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, Girish P; Ravindra, S; Thakur, Srinath; Setty, Swati

    2013-03-01

    Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It may be associated with other diseases/conditions characterizing a syndrome, but rarely associated with periodontitis. This case report describes an unusual clinical form of gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed diffuse gingival enlargement. The lesion was asymptomatic, firm, and pinkish red. Generalized periodontal pockets were observed. Radiographic evaluation revealed generalized severe alveolar bone loss. Histopathological investigations revealed atrophic epithelium with dense fibrocollagenous tissue. Lesions healed successfully following extraction and surgical excision, and no recurrence was observed after 1 year follow-up but recurrence was observed at 3 and 5-years follow-up. Successful treatment of idiopathic gingival enlargement depends on proper identification of etiologic factors and improving esthetics and function through surgical excision of the over growth. However, there may be recurrence.

  15. Enlarged clitoris in wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be misdiagnosed as pseudohermaphroditism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.; Leifsson, Páll Skuli; Dietz, R.

    2005-01-01

    A 23-year-old female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) killed in an Inuit hunt in East Greenland on July 9, 1999 had a significantly enlarged clitoris resembling, in size, form and colour, those of previously reported 'pseudohermaphroditic' polar bears from Svalbard. It has been suggested that an enzyme...... and internal reproductive organs of the present were similar to a reference group of 23 normal adult female polar bears from East Greenland collected in 1999-2002. The aberrant bear was a female genotype, and macroscopic examination of her internal reproductive organs indicated that she was reproductively....... It is hence possible that the previously reported adult female polar bear pseudohermaphrodites from Svalbard are in fact misdiagnoses. Therefore, future studies examining pseudohermaphroditism in wildlife should consider that certain occurrences are natural events, e.g., enlarged clitoris in the present East...

  16. Liberalization and enlargement: effects of the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirovska, M.

    2005-01-01

    After half a century of political division within the European continent, and of State control over national energy industries, a new industrial and political organisation model aiming at creating a single natural gas market tends to emerge currently within the enlarged European Union. Yet new member countries are former centrally planned, socialist economies, with very different industrial structures for natural gas. However, those countries should adjust to the institutional framework applicable in the European Union, including bringing their gas industries into compliance with the liberalization process that old member countries initiated years ago. In that unprecedented context, one basic issue is whether the gas industry liberalization, in the framework of the enlargement, will have expected results in terms of competition, efficiency and profits for Eastern countries, whether new members or candidates for membership. The objective of the research work behind this article was to analyse the effects of that complex trend on the industrial organisation of gas markets in eastern Europe. (author)

  17. Improving the Effect and Efficiency of FMD Control by Enlarging Protection or Surveillance Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in a FMD-free country with large exports of livestock and livestock products would result in profound economic damage. This could be reduced by rapid and efficient control of the disease spread. The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic...... impact of a hypothetical FMD outbreak in Denmark based on changes to the economic assumptions of the model, and to investigate whether the control of an FMD epidemic can be improved by combining the enlargement of protection or surveillance zones with pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination....... The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark. The control strategies were the basic EU and Danish strategy, pre-emptive depopulation, suppressive or protective vaccination, enlarging protection or surveillance zones, and a combination of pre...

  18. Fetal development of the pulley for muscle insertion tendons: A review and new findings related to the tensor tympani tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Honkura, Yohei; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The existence of hard tissue pulleys that act to change the direction of a muscle insertion tendon is well known in the human body. These include (1) the trochlea for the extraocular obliquus superior muscle, (2) the pterygoid hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle, (3) the deep sulcus on the plantar aspect of the cuboid bone for the peroneus longus tendon, (4) the lesser sciatic notch for the obturator internus muscle, and (5) the bony trochleariformis process for the tensor tympani muscle tendon. In addition, (6) the stapedius muscle tendon shows a lesser or greater angulation at the pyramidal eminence of the temporal bone. Our recent studies have shown that the development of pulleys Nos. 1 and 2 can be explained by a change in the topographical relationship between the pulley and the tendon, that of pulley No. 3 by the rapidly growing calcaneus pushing the tendon, and that of pulley No. 4 by migration of the insertion along the sciatic nerve and gluteus medius tendon. Therefore, in Nos. 1-4, an initially direct tendon curves secondarily and obtains an attachment to the pulley. In case No. 6, the terminal part of the stapedius tendon originates secondarily from the interzone mesenchymal tissue of the incudostapedial joint. In the case of pulley No. 5, we newly demonstrated that its initial phase of development was similar to No. 6, but the tensor tympani tendon achieved a right-angled turn under guidance by a specific fibrous tissue and it migrated along the growing malleus manubrium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Migration strategies of the crisis-stricken youth in an enlarged European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kahanec, Martin; Fabo, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the migration response of the youth from new EU member states to disparate conditions in an enlarged European Union at the onset of the Great Recession. We use the Eurobarometer data and probabilistic econometric models to identify the key drivers of the intention to work in another member state of European Economic Area (EEA) and their expected duration. We find that migration intentions are high among those not married and among males with children, but both categories ar...

  20. An anatomic risk model to screen post endovascular aneurysm repair patients for aneurysm sac enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, Chien Yi M; Tadros, Rami O; Beckerman, William E; Han, Daniel K; Tardiff, Melissa L; Torres, Marielle R; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L

    2017-09-01

    Follow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) scans add considerable postimplantation costs to endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVARs) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). By building a risk model, we hope to identify patients at low risk for aneurysm sac enlargement to minimize unnecessary CTAs. 895 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR for AAA were reviewed, of which 556 met inclusion criteria. A Probit model was created for aneurysm sac enlargement, with preoperative aneurysm morphology, patient demographics, and operative details as variables. Our final model included 287 patients and had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 68.9%, and an accuracy of 70.4%. Ninety-nine (35%) of patients were assigned to the high-risk group, whereas 188 (65%) of patients were assigned to the low-risk group. Notably, regarding anatomic variables, our model reported that age, pulmonary comorbidities, aortic neck diameter, iliac artery length, and aneurysms were independent predictors of post-EVAR sac enlargement. With the exception of age, all statistically significant variables were qualitatively supported by prior literature. With regards to secondary outcomes, the high-risk group had significantly higher proportions of AAA-related deaths (5.1% versus 1.1%, P = 0.037) and Type 1 endoleaks (9.1% versus 3.2%, P = 0.033). Our model is a decent predictor of patients at low risk for post AAA EVAR aneurysm sac enlargement and associated complications. With additional validation and refinement, it could be applied to practices to cut down on the overall need for postimplantation CTA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enlarging bilateral femoral condylar bone cysts without scintigraphic uptake in a yearling foal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, K.R.E.; Fessler, J.F.; Cantwell, H.D.; Widmer, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Bilateral subchondral bone cysts of the femoral condyles were diagnosed by conventional radiography in a 14 month old Appaloosa colt. Surgical debridement was performed, and over the next 18 months the appearance of the cysts was evaluated with radiography and bone scintigraphy. On the preoperative scintigrams, increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was associated with the cysts. Despite continued radiographic enlargement, the cysts did not demonstrate increased radiopharmaceutical uptake post-operatively

  2. Trepanation and enlarged parietal foramen on skulls from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Sergey V; Sviridov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study is a comprehensive examination of openings discovered on two skulls in the collection of skeletal remains from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia). The skull No. 1524 displayed an evidence of successful trepanation, and the skull No. 7985 revealed openings that were reminiscent of a trepanation, however, we are inclined to believe that in the latter case we are dealing with a rare genetic anomaly - enlarged parietal foramen.

  3. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement in patients with valvular heart disease: CT evaluation and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Ju; Jung, Jung Im; Ahn, Myeong Im; Han, Dae Hee; Park, Seog Hee

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the presence, size and location of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) using computed tomography scans in correlation with ejection fraction (EF). We retrospectively evaluated 30 patients with VHD, without pre-existing diseases that could cause lymphadenopathy (LAP). The presence, size, and location of LNs greater than 1 cm in short axis diameter were evaluated. The location of mediastinal LNs was recorded according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Furthermore, we evaluated the presence of pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and other thoracic abnormalities and evaluated EF of the heart on transthoracic echocardiography. Sixteen patients (53%) had at least 1 enlarged mediastinal LN. The most frequent locations were lower paratracheal (4R, n = 8/4L, n = 6), subcarinal (7, n = 5) and right upper paratracheal (2R, n = 4) regions. The frequency of mediastinal LAP was higher in patients with aortic regurgitation (2 of 2, 100%) followed by mitral regurgitation (8 of 11, 73%); it was also high in patients with pulmonary edema (80%), pleural effusion (81%), or both (77%), as compared to patients without pulmonary edema or pleural effusion (17%) (p = 0.001). Ten of 30 patients showed an abnormal EF of < 55%; among them, 8 had mediastinal LAP. However, the relationship between EF and LAP was not statistically significant (p = 0.058). Mediastinal LN enlargement is common in patients with VHD, especially in cases of pulmonary edema and pleural effusion. Enlarged mediastinal LNs were frequently observed with abnormal EF, however, the relationship between EF and mediastinal LAP was not statistically significant.

  4. CT appearance of hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes of coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Daqing; Guan Yansheng; Tang Hongqu; He Wen; Chen Budong; Zhang Yansong; Li Jun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT appearance of the hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes in coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP), its pathological basis and diagnostic value for CWR complicated with lung cancer. Methods: (1) Twelve isolated lungs with CWP obtained at autopsy were inflated and fixed. CT scan was performed. The pathologic findings of enlarged lymph nodes were identified. (2) CT findings of hilar and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes of 71 cases with CWP and 22 cases of CWP complicated with lung cancer were analyzed. Results: (1) Most of the enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes in simple CWR was in third stage of fibrosis. The fourth stage of fibrosis was only seen in lymph nodes of a case with complicated CWP. In this case the necrotic materials of lymph nodes eroded adjacent bronchi and vessels, and coalesced with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). (2) The average number of lymph nodes in cases of complicated CWP was more than that of simple CWP (P 2 cm was 7.4%. (3) The prevalence of lymph nodes calcification in CWP was 61.1%, but egg shell calcification was only 14.7%. (4) In the cases of CWP complicated with lung cancer, lymph node > 2 cm was 20.8%, that was more than CWP (P 3 cm was 7.6%. Conclusion: Lymph nodes up to 1 cm may have dust fibrosis and coal silicosis nodules. The lymph nodes >2 cm is more common in CWP complicated with lung cancer than in simple CWP. The lymph nodes > 3 cm indicates higher probability of CWP with lung cancer than PMF

  5. Clinical correlates of enlarged prostate size in subjects with sexual dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Digito-rectal examination (DRE of the prostate provides useful information on the state of prostate growth and on the presence of suspected peripheral nodules. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and biochemical correlates of finding an enlarged prostate size at DRE in subjects with sexual dysfunction (SD. A consecutive series of 2379 patients was retrospectively studied. The analysis was focused on a subset of subjects (n = 1823; mean age 54.7 ± 11.4 selected for being free from overt prostatic diseases. Several parameters were investigated. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of an enlarged prostate size at DRE was associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (HR = 1.346 (1.129-1.759; P = 0.030, type 2 diabetes mellitus (HR = 1.489 (1.120-1.980; P = 0.006, increased LDL cholesterol (>100 mg dl−1 ; HR = 1.354 (1.018-1.801; P = 0.037 and increased mean blood pressure (BP values (HR = 1.017 (1.007-1.027 for each mmHg increment; P = 0.001. Accordingly, enlarged prostate size was also associated with a higher risk of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED, as well as with other andrological conditions, such as varicocele and premature ejaculation (PE. PSA levels were significantly higher in subjects with enlarged prostate size when compared to the rest of the sample (HR = 3.318 (2.304; 4.799 for each log unit increment in PSA levels; P < 0.0001. Arteriogenic ED, according to different criteria, was also associated with increased PSA levels. In conclusion, our data support the need to examine prostate size either by clinical (DRE or biochemical (PSA inspection in subjects with SD, in order to have insights into the nature of the SD and the metabolic and cardiovascular (CV background of the patient.

  6. Modernization and enlarging of the Marcoule pilot plant for R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calame-Longjean, A.; Revol, G.; Roux, J.P.; Ranger, G.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the pilot plant is the testing of process and equipment in actual conditions with spent fuels on a half-industrial scale and for a significant time. From 1963 to 1983 more than 11t of spent fuels (mainly from fast reactors) were reprocessed. Since 1983 is modernized and enlarged and the new plant of the TOR project (treatment of oxides from fast reactors) are described [fr

  7. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement in patients with valvular heart disease: CT evaluation and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Ju; Jung, Jung Im; Ahn, Myeong Im; Han, Dae Hee; Park, Seog Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the presence, size and location of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) using computed tomography scans in correlation with ejection fraction (EF). We retrospectively evaluated 30 patients with VHD, without pre-existing diseases that could cause lymphadenopathy (LAP). The presence, size, and location of LNs greater than 1 cm in short axis diameter were evaluated. The location of mediastinal LNs was recorded according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Furthermore, we evaluated the presence of pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and other thoracic abnormalities and evaluated EF of the heart on transthoracic echocardiography. Sixteen patients (53%) had at least 1 enlarged mediastinal LN. The most frequent locations were lower paratracheal (4R, n = 8/4L, n = 6), subcarinal (7, n = 5) and right upper paratracheal (2R, n = 4) regions. The frequency of mediastinal LAP was higher in patients with aortic regurgitation (2 of 2, 100%) followed by mitral regurgitation (8 of 11, 73%); it was also high in patients with pulmonary edema (80%), pleural effusion (81%), or both (77%), as compared to patients without pulmonary edema or pleural effusion (17%) (p = 0.001). Ten of 30 patients showed an abnormal EF of < 55%; among them, 8 had mediastinal LAP. However, the relationship between EF and LAP was not statistically significant (p = 0.058). Mediastinal LN enlargement is common in patients with VHD, especially in cases of pulmonary edema and pleural effusion. Enlarged mediastinal LNs were frequently observed with abnormal EF, however, the relationship between EF and mediastinal LAP was not statistically significant.

  8. Reversible and non-reversible enlargement of cerebral spinal fluid spaces in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artmann, H.; Grau, H.; Adelmann, M.; Schleiffer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brain CT studies of 35 patients with anoxia nervosa confirmed the observations of other authors: cerebral dystrophic changes correlate with weight loss and the reversibility of these changes also correlates with the normalization of body weight. Other corroborated facts are: the most numerous and most pronounced enlargements are of the cortical sulci and the interhemispheric fissure, moderate widening affects the ventricles and the rarest and most insignificant changes are those of the cerebellum. The reversibility of the changes showed a parallel to the extent of the changes themselves and to the duration of improvement of the body weight. The reversibility of the enlargement of the cortical sulci and of the distances between the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was more often significant than that of the abnormal measurements of the cella media. This difference is based on minimal early acquired brain damage which occurs in 60% of our patients. This high incidence of early acquired minimal brain disease in patients with anorexia nervosa is here discussed as a nonspecific predisposing factor. Although there is no exact explanation of the etiology of the reversible enlargement of cerenral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in anorexia nervosa, the changes resemble those in alcoholics. The mechanisms of brain changes in alcoholism, as shown experimentally, seem to us to throw light on the probable mechanism of reversible dystrophic brain changes in anorexia nervosa. (orig.)

  9. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Pinto, Tatiana Militz Perrone; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. Results The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. Conclusion Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment. PMID:25162567

  10. Reversible and non-reversible enlargement of cerebral spinal fluid spaces in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, H.; Grau, H.; Adelmann, M.; Schleiffer, R.

    1985-07-01

    Brain CT studies of 35 patients with anoxia nervosa confirmed the observations of other authors: cerebral dystrophic changes correlate with weight loss and the reversibility of these changes also correlates with the normalization of body weight. Other corroborated facts are: the most numerous and most pronounced enlargements are of the cortical sulci and the interhemispheric fissure, moderate widening affects the ventricles and the rarest and most insignificant changes are those of the cerebellum. The reversibility of the changes showed a parallel to the extent of the changes themselves and to the duration of improvement of the body weight. The reversibility of the enlargement of the cortical sulci and of the distances between the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was more often significant than that of the abnormal measurements of the cella media. This difference is based on minimal early acquired brain damage which occurs in 60% of our patients. This high incidence of early acquired minimal brain disease in patients with anorexia nervosa is here discussed as a nonspecific predisposing factor. Although there is no exact explanation of the etiology of the reversible enlargement of cerenral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in anorexia nervosa, the changes resemble those in alcoholics. The mechanisms of brain changes in alcoholism, as shown experimentally, seem to us to throw light on the probable mechanism of reversible dystrophic brain changes in anorexia nervosa.

  11. Kleptochloroplast Enlargement, Karyoklepty and the Distribution of the Cryptomonad Nucleus in Nusuttodinium (= Gymnodinium) aeruginosum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Ryo; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-05-01

    The unarmoured freshwater dinoflagellate Nusuttodinium (= Gymnodinium) aeruginosum retains a cryptomonad-derived kleptochloroplast and nucleus, the former of which fills the bulk of its cell volume. The paucity of studies following morphological changes to the kleptochloroplast with time make it unclear how the kleptochloroplast enlarges and why the cell ultimately loses the cryptomonad nucleus. We observed, both at the light and electron microscope level, morphological changes to the kleptochloroplast incurred by the enlargement process under culture conditions. The distribution of the cryptomonad nucleus after host cell division was also investigated. The volume of the kleptochloroplast increased more than 20-fold, within 120h of ingestion of the cryptomonad. Host cell division was not preceded by cryptomonad karyokinesis so that only one of the daughter cells inherited a cryptomonad nucleus. The fate of all daughter cells originating from a single cell through five generations was closely monitored, and this observation revealed that the cell that inherited the cryptomonad nucleus consistently possessed the largest kleptochloroplast for that generation. Therefore, this study suggests that some important cryptomonad nucleus division mechanism is lost during ingestion process, and that the cryptomonad nucleus carries important information for the enlargement of the kleptochloroplast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient stereological approaches for the volumetry of a normal or enlarged spleen from MDCT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Stratakis, John; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-06-01

    To introduce efficient stereological approaches for estimating the volume of a normal or enlarged spleen from MDCT. All study participants underwent an abdominal MDCT. The first group included 20 consecutive patients with splenomegaly and the second group consisted of 20 subjects with a normal spleen. Splenic volume estimations were performed using the stereological point counting method. Stereological assessments were optimized using the systematic slice sampling procedure. Planimetric measurements based on manual tracing of splenic boundaries on each slice were taken as reference values. Stereological analysis using five to eight systematically sampled slices provided enlarged splenic volume estimations with a mean precision of 4.9 ± 1.0 % in a mean time of 2.3 ± 0.4 min. A similar measurement duration and error was observed for normal splenic volume assessment using four to seven systematically selected slices. These stereological approaches slightly but insignificantly overestimated the volume of a normal and enlarged spleen compared to planimetry (P > 0.05) with a mean difference of -1.3 ± 4.3 % and -2.7 ± 5.2 %, respectively. The two methods were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.96). The variability of repeated stereological estimations was below 3.8 %. The proposed stereological approaches enable the rapid, reproducible, and accurate splenic volume estimation from MDCT data in patients with or without splenomegaly. (orig.)

  13. Enlarged cavum septum pellucidum as a neurodevelopmental marker in adolescent-onset opiate dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeuk Hwang

    Full Text Available Adolescent-onset exposure to highly addictive substances such as opiates may induce far-reaching deleterious effects on later mental and physical health. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental basis for adolescent-onset opiate dependence. Here we examined whether having an abnormally large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP, a putative marker of limbic structural maldevelopment, is associated with opiate dependence particularly beginning in adolescence.The overall length of the CSP and the prevalence of abnormal enlargement of the CSP were assessed and compared in 65 opiate-dependent subjects (41 adolescent-onset opiate users and 24 adult-onset opiate users and 67 healthy subjects.Opiate-dependent subjects showed a greater prevalence of abnormal CSP enlargement relative to healthy subjects (odds ratio [OR]=3.64, p=0.034. The overall CSP length of adolescent-onset opiate-dependent subjects was greater, as compared not only with healthy subjects (F₁,₁₀₄=11.03, p=0.001 but also with those who began opiate use during adulthood (F₁,₆₁=4.43, p=0.039.The current findings provide the first evidence that abnormal CSP enlargement, which reflects limbic system dysgenesis of neurodevelopmental origin, may be linked to later development of opiate dependence. In addition, a greater CSP length, which indicates more severe limbic abnormalities, appears to confer higher risk for earlier onset of opiate use.

  14. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of head muscles and glands correlated with cranial nerves and surface and sectional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Johnson, Aleksandra; Qian, Guoyu; Poh, Lan Eng; Yi, Su Hnin Wut; Bivi, Aminah; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2013-04-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relationships between head muscles and cranial nerves innervating them are complicated. Existing sources present these relationships in illustrations, radiologic scans, or autopsy photographs, which are limited for learning and use. Developed electronic atlases are limited in content, quality, functionality, and/or presentation. We create a truly 3D interactive, stereotactic and high quality atlas, which provides spatial relationships among head muscles, glands and cranial nerves, and correlates them to surface and sectional neuroanatomy. The head muscles and glands were created from a 3T scan by contouring them and generating 3D models. They were named and structured according to Terminologia anatomica. The muscles were divided into: extra-ocular, facial, masticatory and other muscles, and glands into mouth and other glands. The muscles, glands (and also head) were placed in a stereotactic coordinate system. This content was integrated with cranial nerves and neuroanatomy created earlier. To explore this complex content, a scalable user interface was designed with 12 modules including central nervous system (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord), cranial nerves, muscles, glands, arterial system, venous system, tracts, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, white matter, visual system, head. Anatomy exploration operations include compositing/decompositing, individual/group selection, 3D view-index mapping, 3D labeling, highlighting, distance measuring, 3D brain cutting, and axial/coronal/sagittal triplanar display. To our best knowledge, this is the first truly 3D, stereotactic, interactive, fairly complete atlas of head muscles, and the first attempt to create a 3D stereotactic atlas of glands. Its use ranges from education of students and patients to research to potential clinical applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Eurosafe Forum 2003: Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, Jean-Francois; Repussard, Jacques [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Hahn, Lothar [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    EUROSAFE is an international forum for discussions among experts from technical safety organisations, research institutes, safety authorities, utilities, the industry, public authorities and non-governmental organisations concerning the status of and recent achievements in nuclear installation safety, waste management, radiation safety and nuclear material security. The Eurosafe Forum 2003 - the fifth of its kind - was held at the Palais Brongniart in Paris on November 25 and 26, 2003. This year's theme was: 'Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union: speakers in the various European countries about the environmental scan before enlargement, development and structuring perspectives within the enlarged Europe'. The event brought together 445 experts and researchers from around the world (including 124 from Germany, 184 from France, 88 from Eastern Europe, as well as representatives from Korea, Japan, the United States, Canada, Cuba, and Armenia. The proceedings of the symposium can now be consulted online. The fifth edition of the forum focused on nuclear expertise and the challenge of EU-enlargement and the latest work carried out by GRS, IRSN and their partners from the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. Nuclear energy contributes approximately one third of European electricity production. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are increasingly international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge and the need for greater transparency

  16. The Eurosafe Forum 2003: Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, Jean-Francois; Repussard, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    EUROSAFE is an international forum for discussions among experts from technical safety organisations, research institutes, safety authorities, utilities, the industry, public authorities and non-governmental organisations concerning the status of and recent achievements in nuclear installation safety, waste management, radiation safety and nuclear material security. The Eurosafe Forum 2003 - the fifth of its kind - was held at the Palais Brongniart in Paris on November 25 and 26, 2003. This year's theme was: 'Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union: speakers in the various European countries about the environmental scan before enlargement, development and structuring perspectives within the enlarged Europe'. The event brought together 445 experts and researchers from around the world (including 124 from Germany, 184 from France, 88 from Eastern Europe, as well as representatives from Korea, Japan, the United States, Canada, Cuba, and Armenia. The proceedings of the symposium can now be consulted online. The fifth edition of the forum focused on nuclear expertise and the challenge of EU-enlargement and the latest work carried out by GRS, IRSN and their partners from the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. Nuclear energy contributes approximately one third of European electricity production. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are increasingly international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge and the need for greater transparency

  17. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

  18. Diffusion-weighted MRI of denervated muscle: a clinical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, Nathalie; Bierry, Guillaume; Moser, Thomas; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Stephane; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Mohr, Michel; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate skeletal muscle denervation using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI). Sciatic nerve axotomy was performed in a group of nine New Zealand White rabbits, and electromyographic (EMG), pathological, and DWMRI studies were conducted on ipsilateral hamstring muscles 1 and 8 days after axotomy. In addition, DWMRI studies were carried out on leg muscles of ten patients with acute and subacute lumbosacral radiculopathy. High intensity signals on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were observed in denervated muscles of the animals 1 and 8 days after axotomy as well as in denervated muscles of the patients with radiculopathy. In the clinical study, ADC was 1.26±0.18 x 10 -9 m 2 /s in normal muscle and increased to 1.56±0.23 x 10 -9 m 2 /s in denervated muscles (p =0.0016). In animals, EMG and muscle pathological studies were normal 1 day after axotomy, and the muscles demonstrated spontaneous activity on EMG and neurogenic atrophy on histological studies 7 days later. This DWMRI study demonstrates that enlargement of extracellular fluid space in muscle denervation is an early phenomenon occurring several days before the appearance of EMG and histological abnormalities. (orig.)

  19. Estimating Co-Contraction Activation of Trunk Muscles Using a Novel Musculoskeletal Model for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Morino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain and stretched abdominal muscles from an enlarged gravid uterus are remarkable features during pregnancy. These changes elicit postural instability and place strain on body segments, contributing to lower back pain. In general, the agonist and antagonist muscles act simultaneously to increase joint stabilization; however, this can cause additional muscle stress during movement. Furthermore, this activation can be observed in pregnant women because of their unstable body joints. Hence, physical modalities based on assessments of muscle activation are useful for managing low back pain during pregnancy. Musculoskeletal models are common when investigating muscle load. However, it is difficult to apply such models to pregnant women and estimate the co-contraction of muscles using musculoskeletal models. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a musculoskeletal model for pregnant women that estimates the co-contraction of trunk muscles. First, motion analysis was conducted on a pregnant woman and the muscle activations of the rectus abdominis and erector spinae were measured. Then, the musculoskeletal model was specifically modified for pregnant women. Finally, the co-contraction was estimated from the results of the musculoskeletal model and electromyography data using a genetic algorithm. With the proposed methods, weakened abdominal muscle torque and the co-contraction activation of trunk muscles were estimated successfully.

  20. Wellbore enlargement investigation: Potential analogs to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant during inadvertent intrusion of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Dotson, L.; Aguilar, R.

    1997-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation and documentation of cases in which petroleum wellbores were enlarged beyond the nominal hole diameter as a consequence of erosion during exploratory drilling, particularly as a function of gas flow into the wellbore during blowout conditions. A primary objective was to identify analogs to potential wellbore enlargement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during inadvertent human intrusion. Secondary objectives were to identify drilling scenarios associated with enlargement, determine the physical extent of enlargement, and establish the physical properties of the formation in which the enlargement occurred. No analogs of sufficient quality to establish quantitative limits on wellbore enlargement at the WIPP disposal system were identified. However, some information was obtained regarding the frequency of petroleum well blowouts and the likelihood that such blowouts would bridge downhole, self-limiting the surface release of disposal-system material. Further work would be necessary, however, to determine the conditions under which bridging could occur and the extent to which the bridging might be applicable to WIPP. In addition, data on casing sizes of petroleum boreholes in the WIPP vicinity support the use of a 12-1/4 inch borehole size in WIPP performance assessment calculations. Finally, although data are limited, there was no evidence of significant wellbore enlargement in any of three blowouts that occur-red in wellbores in the Delaware Basin (South Culebra Bluff Unit No. 1, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) 6, and WIPP 12)

  1. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  2. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  3. Preliminary investigations on the effects of a Strongylus vulgaris larval extract, mononuclear factors and platelet factors on equine smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S J; Storts, R W; Stromberg, P C; Sowa, B A; Lay, J C

    1989-01-01

    Factors involved in the proliferation of equine vascular smooth muscle cells were studied in vitro. The most prominent proliferative responses in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells were induced by Strongylus vulgaris larval antigen extract (LAE) and platelet-derived factors. Less significant proliferative responses were obtained with conditioned media from S. vulgaris LAE stimulated and from unstimulated equine mononuclear leukocytes. Additionally, vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to S. vulgaris LAE developed numerous perinuclear vacuoles and were more spindle-shaped than control or smooth muscle cells exposed to other factors. Equine mononuclear leukocytes exposed to LAE developed prominent morphological changes, including enlargement, clumping and increased numbers of mitotic figures.

  4. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  5. Laboratory determination of normal operating flow rates with enlarged outlet fittings -- BDF reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.

    1960-02-02

    Experiments have been conducted in the Hydraulics Laboratory, at the request of IPD`s Mechanical Development-A Operation, to determine the energy losses of various enlarged outlet fitting combinations. These experiments were conducted an steady state runs and allow the determination of the normal operating point (flow rate) of a reactor process channel under selected conditions of front header pressure and fuel charge. No attempt is made to make a mechanical or economic evaluation of the particular fitting combinations, although observations were noted which might bear on this evaluation. It is very important for the reader to bear in mind that changing outlet fittings will definitely affect the reactor tube power limits and outlet vater temperature limits. The size of the outlet fittings largely determines the present outlet temperature limits of the old reactors. The flow characteristics of these present fittings cause some degree of pressurization to suppress boiling on the fuel charge and also cause dual Panellit trip protection for certain flow changes and for power surges. Enlargement of the outlet fittings may actually reduce the allowable outlet coolant temperature limits. Since these effects cannot be determined on the apparatus used in these experiments, a complete discussion of this point is not included in this report. However, the seriousness of these effects should be known and carefully analyzed before a final selection of enlarged outlet fittings in made. This report will be one of a series. New reports in the series will be issued as data are obtained for other such outlet fitting combinations or for new concepts of outlet fitting assemblies such as the new nozzle being developed by C. E. Trantz for use on F-reactor stuck gunbarrel tubes.

  6. Multiple Sources of Pressure for Change: The Barroso Commission and Energy Policy for an Enlarged EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frederik Braun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a preliminary analysis of how and why the role, work and status of the European Commission are changing in an enlarged European Union. It does so by focusing on multiple sources of pressure for change. These include: enlargement, new modes of governance, administrative reforms and changed leadership under Barroso. Combined, though not interlinked, these multiple sources of pressure are evidence of the increasing difficulty for the Commission to design and propose Community-wide answers to complex challenges in a more diverse Union. For this reason, the Commission under Barroso relies less on its traditional monopoly power to propose formal legislation and more on non-traditional modes of policy-making. Energy policy, especially its external dimension, constitutes a policy field that has been affected by enlargement, i.e. characterised by an increasing heterogeneity of needs and preferences among the member states. Not only does it resists Community-wide answers, it also allows the Commission, as an agent, to make use of bureaucratic drifts, i.e. exploit its strategic position in the EU’s governance system and use of a range of formal and informal resources of expertise. To deliver sustainable European added value to this complex policy area, however, the Commission must focus more on pragmatic policy results by making smart use of the EU’s increasing asymmetry, diversity and subsidiarity in a bottom-up approach. A non-legislative approach can serve as a modus vivendi to keep the momentum going in the Union’s difficult struggle to establish a workable energy regime.

  7. Communities, Boundaries and New Neighbours: the Discursive Construction of EU Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Caliendo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The institutional discourse of the European Union (EU is undergoing important changes that are also reflected by new initiatives in its communication policy. Against a background of widespread scepticism towards EU enlargement among the public, this change is driven by the need to promote the widening of its borders in a more effective way in order to prompt popular endorsement. Through the use of its textual and visual communicative strategies, the EU is thus finding new ways to buttress its legitimacy and raise consensus around its political actions. The node of interaction between citizens and institutions is represented by the informative publications of the EU (also made available on the europa website, which become a constitutive element in building Union-to-citizen communication. The analysis of textual and visual formulations of the European Commission’s key booklets on EU enlargement in the period from 2004 to 2007 - in terms of their content and pragmatic aims - reveals the emergence of new consensus-building strategies. Results show that a sense of allegiance and belonging attributed to a deepening of European integration is now increasingly linked to the practical advantages of EU enlargement, as expressed through the use of ‘promotional’ and strategic discursive practices. Moving away from a merely informative content, communication modes ‘migrate’ towards a more direct and ‘commodified’ type of message, while an increase in visual elements plays a complementing role in promoting legitimacy and a feeling of mutual belonging between ‘old’ and ‘new’ members of the European family.

  8. Hearing loss in enlarged vestibular aqueduct and incomplete partition type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadizadeh, Emily; Ascha, Mustafa; Manzoor, Nauman; Gupta, Amit; Semaan, Maroun; Megerian, Cliff; Otteson, Todd

    The purpose of this work is to identify the role of incomplete partition type II on hearing loss among patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). EVA is a common congenital inner ear malformation among children with hearing loss, where vestibular aqueduct morphology in this population has been shown to correlate to hearing loss. However, the impact of incomplete partition between cochlear turns on hearing loss has not been, despite meaningful implications for EVA pathophysiology. A retrospective review of radiology reports for patients who had computed tomography (CT) scans with diagnoses of hearing loss at a tertiary medical center between January 2000 and June 2016 were screened for EVA. CT scans of the internal auditory canal (IAC) for those patients with EVA were examined for evidence of incomplete partition type II (IP-II), measurements of midpoint width and operculum width a second time, and patients meeting Cincinnati criteria for EVA selected for analysis. Statistical analysis including chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and t-tests were used to identify differences in outcomes and clinical predictors, as appropriate for the distribution of the data. Linear mixed models of hearing test results for all available tests were constructed, both univariable and adjusting for vestibular aqueduct morphometric features, with ear-specific intercepts and slopes over time. There were no statistically significant differences in any hearing test results or vestibular aqueduct midpoint and operculum widths. Linear mixed models, both univariable and those adjusting for midpoint and operculum widths, did not indicate a statistically significant effect of incomplete partition type II on hearing test results. Hearing loss due to enlarged vestibular aqueduct does not appear to be affected by the presence of incomplete partition type II. Our results suggest that the pathophysiological processes underlying hearing loss in enlarged vestibular aqueduct may not be a result of

  9. [A patient with muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis in the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Shoji; Murakami, Tatufumi; Shirabe, Teruo; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2002-09-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a benign pseudosarcomatous proliferative lesion which is frequently misdiagnosed as malignant tumor clinically and microscopically. It usually occurs as a rapidly enlarging subcutaneous mass on the upper extremities, especially on the forearm. Here we report a patient showing muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis in the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). A 17-year-old woman was hospitalized because of rapidly progressive torticollis. The right SCM was markedly enlarged and firm on palpation. Muscle biopsy taken from the right SCM revealed massive proliferation of spindle shaped fibroblasts infiltrating into the endomysium. These findings coincided with the intramuscular nodular fasciitis. However, different from typical nodular fasciitis, no apparent nodule formation was found in this patient. Instead, diffuse proliferative lesion extended widely into the neck soft tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis involving the SCM.

  10. To enlarge the travel markets from Shanghai to Turku (Shanghai CITS, Ltd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper is made in order to make thorough analysis in current Chinese travel markets and travel agencies, as well as the analysis on Turku’s travel markets, with which it can know the feasibility in enlarge the travel markets for CITS into Turku. In details, as the background information, the brief overview of history of China’s domestic travel agencies and a brief description of Shanghai CITS in terms of its business and management status are posed with the aim of getting enough suppo...

  11. Dual Enlargement of Gold Nanoparticles: From Mechanism to Scanometric Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Le Ly, Tram Thuy

    2011-01-01

    the electron density of the nanostructures, leading to a stronger intensity for colorimetric discrimination as well as better sensitivity for quantitative measurement. Based on this, a simple scanometric assay for the on‐slide detection of the food‐born pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is developed. After...... capturing the target bacteria, gold‐tagged immunoprobes are added to create a signal on a solid substrate. The signal is then amplified by the dual enlargement process, resulting in a strong color intensity that can easily be recognized by the unaided eye, or measured by an inexpensive flatbed scanner...

  12. Neonatal Presentation of an Air-Filled Neck Mass that Enlarges with Valsalva: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jasminkumar Bharatbhai; Kilbride, Howard; Paulson, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    Branchial cleft cysts are common causes of congenital neck masses in the pediatric population. However, neonatal presentation of branchial cleft cysts is uncommon, but recognizable secondary to acute respiratory distress from airway compression or complications secondary to infection. We report a 1-day-old infant presenting with an air-filled neck mass that enlarged with Valsalva and was not associated with respiratory distress. The infant was found to have a third branchial cleft cyst with an internal opening into the pyriform sinus. The cyst was conservatively managed with endoscopic surgical decompression and cauterization of the tract and opening. We review the embryology of branchial cleft cysts and current management. PMID:26495186

  13. 2004 winter meeting: nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This year's Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. focused on Nuclear Energy and Safety of Supply in the Enlarged European Union. Numerous participants from Germany and abroad discussed contributions from politics, industry, and science in Berlin, February 4 to 5, 2004. The general understanding was that a secure, economically viable and non-polluting supply of energy for Europe and the European Union was indispensable, and that the power industry faced major projects as a result of the foreseeable need to build new power plants, or replace decommissioned old plants, of 40,000 MW generating capacity in Germany and 200,000 MW in Europe. (orig.)

  14. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with uterine and renal enlargement in a young girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, L.D.; Brenner, C.; McHugh, K.; DeBruyn, R.; Ancliff, P.

    2004-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the fourth most common childhood malignancy. Uterine involvement with NHL is well described in adults, rare in children and has not been described in the first 2 years of life. While renal involvement in NHL is well recognised, diffuse renal enlargement is an uncommon finding. We report a unique case of B-cell lymphoma of primitive phenotype in a 15-month-old girl with uterine and renal involvement at presentation. We describe the US and MRI features at presentation that helped in the prospective diagnosis of this condition. (orig.)

  15. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with uterine and renal enlargement in a young girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, L.D.; Brenner, C.; McHugh, K.; DeBruyn, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ancliff, P. [Dept. of Host Defence, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the fourth most common childhood malignancy. Uterine involvement with NHL is well described in adults, rare in children and has not been described in the first 2 years of life. While renal involvement in NHL is well recognised, diffuse renal enlargement is an uncommon finding. We report a unique case of B-cell lymphoma of primitive phenotype in a 15-month-old girl with uterine and renal involvement at presentation. We describe the US and MRI features at presentation that helped in the prospective diagnosis of this condition. (orig.)

  16. Fermionic zero-norm states and enlarged supersymmetries of Type II string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-C.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the NS-R fermionic zero-norm states of the type II string spectrum. The massless and some possible massive zero-norm states are seen to be responsible for the space-time supersymmetry. The existence of other fermionic massive zero-norm states with higher spinor-tensor indices correspond to new enlarged boson-fermion symmetries of the theory at high energy. We also discuss the R-R charges and R-R zero-norm states and justify the idea that the perturbative string does not carry the massless R-R charges. (orig.)

  17. GINGIVAL ENLARGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH NOCTURNAL FRONTAL LOBE EPILEPSY. A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma ANAMIKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available „Epilepsy” refers to a group of neurological disorders characterized by chronic, recurrent, paroxysmal seizure activity. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by brief, recurring seizures produ‑ ced in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping, and also by clusters of brief motor seizures. Seizure disorders may affect the dental status and oral health of patients. Epileptic drugs lead to gingival hyper‑ plasia, namely tissue enlargement, caused by an increased number of cells.

  18. Serial MR imaging studies in enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) is a congenital disorder characterized by progressive or fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss of unknown etiology. Serial MR examinations were performed before and after the development of hearing loss in two patients with LVAS. The signal and volume of the enlarged endolymphatic sac (EES) vary even in ears with stable hearing. In ears with fluctuating hearing, changes in EES signals were observed in only one of two patients. The finding that the EES volume and signal intensity vary dynamically independently of hearing is important for future research into the pathophysiology of hearing loss in this syndrome. (orig.)

  19. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    Shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. Different from the previous studies on SH wave propagation in completely periodic layered media, calculations on band structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges are spatially enhanced and stopped by the corresponding graded units. The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially, which shows potential applications in strengthening energy trapping and harvesting. © 2015.

  20. Use of minocycline as systemic antimicrobial therapy in refractory periodontitis with chronic gingival enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag M Khatri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease having various risk factors, but a dynamic interaction between bacterial products and host response in association with genetic and environmental factors is considered as the primary cause for periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis. This bacterial-host interaction which is ever-so-present in periodontitis directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report present a case of a female patient with recurrent periodontal infections with gingival enlargement treated with systemic Minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach.

  1. Use of minocycline as systemic antimicrobial therapy in refractory periodontitis with chronic gingival enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Parag M; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease having various risk factors, but a dynamic interaction between bacterial products and host response in association with genetic and environmental factors is considered as the primary cause for periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis. This bacterial-host interaction which is ever-so-present in periodontitis directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report present a case of a female patient with recurrent periodontal infections with gingival enlargement treated with systemic Minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach.

  2. Engrosamiento peneano: complicación de lipotransferencia Penis enlargement: complication of lipotransfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Conde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La solicitud de engrosamiento del pene por parte de los pacientes tiene un crecimiento sostenido. El empleo de grasa autóloga como relleno puede causar una deformidad que provoca un menoscabo funcional y estético. Presentamos un caso de complicación que requirió de tratamiento quirúrgico.Penis enlargement is a practice widely requested by the patients. The use of autologous fat transplantation can produce deformity and functional and aesthetic deficiency. The authors present a clinical case of complication and its surgical resolution.

  3. Penis invalidating cicatricial outcomes in an enlargement phalloplasty case with polyacrylamide gel (Formacryl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, P C; Dominici, M; Moro, U

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports the case of a patient subjected to polyacrylamide polymers-composed gel cutaneous infiltration in the penis for cosmetic purposes, resulting in severe invalidating outcomes. A significant tissue reaction to the subcutaneous injection of polyacrylamide gel for the penis enlargement purpose resulted in permanent and invalidating scars both on the esthetic and functional levels. Such a result must be simply taken into account both singly and in the light of the international literature to exclude this method as standard uro-andrologic activity.

  4. Effects of Q-switched and long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser on enlarged facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Nam; Kim, You Jeong; Lee, Hyun Seung; Kim, Hei Sung

    2009-12-01

    'Enlarged facial pore' is a subjective term, which is not clearly defined but often complained by many. A diverse range of treatments are used though evidence of efficacy remains largely anecdotal. We report a series of nine patients who underwent a split face trial with Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG and long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser to treat enlarged facial pores.

  5. Preventive effect of aggressive blood pressure lowering on hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Ueba, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Motohiro; Iwata, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Kohsuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The preventive effect of aggressive blood pressure lowering on hematoma enlargement was investigated in patients with ultra-acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Retrospective review of 248 patients (145 males, 103 females) with spontaneous ICH treated in our hospital between 2005 and 2008 identified patients with ultra-acute ICH who were directly taken to our institute by ambulance within 3 hours after onset. Patients who could not be assessed twice by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after arrival were excluded. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was aggressively controlled in all patients using intravenous nicardipine to below 140 mmHg as soon as possible after diagnosis of ICH with CT. Hematoma enlargement was defined as increase in volume of more than 33% or more than 12.5 ml in the first 24 hours. Hematoma enlargement was observed in 11 of the 73 patients (15.0%). The time course of SBP change was not significantly different in patients with and without hematoma enlargement. The incidence of hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute ICH in this study was 15.0%, which was lower than that in other series in which blood pressure was not reduced aggressively. This finding suggests that aggressive SBP lowering to below 140 mmHg has a preventive effect on hematoma enlargement in patients with ultra-acute ICH. (author)

  6. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  7. The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xueqin; Van Ierland, Ekko

    2006-01-01

    With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

  8. CONNECTING THE ENLARGEMENT PROCESS WITH THE EUROPEANIZATION THEORY (THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Lucian Moga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Europeanization is one of the theoretical instruments which had a vital influence on candidate countries for EU membership. Due to its aspirations of becoming member of the European Union (EU and in its attempt to fulfil the Copenhagen criteria, Turkey is trying to comply with the EU acquis communautaire. The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of the Europeanization process on the countries subject to EU enlargement strategy, with a special focus on Turkey, particularly since the country received the EU candidate status in 1999. This paper has been organized in the following way: firstly, it points out how both the traditional Europeanization and the enlargement led Europeanization have been depicted in the work of several important scholars; secondly, by offering a short overview of Turkey’s foreign relations vis-à-vis its neighbourhood, especially in the last decade, it examines how the mechanism of Europeanization largely influenced the country’s diplomatic culture. Traditionally, Turkey has been attuned to hard security issues and architectures. However, the Turkish foreign policy strategy emphasised in thepast years the Venus side of things in many settings in line with EU requirements.

  9. Gingival enlargment treatment on 11 and 21 teeth: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Ghoni Tjiptoningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of gingival enlargement in the interdental papillae is thickening of gingival contour, rounde and uncomfort feeling, that must be needed immediate in order to be optimal appearance and functionale. Fibrosis gingival enlargement  wont be healed  with plaque control only, but must be require a surgery treatment such as gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. A 24-year-old woman  came into periodontia clinic complaining a hard swelling at anterior maxillary gingiva at 11-21. Plaque index 52%. Gingival pocket depth at tooth 11 is labial (mesial: 4, medial:1, distal:3. Palatal (mesial:3, medial:2, distal:1 and Tooth 21 is labial (mesial:4, medial:1, distal:1, palatal (mesial:3, medial:1, distal:1. Treatment planning done by gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The aim of the treatment is to eliminating the gingival pocket and physiologic gingival recontouring that can be help to prevent the recurrence of the disease. We must be considered in gingivectomy and gingivoplasty surgery is to minimize disposal the gingival to maintain the aesthetic, adequate access to the bone defect in order to good correction, minimized the bleeding and discomfort after surgery.

  10. [Non-neoplastic enlargement of salivary glands: clinico-histologic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Guevara, Martha Beatriz; Torres Tejero, Marco Antonio; Martínez Mata, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study on non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands at the Oral Histopathology Diagnostic Center of the Autonomous Metropolitan University at Xochimilco (UAM-Xochimilco) in Mexico during a period of 24 years (1979-2003). From 5,625 biopsies received and analyzed, a total of 461 (8.2%) were non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands; for each case, we registered demographic data as well as clinic characteristics. These lesions were characterized as a heterogeneous group of pathologic entities among which we included local, obstructive, infectious, and immunopathologic lesions. The most frequent lesion was the extravasation cyst in 341 (74%) cases, followed by chronic sialoadenitis and Sjögren's syndrome with 54 (11.7%) and 41 (8.8%) cases, respectively, and at a lesser percentage mucous retention cyst, sialosis, benign lymphoepithelial lesions and those related with sialolytes. Females were affected more frequently; mean age was second to third life decades. These lesions were most frequently localized on inferior labial mucosa.

  11. Multivariate analysis of morphological pathology in ventricular enlargement by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Satoru

    1981-01-01

    Several ventricular segments were first measured linearly on the CT image to determine the normal upper limit in adolescent and mature subjects. On the basis of the values obtained, large ventricules were defined, and discriminant analysis with the increase and decrease of the variable was applied. The error ratio of discrimination between pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy was 8.4%. The temporal horn and trigone are larger in pressure hydrocephalus than in cerebral atrophy, in which the anterior horn is larger. The error ratio of discrimination between obstructive hydrocephalus and communicating hydrocephalus was 11.3%. The hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle and the body of the lateral ventricle are larger in obstructive hydrocephalus than in communicating hydrocephalus, in which the anterior horn and the cellae mediae at the level of the head of caudate nuclei are relatively large. Enlarged ventricles were divided into three groups with characteristic segment: one with large temporal horn and trigone in pressure hydrocephalus; one with larger hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle and larger body of the lateral ventricle in obstructive hydrocephalus than in communicating hydrocephalus; and relatively large anterior horn, cellae mediae at the level of the head of caudate nuclei, and thalamic segment of the third ventricle in cerebral atrophy and communicating hydrocephalus. These findings contribute to the pathological evaluation of ventricular enlargement. The hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle assumes a round or oval shape in pressure hydrocephalus but a rectangular or teardrop shape in cerebral atrophy. (J.P.N.)

  12. Lumbar facet joint fat pads: Their normal anatomy and their appearance when enlarged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.; McCormick, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The polar recesses, superior and inferior to lumbar facet joints, are filled by fat pads from which fat-filled synovial folds project between the articular surfaces for a distance of two to four millimetres. The intracapsular superior recess lies between the ligamentum flavum and the lamina above. The extracapsular inferior recess lies on the back of the lamina below and communicates with the joint through a hole in the inferior capsule. The intracapsular folds move freely in and out of the joint during movements. These features are demonstrated in anatomic studies using transverse sections and radiologic studies using computed tomography. In about 4% of lumbar spines examined, the intraarticular fat pads are enlarged and extend from the joint recess(es) into the middle third of one or more facet joints. The fat pads can be identified in CT scans by their radiolucency and distinguished from vacuum phenomenon by measuring their attenuation values. The cause of the intra-articular enlargement of the fat pads is unknown, but it is suggested that their extension into the middle third of the joint may be secondary to degenerative change in the motion segment with capsular laxity in the affected joint. (orig.)

  13. Comprehensive personal witness: a model to enlarge missional involvement of the local church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancke, Frans

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the The Split-Level Fellowship, Wesley Baker analysed the role of individual members in the Church. He gave a name to a tragic phenomenon with which Church leaders are familiar. Although true of society in general it is especially true of the church. Baker called the difference between the committed few and the uninvolved many, Factor Beta. This reality triggers the question: Why are the majority of Christians in the world not missionally involved through personal witness and which factors consequently influence personal witness and missional involvement? This article explains how the range of personal witness and missional involvement found in local churches are rooted in certain fundamental factors and conditions which are mutually influencing each other and ultimately contribute towards forming a certain paradigm. This paradigm acts as the basis from which certain behavioural patterns (witness will manifest. The factors influencing witness are either described as accelerators or decelerators and their relativity and mutual relationships are considered. Factors acting as decelerators can severely hamper or even annul witness, while accelerators on the other hand, can have an immensely positive effect to enlarge the transformational influence of witness. In conclusion a transformational model is developed through which paradigms can be influenced and eventually changed. This model fulfils a diagnostic and remedial function and will support local churches to enlarge the individual and corporate missional involvement of believers.

  14. Common clinical features of children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct and Mondini dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Chi; Chen, Yuh-Shyang; Chen, Pei-Jer; Hsu, Chuan-Jen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the etiological factors and the audiological data of different types of inner ear malformations, which the authors thought might be helpful in elucidating the inter-relation among malformations and shedding light on pathogenesis. Retrospective study from 1998 to 2002 at a tertiary care university hospital. One hundred sixty consecutive children with a total of 302 affected ears undergoing high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone for sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled. The image results were correlated with causes and origins, hearing loss patterns, hearing levels, and audiogram configurations. Inner ear malformation was present in 114 (38%) ears. The most common malformations were enlarged vestibular aqueduct, incomplete partition of cochlea (Mondini dysplasia), large vestibule, and semicircular canal dysplasia, presenting either as isolated finding or in combination. Eighty-four (74%) ears had abnormalities confined to these four malformations; only 30 (26%) ears showed other malformations. Patients with complex of enlarged vestibular aqueduct, Mondini dysplasia, large vestibule, and semicircular canal dysplasia (EMVS complex) demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of fluctuating hearing loss (93%) and a better hearing level compared with those with other malformations. Homogeneity in audiological features among these four malformations was also disclosed. The authors identified a distinct clinical entity, the EMVS complex, which is characterized by fluctuating hearing loss and a better hearing level. The authors proposed that malformations belonging to this complex result from a common pathogenetic mechanism.

  15. Right heart enlargement in heartworm-infected dogs: a radiographic, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, C.W.; Ackerman, N.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographically, the size of the right ventricle of 54 heartworm-infected dogs was graded subjectively as normal, 1 +, 2 +, and 3 + and served to classify the dogs into groups A, B, C, and D. With M-mode echocardiograms, right ventricular enlargement ratios (RVE ratios) were determined for each dog by dividing the measured right ventricular internal diastolic dimension (RVIDd) by the expected RVIDd of a normal dog of the same body weight. The normal RVIDd relation to body weight was derived from 25 healthy heartworm-free control dogs. These two variables were linearly related with a correlation coefficient r 2 = 0.59. Means and standard deviations of the RVE ratio were calculated for each group. Despite wide ranges and considerable overlap, the ratio was significantly different (t-test, p < 0.005) between groups with the exception of groups A and B, and C and D. The incidence of electrocardiographic signs of right ventricular hypertrophy was also determined for each group; it was 38% in group C and 62% in group D. From this data, it was concluded that M-mode echocardiography is a very sensitive technique for the documentation of right ventricular dilatation in heartworm-infected dogs, correlating with radiographic impressions of right ventricular enlargement. (author)

  16. Potential Measurement Errors Due to Image Enlargement in Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uji, Akihito; Murakami, Tomoaki; Muraoka, Yuki; Hosoda, Yoshikatsu; Yoshitake, Shin; Dodo, Yoko; Arichika, Shigeta; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of interpolation and super-resolution (SR) algorithms on quantitative and qualitative assessments of enlarged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images was investigated in this report. Spectral-domain OCT images from 30 eyes in 30 consecutive patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and 20 healthy eyes in 20 consecutive volunteers were analyzed. Original image (OR) resolution was reduced by a factor of four. Images were then magnified by a factor of four with and without application of one of the following algorithms: bilinear (BL), bicubic (BC), Lanczos3 (LA), and SR. Differences in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, photoreceptor layer status, and parallelism (reflects the complexity of photoreceptor layer alterations) were analyzed in each image type. The order of PSNRs from highest to lowest was SR > LA > BC > BL > non-processed enlarged images (NONE). The PSNR was statistically different in all groups. The NONE, BC, and LA images resulted in significantly thicker RNFL measurements than the OR image. In eyes with DME, the photoreceptor layer, which was hardly identifiable in NONE images, became detectable with algorithm application. However, OCT photoreceptor parameters were still assessed as more undetectable than in OR images. Parallelism was not statistically different in OR and NONE images, but other image groups had significantly higher parallelism than OR images. Our results indicated that interpolation and SR algorithms increased OCT image resolution. However, qualitative and quantitative assessments were influenced by algorithm use. Additionally, each algorithm affected the assessments differently. PMID:26024236

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement and cellular gigantism during Galleria mellonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Rodas

    Full Text Available We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5% recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis.

  18. Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presenting as an Enlarging Vascular Lesion within the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A. Emamaullee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare vascular neoplasm with variable malignant potential that most often presents within the liver. Many patients present with bilobar or extrahepatic disease, and the current treatment paradigm involves liver transplantation, with favorable long term results. Up to 25% of patients are diagnosed incidentally following imaging for other indications, and confirmation of diagnosis requires histologic analysis, as there are no classical imaging features to distinguish hepatic EHE (HEHE from other solid hepatic lesions. Here we describe a case of microscopic HEHE that was diagnosed following splenectomy for an enlarging vascular tumor within the spleen. Due to the unexpected diagnosis of EHE within the spleen and coexisting but stable appearing liver hemangiomata, a left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Explant histology revealed benign hemangiomata and diffuse, microscopic HEHE. The patient ultimately underwent liver transplantation. HEHE can be a challenging diagnosis, and this case emphasizes that any enlarging vascular lesion, even within the spleen, should prompt a high index of suspicion for HEHE in the setting of known hemangiomata.

  19. The Eurosafe Forum 2003: Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, Jean-Francois; Repussard, Jacques (eds.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Hahn, Lothar (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    EUROSAFE is an international forum for discussions among experts from technical safety organisations, research institutes, safety authorities, utilities, the industry, public authorities and non-governmental organisations concerning the status of and recent achievements in nuclear installation safety, waste management, radiation safety and nuclear material security. The Eurosafe Forum 2003 - the fifth of its kind - was held at the Palais Brongniart in Paris on November 25 and 26, 2003. This year's theme was: 'Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union: speakers in the various European countries about the environmental scan before enlargement, development and structuring perspectives within the enlarged Europe'. The event brought together 445 experts and researchers from around the world (including 124 from Germany, 184 from France, 88 from Eastern Europe, as well as representatives from Korea, Japan, the United States, Canada, Cuba, and Armenia. The proceedings of the symposium can now be consulted online. The fifth edition of the forum focused on nuclear expertise and the challenge of EU-enlargement and the latest work carried out by GRS, IRSN and their partners from the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. Nuclear energy contributes approximately one third of European electricity production. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are increasingly international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge and the need for greater

  20. Primary hydatid cyst in gastrocnemius muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswata Bharati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis, which is caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus, results from the presence of one or more massive cysts or hydatids, and can involve any organ, including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, and long bones. Muscle hydatidosis is usually secondary in nature, resulting from spread of larval tissue from a primary site after spontaneous or trauma-induced cyst rupture or after release of viable parasite material during invasive treatment procedures. Primary muscle hydatidosis is extremely uncommon, because implantation at this site would require passage through the filters of the liver and lung. Intramuscular hydatid cyst can cause a variety of diagnostic problems, especially in the absence of typical radiologic findings. We present an unusual case of a primary hydatid cyst found in the popliteal fossa of the right knee of a 52-year-old woman, presenting as an enlarging soft-tissue tumor for 6 months associated with pain. The mass initially was diagnosed to be Backer′s cyst by ultrasonography, but later it was confirmed postoperatively through histopathological studies to be due to hydatid disease. In regions where hydatidosis is endemic, hydatid cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of any unusual muscular mass.

  1. Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz

    2002-01-01

    on the syrinx. Contraction of m. tracheobronchialis ventralis enlarges the syringeal lumen and thus increases airflow by abducting the LL but does not affect the ML. The largest syringeal muscle, m. syringealis ventralis, plays a minor role, if any, in direct aperture control and thus in gating airflow...... the LTMs further into the tracheal lumen but does not close the syringeal aperture fully. The intrinsic deep muscle, m. syringealis profundus, abducts the LTMs through cranio-laterad movement of a paired, protruding half-ring. The weakly developed extrinsic m. sternotrachealis seems to increase tension......The role of syringeal muscles in controlling the aperture of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, was evaluated directly for the first time by observing and filming through an endoscope while electrically stimulating different muscle groups of anaesthetised birds. In songbirds (brown thrashers...

  2. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  3. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  4. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  5. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at skeletal muscle contraction (Dmc) decreased to 61.3 ± 1.4% of the precontraction value [resting diameter (Drest)]; however, if injection was at >900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Propeptide-mediated inhibition of myostatin increases muscle mass through inhibiting proteolytic pathways in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Hooper, Henry; Sartori, Roberta; Macharia, Raymond; Visanuvimol, Korntip; Foster, Keith; Matsakas, Antonios; Flasskamp, Hannah; Ray, Steve; Dash, Philip R; Sandri, Marco; Patel, Ketan

    2014-09-01

    Mammalian aging is accompanied by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle, a process called sarcopenia. Myostatin, a secreted member of the transforming growth factor-β family of signaling molecules, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of muscle growth. Here, we examined whether muscle growth could be promoted in aged animals by antagonizing the activity of myostatin through the neutralizing activity of the myostatin propeptide. We show that a single injection of an AAV8 virus expressing the myostatin propeptide induced an increase in whole body weights and all muscles examined within 7 weeks of treatment. Our cellular studies demonstrate that muscle enlargement was due to selective fiber type hypertrophy, which was accompanied by a shift toward a glycolytic phenotype. Our molecular investigations elucidate the mechanism underpinning muscle hypertrophy by showing a decrease in the expression of key genes that control ubiquitin-mediated protein breakdown. Most importantly, we show that the hypertrophic muscle that develops as a consequence of myostatin propeptide in aged mice has normal contractile properties. We suggest that attenuating myostatin signaling could be a very attractive strategy to halt and possibly reverse age-related muscle loss. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Significant Risk Factors for Postoperative Enlargement of Basal Ganglia Hematoma after Frameless Stereotactic Aspiration: Antiplatelet Medication and Concomitant IVH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Wonsoo; Park, Jaechan

    2017-09-01

    Frameless stereotactic aspiration of a hematoma can be the one of the treatment options for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia. Postoperative hematoma enlargement, however, can be a serious complication of intracranial surgery that frequently results in severe neurological deficit and even death. Therefore, it is important to identify the risk factors of postoperative hematoma growth. During a 13-year period, 101 patients underwent minimally invasive frameless stereotactic aspiration for basal ganglia hematoma. Patients were classified into two groups according to whether or not they had postoperative hematoma enlargement in a computed tomography scan. Baseline demographic data and several risk factors, such as hypertension, preoperative hematoma growth, antiplatelet medication, presence of concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), were analysed via a univariate statistical study. Nine of 101 patients (8.9%) showed hematoma enlargement after frameless stereotactic aspiration. Among the various risk factors, concomitant IVH and antiplatelet medication were found to be significantly associated with postoperative enlargement of hematomas. In conclusion, our study revealed that aspirin use and concomitant IVH are factors associated with hematoma enlargement subsequent to frameless stereotactic aspiration for basal ganglia hematoma.

  8. Characterization of spontaneous air space enlargement in mice lacking microfibrillar-associated protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne Trommelholt; Wulf-Johansson, Helle; Hvidsten, Svend

    2015-01-01

    to characterize the pulmonary function changes and emphysematous changes that occur in Mfap4-deficient (Mfap4(-/-)) mice. Significant changes included increases in total lung capacity and compliance, which were evident in Mfap4(-/-) mice at 6 and 8 mo but not at 3 mo of age. Using in vivo breath-hold gated...... were both significantly decreased in Mfap4(-/-) mice by 25 and 15%, respectively. The data did not support an essential role of MFAP4 in pulmonary elastic fiber organization or content but indicated increased turnover in young Mfap4(-/-) mice. However, Mfap4(-/-) mice developed a spontaneous loss...... of lung function, which was evident at 6 mo of age, and moderate air space enlargement, with emphysema-like changes....

  9. The “transforming power” of EU Enlargement policy in Serbia. An anthropological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Florindi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement process of the European Union contributed substantially to the harmonisation of legal systems over the continent. The article provides an anthropological critique to the way harmonisation to EU law is implemented in the Balkans, underlining the general lack of awareness by both Serbian government and the EU of Serbian social and legal systems. While applying the anthropological method to EU law’s effects in Serbia, the author investigates also the inner value of the EU project itself. For instance the State's failure to regulate anti-corruption matters has been experienced even when the State's provision in question were in full compliance with several other international obligations and with a positively hierarchically superior legal system: the Constitution.

  10. Subcooled He II heat transport in the channel with abrupt contractions/enlargements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, R.; Iwamoto, A.; Hamaguchi, S.; Mito, T.

    2002-01-01

    Heat transport mechanisms for subcooled He II in the channel with abrupt contractions and/or enlargements have been investigated under steady state conditions. The channel, made of G-10, contains various contraction geometries to simulate the cooling channel of a superconducting magnet. In other words, contractions are periodically placed along the channel to simulate the spacers within the magnet winding. A copper block heater inputs the heat to the channel from one end, while the other end is open to the He II bath. Temperature profiles were measured with temperature sensors embedded in the channel as a function of heat input. Calculations were performed using a simple one-dimensional turbulent heat transport equation and with geometric factor consideration. The effects on heat transport mechanisms in He II caused by abrupt change of channel geometry and size are discussed

  11. Enlarged test catalysts during the hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol to 1,4-butanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The highly effective catalyzer for butynediol-1;4 hydrogenation was designed and synthesized. Enlarged tests showed that the selectivity on butanediol-1.4 at the hydrogenation of butynediol-1.4 on the alloyed catalyst SKN-39H during 320 h was 84.6 %; that on 18 % higher than for  industrial MNH. The yield of product on the catalyst SKN-39 increases slowly from 3.1 to 7.3 % when on a catalyst MNH – 7.1 to 11.7 % from the initial content of butynediol-1;4. At the hydrogenation of  butynediol on catalyst SKN-39H process efficiency increases in 1.5-2 times and product purity on 2-3 % is higher in comparing with the industrial catalyst MNH. 

  12. Transurethral resection of prostate in benign prostatic enlargement with underactive bladder: A retrospective outcome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sokhal

    2017-01-01

    Results: The mean follow-up period was 22.4 ± 6.2 months. Mean prostate volume was 42.8 ± 6.4 ml and mean serum prostate-specific antigen was 2.3 ± 1.8 ng/ml. The International Prostate Symptom Score changed from 24.6 ± 4.2 preoperatively to 10.8 ± 5.8 postoperatively which was found statistically significant. Quality of life (QOL score changed from 4.8 ± 1.2 to 2.6 ± 0.4. Twenty-two patients out of 174 remained on a per-urethral catheter or clean intermittent catheterization due to voiding failure after TURP beyond 1 month. Conclusions: TURP should be considered a viable treatment option in men with enlarged prostate with underactive detrusor who had poor response to medical treatment. Preoperative counseling and postoperative follow-up are crucial in the management of such patients.

  13. Radiation-induced enlargement of granulocytic and macrophage progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, D; Johnson, G R; Wilson, J [Walter and Eliza Hall Inst. of Medical Research, Parkville (Australia)

    1977-01-01

    The peak sedimentation velocity of C/sub 57/BL mouse bone marrow progenitors of granulocytes and macrophages (GM-colony-forming cells, GM-CFC's) increased from 4.3 mm/h to 7 to 8 mm/h by 2 days after 250 rad whole body irradiation and slowly returned to normal over the next 3 weeks. Preliminary irradiation and/or endotoxin injection did not prevent this radiation-induced change. Some change in sedimentation velocity was seen with as little as 100 rad irradiation. Neither buoyant density nor cell cycle changes could account for the sedimentation velocity data which therefore indicate a major volume increase in the GM-CFC's. This size enlargement affected all subpopulations of GM-CFC's which consequently maintained their size relationship with one another.

  14. Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-28

    An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

  15. Lysosomal enlargement and lysosomal membrane destabilisation in mussel digestive cells measured by an integrative index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izagirre, Urtzi; Marigomez, Ionan

    2009-01-01

    Lysosomal responses (enlargement and membrane destabilisation) in mussel digestive cells are well-known environmental stress biomarkers in pollution effects monitoring in marine ecosystems. Presently, in laboratory and field studies, both responses were measured separately (in terms of lysosomal volume density - Vv - and labilisation period -LP) and combined (lysosomal response index - LRI) in order to contribute to their understanding and to develop an index useful for decisions makers. LRI integrates Vv and LP, which are not necessarily dependent lysosomal responses. It is unbiased and more sensitive than Vv and LP alone and diminishes background due to confounding factors. LRI provides a simple numerical index (consensus reference = 0; critical threshold = 1) directly related to the pollution impact degree. Moreover, LRI can be represented in a way that allows the interpretation of lysosomal responses, which is useful for environmental scientists. - Lysosomal responses to pollutants measured by an integrative index.

  16. Enlarging the operation range of a centrifugal compressor by cutting vanes based on CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, J T; Pan, X H; Gu, C H; Zheng, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Many centrifugal compressors are liable to insufficient operation range. The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the operation range of a centrifugal compressor used in turbocharger by cutting vanes. Some numerical works have been done based on CFD. The comparison of the calculated and measured results shows good agreement. The overall performance characteristics of the centrifugal compressor with different cutted vanes are observed and analyzed. The performance characteristic curves show that cutting vanes can increase the operation range by more than 50% with the loss of the highest efficiency limited in 1%. The flow fields are also shown in this paper and related explanations about the change of the performance characteristics curves are given. Shock wave is also detected in the simulation, and some related characteristics are summed up

  17. Electric Chern-Simons term, enlarged exotic Galilei symmetry and noncommutative plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmo, Mariano A. del; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2006-01-01

    The extended exotic planar model for a charged particle is constructed. It includes a Chern-Simons-like term for a dynamical electric field, but produces usual equations of motion for the particle in background constant uniform electric and magnetic fields. The electric Chern-Simons term is responsible for the noncommutativity of the boost generators in the 10-dimensional enlarged exotic Galilei symmetry algebra of the extended system. The model admits two reduction schemes by the integrals of motion, one of which reproduces the usual formulation for the charged particle in external constant electric and magnetic fields with associated field-deformed Galilei symmetry, whose commuting boost generators are identified with the nonlocal in time Noether charges reduced on-shell. Another reduction scheme, in which electric field transmutes into the commuting space translation generators, extracts from the model a free particle on the noncommutative plane described by the twofold centrally extended Galilei group of the nonrelativistic anyons

  18. Breathing oscillations in enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fu, R. K. Y. [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-05-28

    Breathing oscillations in the discharge of an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Different from the traditional breathing mode in a circular Hall plasma accelerator, the bulk plasma oscillation here is trigged by the potential barrier generated by the concentrated ion beam and substantial enough to compete with the anode voltage. The electric field near the anode is suppressed by the potential barrier thereby decreasing the electron density by {approx}36%. The discharge is restored to the normal level after the concentrated beam explodes and then it completes one cycle of electro-driven breathing oscillation. The breathing mode identified by the PIC simulation has a frequency range of {approx}156 kHz-{approx}250 kHz and does not vary monotonically with the discharge voltage.

  19. Correlation between adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio and symptoms of enlarged adenoids in children with adenoidal hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Olugbemiga Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenoid hypertrophy is one of the most common health problems affecting the paediatric population. This study aims to correlate adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio (ANR with symptoms of enlarged adenoids in children with enlarged adenoids. Materials and Methods: It was a year, cross-sectional, hospital-based study conducted at Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. ANR was determined by dividing adenoidal depth with nasopharyngeal depth on the plain lateral radiographs. Results: A total of 90 consecutive children consisting of 61 males and 29 females were included in the study with M:F ratio of 2.1:1. Their ages ranged from 8 months to 11 years. All the patients presented with nasal obstruction, mouth breathing and noisy breathing. Majority (64.5% had severe obstructions with preponderance among children of 3-5 years (39.9%. Linear regression analysis showed significant association between age and ANR (t = 10.447, P < 0.001. There was high significant association (P < 0.05 between presenting symptoms and degree of nasopharyngeal airway obstruction; for snoring (r = 0.251, P = 0.000, sleep apnoea (r = 0.594, P = 0.000, nasal discharge (r = 0.314, P = 0.001, excessive daytime sleepiness (r = 0.219, P = 0.019 and failure to thrive (r = 0.240, P = 0.011. Conclusion: Lateral X-ray of the nasopharynx is an effective tool to evaluate children with suspected adenoid hypertrophy. It correlates well with patients′ symptoms and provides objective measures of adenoid hypertrophy.

  20. Size enlargement of radioactive and hazardous species and their separation by microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    Separation and volume reduction of aqueous solutions involving membranes is evolving into an expanding and diversified field. Numerous commercially successful membranes and their applications are now available. Among different driving forces used in membrane separation, pressure-driven separation has gained wide application. Depending on the size of the dissolved species in solution to be separated, the pressure needed to achieve the desired separation varies. The microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane systems are low-pressure processes that generally operate below 350 kPa. To exploit these membranes in applications involving the removal of dissolved contaminants from solutions, it is essential to create a suitable size for the dissolved contaminants, so that the membranes can effectively retain them while producing a filtrate stream essentially free of contaminants. Size enlargement of the dissolved contaminants can be achieved through solution conditioning with the addition of one or a combination of chemical reagents and powdered materials. Examples of typical additives include: pH chemicals, polyelectrolytes, microorganisms and powdered adsorption/ion-exchange materials. In many situations, adequate control and optimization of the system chemistry and hydraulic conditions provide high selectivity and efficiency for contaminant removal. This paper summarizes removal efficiency data for cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium, arsenic, strontium-90/85, cesium-137 and iron. These data resulted from various initiatives on membrane technology undertaken during the past five years by the Waste Processing Technology group at Chalk River Laboratories. The technology involves size enlargement of contaminants present in waste solution, and their separation using either microfiltration or ultrafiltration. The data support remedial applications involving treatment of contaminated groundwater and soils

  1. Evaluation of breast enlargement in young males and factors associated with gynecomastia and pseudogynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, M; Sahin, M; Bolu, E; Gok, D E; Taslipinar, A; Tapan, S; Torun, D; Uckaya, G; Kutlu, M

    2010-12-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as a palpable enlargement of the mammary gland in males that is distinguishable from lipomastia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of different causes of breast enlargement in young males referred to our tertiary center, and evaluation of the factors associated with gynaecomastia. One hundred thirty-five male recruits aged 20-30 years were enrolled in the study. A control group comprising 32 age-matched healthy individuals aged 20-25 years was also studied. Idiopathic gynecomastia (IG) was diagnosed in 31 of 135 patients (23%) and Klinefelter' syndrome (KS) was diagnosed in 70 cases (52%). Patients with KS had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist and hip circumference waist/hip ratio than the control group. FSH, LH and SHBG were significantly higher and DHEAS, free testosterone (fT) and total testosterone (tT) were lower in patients with KS than the control group. Anthropometric measurements revealed significant increase in body weight and BMI in patients with IG compared with healthy controls. FSH and LH levels were significantly higher in the patients with IG. Patients with pseudogynecomastia alone were not obese and hypogonadism was observed in 35.1% of patients. We concluded that gynaecomastia in young adult males is mostly because of KS or idiopathic in origin. IG seems to be the result of androgen resistance and in part increased aromatization because of increased adiposity. Symptoms or findings for hypogonadism must be evaluated carefully in patients with pseudogynecomastia. We also suggest that the presence of both gynecomastia and azoospermia necessitate further karyotypic analyses for KS.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by lipid droplet enlargement through Fsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Kwon, Woo Young; Kim, Yeon A; Oh, Yoo Jin; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Mi Hwa; Bae, Ju Yong; Kim, Jong-Min; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Although epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) lead to insulin resistance, the mechanism underlying PCBs-induced insulin resistance has remained unsolved. In this study, we examined in vitro and in vivo effects of PCB-118 (dioxin-like PCB) and PCB-138 (non-dioxin-like PCB) on adipocyte differentiation, lipid droplet growth, and insulin action. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with PCB-118 or PCB-138 during adipocyte differentiation. For in vivo studies, C57BL/6 mice were administered PCB-118 or PCB-138 (37.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection and we examined adiposity and whole-body insulin action. PCB-118 and PCB-138 significantly promoted adipocyte differentiation and increased the lipid droplet (LD) size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In mice, both PCBs increased adipose mass and adipocyte size. Furthermore, both PCBs induced insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Expression of fat-specific protein 27 (Fsp27), which is localized to LD contact sites, was increased in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mice. Depletion of Fsp27 by siRNA resulted in the inhibition of LD enlargement and attenuation of insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. An anti-diabetic drug, metformin, attenuated insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the reduced expression of Fsp27 protein and LD size. This study suggests that PCB exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by LD enlargement through Fsp27.

  3. The Border-making Policy of the European Union: Eastern Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Having no internal borders, what is a border for the European Union (EU? Which criteria does this powerful organization pursue in its decision-making on further expansion: geographical, political, cultural, economic or all of these? What is the profi t of the Union in advancing its external borders to the east? And why to the east and not the south or west across the Atlantic? Does it still mean that there is the reason for enlarging eastward based on the geographical belonging to Europe? This paper discusses the expansion of the European Union to the east with the main focus on its political and economic aspects of integration. The fi rst part includes introduction to the concept of Europe, historic background about the formation of the united Europe in terms of geography, culture, politics and economy, juxtaposing opinions and viewpoints of different experts and political scientists on “what is Europe?” and what are the core issues of its enlargement. The second and third parts are dedicated to the advantages and disadvantages of European Integration for both parties concerned – the EU and the candidate/member state, in the case of the former having its own “demarcation policy” towards certain regions of the continent when it comes to unifi cation. And the fourth part is about the communication and miscommunication of the informative bodies of the European Union that are responsible for public awareness on any process that goes on within the European family. The lack of information results in the ignorance of citizens of European and partner countries, which, of course, refl ects on the further processes of expansion on the political level and cultural perception and mentality on the social level. The conclusion sums up the research, and the bibliography lists the books, articles, monographs and Internet sources used in the course of the study.

  4. A case of huge neurofibroma expanding extra- and intracranially through the enlarged jugular foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanakita, Junya; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    The surgical approach to the jugular foramen has been considered to be very difficult and troublesome, because of the location in which important structures, such as the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery and lower cranial nerves, converge in the narrow deep space. A case of huge neurofibroma, which extended from the tentorium cerebelli through the dilated jugular foramen to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 was presented. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with complaints of visual disturbance and palsy of the V-XII cranial nerves of the left side. Plain skull film showed prominent widening of the cranial sutures and enlargement of the sella turcica. Horizontal CT scan with contrast showed symmetrical ventricular dilatation and a heterogeneously enhanced mass, which was situated mainly in the left CP angle. Coronal CT scan with contrast revealed a huge mass and enlarged jugular foramen, through which the tumor extended to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 . Occlusion of the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein of the left side was noticed in the vertebral angiography. Two-stage approach, the first one for removal of the intracranial tumor and the second one for extracranial tumor, was performed for its huge tumor. Several authors have reported excellent surgical approaches for the tumors situated in the jugular foramen. By our approach, modifying Gardner's original one, a wide operative field was obtained to remove the tumor around the jugular foramen with success. Our approach for the jugular foramen was described with illustrations. (author)

  5. Compensatory enlargement of Ossabaw miniature swine coronary arteries in diffuse atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny S. Choy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies in human and non-human primates have confirmed the compensatory enlargement or positive remodeling (Glagov phenomenon of coronary vessels in the presence of focal stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document arterial enlargement in a metabolic syndrome animal model with diffuse coronary artery disease (DCAD in the absence of severe focal stenosis. Two different groups of Ossabaw miniature pigs were fed a high fat atherogenic diet for 4 months (Group I and 12 months (Group II, respectively. Group I (6 pigs underwent contrast enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CCTA and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS at baseline and after 4 months of high fat diet, whereas Group II (7 pigs underwent only IVUS at 12 months of high fat diet. IVUS measurements of the left anterior descending (LAD, left circumflex (LCX and right coronary (RCA arteries in Group I showed an average increase in their lumen cross-sectional areas (CSA of 25.8%, 11.4%, and 43.4%, respectively, as compared to baseline. The lumen CSA values of LAD in Group II were found to be between the baseline and 4 month values in Group I. IVUS and CCTA measurements showed a similar trend and positive correlation. Fractional flow reserve (FFR was 0.91 ± 0.07 at baseline and 0.93 ± 0.05 at 4 months with only 2.2%, 1.6% and 1% stenosis in the LAD, LCX and RCA, respectively. The relation between percent stenosis and lumen CSA shows a classical Glagov phenomenon in this animal model of DCAD.

  6. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  7. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  8. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... CASE REPORT. CASE. 72. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2009. CASE R. Introduction ... tion is being given to imaging the medial breast, and the sternalis muscle will be revealed with increasing ... The origin of this muscle is uncertain, with pectoralis major, rectus abdominus and sternomastoid ...

  9. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  10. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent e...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.......Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  11. Management of phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Sarvesh Urolagin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibody (APLA syndrome is a noninflammatory autoimmune disease, with innumerable clinical manifestations ranging from recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity to valvular lesions, transverse myelitis, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. APLAs in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS are well-known risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents. Stroke is the most common manifestation of APS in the central nervous system. Gingival enlargement is a known side effect of phenytoin which is an antiepileptic drug. This can have a significant effect on the quality of life as well as increasing the oral bacterial load by generating plaque retention sites. The management of gingival overgrowth seems to be directed at controlling gingival inflammation through a good oral hygiene regimen. Thus, this case report aims to describe the conservative management of phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement combined with inflammatory enlargement in a patient with APLA syndrome.

  12. QUANTITATIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis INFECTED WITH GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Mastuti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathognomonic sign of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV was proposed to be the formation of enlarged cells and necrotic cells, in which under electron microscope, it is revealed to be the inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs and necrotic cells containing GSDIV viral particles. Spleen and kidney tissues are the major sites for formation of enlarged cells. This paper described the result of histopatological analysis of enlarged cells found in the spleen and kidney of moribund fish after GSDIV challenge. A pathogenicity test was conducted on fish stocked in two tanks for infected groups and the other two tanks for uninfected control groups (15 fish per tank. The infected groups were injected intramuscularly with 0.1 ml of the viral inoculum. The uninfected groups were injected with the same amount of EMEM-2. The GSDIV-infected humpback grouper began to die after 6 days post infection and all died after 7 dpi, excluding one fish which had survived until the end of experimental infection periods (93% to 100% mortality. All of the diseased fish showed massive formation of enlarged cells in their spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney. The largest number of enlarged cells was observed on head kidneys and subsequently followed by spleens, trunk kidney (2.0-200.3/field of view. This result suggested that the number of enlarged cells in the affected organs was not the direct factor that led to the mortality of fish.

  13. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  14. Bronchial compression by an enlarged left atrium in infants; a cause of hypovascularity of the left lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corr, L.; Hallidie-Smith, K.A.; McCarthy, P.A.; Lavender, J.P.

    1988-09-01

    In three infants seen recently at our institution we noted signs of compression of the left main bronchus associated with enlarged left atria. None of our cases demonstrated the more usual signs of hyperinflation which are a hyperlucent lung field, depressed hemidiaphragm and mediastinal shift away from the affected side. In addition, hypoperfusion of the left lung was noted in each case. We believe that bronchial compression due to an enlarged left atrium, with consequent hypoxic vasoconstriction is a clinically significant entity, which is not well described and may be unappreciated in infants in whom the typical signs of hyperinflation are absent.

  15. Muscles and their myokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-15

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases.

  16. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  17. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  18. Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yasutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Hoshi, Eishin; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Koyama, Shinichiro; Colby, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF), recently identified as a smoking related change. • Investigation was in 35 smokers. • They underwent lobectomy for lung cancer with pathological confirmation of AEF. • Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of AEF. - Abstract: Purpose: Airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF) has been identified pathologically as a smoking related change. We sought to identify the HRCT findings of AEF and search for distinguishing features from honeycombing. Materials and methods: 50 patients (47 males; mean age 69) were evaluated. All had undergone lobectomy for lung cancer and had confirmed AEF and/or usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by pathological evaluation. HRCT findings were first evaluated preresection for resected lobes, and then correlated with the subsequent pathological findings in the resection specimens. Three groups were devised: one with AEF alone to determine the HRCT findings of AEF, a second with AEF and UIP and third with UIP alone. HRCT features of AEF and honeycombing were compared. Results: There were 11 patients (10 male; mean age 69) with AEF alone, 24 patients (22 male; mean age 69) with AEF and UIP, and 15 patients (15 male; mean age 68) with UIP alone. The HRCT on the AEF alone showed subpleural (but not abutting the pleura) multiple thin-walled cysts (MTWCs) in 7 and reticular opacities in 3. The HRCT in AEF and UIP showed MTWCs in 10, reticular opacities in 17; and honeycombing in 5. Among these 35 patients with the pathological finding of AEF (with or without UIP), 17 showed MTWCs. The maximum cyst wall thickness of MTWCs (mean 0.81 mm) was significantly thinner than that of honeycombing (mean 1.56 mm). MTWCs did not locate in lung base and was distant from the pleura. HRCT findings correlated with gross findings on both cysts and honeycombing. No MTWCs were seen in the 15 patients with UIP, 8 of 15 had

  19. Fidelity analysis of mechanically aided copying/enlarging of Jan van Eyck's Portrait of Niccolo Albergati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.; Duarte, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary artist David Hockney has hypothesized that some early Renaissance painters secretly projected optical images onto their supports (canvas, paper, oak panel, ...), directly traced these projections, and then filled in the tracings with paint[1]. Hockney has presented somewhat impressionistic image evidence for this claim, but he and thin-film physicist Charles Falco also point to perspective anomalies, to the fidelity of passages in certain paintings, and to historical documents in search of support for this direct tracing claim[2]. Key visual evidence adduced in support of this tracing claim is a pair of portraits by Jan van Eyck of Cardinal Niccolo Albergati - a small informal silverpoint study of 1431 and a slightly larger formal work in oil on panel of 1432. The contours in these two works bear striking resemblance in shape (after being appropriately scaled) and there are at least two "relative shifts" - passages that co-align well after a spatial shift of one of the images [2]. This evidence has led the theory's proponents to claim that van Eyck copied the silverpoint by means of an optical projector, or epidiascope, the relative shifts due to him accidentally bumping the setup during the copying. Previous tests of the tracing theory for these works considered four candidate methods van Eyck might have used to copied and enlarged the image in the silverpoint study: unaided ("by eye"), mechanical, grid, and the optical projection method itself [3]. Based on the full evidence, including the recent discovery of tiny pinprick holes in the silverpoint, reenactments, material culture and optical knowledge in the early 15th century, the mechanical method was judged most plausible and optical method the least plausible[3]. However, this earlier work did not adequately test whether a trained artist could "re-enact" the copying by mechanical methods: "Although we have not explicitly verified that high fidelities can be achieved through the use of a

  20. Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yasutaka, E-mail: yasuyasu@omiya.jichi.ac.jp [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Kawabata, Yoshinori [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kanauchi, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Hoshi, Eishin [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kurashima, Kazuyoshi [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Koyama, Shinichiro [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF), recently identified as a smoking related change. • Investigation was in 35 smokers. • They underwent lobectomy for lung cancer with pathological confirmation of AEF. • Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of AEF. - Abstract: Purpose: Airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF) has been identified pathologically as a smoking related change. We sought to identify the HRCT findings of AEF and search for distinguishing features from honeycombing. Materials and methods: 50 patients (47 males; mean age 69) were evaluated. All had undergone lobectomy for lung cancer and had confirmed AEF and/or usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by pathological evaluation. HRCT findings were first evaluated preresection for resected lobes, and then correlated with the subsequent pathological findings in the resection specimens. Three groups were devised: one with AEF alone to determine the HRCT findings of AEF, a second with AEF and UIP and third with UIP alone. HRCT features of AEF and honeycombing were compared. Results: There were 11 patients (10 male; mean age 69) with AEF alone, 24 patients (22 male; mean age 69) with AEF and UIP, and 15 patients (15 male; mean age 68) with UIP alone. The HRCT on the AEF alone showed subpleural (but not abutting the pleura) multiple thin-walled cysts (MTWCs) in 7 and reticular opacities in 3. The HRCT in AEF and UIP showed MTWCs in 10, reticular opacities in 17; and honeycombing in 5. Among these 35 patients with the pathological finding of AEF (with or without UIP), 17 showed MTWCs. The maximum cyst wall thickness of MTWCs (mean 0.81 mm) was significantly thinner than that of honeycombing (mean 1.56 mm). MTWCs did not locate in lung base and was distant from the pleura. HRCT findings correlated with gross findings on both cysts and honeycombing. No MTWCs were seen in the 15 patients with UIP, 8 of 15 had

  1. Myostatin inhibitors as therapies for muscle wasting associated with cancer and other disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rosamund C.; Lin, Boris K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent progress in the development of myostatin inhibitors for the treatment of muscle wasting disorders. It also focuses on findings in myostatin biology that may have implications for the development of antimyostatin therapies. Recent findings There has been progress in evaluating antimyostatin therapies in animal models of muscle wasting disorders. Some programs have progressed into clinical development with initial results showing positive impact on muscle volume. In normal mice myostatin deficiency results in enlarged muscles with increased total force but decreased specific force (total force/total mass). An increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis without concomitant satellite cell proliferation and fusion leads to muscle hypertrophy with unchanged myonuclear number. A specific force reduction is not observed when atrophied muscle, the predominant therapeutic target of myostatin inhibitor therapy, is made myostatindeficient. Myostatin has been shown to be expressed by a number of tumor cell lines in mice and man. Summary Myostatin inhibition remains a promising therapeutic strategy for a range of muscle wasting disorders. PMID:24157714

  2. Bilateral iliopsoas muscle contracture and spinous process impingement in a German Shepherd dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragetly, Guillaume R; Griffon, Dominique J; Johnson, Ann L; Blevins, William E; Valli, Victor E

    2009-12-01

    To report diagnosis and treatment of bilateral iliopsoas muscle contracture in a dog with spinous process impingement. Case report. German Shepherd dog. A dog with chronic progressive lameness, flexion contracture of the coxofemoral joints, severe pain, and decreased femoral reflexes had severe spondylosis bridging the vertebral bodies from L1 to L4 and enlarged dorsal spinous processes from T8 to L6 with impingement and bony proliferation. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were consistent with fibrosis, mineralization, and atrophy of the iliopsoas muscles bilaterally which was treated by staged tenectomy of the insertions of the iliopsoas muscles. Because of severe perivascular fibrosis, the femoral vessels required ligation. Bilateral iliopsoas muscle tenectomy improved gait and provided pain relief. Histologic findings were consistent with fibrotic myopathy. Slow progression of severe clinical signs observed bilaterally in this dog differs from previous reports of iliopsoas myopathy. Findings were similar to the fibrotic myopathy of the gracilis or semitendinosus muscles described in dogs. Iliopsoas muscle abnormalities should be considered in dogs with limited hip extension and pain. MRI is useful for diagnosing muscle fibrosis. Iliopsoas tenectomy may improve clinical function in dogs with fibrotic myopathy.

  3. Future systems for regional defence: The case in an enlarged European Union. Report on working group 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Report deals with the future systems for regional defense in case of an enlarged European Union. In the frame of security issues the future of nuclear arms control and disarmament if of concern. The implications of NATO expansion to the east and desirability of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free-zone from the Baltic to the Black Sea are discussed at length

  4. The Impact of Globalization and Technology on Teaching Business Communication: Reframing and Enlarging World View, Methods, and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the current paradigm shift in the use of technology in the classroom, which is occurring because of technology explosion in society, impact of globalization, necessary reframing, and enlarging of the world view, methods, and content to make business communication classes relevant. The question is whether the classroom should…

  5. An enlarged parietal foramen in the late archaic Xujiayao 11 neurocranium from Northern China, and rare anomalies among Pleistocene Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF) in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao) site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right) parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual's age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen). In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans.

  6. An enlarged parietal foramen in the late archaic Xujiayao 11 neurocranium from Northern China, and rare anomalies among Pleistocene Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual's age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen. In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans.

  7. A common SLC26A4-linked haplotype underlying non-syndromic hearing loss with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattaraj, Parna; Munjal, Tina; Honda, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the most common radiological abnormality in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Mutations in coding regions and splice sites of the SLC26A4 gene are often detected in Caucasians with EVA. Approximately one-fourth of patients with E...

  8. What is the Role of Parental Leave policies in shaping Work and Care in the Enlarged EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the role of parental leave in shaping a mother's choice between work and care in the enlarged EU. A central question is how parental leave schemes affect mothers' employment and the occupational consequences for mothers who spend time on full-time caring...

  9. Efficacy of the fractional photothermolysis system with dynamic operating mode on acne scars and enlarged facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Bin; Lee, Ju Hee; Choi, Moon Jung; Lee, Kyu-Yeop; Oh, Sang Ho

    2009-01-01

    Current treatments for acne scars and enlarged facial pores have shown limited efficacy. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the fractional photothermolysis system (FPS) with dynamic operating mode on acne scars and enlarged pores. Twelve patients with mild to moderate atrophic acne scars and enlarged pores were included in this study. Three sessions of FPS treatment were performed for acne scars and facial pores monthly. Two blinded dermatologists who compared before and after photos based on a quartile grading scale conducted objective clinical assessments of acne scar- and facial pore-treated areas. We took a biopsy immediately after one treatment with the laser from one of the authors to assess the histologic effects of the laser on facial pores. Follow-up results at 4 months after the last treatment revealed that, of the 12 patients, for acne scars, five demonstrated clinical improvements of 51% to 75% and three demonstrated improvements of 76% to 100%, and for facial pores, five demonstrated moderate clinical improvements of 26% to 50% and three demonstrated improvements of 76% to 100%. Side effects, including pain, post-treatment erythema, and edema, were resolved within 1 week. We suggest that the FPS may provide a new treatment algorithm in some cases with acne scars and enlarged pores. Considering the lack of placebo-controlled, split-face design of our study, optimized, prospective studies should be conducted to fully assess the efficacy of FPS with dynamic operating mode.

  10. Postoperative pain after foraminal enlargement in anterior teeth with necrosis and apical periodontitis: a prospective and randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Menaged, Karyne; Ajuz, Natasha; Monteiro, Maria Rachel Figueiredo Penalva; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this randomized, controlled, prospective clinical study was to determine if foraminal enlargement instrumentation during endodontic treatment is associated with more postoperative pain compared with standard nonenlargement instrumentation. Forty volunteers with a single root canal were diagnosed with asymptomatic necrosis with apical periodontitis and randomized into 2 experimental groups (ie, the control group and the foraminal enlargement group). Endodontic treatment was performed in a single visit, and volunteers were instructed to record pain intensity (ie, none, slight, moderate, and severe). Scores from 1 to 4 were attributed to each kind of pain after 12, 24, and 48 hours. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Student's t tests were used to determine significant differences at P .05, Student's t test). Postoperative pain showed no statistically significant difference between the groups at any observation period (P > .05). Also, no significant difference was observed in the mean number of analgesic tablets used between the groups (P > .05). The foraminal enlargement and nonenlargement techniques resulted in the same postoperative pain and necessity for analgesic medication. This may suggest that the use of foraminal enlargement should be performed for endodontic treatment previsibility without increasing postoperative pain. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nontumorous enlargement of the internal auditory canal. A risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss? A high resolution CT-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmer, H.; Rummeny, E.J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Niedermeyer, H.P. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). ENT-Clinic; Kehl, V. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2015-06-15

    First aim of the study was to define normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal (IAC). In the second part the clinical relevance of IAC-enlargement was analyzed, considering also lesions of the subtle structures at the fundus of the internal auditory canal. 440 high resolution CT-scans of the temporal bone were used for retrospective analysis of the internal auditory canal and its fundus region. The mean value of the IAC diameter in axial and coronal plane was determined. In 20 of 440 patients IAC enlargement was found. In the group with pronounced enlargement (3fold SD) nearly all patients suffered from hearing impairment. In some of them we found structural abnormalities near the IAC fundus in the CSF/perilymph border zone. A new CT-based definition of normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal is presented. There is some evidence that a pathologic transmission of CSF-pressure in case of IAC-enlargement and/or abnormal fistulous communications could play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss.

  12. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone......-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases....

  13. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilly, John

    2000-01-01

    This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

  14. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  15. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  16. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  17. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head are damaged, you may have difficulty chewing and swallowing or closing your eyes. In these ... Medical Professional Muscle paralysis always requires immediate medical attention. If you notice gradual weakening or problems with ...

  18. INFORMATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING THE ENLARGED G8 SUMMIT MEETING AT EVIAN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Despite the difficulties that CERN might encounter, the Organization will pursue its activities for the duration of the G8 Summit Meeting. The Management and Division leaders will take the necessary steps to ensure the proper functioning of the Organization, while taking account of the aforementioned difficulties. The Swiss and French authorities have informed CERN of the following general security and traffic arrangements associated with the enlarged G8 summit: a) Road traffic Between 22 May and 6 June traffic on certain roads in the Canton of Geneva (notably on the left bank) and in neighbouring France (mainly Haute-Savoie) will be disrupted and, in some cases, roads closed. As far as border crossings between 22 May and 4 June are concerned, the frontier posts will be divided into three categories (see map): - posts closed to all traffic (diversion signs will be in place), - posts open at certain times, - posts open at all times. N.B. : the road from Prévessin to Mategnin will be closed and traffic div...

  19. Revised and enlarged edition: editorial production as an artistic and a literary genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Gonçalves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriation of the expression «revised and enlarged edition», from the traditional publishing jargon, is presented in this article as a hypotheses to characterize contemporary publishing practices. It consid- ers the publication, in all its stages, as a writing space and as a process that never resigns creativity and criticism.These practices are «revised» (revisited because they imply the problematization of practice, through an exploratory attitude or critic, leading to processes and discourses prepared for a permanent review. And «en- larged» because they expand the operations of each editorial production phase, they iden- tify alternative formats and models, they blur traditional roles (author/editor/designer/ reader and question editing as a mere me- diation for the creation, circulation, reception or reading processes. In this article, we will identify some of the principles and emerging phenomena that help us understand editorial production as an artistic or a literary genre.

  20. Routine transesophageal echocardiography for the diagnosis of aortic disruption in trauma patients without enlarged mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, P; Lagrange, P; Boncoeur, M P; Francois, B; Gastinne, H; Lang, R M

    1996-03-01

    To assess the value of routine transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in diagnosing traumatic disruption of the aorta (TDA) in trauma patients presenting without enlarged mediastinum on chest x-ray films. Prospective study. TEE was routinely performed to exclude the presence of TDA in patients who sustained severe trauma secondary to abrupt deceleration collisions and presented with an upper mediastinum of fewer than 8 cm on supine chest x-ray films. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group I) or absence (group II) of mediastinal hematoma diagnosed during TEE examination. Radiographic signs regarded as indicators of the presence of TDA were evaluated in both groups. Among the 40 consecutive patients studied, TEE demonstrated two cases of TDA associated with a mediastinal hematoma that were confirmed by both aortography and surgery. One of the patients had a normal mediastinum on presentation chest x-ray films, and the other only exhibited a blurred aortic knob. Radiographic mediastinal abnormalities suggestive of TDA were observed in 13 patients, but chest x-ray films were unremarkable in 12 patients. Twenty patients had multiple rib fractures. The frequency of chest radiographic abnormalities was not significantly higher in group I (n = 6) when compared with group II patients (n = 34). TEE examination demonstrated a normal thoracic aorta in 35 patients and was nondiagnostic in 3 patients (normal aortography). TEE should be routinely performed in victims of violent deceleration collisions, even in patients presenting apparently normal mediastinum on supine chest radiography.

  1. Proceedings of the enlargement workshop on Neutron Measurements and Evaluations for Applications - NEMEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plompen, A.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The workshop on Neutron Measurements and Evaluation for Applications, NEMEA, was held 5-8 November 2003 in Budapest, Hungary. The objective of this workshop was to strengthen the contacts between laboratories working on nuclear data in member states of the European Union, Accession Countries joining the enlarged Union in 2004, and Candidate Countries which will join later. The workshop was organised by the Neutron Physics unit of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) together with the local organisers. The workshop included six sessions and three laboratory visits. The sessions were, in order of the agenda, Material Analysis; Data Evaluation; Safeguards, Illicit Trafficking and Demining; Biology, Medicine and Environment; Single Event Upsets; and Neutron Data for Energy Applications . In total there were thirty-seven presentations of excellent quality, illustrating the many different lines of research featuring neutron measurements and neutron data. Laboratory visits were made to the Atomki and the Institute for Experimental Physics on a one day trip from Budapest to Debrecen and to the KFKI research reactor in Budapest. Both at the Atomki and at the KFKI, laboratory visits were preceded by an excellent comprehensive overview of the facility, its history and its activities. At Debrecen, an overview was provided of the capabilities at the cyclotron laboratory in particular for neutron measurement, while at the Institute for Experimental Physics the neutron generator laboratory and the experimental setup for the demining experiments were shown. At KFKI, the participants were shown the laboratory for PGAA at the neutron beam guides of the reactor

  2. Pengaruh Rasio Step pada Sudden Enlargement Channel terhadap Heat Flux Kondensasi di Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hari Praswanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant parameter in air conditioning problems is air humidity. A porous media can be used as a heat exchanger component in order to increase the heat transfer performance which is significantly depends on the heat flux values inside of them. To determine the heat flux value, a following test section was modeled in this research. A vapor passed through a channel whereas a particular porous media made of active carbon acted as its heat exchanger media. However, the sudden enlargement at the inlet of channel could affect the homogeneity of temperature distributions and also caused some several turbulencies. The research method is vapor flowed over the porous media for 60 minute with temperature of 300oC.The vapor velocity is varied from 1 m/s to 3 m/s and the step ratio also varied between 0 until 1.66. From the experiment shows the bigger step ratio and vapor velocity results the bigger heat flux and air humidity after passed through the low porous media. Heat transfer was occured in porous media including convection heat transfer with the value of Gr/Re2 smaller than 1.

  3. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  4. Expression of HPV16 E5 produces enlarged nuclei and polyploidy through endoreplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Lulin; Potapova, Tamara A.; Li Shibo; Rankin, Susannah; Gorbsky, Gary J.; Angeletti, Peter C.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers are causally associated with infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). The mechanism by which high-risk HPVs contribute to oncogenesis is poorly understood. HPV16 encodes three genes (HPV16 E5, E6, and E7) that can transform cells when expressed independently. HPV16 E6 and E7 have well-described roles causing genomic instability and unregulated cell cycle progression. The role of HPV16 E5 in cell transformation remains to be elucidated. Expression of HPV16 E5 results in enlarged, polyploid nuclei that are dependent on the level and duration of HPV16 E5 expression. Live cell imaging data indicate that these changes do not arise from cell-cell fusion or failed cytokinesis. The increase in nuclear size is a continual process that requires DNA synthesis. We conclude that HPV16 E5 produces polyploid cells by endoreplication. These findings provide insight into how HPV16 E5 can contribute to cell transformation.

  5. Nuclear energy - a vote for good sense. 4. Enlarged Ed. Kernenergie - ein Votum fuer Vernunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waas, U

    1986-01-01

    What does Chernobyl mean for the current discussion in the public on nuclear energy and its utilisation in the Federal Republic of Germany - what can it mean, and what should it mean. Is it the memento showing us that we ought to abandon nuclear energy. There are many people who now are prepared to do so; for them, the accident there radically changed the situation here - a conclusion which is far from being logical if one compares the Soviet design of nuclear power stations with our German standards. Chernobyl has raised emotions, but fear must not be the only factor determining the decision about an appropriate utilisation of nuclear energy. This is why this enlarged edition of the third, 1981 edition of 'Nuclear energy - a vote for good sense' is published now, with a preface and three chapters in the annex discussing the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Surprisingly, the answers given five years ago to queries concerning the safety of the peaceful use of nuclear energy still are the same, and still valid.

  6. Enlarging the nosological spectrum of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sarah; Murrell, Jill; Harms, Lutz; Miller, Kelly; Meisel, Andreas; Brosch, Thomas; Scheel, Michael; Ghetti, Bernardino; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Stenzel, Werner

    2014-09-01

    Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) is an autosomal dominant disease clinically characterized by cognitive decline, personality changes, motor impairment, parkinsonism and seizures. Recently, mutations in the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) gene have been shown to be associated with HDLS. We report clinical, neuropathological and molecular genetic findings of patients from a new family with a mutation in the CSF1R gene. Disease onset was earlier and disease progression was more rapid compared with previously reported patients. Psychiatric symptoms including personality changes, alcohol abuse and severe depression were the first symptoms in male patients. In the index, female patient, the initial symptom was cognitive decline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral, confluent white matter lesions in the cerebrum. Stereotactic biopsy revealed loss of myelin and microglial activation as well as macrophage infiltration of the parenchyma. Numerous axonal swellings and spheroids were present. Ultrastructural analysis revealed pigment-containing macrophages. Axonal swellings were detected by electron microscopy not only in the central nervous system (CNS) but also in skin nerves. We identified a heterozygous mutation (c.2330G>A, p.R777Q) in the CSF1R gene. Through this report, we aim to enlarge the nosological spectrum of HDLS, providing new clinical descriptions as well as novel neuropathological findings from the peripheral nervous system. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  7. CHALLENGES OF THE PATH TOWARDS AN ENLARGED EUROPE: SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE - INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oneasca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available “Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.

  8. Channel erosion in a rapidly urbanizing region of Tijuana, Mexico: Enlargement downstream of channel hardpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine; Biggs, Trent; Langendoen, Eddy; Castillo, Carlos; Gudiño, Napoleon; Yuan, Yongping; Liden, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Urban-induced erosion in Tijuana, Mexico, has led to excessive sediment deposition in the Tijuana Estuary in the United States. Urban areas in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, are characterized by much lower proportions of vegetation and impervious surfaces due to limited access to urban services such as road paving and landscaping, and larger proportions of exposed soils. In developing countries, traditional watershed scale variables such as impervious surfaces may not be good predictors of channel enlargement. In this research, we surveyed the stream channel network of an erodible tributary of the Tijuana River Watershed, Los Laureles Canyon, at 125 locations, including repeat surveys from 2008. Structure from Motion (SfM) and 3D photo-reconstruction techniques were used to create digital terrain models of stream reaches upstream and downstream of channel hardpoints. Channels are unstable downstream of hardpoints, with incision up to 2 meters and widening up to 12 meters. Coordinated channelization is essential to avoid piece-meal approaches that lead to channel degradation. Watershed impervious area is not a good predictor of channel erosion due to the overriding importance of hardpoints and likely to the high sediment supply from the unpaved roads which prevents channel erosion throughout the stream network.

  9. Vascular wall flow-induced forces in a progressively enlarged aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neofytou, Panagiotis; Tsangaris, Sokrates; Kyriakidis, Michalis

    2008-12-01

    The current study is focused on the numerical investigation of the flow field induced by the unsteady flow in the vicinity of an abdominal aortic aneurysm model. The computational fluid dynamics code used is based on the finite volume method, and it has already been used in various bioflow studies. For modelling the rheological behaviour of blood, the Quemada non-Newtonian model is employed, which is suitable for simulating the two-phase character of blood namely a suspension of blood cells in plasma. For examining its non-Newtonian effects a comparison with a corresponding Newtonian flow is carried out. Furthermore, the investigation is focused on the distribution of the flow-induced forces on the interior wall of the aneurysm and in order to study the development of the distribution with the gradual enlargement of the aneurysm, three different degrees of aneurysm-growth have been assumed. Finally and for examining the effect of the distribution on the aneurysm growth, a comparison is made between the pressure and wall shear-stress distributions at the wall for each growth-degree.

  10. Theoretical Background and Methodology of Senior Preschoolers’ Enlargement of the Vocabulary by Means of Phraseological Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysan Inna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of preschoolers’ development of speech by means of phraseological units. It reveals their importance for children’s mental development, in particular emphasises that the most striking verges of the child’s language are reflected in its means of expression, that is, in phraseology. They make the language varied, expressive, emotional, vivid, figurative, deepen its ethno-cultural identity; offered are the results of the analysis of children’s speech on listening and use of phraseological units in oral speech. By taking into account the data on specific features of perception, understanding and use of phraseological units in the statements of children are represented the methods of work on phraseology in kindergarten based on the following assumptions: on timely and methodically correct implementation of work on phraseological units will depend speech and mental development of the preschool children because at this age, they begin to comprehend figurative meanings of words and master the process of meanings changing. In addition, at this age period, the child’s vocabulary is sufficiently formed to acquire the wealth and national characteristics of the native language, as well as expressive and aesthetic functions that perform phraseological units. Methodic contains and reveals its components such as: principles, goals, objectives, contents, methods, organisational forms and means of enlarging the vocabulary (impressive and expressive with phraseological expressions.

  11. Increased pulse pressure is associated with left atrial enlargement in resistant hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Oliveras, Anna; Hernández-Del-Rey, Raquel; Suárez, Carmen; Martell, Nieves; Ruilope, Luis M; De La Sierra, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is frequently associated with a high prevalence of target organ damage, which impairs the prognosis of these patients. Considering cardiac alterations in RH, most attention has been devoted to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), but data concerning left atrial enlargement (LAE) is less known. This cross-sectional study assessed the factors associated with LAE, with special focus on blood pressure (BP) estimates obtained by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), in 250 patients with RH, aged 64 ± 11 years. LAE and LVH were observed in 10.0% (95% CI 6.3-13.7) and 57.1% (95% CI 50.8-63.5) of patients, respectively. Compared with patients with normal atrium size, those exhibiting LAE were older, more frequently women, had elevated pulse pressure (PP) measured both at the office and by ABPM, and showed higher prevalence of LVH (83% vs 54%; p = 0.016). In a logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, left ventricular mass index and BP pressure estimates, night-time PP was independently associated with LAE (OR for 5 mmHg = 1.28, 95% CI 1.24-1.32; p = 0.001). In conclusion, besides classical determinants of LAE, such as age and LVH, an elevated night-time PP was independently associated with LAE in patients with RH.

  12. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-01

    Shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. Different from the previous studies on SH wave propagation in completely periodic layered media, calculations on band structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges are spatially enhanced and stopped by the corresponding graded units. The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially, which shows potential applications in strengthening energy trapping and harvesting. - Highlights: • Shear horizontal wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. • Calculations on band structure and transmission show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. • Finite element method confirms that waves in band gaps are spatially enhanced and stopped by the graded units. • The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially

  13. Ventricular enlargement in multiple sclerosis: a comparison of three-dimensional and linear MRI estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.; Blumhardt, L.D.; Ramli, N.; Jaspan, T.

    2001-01-01

    Atrophy of central white matter is related to irreversible clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and ventricular enlargement may be a sensitive marker of this tissue loss. Therapeutic trials in MS have provided MRI data for investigation of cerebral atrophy in MS. These studies use almost exclusively two-dimensional (2-D) images, which may be limited in the assessment of three-dimensional (3-D) structures. We used 3-D MRI data to estimate ventricular volumes in 40 patients with MS and 10 healthy controls, to look at associations with clinical disability and the stage of the disease. We then compared simple linear measures of ventricular size from conventional 2-D images, with 3-D volume estimates to establish the best available linear indices of ventricular volume. Mean ventricular volumes were increased in the patients and significantly larger in the more disabled patients. The estimated volume of the third ventricle obtained from 3-D MRI showed the strongest association with the clinical stage of the disease, duration of symptoms and levels of disability. Finally, we confirmed that in patients with MS accurate data on ventricular size can be obtained from 2-D images by two simple and convenient linear measures, the width of the third ventricle and of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. (orig.)

  14. Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Hee Soo; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Yu, Jeong Sik; Yoon, Sang Wook

    1995-01-01

    To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center

  15. Comparative evaluation of oral hygiene status and gingival enlargement among epileptic and healthy children as related to various antiepileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Hasmukhbhai Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a gathering of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures. Epileptic children, who are on active treatment with antiepileptic drugs, have a well-recognized side effect of gingival enlargement. Therefore, all efforts should be made, particularly for the population who are diagnosed or affected by the systemic disease. This study was conducted with an aim to determine oral hygiene status and gingival enlargement among epileptic and healthy children as related to various antiepileptic drugs. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of pedodontics and attached general hospital. A sample size of 120 participants with 60 healthy and 60 epileptic children between age 2 and 14 years were included. Oral health status of participants was examined using oral hygiene simplified index and plaque index. Gingival enlargement was assessed using Miranda–Brunet index. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA test, independent t-test, and Pearson's Chi-square test were used. Results: From the total participants included in the study, 49% of participants had good oral hygiene from healthy group, and 28% participants had poor oral hygiene from the epileptic group. Sodium valproate was the most common drug used and was associated with increased gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Conclusion can be drawn that epileptic children under medication had poor oral hygiene and an increased risk for gingival enlargement as compared to their healthy counterparts. It must be stressed that the epileptic patients should be given dental care without conditions and provided with best possible care to restore esthetics and functions.

  16. Customization of the voice prosthesis to prevent leakage from the enlarged tracheoesophageal puncture: results of a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Jan S; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Barringer, Denise A; Croegaert, Lindsay E; Lisec, Asher; Chambers, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Customization of the tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis (VP) is often preferred over surgical closure to prevent aspiration around the VP in laryngectomized patients with an enlarged tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP), but it has not been thoroughly evaluated. Single-institution prospective trial. A prospective trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a customized VP with the addition of an enlarged tracheal and/or esophageal collar in patients with leakage around an enlarged TEP. Absence of leakage around the VP after placement defined immediate effectiveness. Long-term success was defined by the prevention of adverse events related to leakage during the study period. Events that defined failure included: permanent gastrostomy dependence, aspiration pneumonia, and/or surgical TEP closure. Twenty-one patients with enlarged TEP were enrolled (2003-2006). Insertion of a customized VP was unsuccessful in one patient; 145 customizations were performed in the remaining 20 patients (median, 3.5 customizations) during the trial period. Of the customizations, 77% (112/145) prevented leakage immediately after VP insertion. The most common adverse event was dislodgement of the prosthesis (11%) or the collar alone (7%) in 18% (26/145) of customized VP placements. Six patients who died of disease were not evaluable for long-term outcomes. Long-term success was achieved in 80% (12/15) of evaluable patients who avoided permanent gastrostomy, aspiration pneumonia, and surgical TEP closure. Prosthetic customization offers an effective method to prevent leakage around the VP in many patients with an enlarged TEP, thereby preserving TE voice while avoiding surgical closure in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Left Atrial Enlargement in Young High-Level Endurance Athletes – Another Sign of Athlete’s Heart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the left atrium is perceived as a part of athlete’s heart syndrome, despite the lack of evidence. So far, left atrial size has not been assessed in the context of exercise capacity. The hypothesis of the present study was that LA enlargement in athletes was physiological and fitness-related condition. In addition, we tried to assess the feasibility and normal values of left atrial strain parameters and their relationship with other signs of athlete’s heart. The study group consisted of 114 international-level rowers (17.5 ± 1.5 years old; 46.5% women. All participants underwent a cardio-pulmonary exercise test and resting transthoracic echocardiography. Beside standard echocardiographic measurements, two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography was used to assess average peak atrial longitudinal strain, peak atrial contraction strain and early left atrial diastolic longitudinal strain. Mild, moderate and severe left atrial enlargement was present in 27.2°%, 11.4% and 4.4% athletes, respectively. There were no significant differences between subgroups with different range of left atrial enlargement in any of echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle diastolic function, filling pressure or hypertrophy. A significant correlation was found between the left atrial volume index and maximal aerobic capacity (R > 0.3; p < 0.001. Left atrial strain parameters were independent of atrial size, left ventricle hypertrophy and left ventricle filling pressure. Decreased peak atrial longitudinal strain was observed in 4 individuals (3.5%. We concluded that LA enlargement was common in healthy, young athletes participating in endurance sport disciplines with a high level of static exertion and was strictly correlated with exercise capacity, therefore, could be perceived as another sign of athlete’s heart.

  18. THE FINANCIAL SETTLEMENT IN THE ENLARGEMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: LESSONS FOR ROMANIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Mayhew

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of every European Union accession negotiation, there is a fight about finance. Yet finance is by no means the most important element of the negotiations. Matters affecting the vital interests of new and old members like the free movement of labour or the representation of the new member state in the institutions of the Union are usually far more important in the longer term. But it is easier for politicians to talk to voters about money than about policy. The budgetary negotiations in this first enlargement to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were perhaps more important in that these are relatively poor countries compared to the Union average per capita gross domestic product. They all will have to invest heavily in transport and environmental infrastructure in the coming decades in order to catch up with the standards of the EU-15 and support higher economic growth and development. Assuming responsible macro-economic policy in the new member states, EU budgetary transfers can speed up this investment process considerably, allowing these countries to catch up with the old member states in terms of per capita income more quickly. Higher transfers to the new member states means of course larger net budgetary contributions for the old member states (EU-15. This comes at a time when budget deficits are high and rising throughout the EURO-zone and when member states are making politically controversial cuts in social spending. The fiscal discipline involved in membership of the monetary union and implementation of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines therefore means that the existing member states of the Union are not keen to see their net budgetary position with Brussels deteriorate or even their gross contributions to the budget rise. This paper investigates the background to the budget negotiations and the political economy behind them.

  19. Higher ambulatory systolic blood pressure independently associated with enlarged perivascular spaces in basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuna; Yuan, Junliang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Fan, Huimin; Li, Yue; Yin, Jiangmei; Hu, Wenli

    2017-09-01

    Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) have been identified as a marker of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD). Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is the strongest predictor of hypertension-related brain damage. However, the relationship between ABP levels and EPVS is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between ABP levels and EPVS by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We prospectively recruited inpatients for physical examinations in our hospital from May 2013 to Jun 2016. 24-hour ABPM data and cranial magnetic resonance imaging information were collected. EPVS in basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CSO) were identified and classified into three categories by the severity. White matter hyperintensities were scored by Fazekas scale. Spearman correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between ABP levels and EPVS. A total of 573 subjects were enrolled in this study. 24-hour, day and night systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were positively related to higher numbers of EPVS in BG (24-hour SBP: r = 0.23, p blood pressure (DBP) levels increased with an increasing degree of EPVS in CSO (p = 0.04 and 0.049, respectively). But the association disappeared after adjusting for confounders. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that ABP levels were not associated with higher numbers of EPVS in CSO (p > 0.05). DBP levels were not independently associated with the severity of EPVS in BG and CSO. Higher SBP levels were independently associated with EPVS in BG, but not in CSO, which supported EPVS in BG to be a marker of CSVD. Pathogenesis of EPVS in BG and CSO might be different.

  20. The impact of citizenship on intermarriage: Quasi-experimental evidence from two European Union Eastern enlargements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Azzolini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to assimilation theory, the more immigrants are integrated within host countries the more likely they are to intermarry. However, status exchange theory argues instead that when integration is low, immigrants may use intermarriage as a means of improving their integration prospects in host countries, in which case an increase in levels of integration would reduce immigrants' propensity to intermarry. Objective: To test these two hypotheses, this paper assesses the causal effect of a positive shift in immigrants' level of integration, namely the acquisition of citizenship, on intermarriage in Italy. Over the past 20 years Italy has experienced an unprecedented growth in intermarriage involving primarily Eastern European women. Methods: We study two EU Eastern enlargements, following which citizens of the new EU member countries became EU citizens and thus experienced a marked improvement in their legal status. We apply the synthetic control method to data on marriages between native men and foreign women. Results: We find that the acquisition of citizenship has a significant negative impact on immigrant women's propensity to marry native men. That impact is much greater for immigrants coming from less affluent countries. Conclusions: Our results support the status exchange hypothesis. This can be explained by the poor socioeconomic integration and precarious legal status of immigrants in Italy. Contribution: The growth of intermarriage per se cannot be seen as an indicator of greater immigrant integration. The negative impact of citizenship acquisition on immigrants' propensity to intermarry also calls for a rethinking of the role of institutions such as marriage and citizenship in the process of immigrant integration.

  1. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilhim, Tiago, E-mail: tiagobilhim@hotmail.com [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Campos Pinheiro, Luis [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Urologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A. [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Oliveira, Antonio G. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Biostatistics Department, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); O' Neill, Joao [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  2. Preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid glands by 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Nobumasa; Itoh, Kiichiro; Kishikawa, Hidehumi; Tohda, Akira; Takaha, Natsuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamori, Shigeru; Sagawa, Shiro; Sonoda, Takao

    1997-01-01

    From June 1994 to September 1996, 24 patients with biochemical confirmation of hyperparathyroidism were studied with 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy prior to operation. Eleven patients had primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and 13 had secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) associated with chronic renal failure, including one patient with recurrent disease after subtotal parathyroidectomy. A positive 99m Tc-MIBI scan for an enlarged gland was defined as an area of persistent focal uptake on the delayed image acquired at 150 min after intravenous injection of 600 MBq of 99m Tc-MIBI. Of 11 patients with PHPT, 10 were found to have solitary parathyroid adenomas at surgery and one patient had primary hyperplasia. 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy accurately detected 9 of 10 adenomas and 2 of 3 hyperplastic glands with no false positive results. Both of the two glands that were not detected by 99m Tc-MIBI weighted 200 mg. The mean weight of the 11 glands that were visualized was 1264 mg. The sensitivity and predictive value positive for PHPT were 84.6% and 100%, respectively. In 13 patients with SHPT, all of 49 parathyroid glands were identified during surgery, with 43 hyperplastic glands and 6 normal-size glands. Of 43 hyperplastic glands, 28 were detected by 99m Tc-MIBI and there was significant difference between the mean weight of these 28 glands and that of the 15 nonimaged hyperplastic glands. None of the six normal glands were imaged with 99m Tc-MIBI. One patient had a false positive scan caused by a thyroid nodule. The sensitivity and predictive value positive for SHPT were 65.1% and 96.6%, respectively. (K.H.)

  3. Development of Romanian Nuclear Power Program implications for future's EU enlargement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havris, A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy and transport are two areas for which relations with third countries are crucial. Transport is of course essential in order to ensure smooth movements of people and economic operators within the EU but also with the outside world. Its importance becomes even more apparent in a period characterised by globalization. If modes of transport are the arteries of our society, then energy is the blood. The Green Paper on the security of EU energy supply issued by the Commission shows that whereas the EU economy is energy-intensive, Community energy resources are limited. Consequently, the EU is dependent on external sources of energy, a situation which will not change with the forthcoming enlargement. Hence, most of the EU's external relations include an important chapter on energy. The instrument for applying Romania's pre-accession strategy is the National Programme for Accession (NPAR). I focused on the current situation, short and medium term priorities of the Nuclear Energy as part of the Energy Chapter of the NPAR. In spite of the Romanian Authorities' strong commitment for the completion of Unit2, obtaining the EURATOM loan, for which Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica S.A. applied to the European Commission in 1999, remained a critical component of the overall financing requirements of this project. The National Strategy for the Development of the Energy Sector on Medium Term 2001- 2004, as part of our national economic strategy, concludes that on a least-cost basis and considering programs for improving energy efficiency, it is necessary to have Cernavoda Unit 2 in operation by 2006. Finally, are presented the benefits for Romania, as a country involved in the process of European Integration, with a view to obtaining the EURATOM loan and finalizing Cernavoda NPP - Unit2.(author)

  4. Enlarged thalamic volumes and increased fractional anisotropy in the thalamic radiations in Veterans with suicide behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eLopez-Larson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-mortem studies have suggested a link between the thalamus, psychiatric disorders, and suicide. We evaluated the thalamus and anterior thalamic radiations (ATR in a group of Veterans with and without a history of suicidal behavior (SB to determine if thalamic abnormalities were associated with an increased risk of SB. Forty Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI and no SB (TBI-SB, 19 Veterans with mild TBI and a history of SB (TB+SB and 15 healthy controls (HC underwent MRI scanning including a structural and diffusion tensor imaging scan. Suicidal behaviors were evaluated utilizing the Columbia Suicide Rating Scale and impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Differences in thalamic volumes and ATR fractional anisotropy (FA were examined between 1 TBI+SB versus HC and 2 TBI+SB versus combined HC and TBI-SB and 2 between TBI+SB and TBI-SB. Left and right thalamic volumes were significantly increased in those with TBI+SB compared to the HC, TBI-SB and the combined group. Veterans with TBI+SB had increased FA bilaterally compared to the HC, HC and TBI-SB group, and the TBI-SB only group. Significant positive associations were found for bilateral ATR and BIS in the TBI+SB group. Our findings of thalamic enlargement and increased FA in individuals with TBI+SB suggest that this region may be a biomarker for suicide risk. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence indicating that suicide may be associated with behavioral disinhibition and frontal-thalamic-limbic dysfunction and suggest a neurobiologic mechanism that may increase vulnerability to suicide.

  5. Genetic Determinants of Metabolism and Benign Prostate Enlargement: Associations with Prostate Volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Giri

    Full Text Available Prostate enlargement leading to clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity. The genetic basis of this association is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously associated with metabolic disorders are also associated with prostate volume (PV. Participants included 876 men referred for prostate biopsy and found to be prostate cancer free. PV was measured by transrectal ultrasound. Samples were genotyped using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip platform. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate SNPs (additive coding in relation to natural-log transformed (log PV. We compared SNP-PV results from biopsy-negative men to 442 men with low-grade prostate cancer with similar levels of obesity and PV. Beta-coefficients from the discovery and replication samples were then aggregated with fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. SNP rs11736129 (near the pseudo-gene LOC100131429 was significantly associated with log-PV (beta: 0.16, p-value 1.16x10(-8 after adjusting for multiple testing. Other noteworthy SNPs that were nominally associated (p-value < 1x10(-4 with log-PV included rs9583484 (intronic SNP in COL4A2, rs10146527 (intronic SNP in NRXN3, rs9909466 (SNP near RPL32P31, and rs2241606 (synonymous SNP in SLC12A7. We found several SNPs in metabolic loci associated with PV. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and elucidate the mechanism between these genetic loci, PV, and clinical BPH.

  6. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilhim, Tiago; Pisco, João; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lúcia; Campos Pinheiro, Luís; Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, José A.; Oliveira, António G.; O’Neill, João

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-μm nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  7. Holographic elements and curved slit used to enlarge field of view in rocket detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Mélanie; Fortin, Jean; Lessard, Roger A.; Châteauneuf, Marc

    2006-09-01

    Rocket detection over a wide field of view is an important issue in the protection of light armored vehicle. Traditionally, the detection occurs in UV band, but recent studies have shown the existence of significant emission peaks in the visible and near infrared at rocket launch time. The use of the visible region is interesting in order to reduce the weight and cost of systems. Current methods to detect those specific peaks involve use of interferometric filters. However, they fail to combine wide angle with wavelength selectivity. A linear array of volume holographic elements combined with a curved exit slit is proposed for the development of a wide field of view sensor for the detection of solid propellant motor launch flash. The sensor is envisaged to trigger an active protection system. On the basis of geometric theory, a system has been designed. It consists of a collector, a linear array of holographic elements, a curved slit and a detector. The collector is an off-axis parabolic mirror. Holographic elements are recorded subdividing a hologram film in regions, each individually exposed with a different incidence angle. All regions have a common diffraction angle. The incident angle determines the instantaneous field of view of the elements. The volume hologram performs the function of separating and focusing the diffracted beam on an image plane to achieve wavelength filtering. Conical diffraction property is used to enlarge the field of view in elevation. A curved slit was designed to correspond to oblique incidence of the holographic linear array. It is situated at the image plane and filters the diffracted spectrum toward the sensor. The field of view of the design was calculated to be 34 degrees. This was validated by a prototype tested during a field trial. Results are presented and analyzed. The system succeeded in detecting the rocket launch flash at desired fields of view.

  8. No evidence of early head circumference enlargements in children later diagnosed with autism in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Haar, Shlomi; Atsmon, Shir; Schtaerman, Hen

    2017-01-01

    Large controversy exists regarding the potential existence and clinical significance of larger brain volumes in toddlers who later develop autism. Assessing this relationship is important for determining the clinical utility of early head circumference (HC) measures and for assessing the validity of the early overgrowth hypothesis of autism, which suggests that early accelerated brain development may be a hallmark of the disorder. We performed a retrospective comparison of HC, height, and weight measurements between 66 toddlers who were later diagnosed with autism and 66 matched controls. These toddlers represent an unbiased regional sample from a single health service provider in the southern district of Israel. On average, participating toddlers had >8 measurements between birth and the age of two, which enabled us to characterize individual HC, height, and weight development with high precision and fit a negative exponential growth model to the data of each toddler with exceptional accuracy. The analyses revealed that HC sizes and growth rates were not significantly larger in toddlers with autism even when stratifying the autism group based on verbal capabilities at the time of diagnosis. In addition, there were no significant correlations between ADOS scores at the time of diagnosis and HC at any time-point during the first 2 years of life. These negative results add to accumulating evidence, which suggest that brain volume is not necessarily larger in toddlers who develop autism. We believe that conflicting results reported in other studies are due to small sample sizes, use of misleading population norms, changes in the clinical definition of autism over time, and/or inclusion of individuals with syndromic autism. While abnormally large brains may be evident in some individuals with autism and more clearly visible in MRI scans, converging evidence from this and other studies suggests that enlarged HC is not a common etiology of the entire autism population

  9. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Angela S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wu, Justina [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and the Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Division of Cardiology, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical {sup 82}Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function. (orig.)

  10. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  11. Combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin for the treatment of symptomatic enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Tarter, TH

    2009-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a frequent cause of lower urinary symptoms, with a prevalence of 50% by the sixth decade of life. Hyperplasia of stromal and epithelial prostatic elements that surround the urethra cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), urinary tract infection and acute urinary retention. Medical treatments of symptomatic BPH include; 1) the 5α-reductase inhibitors, 2) the α1-adrenergic antagonists, and 3) the combination of a 5α-reductase inhibitor and a α1-adrenergic antagonist. Selective α1-adrenergic antagonists relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck without affecting the detrussor muscle of the bladder wall, thus decreasing the resistance to urine flow without compromising bladder contractility. Clinical trials have shown that α1-adrenergic antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention. Inhibitors of 5α-reductase decrease production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate resulting in decreased prostate volumes, increased peak urinary flow rates, improvement of symptoms, and decreased risk of acute urinary retention and need for surgical intervention. Interim results of the ongoing Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAt) study have shown combination therapy with the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride and the α1-adrenergic antagonist tamsulosin offer significant improvements from baseline compared with either drug alone. PMID:19554096

  12. Outer retinal tubulation as a predictor of the enlargement amount of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Amirhossein; Nittala, Muneeswar G; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2015-02-01

    To determine the prognostic value of outer retinal tubulation (ORT) in the enlargement amount of geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Cohort study. One hundred eight fellow untreated eyes of 143 patients with GA resulting from AMD enrolled in the MAHALO study (clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01229215) who completely satisfied the study term and had gradable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images obtained at both baseline and month 18 visits. The MAHALO study enrolled 143 subjects into a phase 1b/2 multicenter, randomized, single-masked, sham-injection controlled clinical trial of the safety, tolerability, and evidence of activity of lampalizumab in patients with GA associated with AMD. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images were obtained at multiple time points in both eyes, although only the baseline and month 18 data of the fellow (nonstudy) eyes were considered in this exploratory analysis. The Cirrus HD-OCT review software was used for automatic segmentation and measurement of GA areas, with manual correction of segmentation errors by certified OCT graders. Baseline OCT images also were assessed for the presence of ORT. The enlargement amount of GA in eyes with ORT was compared with that of eyes without ORT. Comparison of the enlargement amount of GA in eyes with and without ORT. Twenty-four of these 108 eyes demonstrated evidence of ORT. The amount of enlargement of GA in eyes with ORT was significantly slower than that of eyes without ORT (1.85±0.78 vs. 2.67±1.61; P = 0.001). This difference remained significant when considering subgroups with unifocal or multifocal GA lesions, because eyes with ORT in both subgroups had a slower enlargement amount of GA than eyes without ORT (2.91±1.70 vs. 2.08±0.88 [P = 0.01], in eyes with multifocal GA lesions; and 2.24±1.40 vs. 1.63±0.57 [P = 0.02], in eyes with unifocal GA lesions). In eyes with ORT, GA lesions seem to enlarge at a

  13. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  14. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  15. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  16. Autophagy and Mis-targeting of Therapeutic Enzyme in Skeletal Muscle in Pompe Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tokiko; Ahearn, Meghan; Roberts, Ashley; Mattaliano, Robert J.; Zaal, Kristien; Ralston, Evelyn; Plotz, Paul H.; Raben, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) became a reality for patients with Pompe disease, a fatal cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle myopathy caused by a deficiency of glycogen-degrading lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The therapy, which relies on receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human GAA (rhGAA), appears to be effective in cardiac muscle, but less so in skeletal muscle. We have previously shown a profound disturbance of the lysosomal degradative pathway (autophagy) in therapy-resistant muscle of GAA knockout mice (KO). Our findings here demonstrate a progressive age-dependent autophagic build-up in addition to enlargement of glycogen-filled lysosomes in multiple muscle groups in the KO. Trafficking and processing of the therapeutic enzyme along the endocytic pathway appear to be affected by the autophagy. Confocal microscopy of live single muscle fibers exposed to fluorescently labeled rhGAA indicates that a significant portion of the endocytosed enzyme in the KO was trapped as a partially processed form in the autophagic areas instead of reaching its target – the lysosomes. A fluid-phase endocytic marker was similarly mis-targeted and accumulated in vesicular structures within the autophagic areas. These findings may explain why ERT often falls short of reversing the disease process, and point to new avenues for the development of pharmacological intervention. PMID:17008131

  17. A high-throughput colorimetric assay for glucose detection based on glucose oxidase-catalyzed enlargement of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanmei; Zhang, Yuyan; Rong, Pengfei; Yang, Jie; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dingbin

    2015-09-01

    We developed a simple high-throughput colorimetric assay to detect glucose based on the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalysed enlargement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Compared with the currently available glucose kit method, the AuNP-based assay provides higher clinical sensitivity at lower cost, indicating its great potential to be a powerful tool for clinical screening of glucose.We developed a simple high-throughput colorimetric assay to detect glucose based on the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalysed enlargement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Compared with the currently available glucose kit method, the AuNP-based assay provides higher clinical sensitivity at lower cost, indicating its great potential to be a powerful tool for clinical screening of glucose. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03758a

  18. Formations, anomalies and variants of the mediastinum and the lung roots in children, simulating enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Borisova, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    Timely detection of enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes is of great importance in pediatric practice. Meanwhile there exist various mediastinal and lung root as well as anomalies and variants of their development, which could imitate the mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia. Their diagnosis is individually designed employing a complex of X-ray methods. In recent years the anatomo-physiological development of thoracic organs in children and teenagers has been affected by the acceleration process. Under the latters' impact the phenomenon of an increase in the large pulmonary vessels appeared in children with signs of high physical development, which caused lung root dilatation and produced an impression of the intrathoracic lymph node enlargement. The Valsalva functional tests should be used in combination with X-ray research methods

  19. Northern Steps of EU Enlargement: The Impact of “Cohesion” Policies on Iceland’s Accession Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Di Stefano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the EU accession process of Iceland, reading the latest northern steps of EU enlargement under a “cohesion” perspective, i.e., through the lens of the cohesion “theory”, namely the method resulting from interactions of the general principles of subsidiarity and cooperation or partnership. From the Mediterranean to the Arctic, the territorial dimension of cohesion policies, as grounded in different EU policies, plays different roles and meets a wide range of economic and social needs. By implementing Nordicum-Mediterraneum analogies, a cohesion-minded EU enlargement approach requires the overall reframing of territorial-based policies and a better allocation of shared responsibilities at the more efficient level of governance.

  20. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pedersen, Peder J.

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  1. Enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion mimicking a metastatic lymph node in the retropharyngeal space: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Jin Na; Kim, Se Hoon; Choi, Eun Chang [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion, the largest and most cranial of the three cervical sympathetic ganglia, transfers sympathetic signals to specific targets on the head and neck. This ganglion is located just lateral to the retropharyngeal space along the medial margin of the carotid sheath. Located thus, an enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion can mimic a metastatic lymph node in the retropharyngeal space of the suprahyoid neck in head and neck cancer patients. However, this is often disregarded by radiologists due to lack of interest in its anatomic location. We present a case of an enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion mimicking a retropharyngeal metastatic lymph node in a 42-year-old man with oral tongue cancer.

  2. A rare case report of grade III gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis: Comparison of two treatment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Vandana A; Pandey, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic gingival enlargement (GE) is a rare entity characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It may be associated with other diseases/conditions characterizing a syndrome, but rarely documented in literature occurring along with chronic periodontitis. This case report describes a rare case of long standing massive GE in a systemically healthy, nonsyndromic young female involving both the arches, thereby posing a diagnostic dilemma. Furthermore, in this case, we compared two surgical approaches, that is, scalpel and electrosurgery for the convenience as well as the postoperative comfort of the patient. Quadrants 1 and 3 were treated by ledge and wedge technique using scalpel and blade while quadrants 2 and 4 were treated by electrosurgery. The patient was followed postoperatively up to 1-year. The massive GE subsided without recurrence and patient was completely satisfied with the treatment, though better compliance was observed at the site treated by conventional scalpel and blade technique.

  3. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  4. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  5. Diagnostic criteria for enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) on CT of the temporal bones. Borderline cases of EVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Hoshino, Tomoyuki; Kikura, Mikino; Kikawada, Keiko; Kikawada, Toru

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine measurements of the vestibular aqueduct on axial CT figures and to examine the cases with borderline EVA. The width of the vestibular aqueduct was measured in two places, the midpoint of the duct and the external aperture in the posterior cranial fossa. Criteria was as follow: Enlargement; ≥1.5 mm at the midpoint, ≥2 mm at the aperture, Borderline; 1-1.4 mm at the midpoint, 1.5-1.9 mm at the aperture. Three hundred forty-five cases with CT scans of the temporal bones taken during July 2003 to June 2004 in the secondary ENT referral center. Those patients include sensorinearal, mixed or conductive deafness, vertigo, ear infections and other ear diseases. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct was found in 10 ears with sensorineural deafness (SD) and 2 ears without SD. Borderline measurements were found in 19 ears with SD and 33 ears without SD. The enlarged midpoint measurement was not seen in the cases without SD. More than 1.5 mm of the definition for the enlargement at the midpoint of the vestibular aqueduct seemed to be appropriate in the clinical situation. The measurement at the midpoint of the duct is more reliable than at the external aperture. The conductive component in EVA Syndrome with mixed hearing loss is present only at the lower frequencies (250, 500 Hz), not at the middle and higer frequencies. Long-term follow-up of hearing should be done in the borderline cases with check-up of PDS gene anomaly if necessary. (author)

  6. No enlargement of the right internal jugular vein of the dialysis patients in the Trendelenburg position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Lun Wu

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: In contrast to healthy volunteers, there was no enlargement of the RIJV when dialysis patients were in the Trendelenburg position. The reason for this phenomenon may be multifactorial, with diastolic dysfunction being the most likely cause, and further investigation is required to clarify the cause. Our investigation suggests that the supine position for central venous catheterization in dialysis patients is superior to the Trendelenburg position.

  7. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  8. Ovarian Cyst Enlargement in a 14 Year Old Female with Persistent Ascities, Severe Hypothyroidism and Elevated Serum CA-125 Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, F; Eftekhari, K; Kiani, M A; Rabbani, A

    2012-06-01

    A 14 year old female complained of abdominal pain and distention with vomiting. The physical exam showed thyroid enlargement and ascites. The imaging evaluation demonstrated a large ovarian cyst. Laboratory tests depicted hypothyroidism and marked elevation of Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125) levels. As the bone age was 10 years, more retarded than the chronological age, Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome was suspected. Treatment with thyroid hormone was initiated and the condition improved dramatically with disappearance of symptoms and signs 5 weeks later.

  9. The Problem Analysis of Existing FSES of Higher Education for the Enlarged Group of Specialties"the Service and Tourism"

    OpenAIRE

    Marina A. Maznichenko; Nataliya I. Neskoromnykh

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of aspect analysis of the current federal state educational standards of higher education for the enlarged group of specialties"Service and tourism". There are analyzed the conformity of educational standards of higher education to the requirements of employers, the requirements for development results, to the structure and terms of realization of educational programs of undergraduate/graduate. The authors outline the key problems for each aspect, also identif...

  10. Enlargement and Integration Action Activity Workshop on Costs, Benefits and Impact Assessment of Smart Grids for Europe and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    MIROSEVIC Marija; AKINC Hulya

    2014-01-01

    Smart Grids are a key component of the European strategy toward a low-carbon energy future. Growing environmental and energy security concerns represent a major driver for the renovation and improvement of existing energy infrastructure. In this context, Enlargement and Integration countries will have to face substantial investments in the coming years to upgrade and modernise their energy networks towards smart power grids. Wind and solar electricity retain the greatest potential to contr...

  11. Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-06-03

    Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An electron microscopic investigation into the possible source of new muscle fibres in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, W; Sänger, A M

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations of deep (fast, 'white') teleost fish muscle proliferation in early developmental stages of three European cyprinid species and the rainbow trout. Our fine structural findings provide evidence that early myotomal growth in these animals may utilize different mechanisms that are activated in close succession during early life history. First, initial enlargement of the deep muscle bulk in the embryo seems to be due to hypertrophy of the somite-cell derived stock of muscle fibres. Second, we suggest that deep muscle growth becomes additionally powered by attachment of presumptive myogenic cells that originate from and proliferate within the adjacent mesenchymal tissue lining. Third, mesenchyme-derived muscle cell precursors are thought to enter the myotomes via the myosepta. After migration between the pre-established muscle fibres these cells may function as myosatellite cells, thus at least partly providing the stem cell population for subsequent rapid hyperplastic growth. Finally, there is evidence that presumptive deep muscle satellite cells also proliferate by mitotic division in situ. A similar process of myogenic cell migration and proliferation may foster intermediate fibre differentiation. The model of myogenic cell migration is discussed in view of in vitro and in vivo data on satellite cell migratory power and with respect to temperature-induced and species dependent differences. As for the latter, our results indicate that patterns of muscle differentiation may diverge between a fast growing salmonid species and a moderately growing cyprinid species of similar final size. The model is compatible with the well-established idea that teleost muscle growth may rely on different subclasses of myosatellite cells.

  13. Necrotic enlargement of cone photoreceptor cells and the release of high-mobility group box-1 in retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Y; Ikeda, Y; Nakatake, S; Tachibana, T; Fujiwara, K; Yoshida, N; Notomi, S; Nakao, S; Hisatomi, T; Miller, J W; Vavvas, DG; Sonoda, KH; Ishibashi, T

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal degenerations resulting form rod and cone photoreceptor cell death. The rod cell death due to deleterious genetic mutations has been shown to occur mainly through apoptosis, whereas the mechanisms and features of the secondary cone cell death have not been fully elucidated. Our previous study showed that the cone cell death in rd10 mice, an animal model of RP, involves necrotic features and is partly mediated by the receptor interacting protein kinase. However, the relevancy of necrotic cone cell death in human RP patients remains unknown. In the present study, we showed that dying cone cells in rd10 mice exhibited cellular enlargement, along with necrotic changes such as cellular swelling and mitochondrial rupture. In human eyes, live imaging of cone cells by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy revealed significantly increased percentages of enlarged cone cells in the RP patients compared with the control subjects. The vitreous of the RP patients contained significantly higher levels of high-mobility group box-1, which is released extracellularly associated with necrotic cell death. These findings suggest that necrotic enlargement of cone cells is involved in the process of cone degeneration, and that necrosis may be a novel target to prevent or delay the loss of cone-mediated central vision in RP. PMID:27551484

  14. Achondroplasia in children: correlation of ventriculomegaly, size of foramen magnum and jugular foramina, and emissary vein enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Hergan, Benedikt; Carson, Kathryn A; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with diminished growth of the skull base secondary to defective enchondral bone formation. This leads to narrowing of the foramen magnum and jugular foramina, which further leads to ventricular dilatation and prominence of the emissary veins. The primary goal of our study was to determine a correlation between the degree of ventricular dilatation, jugular foramina and foramen magnum narrowing, as well as emissary vein enlargement. Conventional T2-weighted MR images were evaluated for surface area of the foramen magnum and jugular foramina, ventricular dilatation, and emissary veins enlargement in 16 achondroplasia patients and 16 age-matched controls. Ratios were calculated for the individual parameters using median values from age-matched control groups to avoid age as a confounder. Compared to age-matched controls, in children with achondroplasia, the surface area of the foramen magnum (median 0.50 cm(2), range 0.23-1.37 cm(2) vs. 3.14 cm(2), 1.83-6.68 cm(2), p achondroplasia, (1) the variation in ventricular dilatation may be related to an unquantifiable interdependent relationship of emissary vein enlargement, venous channel narrowing, and foramen magnum compression and (2) stable ventricular size facilitated by interdependent factors likely obviates the need for ventricular shunt placement.

  15. Does ultrasound contrast agent improve the diagnostic value of colour and power Doppler sonography in superficial lymph node enlargement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot; Demharter, Johannes; Linne, Renate; Droste, Dirk W.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Buecklein, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to analyse whether ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) improves the diagnostic accuracy to differentiate between benign and malignant superficial lymph node enlargement by using colour-coded duplex sonography (CCDS) and power Doppler (PD). Methods: 32 patients with suspected malignant superficial lymph node enlargement prospectively underwent standardised ultrasound examinations using B-mode sonography and native and contrast-enhanced CCDS and PD immediately before biopsy. Solbiati-Index (longitudinal-transverse diameter ratio) and intranodal flow patterns by using different vascularisation types were assessed. Histological and sonographical findings were correlated. Results: 27 malignant and 5 benign lymph nodes were found. Solbiati-Index was lower in malignant lymph nodes than in benign nodes (mean 1.5 vs. 2.4, P<0.045). More intranodal flow patterns could be detected after UCA (53 vs. 43) but the number of correctly identified malignant nodes decreased after UCA (26 vs. 24) and the number of correctly identified benign nodes remained constant compared with native CCDS and PD. In 31% of the colour-mode studies, PD was considered to visualise more clearly intranodal vascular flow patterns than CCDS. Conclusion: despite depicting more intranodal vascular patterns, the use of an ultrasound contrast agent seems not to improve the diagnostic value of CCDS and PD compared with native colour-mode studies in superficial lymph node enlargement

  16. Effects of various parameters of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of enlarged facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Mi Ryung; Chung, Hye Jin; Chung, Kee Yang

    2009-01-01

    A variety of treatment modalities have been used to reduce the size of enlarged facial pores without obvious success. To assess and compare the effects of various parameters of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of enlarged facial pores. This was a prospective intra-individual left-right comparative study. A total of 40 individuals with enlarged facial pores were recruited for this study. Ten individuals were respectively treated on one half of the face with a quasi long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser (method 1), a Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser (method 2), both quasi long-pulsed and Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG lasers without carbon-suspended lotion (method 3), and both quasi long-pulsed and Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG lasers with carbon-suspended lotion (method 4). The other half of the face was left untreated as a control. Five laser sessions were performed with a 3-week interval. The pore sizes were measured using an image analysis program and the sebum level was measured with a Sebumeter before and after the treatments. The pore size and sebum level decreased in all four methods on the treated side compared to the control (p pore size and sebum level.

  17. The efficacy and safety of intense focused ultrasound in the treatment of enlarged facial pores in Asian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Kyung Real; Park, Jae Yang; Yoon, Moon Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2015-02-01

    Intense focused ultrasound (IFUS) has been used successfully for skin tightening. To investigate the efficacy of IFUS in treating enlarged pores and to evaluate changes in skin elasticity and sebum production following IFUS. Twenty-two subjects with enlarged pores were randomized to receive a single treatment with IFUS using 1.5-mm transducer on one side of the face, and 3.0-mm transducer on the other. OBJECTIVE clinical assessments were made by blinded photographic evaluation. Subjective satisfaction and adverse effects were evaluated. Measurements of elasticity and sebum were performed at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks post-treatment. Physicians' evaluation showed clinical pore improvements in 86% and 91% of the IFUS-treated sites using 1.5-mm and 3.0-mm transducer, respectively. The mean improvement scores were 1.7 and 1.9 for 1.5-mm and 3.0-mm transducer, respectively, with no statistical differences. Cutometer measurement demonstrated a significant improvement in skin elasticity. Sebum level showed a reduction without statistical significance. There was a positive correlation between improvement in elasticity and pore improvement grades. All treatments were well tolerated without significant side effects. IFUS using 1.5-mm or 3.0-mm transducer was safe and effective for reducing enlarged pores in Asian skin with an improvement in skin elasticity.

  18. Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of ca. 24 min

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum period of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min periodicity observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges. The length of the 24-min period is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.

  19. Challenges to NATO’s Fifth Enlargement Round: Turkey’s Attitude towards Romanian’s Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Köse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relations between Romania – the only Latin nation in Balkan Peninsula, in a broader sense – and Turkey has a long history, which is traced back to the Ottoman period. These relations were relatively ceased during the Cold War. After the collapse of Soviet Union, a new era started for Turkish-Romanian relations. During the WWI, Tsarist Russia forced Romania to be its ally, in order to besiege Germany from South, and also to threat Austria. Its aim was intended to direct the Central Powers’ attacks to the Balkans, in order to keep the warfare away from the front lines and from the Russian heartland. Following the Tsarist pan-Slavist policy, the Bolshevist Russia designated Balkans territories as vital for its security and defence. At the first opportunity emerged after the WWII, Stalin had included those lands behind the Iron Curtain area. After a fairly lengthy period under the Iron Curtain, after 1989, Romania like other eastern European countries achieved its freedom, but post-Cold War attitude of Russia towards the Balkans has remained unchanged. This paper seeks to explore the post-Cold War policies of NATO and the Turkey’s attitude towards the enlargements of alliance. It focuses on the fifth round of enlargement, when Romania and other six Balkans and Baltic countries were invited to join the North Atlantic Alliance. In addition, it will insist on the role of Turkey in the enlargement process, and its firm support for Romania's accession to NATO.

  20. Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas presenting as diffuse pancreatic enlargement: Two case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaping; Hu, Guilan; Ma, Yanru; Guo, Ning; Li, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of exocrine pancreas. It is typically a well-marginated large solid mass arising in a certain aspect of the pancreas. Diffuse involvement of ACC in the pancreas is very rare, and may simulate pancreatitis in radiological findings. We report 2 cases of ACC presenting as diffuse enlargement of the pancreas due to tumor involvement without formation of a distinct mass. The patients consisted of a 41-year-old man with weight loss and a 77-year-old man who was asymptomatic. Computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas forming a sausage-like shape with homogenously increased FDG activity. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the pancreatic lesion was performed. Histopathology results from the pancreas confirmed the diagnosis of pancreatic ACC. Because diffuse enlargement of the pancreas is a common imaging feature of pancreatitis, recognition of this rare morphologic pattern of ACC is important for radiological diagnosis of this tumor.