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Sample records for extragalactic distance database

  1. Stellar candles for the extragalactic distance scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    This volume reviews the current status with respect to both theory and observation of the extragalactic distance scale. A sufficient accuracy is required both for a precise determination of the cosmological parameters and also in order to achieve a better understanding of physical processes in extragalactic systems. The "standard candles", used to set up the extragalactic distance scale, reviewed in this book include cepheid variables, RR Lyrae variables, novae, Type Ia and Type II supernovae as well as globular clusters and planetary nebulae.

  2. Calibration of the Extragalactic Distance Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, B. F.; Freedman, W. L.

    Introduction to the lectures Cepheids Brief summary of the observed properties of cepheid variables Simple physical considerations Observational considerations Advances driven by new technology CCDs and multiwavelength coverage Obtaining accurate cepheid distances Local Group galaxies Beyond the Local Group The Hubble constant The future Contrasting aspects of the PL and PLC A reddening-free formulation of the PL relation Comments on reddening determinations Comparisons with other distance indicators The key project Other ground-based work Helium core flash and the tip of the red giant branch as a primary distance indicator The ideal distances indicator Some history concerning the red giant branch Concerns and technical issues An overview of the theoretical underpinnings: core helium ignition Recent applications of the TRGB method The scorecard Discussion Implications of the hipparcos observations of galactic cepheids Comparison with V-band period-luminosity relations Multiwavelength period-luminosity relations Discussion Implications of a cepheid distance to the Fornax cluster NGC 1365 and the Fornax cluster HST observations Cepheids in NGC 1365 The Hubble constant The Hubble constant at Fornax The nearby flow field Beyond Fornax: the Tully-Fisher relation Beyond Fornax: other relative distance determinations Beyond Fornax: type Ia supernovae Cosmological implications Conclusions References

  3. Supergiant Stars as Extragalactic Probes of Cosmic Abundances and Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudritzki, R.

    2013-09-01

    The determination of chemical composition and distances of galaxies is crucial for constraining the theory of galaxy formation and evolution in a dark energy and cold dark matter dominated universe. However, the standard technique using HII regions to determine the metallicity of star forming galaxies, nearby and at high redshift, is subject to large systematic uncertainties that are poorly understood and the determination of accurate distances using Cepheids suffers from uncertainties caused by the metallicity dependence of the period luminosity relationship and extinction and crowding corrections. Multi-object spectroscopy of blue and red supergiant stars - the brightest stars in the universe at visual and NIR wavelengths - provides an attractive alternative. I will present results accumulated over recent years for galaxies in the Local Group and beyond out to a distance of 8 Mpc and will discuss the potential of future work with TMT and E-ELT. Combining the photon collecting power of these next generation telescopes with Adaptive Optics we will be able to study individual supergiant stars in galaxies as distant as the Coma cluster. With spectroscopy of the integrated light of young very massive Star Super Clusters and simple population synthesis techniques we can reach out ten times further

  4. Recent Advances and Coming Attractions in the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Baker, Kay; Pan Chan, Hiu; Chen, Xi; Ebert, Rick; Frayer, Cren; Helou, George; Jacobson, Jeffery D.; Lo, Tak M.; Madore, Barry; Ogle, Patrick M.; Pevunova, Olga; Steer, Ian; Schmitz, Marion; Terek, Scott

    2017-01-01

    We review highlights of recent advances and developments underway at the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). Extensive updates have been made to the infrastructure and processes essential for scaling NED for the next steps in its evolution. A major overhaul of the data integration pipeline provides greater modularity and parallelization to increase the rate of source cross-matching and data integration. The new pipeline was used recently to fold in data for nearly 300,000 sources published in over 900 recent journal articles, as well as fundamental parameters for 42 million sources in the Spitzer Enhanced Imaging Products Source List. The latter has added over 360 million photometric measurements at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8. 8.0 (IRAC) and 24 microns (MIPS) to the spectral energy distributions of affected objects in NED. The recent discovery of super-luminous spiral galaxies (Ogle et al. 2016) exemplifies the opportunities for science discovery and data mining available directly from NED’s unique data synthesis, spanning the spectrum from gamma ray through radio frequencies. The number of references in NED has surpassed 103,000. In the coming year, cross-identifications of sources in the 2MASS Point Source Catalog and in the AllWISE Source Catalog with prior objects in the database (including GALEX) will increase the holdings to over a billion distinct objects, providing a rich resource for multi-wavelength analysis. Information about a recent surge in growth of redshift-independent distances in NED is presented at this meeting by Steer et al. (2017). Website updates include a ’simple search’ to perform common queries in a single entry field, an interface to query the image repository with options to sort and filter the initial results, connectivity to the IRSA Finder Chart service, as well as a program interface to query images using the international virtual observatory Simple Image Access protocol. Graphical characterizations of NED content and completeness are

  5. Capabilities of the NASA/IPAC extragalactic database in the era of a global virtual observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Madore, Barry F.; Helou, George

    2001-11-01

    We review the capabilities of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED, http://ned.ipac.caltech.edu) for information retrieval and knowledge discovery in the context of a globally distributed virtual observatory. Since it's inception in 1990, NED has provided astronomers world-wide with the results of a systematic cross-correlation of catalogs covering all wavelengths, along with thousands of extragalactic observations culled from published journal articles. NED is continuously being expanded and revised to include new catalogs and published observations, each undergoing a process of cross-identification to capture the current state of knowledge about extragalactic sources in a panchromatic fashion. In addition to assimilating data from the literature, the team in incrementally folding in millions of observations from new large-scale sky surveys such as 2MASS, NVSS, APM, and SDSS. At the time of writing the system contains over 3.3 million unique objects with 4.2 million cross-identifications. We summarize the recent evolution of NED from its initial emphasis on object name-, position-, and literature-based queries into a research environment that also assists statistical data exploration and discovery using large samples of objects. Newer capabilities enable intelligent Web mining of entries in geographically distributed astronomical archives that are indexed by object names and positions in NED, sample building using constraints on redshifts, object types and other parameters, as well as image and spectral archives for targeted or serendipitous discoveries. A pilot study demonstrates how NED is being used in conjunction with linked survey archives to characterize the properties of galaxy classes to form a training set for machine learning algorithms; an initial goal is production of statistical likelihoods that newly discovered sources belong to known classes, represent statistical outliers, or candidates for fundamentally new types of objects. Challenges and

  6. Evolution of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) into a Data Mining Discovery Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.; NED Team

    2017-06-01

    We review recent advances and ongoing work in evolving the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) beyond an object reference database into a data mining discovery engine. Updates to the infrastructure and data integration techniques are enabling more than a 10-fold expansion; NED will soon contain over a billion objects with their fundamental attributes fused across the spectrum via cross-identifications among the largest sky surveys (e.g., GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, AllWISE, EMU), and over 100,000 smaller but scientifically important catalogs and journal articles. The recent discovery of super-luminous spiral galaxies exemplifies the opportunities for data mining and science discovery directly from NED's rich data synthesis. Enhancements to the user interface, including new APIs, VO protocols, and queries involving derived physical quantities, are opening new pathways for panchromatic studies of large galaxy samples. Examples are shown of graphics characterizing the content of NED, as well as initial steps in exploring the database via interactive statistical visualizations.

  7. Non-LTE model calculations for SN 1987A and the extragalactic distance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, W.; Abbott, D. C.; Russell, R. S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Wessolowski, U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents model atmospheres for the first week of SN 1987A, based on the luminosity and density/velocity structure from hydrodynamic models of Woosley (1988). The models account for line blanketing, expansion, sphericity, and departures from LTE in hydrogen and helium and differ from previously published efforts because they represent ab initio calculations, i.e., they contain essentially no free parameters. The formation of the UV spectrum is dominated by the effects of line blanketing. In the absorption troughs, the Balmer line profiles were fit well by these models, but the observed emissions are significantly stronger than predicted, perhaps due to clumping. The generally good agreement between the present synthetic spectra and observations provides independent support for the overall accuracy of the hydrodynamic models of Woosley. The question of the accuracy of the Baade-Wesselink method is addressed in a detailed discussion of its approximations. While the application of the standard method produces a distance within an uncertainty of 20 percent in the case of SN 1987A, systematic errors up to a factor of 2 are possible, particularly if the precursor was a red supergiant.

  8. Extragalactic Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Kudritzki, Rolf P.

    2017-11-01

    Blue supergiant stars of B and A spectral types are amongst the visually brightest non-transient astronomical objects. Their intrinsic brightness makes it possible to obtain high quality optical spectra of these objects in distant galaxies, enabling the study not only of these stars in different environments, but also to use them as tools to probe their host galaxies. Quantitative analysis of their optical spectra provide tight constraints on their evolution in a wide range of metallicities, as well as on the present-day chemical composition, extinction laws and distances to their host galaxies. We review in this contribution recent results in this field.

  9. Efficient Similarity Search Using the Earth Mover's Distance for Large Multimedia Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Wichterich, Marc; Meisen, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Multimedia similarity search in large databases requires efficient query processing. The Earth mover's distance, introduced in computer vision, is successfully used as a similarity model in a number of small-scale applications. Its computational complexity hindered its adoption in large multimedia...... databases. We enable directly indexing the Earth mover's distance in structures such as the R-tree and the VA-file by providing the accurate 'MinDist' function to any bounding rectangle in the index. We exploit the computational structure of the new MinDist to derive a new lower bound for the EMD Min...

  10. Searching for extragalactic planets

    OpenAIRE

    Baltz, Edward A.; Gondolo, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Are there other planetary systems in our Universe? Indirect evidence has been found for planets orbiting other stars in our galaxy: the gravity of orbiting planets makes the star wobble, and the resulting periodic Doppler shifts have been detected for about a dozen stars. But are there planets in other galaxies, millions of light years away? Here we suggest a method to search for extragalactic planetary systems: gravitational microlensing of unresolved stars. This technique may allow us to di...

  11. The FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Elston, Richard J.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; McKenzie, Eric; Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cardona, Gustavo; Dey, Arjun; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Mohr, Joseph J.; Raines, S. Nicholas; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using the Florida Multi-object Imaging Near-IR grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS), we have conducted the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX), a deep imaging survey covering 7.1 square degrees within the 18.6 sq. deg NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) regions. FLAMEX is the first deep, wide-area near-infrared survey to image in both the J and Ks filters, and is larger than any previous NIR surveys of comparable depth. The intent of FLAMEX is to facilitate the study of galaxy and...

  12. The FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Richard J.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; McKenzie, Eric; Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cardona, Gustavo; Dey, Arjun; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Mohr, Joseph J.; Raines, S. Nicholas; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Using the Florida Multi-object Imaging Near-IR Grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS), we have conducted the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX), a deep imaging survey covering 7.1 deg2 within the 18.6 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) regions. FLAMEX is the first deep, wide-area, near-infrared survey to image in both the J and Ks filters, and is larger than any previous NIR survey of comparable depth. The intent of FLAMEX is to facilitate the study of galaxy and galaxy cluster evolution at 11 galaxy clusters detected using the joint FLAMEX, NDWFS, and Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey data sets.

  13. CREATING OF DISTANCE COURSE "DATABASES AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS" TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF THE SYLLABUS CONTENTS SELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Zaritska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of distance education notion by Ukrainian and foreign scientists is considered in the article. The main stages of the development (analysis, planning and design of the distance course "Databases and Information Systems" taking into account scientific basis of selection of educational material content are highlighted.

  14. New Limits on Extragalactic Magnetic Fields from Rotation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Urban, F. R.

    2016-05-01

    We take advantage of the wealth of rotation measures data contained in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog to derive new, statistically robust, upper limits on the strength of extragalactic magnetic fields. We simulate the extragalactic magnetic field contribution to the rotation measures for a given field strength and correlation length, by assuming that the electron density follows the distribution of Lyman-α clouds. Based on the observation that rotation measures from distant radio sources do not exhibit any trend with redshift, while the extragalactic contribution instead grows with distance, we constrain fields with Jeans' length coherence length to be below 1.7 nG at the 2 σ level, and fields coherent across the entire observable Universe below 0.65 nG. These limits do not depend on the particular origin of these cosmological fields.

  15. A catalogue of AKARI FIS BSC extragalactic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Gabor; Toth, L. Viktor; Gyorgy Balazs, Lajos

    2015-08-01

    We combined photometric data of about 70 thousand point sources from the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor Bright Source Catalogue with AllWISE catalogue data to identify galaxies. We used Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) to classify our sources. The classification was based on a 6D parameter space that contained AKARI [F65/F90], [F90/F140], [F140/F160] and WISE W1-W2 colours along with WISE W1 magnitudes and AKARI [F140] flux values. Sources were classified into 3 main objects types: YSO candidates, evolved stars and galaxies. The training samples were SIMBAD entries of the input point sources wherever an associated SIMBAD object was found within a 30 arcsecond search radius. The QDA resulted more than 5000 AKARI galaxy candidate sources. The selection was tested cross-correlating our AKARI extragalactic catalogue with the Revised IRAS-FSC Redshift Catalogue (RIFSCz). A very good match was found. A further classification attempt was also made to differentiate between extragalactic subtypes using Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The results of the various methods showed that we can confidently separate cirrus dominated objects (type 1 of RIFSCz). Some of our “galaxy candidate” sources are associated with 2MASS extended objects, and listed in the NASA Extragalactic Database so far without clear proofs of their extragalactic nature. Examples will be presented in our poster. Finally other AKARI extragalactic catalogues will be also compared to our statistical selection.

  16. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  17. Extragalactic astronomy. Book 1. Galaxies: the basic physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrya, Yu. M.; Vavilova, I. B.

    2016-09-01

    This book on extragalaxy astronomy deals with the morphology and basic physical and photometric properties of normal galaxies, namely, their linear sizes, kinematics, luminosity, and mass. Separate sections are devoted to our Galaxy, methods of determination of the distances to galaxies, modern observational galaxy surveys and catalogues. The book introduces both the newest observational and theoretical results as well as classical data about properties of galaxies in the optical spectral range. For students and high school teachers, graduate students and researchers in the field of astrophysics and physics, as well as all those who are interested in extragalactic astronomy.

  18. ANALYSIS OF TIME DISTANCES OF ENCRYPTION/DECRYPTION OF MEDICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS DATABASES FILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. B. Lopin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the specific example the results of studies medical information systems databases files encryption/decryptiontime have been presented. The present studies are performed using the developed three fundamentally different algorithms, that include Blowfish encryption algorithm as a part. The studies were performed using a specially developed (in the programming environment Delphi 7 computer program "Generators" (author's title and two computers having obsolete configuration and assembled with the Intel Core 2 Duo E8400 processor and the DualCore Intel Pentium E2180 processor. The studies have established that the encryption/decryption of files using the first developed algorithm during execution of which multiple access to the hard drive for reading/writing of 8-byte information blocks of is implemented, takes much longer time (about 10 times than the encryption/decryption using the second and third algorithms during execution of which access to the hard drive for a file reading/writing is performed once.

  19. Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases are deeply embedded in archaeology, underpinning and supporting many aspects of the subject. However, as well as providing a means for storing, retrieving and modifying data, databases themselves must be a result of a detailed analysis and design process. This article looks at this process, and shows how the characteristics of data models affect the process of database design and implementation. The impact of the Internet on the development of databases is examined, and the article concludes with a discussion of a range of issues associated with the recording and management of archaeological data.

  20. Extragalactic astronomy: The universe beyond our galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K. C.

    1976-01-01

    This single-topic brochure is for high school physical science teachers to use in introducing students to extragalactic astronomy. The material is presented in three parts: the fundamental content of extragalactic astronomy; modern discoveries delineated in greater detail; and a summary of the earlier discussions within the structure of the Big-Bang Theory of evolution. Each of the three sections is followed by student exercises (activities, laboratory projects, and questions-and-answers). The unit close with a glossary which explains unfamilar terms used in the text and a collection of teacher aids (literature references and audiovisual materials for utilization in further study).

  1. Using a Materials Database System as the Backbone for a Certified Quality System (AS/NZS ISO 9001:1994) for a Distance Education Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Norm

    The Distance Education Center (DEC) of the University of Southern Queensland (Australia) has developed a unique materials database system which is used to monitor pre-production, design and development, production and post-production planning, scheduling, and distribution of all types of materials including courses offered only on the Internet. In…

  2. Dust and molecules in extra-galactic planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Domingo Aníbal

    2015-08-01

    Extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) permit the study of dust and molecules in metallicity environments other than the Galaxy. Their known distances lower the number of free parameters in the observations vs. models comparison, providing strong constraints on the gas-phase and solid-state astrochemistry models. Observations of PNe in the Galaxy and other Local Group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds (MC) provide evidence that metallicity affects the production of dust as well as the formation of complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds in their circumstellar envelopes. In particular, the lower metallicity MC environments seem to be less favorable to dust production and the frequency of carbonaceous dust features and complex fullerene molecules is generally higher with decreasing metallicity. Here, I present an observational review of the dust and molecular content in extra-galactic PNe as compared to their higher metallicity Galactic counterparts. A special attention is given to the level of dust processing and the formation of complex organic molecules (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors) depending on metallicity.

  3. The UBIRIS.v2: a database of visible wavelength iris images captured on-the-move and at-a-distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo; Filipe, Sílvio; Santos, Ricardo; Oliveira, João; Alexandre, Luís A

    2010-08-01

    The iris is regarded as one of the most useful traits for biometric recognition and the dissemination of nationwide iris-based recognition systems is imminent. However, currently deployed systems rely on heavy imaging constraints to capture near infrared images with enough quality. Also, all of the publicly available iris image databases contain data correspondent to such imaging constraints and therefore are exclusively suitable to evaluate methods thought to operate on these type of environments. The main purpose of this paper is to announce the availability of the UBIRIS.v2 database, a multisession iris images database which singularly contains data captured in the visible wavelength, at-a-distance (between four and eight meters) and on on-the-move. This database is freely available for researchers concerned about visible wavelength iris recognition and will be useful in accessing the feasibility and specifying the constraints of this type of biometric recognition.

  4. Extragalactic astronomy and cosmology an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for the astonishing developments in the field of Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology, this second edition has been updated and substantially expanded. Starting with the description of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution in the Universe. After an extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the focus turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early Universe. The basics of classical astronomy and stellar astrophysics needed for extragalactic astronomy are provided in the appendix. The new edition incorporates some of the most spectacular results from new observatories like the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Herschel, ALMA, WMAP and Planck, as well as new instruments and multi-wavelength campaigns which have expanded our understanding of the Universe and the objects populating it....

  5. Accelerating Smith-Waterman Alignment for Protein Database Search Using Frequency Distance Filtration Scheme Based on CPU-GPU Collaborative System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Hong, Yang; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Hung, Che-Lun

    2015-01-01

    The Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm has been widely utilized for searching biological sequence databases in bioinformatics. Recently, several works have adopted the graphic card with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) and their associated CUDA model to enhance the performance of SW computations. However, these works mainly focused on the protein database search by using the intertask parallelization technique, and only using the GPU capability to do the SW computations one by one. Hence, in this paper, we will propose an efficient SW alignment method, called CUDA-SWfr, for the protein database search by using the intratask parallelization technique based on a CPU-GPU collaborative system. Before doing the SW computations on GPU, a procedure is applied on CPU by using the frequency distance filtration scheme (FDFS) to eliminate the unnecessary alignments. The experimental results indicate that CUDA-SWfr runs 9.6 times and 96 times faster than the CPU-based SW method without and with FDFS, respectively.

  6. A database of linear codes over F_13 with minimum distance bounds and new quasi-twisted codes from a heuristic search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Z. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Error control codes have been widely used in data communications and storage systems. One central problem in coding theory is to optimize the parameters of a linear code and construct codes with best possible parameters. There are tables of best-known linear codes over finite fields of sizes up to 9. Recently, there has been a growing interest in codes over $\\mathbb{F}_{13}$ and other fields of size greater than 9. The main purpose of this work is to present a database of best-known linear codes over the field $\\mathbb{F}_{13}$ together with upper bounds on the minimum distances. To find good linear codes to establish lower bounds on minimum distances, an iterative heuristic computer search algorithm is employed to construct quasi-twisted (QT codes over the field $\\mathbb{F}_{13}$ with high minimum distances. A large number of new linear codes have been found, improving previously best-known results. Tables of $[pm, m]$ QT codes over $\\mathbb{F}_{13}$ with best-known minimum distances as well as a table of lower and upper bounds on the minimum distances for linear codes of length up to 150 and dimension up to 6 are presented.

  7. Extragalactic sources in Cosmic Microwave Background maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, G.; Castex, G.; González-Nuevo, J.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Negrello, M.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Clemens, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Herranz, D.; Bonavera, L.; Melin, J.-B.; Tucci, M.; Serjeant, S.; Bilicki, M.; Andreani, P.; Clements, D. L.; Toffolatti, L.; Roukema, B. F.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the potential of a next generation space-borne CMB experiment for studies of extragalactic sources with reference to COrE+, a project submitted to ESA in response to the call for a Medium-size mission (M4). We consider three possible options for the telescope size: 1 m, 1.5 m and 2 m (although the last option is probably impractical, given the M4 boundary conditions). The proposed instrument will be far more sensitive than Planck and will have a diffraction-limited angular resolution. These properties imply that even the 1 m telescope option will perform substantially better than Planck for studies of extragalactic sources. The source detection limits as a function of frequency have been estimated by means of realistic simulations taking into account all the relevant foregrounds. Predictions for the various classes of extragalactic sources are based on up-to-date models. The most significant improvements over Planck results are presented for each option. COrE+ will provide much larger samples of truly local star-forming galaxies (by about a factor of 8 for the 1 m telescope, of 17 for 1.5 m, of 30 for 2 m), making possible analyses of the properties of galaxies (luminosity functions, dust mass functions, star formation rate functions, dust temperature distributions, etc.) across the Hubble sequence. Even more interestingly, COrE+ will detect, at |b| > 30°, thousands of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies (about 2,000, 6,000 and 13,000 for the 1 m, 1.5 m and 2 m options, respectively). Such large samples are of extraordinary astrophysical and cosmological value in many fields. Moreover, COrE+ high frequency maps will be optimally suited to pick up proto-clusters of dusty galaxies, i.e. to investigate the evolution of large scale structure at larger redshifts than can be reached by other means. Thanks to its high sensitivity COrE+ will also yield a spectacular advance in the blind detection of extragalactic sources in polarization: we expect that it

  8. Extragalactic sources in Cosmic Microwave Background maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotti, G. De; Castex, G. [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); González-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Lopez-Caniego, M. [European Space Agency, ESAC, Planck Science Office, Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Negrello, M.; Clemens, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Cai, Z.-Y. [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Delabrouille, J. [APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Herranz, D.; Bonavera, L. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), avda. los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Melin, J.-B. [DSM/Irfu/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tucci, M. [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Serjeant, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bilicki, M. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch (South Africa); Andreani, P., E-mail: gianfranco.dezotti@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: gcastex@sissa.it, E-mail: gnuevo@uniovi.es, E-mail: marcos.lopez.caniego@sciops.esa.int [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); and others

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the potential of a next generation space-borne CMB experiment for studies of extragalactic sources with reference to COrE+, a project submitted to ESA in response to the call for a Medium-size mission (M4). We consider three possible options for the telescope size: 1 m, 1.5 m and 2 m (although the last option is probably impractical, given the M4 boundary conditions). The proposed instrument will be far more sensitive than Planck and will have a diffraction-limited angular resolution. These properties imply that even the 1 m telescope option will perform substantially better than Planck for studies of extragalactic sources. The source detection limits as a function of frequency have been estimated by means of realistic simulations taking into account all the relevant foregrounds. Predictions for the various classes of extragalactic sources are based on up-to-date models. The most significant improvements over Planck results are presented for each option. COrE+ will provide much larger samples of truly local star-forming galaxies (by about a factor of 8 for the 1 m telescope, of 17 for 1.5 m, of 30 for 2 m), making possible analyses of the properties of galaxies (luminosity functions, dust mass functions, star formation rate functions, dust temperature distributions, etc.) across the Hubble sequence. Even more interestingly, COrE+ will detect, at |b| > 30°, thousands of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies (about 2,000, 6,000 and 13,000 for the 1 m, 1.5 m and 2 m options, respectively). Such large samples are of extraordinary astrophysical and cosmological value in many fields. Moreover, COrE+ high frequency maps will be optimally suited to pick up proto-clusters of dusty galaxies, i.e. to investigate the evolution of large scale structure at larger redshifts than can be reached by other means. Thanks to its high sensitivity COrE+ will also yield a spectacular advance in the blind detection of extragalactic sources in polarization: we expect that

  9. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  10. Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Starting with the description of our home galaxy the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution. Then, from the extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the text turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early universe. In particular, Peter Schneider’s Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology has the goal of imparting the fundamental knowledge of this fascinating subfield of astronomy, while leading readers to the forefront of astronomical research. But it seeks to accomplish this not only with extensive textual information and insights. In addition, the author’s evident admiration for the workings of the universe that shines through the lines and the many supporting color illustrations will deeply inspire the reader. While this book has grown out of introductory university courses on astronomy and astrophys...

  11. Probing Extragalactic Planets Using Quasar Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinyu; Guerras, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    Previously, planets have been detected only in the Milky Way galaxy. Here, we show that quasar microlensing provides a means to probe extragalactic planets in the lens galaxy, by studying the microlensing properties of emission close to the event horizon of the supermassive black hole of the background quasar, using the current generation telescopes. We show that a population of unbound planets between stars with masses ranging from Moon to Jupiter masses is needed to explain the frequent Fe Kα line energy shifts observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar RXJ 1131–1231 at a lens redshift of z = 0.295 or 3.8 billion lt-yr away. We constrain the planet mass-fraction to be larger than 0.0001 of the halo mass, which is equivalent to 2000 objects ranging from Moon to Jupiter mass per main-sequence star.

  12. Preliminary Results from the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Dey, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Jannuzi, B.; Lin, Y.-T.; McKenzie, E.; Mohr, J. J.; Raines, S. N.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Brown, M.; Elston, R. J.

    2004-05-01

    We present initial results from the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey, a deep near-infrared imaging survey within the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey regions. This program is designed to study evolution of the galaxy and galaxy cluster populations out to z ˜2. The field locations are selected to provide extensive overlap with observations at other wavelengths, and the target depths of the survey are Ks=20.5 and J=22 (Vega). The final observations for the survey were obtained in May, and final data reduction and quality assessment are nearing completion. During this talk we describe the initial science being done with the data set, highlight upcoming work, and discuss planned coordination with other surveys within the NDWFS region. Specific emphasis will be placed upon identification of galaxy clusters at z>1.

  13. Extragalactic circuits, transmission lines, and CR particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2014-01-01

    A non-negligible fraction of a Supermassive Black Hole's (SMBH) rest mass energy gets transported into extragalactic space by a remarkable process in jets which are incompletely understood. What are the physical processes which transport this energy? It is likely that the energy flows electromagnetically, rather than via a particle beam flux. The deduced electromagnetic fields may produce particles of energy as high as $\\sim 10^{20}$ eV. The energetics of SMBH accretion disk models and the electromagnetic energy transfer imply that a SMBH should generate a $10^{18} - 10^{19}$ Amp\\`eres current close to the black hole and its accretion disk. We describe the so far best observation-based estimate of the magnitude of the current flow along the axis of the jet extending from the nucleus of the active galaxy in 3C303. The current is measured to be $I \\sim 10^{18}$ Amp\\`eres at $\\sim 40$ kpc away from the AGN. This indicates that organized current flow remains intact over multi-kpc distances. The electric current $...

  14. A selection of AKARI FIS BSC extragalactic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, G.; Tóth, L. V.; Balázs, L. G.; Zahorecz, S.; Bagoly, Z.; Horváth, I.; Rácz, I. I.; Nagy, A.

    The point sources in the Bright Source Catalogue (BSC) of the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) were classified based on their far-IR and mid-IR fluxes and colours using Quadratic Discriminant Analysis method (QDA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The reliability of our results show that we can successfully separate galactic and extragalactic AKARI point sources in the multidimensional space of fluxes and colours. However, differentiating among the extragalactic sub-types needs further information.

  15. Hotspot advance speed - hotspot size/core-hotspot distance relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the evolution of extragalactic radio sources using the observed corehotspot distance and hotspot size. Analysis indicates a fairly strong positive correlation in the ratio of core-hotspot distance to hotspot size between that of the approaching arm and the receding arm with a correlation coefficient of r ~ 0.7.

  16. Effective temperature of ionizing stars of extragalactic H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, O. L.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Krabbe, A. C.

    2017-04-01

    The effective temperature (Teff) of the radiation field of the ionizing star(s) of a large sample of extragalactic H II regions was estimated using the R = log([O II] (λλ3726 + 29)/[O III] λ5007) index. We used a grid of photoionization models to calibrate the Teff-R relation finding that it has a strong dependence with the ionizing parameter, while it shows a weak direct dependence with the metallicity (variations in Z imply variations in U) of both the stellar atmosphere of the ionizing star and the gas phase of the H II region. Since the R index varies slightly with the Teff for values larger than 40 kK, the R index can be used to derive the Teff in the 30-40 kK range. A large fraction of the ionization parameter variation is due to differences in the temperature of the ionizing stars and then the use of the (relatively) low Teff dependent S2 = [S II] (λλ6717 + 31)/Hα emission-line ratio to derive the ionization parameter is preferable over others in the literature. We propose linear metallicity dependent relationships between S2 and U. Teff and metallicity estimations for a sample of 865 H II regions, whose emission-line intensities were compiled from the literature, do not show any Teff-Z correlation. On the other hand, it seems to be hints of the presence of an anticorrelation between Teff-U. We found that the majority of the studied H II regions (˜87 per cent) present Teff values in the range between 37 and 40 kK, with an average value of 38.5(±1) kK. We also studied the variation of Teff as a function of the galactocentric distance for 14 spiral galaxies. Our results are in agreement with the idea of the existence of positive Teff gradients along the disc of spiral galaxies.

  17. Extragalactic circuits, transmission lines, and CR particle acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronberg Philipp P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-negligible fraction of a Supermassive Black Hole's (SMBH rest mass energy gets transported into extragalactic space by a remarkable process in jets which are incompletely understood. What are the physical processes which transport this energy? It is likely that the energy flows electromagnetically, rather than via a particle beam flux. The deduced electromagnetic fields may produce particles of energy as high as ∼ 1020 eV. The energetics of SMBH accretion disk models and the electromagnetic energy transfer imply that a SMBH should generate a 1018 − 1019 Ampères current close to the black hole and its accretion disk. We describe the so far best observation-based estimate of the magnitude of the current flow along the axis of the jet extending from the nucleus of the active galaxy in 3C303. The current is measured to be I ∼ 1018 Ampères at ∼ 40 kpc away from the AGN. This indicates that organised current flow remains intact over multi-kpc distances. The electric current I transports electromagnetic power into free space, P = I2Z, where Z ∼ 30 Ohms is related to the impedance of free space, and this points to the existence of cosmic electric circuit. The associated electric potential drop, V = IZ, is of the order of that required to generate Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR. We also explore further implications, including disruption/deflection of the power flow and also why such measurements, exemplified by those on 3C303, are currently very difficult to make and to unambiguously interpret. This naturally leads to the topic of how such measurements can be extended and improved in the future. We describe the analogy of electromagnetically dominated jets with transmission lines. High powered jets in vacuo can be understood by approximate analogy with a waveguide. The importance of inductance, impedance, and other laboratory electrical concepts are discussed in this context.

  18. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...

  19. Distance from a distance: psychological distance reduces sensitivity to any further psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

    2013-08-01

    What is the difference between far and further? Investigations into such psychological distancing--removal from an egocentric reference point--have suggested similarities between geographical space, time, probability, and social distance. We draw on these similarities to propose that experiencing any kind of distance will reduce sensitivity to any other distance. Nine studies varied the initial distance of an event and assessed sensitivity to a second distance. Consistently, people were less responsive to a given span of distance when it was distal versus proximal. This effect held using each of the four distances as the initial instantiation of distance; it also held using each dimension to assess sensitivity to distance (i.e., as the second distance dimension). These findings suggest that the dimensions of psychological distance share a common, interchangeable meaning and that the cross-dimension difference between far and further is less than that between near and far. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Egret observations of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreekumar, P.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    . The analysis indicates that the extragalactic emission is well described by a power-law photon spectrum with an index of -(2.10 +/- 0.03) in the 30 MeV to 100 GeV energy range. No large-scale spatial anisotropy or changes in the energy spectrum are observed in the deduced extragalactic emission. The most......The all-sky survey in high-energy gamma rays (E > 30 MeV) carried out by EGRET aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the diffuse gamma-ray emission. The observed diffuse emission has a Galactic component arising from cosmic-ray interactions...... with the local interstellar gas and radiation, as well as an almost uniformly distributed component that is generally believed to originate outside the Galaxy. Through a careful study and removal of the Galactic diffuse emission, the flux, spectrum, and uniformity of the extragalactic emission are deduced...

  1. The combined influence of distance and neighbourhood deprivation on Emergency Department attendance in a large English population: a retrospective database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, Gavin M; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Fillingham, Sally C; Girling, Alan; Sidhu, Khesh; Stevens, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of visits to Emergency Departments (ED) varies greatly between populations. This may reflect variation in patient behaviour, need, accessibility, and service configuration as well as the complex interactions between these factors. This study investigates the relationship between distance, socio-economic deprivation, and proximity to an alternative care setting (a Minor Injuries Unit (MIU)), with particular attention to the interaction between distance and deprivation. It is set in a population of approximately 5.4 million living in central England, which is highly heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity, socio-economics, and distance to hospital. The study data set captured 1,413,363 ED visits made by residents of the region to National Health Service (NHS) hospitals during the financial year 2007/8. Our units of analysis were small units of census geography having an average population of 1,545. Separate regression models were made for children and adults. For each additional kilometre of distance from a hospital, predicted child attendances fell by 2.2% (1.7%-2.6% p<0.001) and predicted adult attendances fell by 1.5% (1.2% -1.8%, p<0.001). Compared to the least deprived quintile, attendances in the most deprived quintile more than doubled for children (incident rate ratio (IRR) = 2.19, (1.90-2.54, p<0.001)) and adults (IRR 2.26, (2.01-2.55, p<0.001)). Proximity of an MIU was significant and both adult and child attendances were greater in populations who lived further away from them, suggesting that MIUs may reduce ED demand. The interaction between distance and deprivation was significant. Attendance in deprived neighbourhoods reduces with distance to a greater degree than in less deprived ones for both adults and children. In conclusion, ED use is related to both deprivation and distance, but the effect of distance is modified by deprivation.

  2. Probing Planets in Extragalactic Galaxies Using Quasar Microlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Xinyu; Guerras, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Previously, planets have been detected only in the Milky Way galaxy. Here, we show that quasar microlensing provides a means to probe extragalactic planets in the lens galaxy, by studying the microlensing properties of emission close to the event horizon of the supermassive black hole of the background quasar, using the current generation telescopes. We show that a population of unbound planets between stars with masses ranging from Moon to Jupiter masses is needed to explain the frequent Fek...

  3. Extragalactic Thick Disks: Implications for Early Galaxy Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Seth, Anil; Yoachim, Peter

    2005-01-01

    I briefly review the growing evidence that thick stellar disks surround most edge-on disk galaxies. Recent studies show that these extragalactic thick disks have old ages, low metallicities, long scale lengths, and moderately flattened axial ratios, much like the thick disk of the Milky Way. However, the properties of thick disks change systematically with the mass of the galaxy. The thick disks of low mass galaxies are more prominent and somewhat more metal-poor than those surrounding massiv...

  4. CCD Astrometry of Selected Compact Extragalactic Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, P.; Velichko, F.; Filonenko, V.; Myznikov, A.; Sergeev, V.

    The 64 optical positions relative to the Catalog of Astrometric Standards (USNO-A2.0) and 9 optical positions relative to the Extragalactic Reference Link Catalog (de Vegt at al., 2001) had been obtained for the optical counterparts of 50 northern compact extragalactic radio sources (CERS). These positions were determined at the Kharkov Astronomical Observatory with use the CCD-camera ST-6 of the 0.7-m telescope AZT-8. More than 325 CCD-images of field 10.5' × 8' with optical counterparts of selected CERS had been obtained during 1997-2001. Positions of reference stars (from 6 to 12 stars for each CERS) were obtained from USNO-A2.0 catalogue, Extragalactic Reference Link Catalog and Nikolayev AMC catalogue (Pinigin & Shulga, 1999). The mean internal formal errors of the optical positions of these CERS are 100 mas in right ascension and 70 mas in declination. A comparison with VLBI radio positions for these sources is presented. The mean differences between radio and optical positions from our observations are not significantly differing from zero on the 0.05 significance level. The optical data which we obtained is potentially useful to possibly improve the current link of the Hipparcos reference frame to the ICRS. References de Vegt, C., Hindsley, R., Zacharias, N., Winter, L. 2001, AJ, 2815 Pinigin, G.I., Shulga A.V., 1999, Proc. JOURNESS 1999 & IX. Lohrmann-Kolloquium, Dresden (Germany), 64

  5. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  6. Extragalactic radio continuum surveys and the transformation of radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2017-10-01

    Next-generation radio surveys are about to transform radio astronomy by discovering and studying tens of millions of previously unknown radio sources. These surveys will provide fresh insights for understanding the evolution of galaxies, measuring the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate, and rivalling traditional techniques in the measurement of fundamental cosmological parameters. By observing a new volume of observational parameter space, they are also likely to discover unexpected phenomena. This Review traces the evolution of extragalactic radio continuum surveys from the earliest days of radio astronomy to the present, and identifies the challenges that must be overcome to achieve this transformational change.

  7. Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae Candidates Found with HST/LEGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Laura; Churnetski, Kristen; Pellerin, Anne; Annibali, Francesca; LEGUS

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive search for planetary nebulae in nearby galaxies observed for the Legacy ExtraGalactic Ultraviolet Survey. A total of 32 galaxies were examined and 166 planetary nebula candidates were found. Images from the Hubble Space Telescope in ~BVI filters were visually inspected to identify potential candidates based on their color. The presence of strong emission lines from [OIII]4959, 5007A in planetary nebulae enhances their brightness in the F555W or F606W filter compared to other, more ordinary stars. Making use of the LEGUS stellar photometric catalogs, color-magnitude and color-color diagrams were used to eliminate outliers.

  8. Propagation of cosmic rays in extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A model of extragalactic radio sources is considered which assumes that relativistic electrons carry energy from the central galaxy to the radio lobes and also emit the radio waves. It is suggested that the radio emission is confined to an axis because electrons propagate parallel to the magnetic field more readily than perpendicular to it and that symmetric radio lobes appear on this axis because electrons are deposited at supercoherent transitions far from the central galaxy, where they propagate diffusively. The slow drift velocities that characterize this propagation are shown to explain the secondary structure between the main lobes and to establish a relationship between double sources and galactic radio trails.

  9. Extragalactic magnetic fields unlikely generated at the electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaff, Jacques M.; Banerjee, Robi, E-mail: jwagstaff@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: banerjee@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, University of Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that magnetic fields generated at the electroweak phase transition are most likely too weak to explain the void magnetic fields apparently observed today unless they have considerable helicity. We show that, in the simplest estimates, the helicity naturally produced in conjunction with the baryon asymmetry is too small to explain observations, which require a helicity fraction at least of order 10{sup −14}–10{sup −10} depending on the void fields constraint used. Therefore new mechanisms to generate primordial helicity are required if magnetic fields generated during the electroweak phase transition should explain the extragalactic fields.

  10. Safeguarding Old and New Journal Tables for the VO: Status for Extragalactic and Radio Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Andernach

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Independent of established data centers, and partly for my own research, since 1989 I have been collecting the tabular data from over 2600 articles concerned with radio sources and extragalactic objects in general. Optical character recognition (OCR was used to recover tables from 740 papers. Tables from only 41 percent of the 2600 articles are available in the CDS or CATS catalog collections, and only slightly better coverage is estimated for the NED database. This fraction is not better for articles published electronically since 2001. Both object databases (NED, SIMBAD, LEDA as well as catalog browsers (VizieR, CATS need to be consulted to obtain the most complete information on astronomical objects. More human resources at the data centers and better collaboration between authors, referees, editors, publishers, and data centers are required to improve data coverage and accessibility. The current efforts within the Virtual Observatory (VO project, to provide retrieval and analysis tools for different types of published and archival data stored at various sites, should be balanced by an equal effort to recover and include large amounts of published data not currently available in this way.

  11. Minimal model for extragalactic cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelrieß, M.; Kalashev, O.; Ostapchenko, S.; Semikoz, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    We aim to explain in a unified way the experimental data on ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos, using a single source class and obeying limits on the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background. If UHECRs only interact hadronically with gas around their sources, the resulting diffuse cosmic-ray (CR) flux can be matched well to the observed one, providing at the same time large neutrino fluxes. Since the required fraction of heavy nuclei is, however, rather large, the maxima of air showers in the Earth's atmosphere induced by UHECRs with energies E ≳3 ×1018 eV would be too high. Therefore, additional photohadronic interactions of UHECRs close to the accelerator have to be present, in order to modify the nuclear composition of CRs in a relatively narrow energy interval. We thus include both photon and gas backgrounds and combine the resulting CR spectra with the high-energy part of the Galactic CR fluxes predicted by the escape model. As result, we find a good description of experimental data on the total CR flux, the mean shower maximum depth Xmax and its width r m s (Xmax) in the whole energy range above E ≃1017 eV . The predicted high-energy neutrino flux matches IceCube measurements, while the contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma ray background is of order 30%.

  12. The association between iliocostal distance and the number of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in women and men registered in the Canadian Database For Osteoporosis and Osteopenia (CANDOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray TM

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of new methods of evaluating patients with osteoporotic fracture should focus on their usefulness in clinical situations such that they are easily measured and applicable to all patients. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between iliocostal distance and vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in patients seen in a clinical setting. Methods Patient data were obtained from the Canadian Database of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia (CANDOO. A total of 549 patients including 508 women and 41 men participated in this cross-sectional study. There were 142 women and 18 men with prevalent vertebral fractures, and 185 women and 21 men with prevalent non-vertebral fractures. Results In women multivariable regression analysis showed that iliocostal distance was negatively associated with the number of vertebral fractures (-0.18, CI: -0.27, -0.09; adjusted for bone mineral density at the Ward's triangle, epilepsy, cerebrovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, etidronate use, and calcium supplement use and for the number of non-vertebral fractures (-0.09, CI: -0.15, -0.03; adjusted for bone mineral density at the trochanter, cerebrovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and etidronate use. However, in men, multivariable regression analysis did not demonstrate a significant association between iliocostal distance and the number of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Conclusions The examination of iliocostal distance may be a useful clinical tool for assessment of the possibility of vertebral fractures. The identification of high-risk patients is important to effectively use the growing number of available osteoporosis therapies.

  13. Superluminal blazars and the extragalactic gamma ray background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinyu Chi; Young, Enoch C.M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    1997-07-01

    The detection of a few dozen extragalactic gamma ray blazars of extremely high luminosity by the EGRET instrument on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory appears to suggest that blazars make the overwhelming contribution to the cosmic gamma ray background in the energy range 100 MeV - 10 GeV. In this paper we point out that the superluminal effect which boosts and beams the gamma ray emission in the jets of blazars will flatten the source count in the low flux part. Consequently, the unresolved blazars would not be expected to make much contribution to the gamma ray background. From our direct modelling of the source count, we conclude that the contribution of the unresolved blazars to the gamma ray background is only 10% of the latest estimate of the EGRET data. The implication for the cosmological evolution of the blazars is discussed. (author)

  14. Extragalactic and galactic sources: New evidence, new challenges, new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusenko Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent data bring in sharper focus the issue of relative contributions of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. On the one hand, there is some new evidence, from gamma-ray observations of blazars, that cosmic rays are, indeed, accelerated in AGNs. On the other hand, recent measurements of composition reported by Pierre Auger Observatory can be explained by a contribution of transient galactic sources, such as past GRBs and hypernovae, if nuclei accelerated in such events get trapped in the turbulent galactic magnetic fields. The likely contamination of UHECR data by the nuclei from past galactic stellar explosions creates new challenges for cosmic-ray astronomy. At the same time, it creates new opportunities for reconstructing galactic magnetic fields, understanding the history of transient galactic phenomena, and for using gamma rays to identify astrophysical nuclear accelerators outside Milky Way.

  15. IS THERE AN UNACCOUNTED FOR EXCESS IN THE EXTRAGALACTIC COSMIC RADIO BACKGROUND?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyan, Ravi [Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Cowsik, Ramanath, E-mail: rsubrahm@rri.res.in, E-mail: cowsik@physics.wustl.edu [Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, Campus Box 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Analyses of the distribution of absolute brightness temperature over the radio sky have recently led to suggestions that there exists a substantial unexplained extragalactic radio background. Consequently, there have been numerous attempts to place constraints on plausible origins of this 'excess'. We suggest here that this expectation of a large extragalactic background, over and above that contributed by the sources observed in the surveys, is based on an extremely simple geometry adopted to model the Galactic emission and the procedure adopted in the estimation of the extragalactic contribution. In this paper, we derive the extragalactic radio background from wide-field radio images using a more realistic modeling of the Galactic emission and decompose the sky maps at 150, 408, and 1420 MHz into anisotropic Galactic and isotropic extragalactic components. The anisotropic Galactic component is assumed to arise from a highly flattened spheroid representing the thick disk, embedded in a spherical halo, both centered at the Galactic center, along with Galactic sources, filamentary structures, and Galactic loops and spurs. All components are constrained to be positive and the optimization scheme minimizes the sky area occupied by the complex filaments. We show that in contrast with simple modeling of Galactic emission as a plane parallel slab, the more realistic modeling yields estimates for the uniform extragalactic brightness that are consistent with expectations from known extragalactic radio source populations.

  16. Fermi-LAT high-z active galactic nuclei and the extragalactic background light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Thomas; Brown, Anthony M.; Chadwick, Paula M.

    2017-10-01

    Observations of distant gamma-ray sources are hindered by the presence of the extragalactic background light (EBL). In order to understand the physical processes that result in the observed spectrum of sources, it is imperative that a good understanding of the EBL is included. In this work, an investigation into the imprint of the EBL on the observed spectra of high-redshift Fermi-LAT active galactic nuclei is presented. By fitting the spectrum below ˜10 GeV, an estimation of the unabsorbed intrinsic source spectrum is obtained; by applying this spectrum to data up to 300 GeV, it is then possible to derive a scaling factor for different EBL models. A second approach uses five sources (PKS 0426-380, 4C +55.17, Ton 116, PG 1246+586 and RBS 1432) that were found to exhibit very high energy (VHE) emission (Eγ > 100 GeV). Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the observation of VHE photons, despite the large distances of these objects, is consistent with current EBL models. Many of these sources would be observable with the upcoming ground-based observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, leading to a better understanding of the EBL.

  17. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Galactic Sources: Empirical Interpretation of Extragalactic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, E. A.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Gerin, M.; Gusdorf, A.; Lis, D. C.; Schilke, P.

    2017-02-01

    The relative populations in rotational transitions of CO can be useful for inferring gas conditions and excitation mechanisms at work in the interstellar medium. We present CO emission lines from rotational transitions observed with Herschel/HIFI in the star-forming cores Orion S, Orion KL, Sgr B2(M), and W49N. Integrated line fluxes from these observations are combined with those from Herschel/PACS observations of the same sources to construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) from 5 ≤ J u ≤ 48. These CO SLEDs are compared to those reported in other galaxies, with the intention of empirically determining which mechanisms dominate excitation in such systems. We find that CO SLEDs in Galactic star-forming cores cannot be used to reproduce those observed in other galaxies, although the discrepancies arise primarily as a result of beam filling factors. The much larger regions sampled by the Herschel beams at distances of several megaparsecs contain significant amounts of cooler gas, which dominate the extragalactic CO SLEDs, in contrast to observations of Galactic star-forming regions, which are focused specifically on cores containing primarily hot molecular gas. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Survey (VIPERS). First Data Release of 57 204 spectroscopic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Fumana, M.; Granett, B. R.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present the first Public Data Release (PDR-1) of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Survey (VIPERS). It comprises 57 204 spectroscopic measurements together with all additional information necessary for optimal scientific exploitation of the data, in particular the associated photometric measurements and quantification of the photometric and survey completeness. VIPERS is an ESO Large Programme designed to build a spectroscopic sample of ≃100 000 galaxies with iAB accessing the data through the survey database (http://vipers.inaf.it) where all information can be queried interactively. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://vipers.inaf.it/

  19. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

  20. Uncovering hidden black holes with extragalactic X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickox, Ryan C.

    2017-08-01

    Despite remarkable progress over the past decades, our picture of black hole evolution has remained incomplete due to the challenges of detecting the mysterious "elusive" AGN that are highly obscured or hidden beneath the light of their host galaxies. I will present recent studies by our group and colleagues that use X-ray and multiwavelength extragalactic surveys (particularly with Chandra, NuSTAR, and WISE) to uncover the full population of AGN. Including these elusive AGN in our picture has helped illustrate that AGN accretion is a surprisingly universal, yet highly stochastic process, and has shown that AGN obscuration is linked to processes in galaxy evolution. I will conclude by forecasting the exciting science in this area that will be enabled by future observatories including the Lynx concept X-ray mission. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant numbers 1515404 and 1554584, and NASA through grant numbers NNX15AP24G, NNX15AU32H, and NNX16AN48G.

  1. Investigation of some galactic and extragalactic gravitational phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a short overview of the most important results of our investigations of the following galactic and extragalactic gravitational phenomena: supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and quasars, supermassive black hole binaries, gravitational lenses and dark matter. For the purpose of these investigations, we developed a model of a relativistic accretion disk around a supermassive black hole, based on the ray-tracing method in the Kerr metric, a model of a bright spot in an accretion disk and three different models of gravitational microlenses. All these models enabled us to study physics, spacetime geometry and effects of strong gravity in the vicinity of supermassive black holes, variability of some active galaxies and quasars, different effects in the lensed quasars with multiple images, as well as the dark matter fraction in the Universe. We also found an observational evidence for the first spectroscopically resolved sub-parsec orbit of a supermassive black hole binary system in the core of active galaxy NGC 4151. Besides, we studied applications of one potential alternative to dark matter in the form of a modified theory of gravity on Galactic scales, to explain the recently observed orbital precession of some S-stars, which are orbiting around a massive black hole at the Galactic center. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176003: Gravitation and the Large Scale Structure of the Universe

  2. A Census of Galactic and Extragalactic Double Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The observed properties of recently discovered Type IIn supernovae have challenged several long-held notions of stellar evolution. The largely unanticipated ability of massive, H-rich stars to eject sizable shells of material only a few years before a terminal explosion suggests that the poorly understood late phases of nuclear burning are likely to be unstable and may promote large-scale internal mixing of chemical layers.The extent to which similar eruptive processes or other more exotic ones may occur in H-poor systems is not well constrained. Theory predicts scenarios wherein massive stars may produce more than one supernova-like outburst exhibiting emissions resembling those of Type I supernovae. Observationally, however, cases of H-poor eruptions and interactions with those eruptions are rare and/or debatable. A crucial confirmation of this scenario would be to observe multiple outbursts from the same system. Motivated by the fact that the timescales between observable eruptions of H-poor massive stars may be much longer than those of Type IIn supernovae, we have completed an extensive search of historical records to look for "double supernovae" - i.e., supernovae of different names with coincident coordinates. The search successfully uncovered a handful of potential H-poor extragalactic double supernova systems, and we investigate the likelihood that these sets of events are physically linked. We also discuss scant-yet-tantalizing records of historical Galactic supernovae with suggestive evidence for rebrightening decades before and/or after the accepted explosion date.

  3. Current Generation in Extragalactic Jets by MHD Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafelice, L. C.; Opher, R.; de Assis, A. S.; Busnardo-Neto, J.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT: Several observations indicate that strong extragalactic jets (EJ) appear to need magnetically aided confinement in order for the total (kinetic plus magnetic) external pressure to balance the jet total internal pressure. On the other hand, the motion of highly ionized EJ in a magnetic field is, in general, expected to excite MHD waves on the borders of EJ by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We study transit-titne magnetic damping of magnetosonic and surface waves in these essentially collisionless plasmas, and show that these low-frequency compressiveNHi) waves produce appreciable electric currents, I,which can be dynamically important. Using indicated values from observations of strong EJ, we obtain for 2= 2c % lO-10, where I is the current required for confining these jets and EIB /BoI c5 the MHD perturbation level, with B (Bo) being the MHD wave background) magnetic field. We suggest that c may be self-regulating, perturbations > Qchoking-off the jet, requiring to return to c The model has also the advantage of admitting a distributed generator which acts along the jet length and avoids problems of previous models requiring a current generator at the galactic nucleus to maintain a huge circuit with length % EJ length. : GALAXIES-JETS - HYDROHAGNETICS

  4. The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey: HerMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S.J.; Bock, J.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Beelen, A.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, HerMES, is a legacy program designed to map a set of nested fields totalling approx. 380 deg(exp 2). Fields range in size from 0.01 to approx. 20 deg (exp 2), using Herschel-SPIRE (at 250, 350 and 500 micron), and Herschel-PACS (at 100 and 160 micron), with an additional wider component of 270 deg. (exp. 2) with SPIRE alone. These bands cover the peak of the redshifted thermal spectral energy distribution from interstellar dust and thus capture the re-processed optical and ultra-violet radiation from star formation that has been absorbed by dust, and are critical for forming a complete multi-wavelength understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The survey will detect of order 100,000 galaxies at 5-sigma in some of the best studied fields in the sky. Additionally, HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey. Making maximum use of the full spectrum of ancillary data, from radio to X-ray wavelengths, it is designed to: facilitate redshift determination; rapidly identify unusual objects; and understand the relationships between thermal emission from dust and other processes. Scientific questions HerMES will be used to answer include: the total infrared emission of galaxies; the evolution of the luminosity function; the clustering properties of dusty galaxies; and the properties of populations of galaxies which lie below the confusion limit through lensing and statistical techniques. This paper defines the survey observations and data products, outlines the primary scientific goals of the HerMES team, and reviews some of the early results.

  5. Mahalanobis Distance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and G 2 might represent girls and boys, respectively or, in a medical diagnosis ... Representation of. Mahalanobis distance for the univariate case. GENERAL I ARTICLE. If the variables in X were uncorrelated in each group and were scaled so that they had ... have been proposed, and about thirty are known in the literature.

  6. DISTANCE EDUCATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    take a longer period to get a degree and a greater number of learners can be reached than is possi- ble through .... distance learners and available funds, in short, a collection development policy. Infrastructure. In the long ..... gional centres could double as administrators. journal of science and technology, volume 25, no.

  7. Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Charles E.

    The magnitude, diversity, and impact of distance education are discussed in this international review of its implementation in economically diverse countries. Uses of the following media are described: (1) print--correspondence study, programmed instruction, modularized instruction, newspaper; (2) audio media--telephone, radio, subsidiary…

  8. [Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; Weatherman, Dick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue on distance education serving individuals with disabilities considers historical developments, technology, staff training strategies, and staff training materials. It is noted that improving access to training for staff members can improve the quality of services for individuals with disabilities. The following articles…

  9. 0.8mm extragalactic surveys of nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villicaña-Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Martín, Sergio; Martín-Pintado, Jesus; Requena-Torres, Miguel; Guesten, Rolf; Armijos, Jairo; Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan Pablo; Klein, Bernd; Heyminck, Stefan; Díaz, Angeles I.; Binette, Luc; Carreto-Parra, Francisco; Aladro, Rebeca

    2017-03-01

    We present the first submillimetric line survey of extragalactic sources carried out by APEX. The surveys cover the 0.8 mm atmospheric window from 270 to 370GHz toward NGC253, NGC4945 and Arp220. We found in NGC 253, 150 transitions of 26 molecules. For NGC 4945, 136 transitions of 24 molecules, and 64 transitions of 17 molecules for Arp 220. Column densities and rotation temperatures have been determinate using the Local Thermodinamical Equilibrium(LTE) line profile simulation and fitting in the MADCUBA IJ software. The differences found in ratios between the Galactic Center and the starburst galaxies NGC 4945 and NGC 253 suggest that the gas is less processed in the latter than in the Galactic Center. The high 18O/17O ratios in the galaxies NGC 4945 and NGC 253 suggest also material less processed in the nuclei of these galaxies than in the Galactic Center. This is consistent with the claim that 17O is a more representative primary product than 18O in stellar nucleosynthesis (Wilson and Rood 1994); Also, we did a Multitransitions study of H3O+ at 307GHz, 364GHz, 388GHz and 396GHz. From our non-LTE analysis of H3O+ in NGC253 with RADEX we found that the collisional excitation can not explain the observed intensity of the ortho 396 GHz line. Excitation by radiation from the dust in the Far-IR can roughly explain the observations if the H2 densities are relatively low. From the derived H3O+ column densities we conclude that the chemistry of this molecule is dominated by ionization produce by the starburst in NGC253 (UV radiation from the O stars) and Arp 220 (cosmic rays from the supernovae) and likely from the AGN in NGC4549 (X-rays ); Finally, we report, for the first time, the tentative detection of the molecular ion HCNH+ (precursor of HCN and HNC) toward a galaxy, NGC4945, abundance explain the claimed enhancement of HCN abundance in the AGN, due to the enhancement of the ionization rate by X-rays. The abundance is much larger than the Galactic center of the

  10. Chemical abundances of two extragalactic young massive clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Larsen, Søren; Trager, Scott; Groot, Paul; Kaper, Lex

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We use integrated-light spectroscopic observations to measure metallicities and chemical abundances for two extragalactic young massive star clusters (NGC 1313-379 and NGC 1705-1). The spectra were obtained with the X-shooter spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Methods: We compute synthetic integrated-light spectra, based on colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for the brightest stars in the clusters from Hubble Space Telescope photometry and theoretical isochrones. Furthermore, we test the uncertainties arising from the use of CMD+Isochrone method compared to an Isochrone-Only method. The abundances of the model spectra are iteratively adjusted until the best fit to the observations is obtained. In this work we mainly focus on the optical part of the spectra. Results: We find metallicities of [Fe/H] = -0.84 ± 0.07 and [Fe/H] = -0.78 ± 0.10 for NGC 1313-379 and NGC 1705-1, respectively. We measure [α/Fe] = +0.06 ± 0.11 for NGC 1313-379 and a super-solar [α/Fe] = +0.32 ± 0.12 for NGC 1705-1. The roughly solar [α/Fe] ratio in NGC 1313-379 resembles those for young stellar populations in the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds, whereas the enhanced [α/Fe] ratio in NGC 1705-1 is similar to that found for the cluster NGC 1569-B by previous studies. Such super-solar [α/Fe] ratios are also predicted by chemical evolution models that incorporate the bursty star formation histories of these dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, our α-element abundances agree with abundance measurements from H II regions in both galaxies. In general we derive Fe-peak abundances similar to those observed in the MW and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for both young massive clusters. For these elements, however, we recommend higher-resolution observations to improve the Fe-peak abundance measurements. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.B-0468(A).

  11. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  12. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Casertano, Stefano; Cassata, Paolo; Castellano, Marco; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dahlen, Tomas; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Haeussler, Boris; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; van der Wel, Arjen; Villforth, Carolin; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan, Hao-Jing; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, over the approximate redshift (z) range 8-1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope, from the

  13. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures.

  14. Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.

    2016-01-01

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous gro...

  15. Laser jets in extra-galactic radio sources. | SIGALO | Global Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Laser jets in extra-galactic radio sources. F B SIGALO, P N ...

  16. The contribution of blazars to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mücke, A.; Pohl, M.; Dermer, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a calculation of the blazar contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) in the EGRET-energy range. Our model is based on the non-thermal emission processes known to be important in blazar jets, and on the unification scheme of radio-loud AGN...

  17. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Overview And Catalog From The Cosmos Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Civano, F.; Hickox, R. C.; Puccetti, S.

    2015-01-01

    To provide the census of the sources contributing to the X-ray background peak above 10 keV, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is performing extragalactic surveys using a three-tier "wedding cake" approach. We present the NuSTAR survey of the COSMOS field, the medium sensitivity...

  18. Dark Matter and Extragalactic Gas Clouds in the NGC 4532/DDO 137 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G. L.; Lu, N. Y.; Salpeter, E. E.; Connell, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    H I synthesis mapping of NGC 4532 and DDO 137, a pair of Sm galaxies on the edge of the Virgo cluster, is used to determine rotation curves for each of the galaxies and to resolve the structure and kinematics of three extragalactic H I clouds embedded in an extended envelope of diffuse HI discovered in earlier Arecibo studies of the system.

  19. Stellar and Extragalactic Radiation at the Earth's Surface Jean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Reviving a calculation made by Eddington in the 1920s, and using the most recent and comprehensive databases available on stars and galaxies, including more than 2,500,000 stars and around 20,000 galaxies we have computed their total radiation received at the Earth just outside its atmosphere. This radiation ...

  20. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The decline of cosmic star formation: quenching, mass, and environment connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Bolzonella, M.; Granett, B. R.; De Lucia, G.; Branchini, E.; Zamorani, G.; Iovino, A.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Moutard, T.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Bel, J.; Blaizot, J.; Coupon, J.; Hawken, A.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Gargiulo, A.

    2017-06-01

    We use the final data of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) to investigate the effect of the environment on the evolution of galaxies between z = 0.5 and z = 0.9. We characterise local environment in terms of the density contrast smoothed over a cylindrical kernel, the scale of which is defined by the distance to the fifth nearest neighbour. This is performed by using a volume-limited sub-sample of galaxies complete up to z = 0.9, but allows us to attach a value of local density to all galaxies in the full VIPERS magnitude-limited sample to I Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  1. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define and analyze a fourth main type of attack on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to this type of attack, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. We further show that verifying distance bounding protocols using exist...

  2. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define a fourth main type of attacks on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking attacks. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to these attacks, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. Additionally, we generalize Distance Hijacking to Location Hijacking, to which ...

  3. A Star Formation/ISM Astronomical Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Sergio; Ali, Babar; Good, John; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    2003-02-01

    The Star Formation/ISM Astronomical Database (hereafter SFD) will be a set of on-line services adding value to existing data archives and published journals, along the lines of the very successful NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) and SIMBAD projects but with a focus on star formation an the interstellar medium (ISM) within the Milky Way. Unlike NED and SIMBAD, however, the SFD must deal with multi-wavelength measurements of extended regions and cross-correlative relationships between disparate measurements. The SFD will rely heavily on existing databases, primarily adding data content and connectivity between datasets around the world, and custom tailoring of existing tools to provide interfaces (programming API, Web, and JAVA GUI) specific to this application. We consider the SFD as a valuable component in the broader context of a future Virtual Observatory.

  4. Modern Geometric Methods of Distance Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Frédéric; Falanga, Maurizio; Kuo, Cheng Yu; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2017-11-01

    Building a 3D picture of the Universe at any distance is one of the major challenges in astronomy, from the nearby Solar System to distant Quasars and galaxies. This goal has forced astronomers to develop techniques to estimate or to measure the distance of point sources on the sky. While most distance estimates used since the beginning of the 20th century are based on our understanding of the physics of objects of the Universe: stars, galaxies, QSOs, the direct measures of distances are based on the geometric methods as developed in ancient Greece: the parallax, which has been applied to stars for the first time in the mid-19th century. In this review, different techniques of geometrical astrometry applied to various stellar and cosmological (Megamaser) objects are presented. They consist in parallax measurements from ground based equipment or from space missions, but also in the study of binary stars or, as we shall see, of binary systems in distant extragalactic sources using radio telescopes. The Gaia mission will be presented in the context of stellar physics and galactic structure, because this key space mission in astronomy will bring a breakthrough in our understanding of stars, galaxies and the Universe in their nature and evolution with time. Measuring the distance to a star is the starting point for an unbiased description of its physics and the estimate of its fundamental parameters like its age. Applying these studies to candles such as the Cepheids will impact our large distance studies and calibration of other candles. The text is constructed as follows: introducing the parallax concept and measurement, we shall present briefly the Gaia satellite which will be the future base catalogue of stellar astronomy in the near future. Cepheids will be discussed just after to demonstrate the state of the art in distance measurements in the Universe with these variable stars, with the objective of 1% of error in distances that could be applied to our closest

  5. THE CHANDRA SURVEY OF EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES IN THE 3CR CATALOG: X-RAY EMISSION FROM NUCLEI, JETS, AND HOTSPOTS IN THE CHANDRA ARCHIVAL OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Harris, D. E.; Paggi, A.; Wilkes, B. J.; Kuraszkiewicz, J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Liuzzo, E.; Orienti, M.; Paladino, R. [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Tremblay, G. R. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Baum, S. A.; O’Dea, C. P. [University of Manitoba, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    As part of our program to build a complete radio and X-ray database of all Third Cambridge catalog extragalactic radio sources, we present an analysis of 93 sources for which Chandra archival data are available. Most of these sources have already been published. Here we provide a uniform re-analysis and present nuclear X-ray fluxes and X-ray emission associated with radio jet knots and hotspots using both publicly available radio images and new radio images that have been constructed from data available in the Very Large Array archive. For about 1/3 of the sources in the selected sample, a comparison between the Chandra and radio observations was not reported in the literature: we find X-ray detections of 2 new radio jet knots and 17 hotspots. We also report the X-ray detection of extended emission from the intergalactic medium for 15 galaxy clusters.

  6. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  7. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lavonen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz......, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase...... of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data...

  8. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  9. Linking GAIA proper motions to the extragalactic reference system by QSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilbach, Elena; Scholz, R.-D.

    1995-01-01

    A direct link to an extragalactic reference system is considered as being a principle aim of the global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics (GAIA) mission. The data available from an extragalactic data base and a quasi stellar object (QSO) catalog were used to obtain an estimation of the number of QSO link candidates. The quality of presently available data and the expected accuracy of the extragalactic link are discussed. It is concluded that at least 150 QSO's must be observed by GAIA in order to guarantee an accuracy of better than 1 microarcsec/year for the link. New observations will be needed before the GAIA launch in order to reduce uncertainties in the positions, magnitudes and redshifts for some known quasars. The variability of QSO's with magnitudes near the GAIA observation limit can raise a potential problem. The motions of nearby QSO's are expected to be much smaller than 2 microarcsec/year, and therefore, will not affect the accuracy of the link in the proposed GAIA mission.

  10. Efficient image retrieval with multiple distance measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Andrew P.; Shapiro, Linda G.

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing need for the ability to query image databases based on image content rather than strict keyword search. Most current image database systems that perform query by content require a distance computation for each image in the database. Distance computations can be time consuming, limiting the usability of such systems. There is thus a need for indexing systems and algorithms that can eliminate candidate images without performing distance calculations. As user needs may change from session to session, there is also a need for run-time creation of distance measures. In this paper, we introduce FIDS, or `Flexible Image Database System.' FIDS allows the user to query the database based on user-defined polynomial combinations of predefined distance measures. Using an indexing scheme and algorithms based on the triangle inequality, FIDS can return matches to the query image without directly comparing the query images to much of the database. FIDS is currently being tested on a database of eighteen hundred images.

  11. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  12. Community Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This excel spreadsheet is the result of merging at the port level of several of the in-house fisheries databases in combination with other demographic databases such...

  13. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  14. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  15. MOnthly TEmperature DAtabase of Spain 1951-2010: MOTEDAS (2): The Correlation Decay Distance (CDD) and the spatial variability of maximum and minimum monthly temperature in Spain during (1981-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Nicola; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Simolo, Claudia; Stepanek, Peter; Brunetti, Michele; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, José Carlos

    2014-05-01

    One of the key point in the develop of the MOTEDAS dataset (see Poster 1 MOTEDAS) in the framework of the HIDROCAES Project (Impactos Hidrológicos del Calentamiento Global en España, Spanish Ministery of Research CGL2011-27574-C02-01) is the reference series for which no generalized metadata exist. In this poster we present an analysis of spatial variability of monthly minimum and maximum temperatures in the conterminous land of Spain (Iberian Peninsula, IP), by using the Correlation Decay Distance function (CDD), with the aim of evaluating, at sub-regional level, the optimal threshold distance between neighbouring stations for producing the set of reference series used in the quality control (see MOTEDAS Poster 1) and the reconstruction (see MOREDAS Poster 3). The CDD analysis for Tmax and Tmin was performed calculating a correlation matrix at monthly scale between 1981-2010 among monthly mean values of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature series (with at least 90% of data), free of anomalous data and homogenized (see MOTEDAS Poster 1), obtained from AEMEt archives (National Spanish Meteorological Agency). Monthly anomalies (difference between data and mean 1981-2010) were used to prevent the dominant effect of annual cycle in the CDD annual estimation. For each station, and time scale, the common variance r2 (using the square of Pearson's correlation coefficient) was calculated between all neighbouring temperature series and the relation between r2 and distance was modelled according to the following equation (1): Log (r2ij) = b*°dij (1) being Log(rij2) the common variance between target (i) and neighbouring series (j), dij the distance between them and b the slope of the ordinary least-squares linear regression model applied taking into account only the surrounding stations within a starting radius of 50 km and with a minimum of 5 stations required. Finally, monthly, seasonal and annual CDD values were interpolated using the Ordinary Kriging with a

  16. Statistics of the fractional polarisation of extragalactic dusty sources in Planck HFI maps

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavera, L.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; De Marco, B.; Argüeso, F.; Toffolatti, L.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the average fractional polarisation at 143, 217 and 353 GHz of a sample of 4697 extragalactic dusty sources by applying stacking technique. The sample is selected from the second version of the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources at 857 GHz, avoiding the region inside the Planck Galactic mask (fsky ~ 60 per cent). We recover values for the mean fractional polarisation at 217 and 353 GHz of (3.10 \\pm 0.75) per cent and (3.65 \\pm 0.66) per cent, respectively, whereas at 143 GHz we g...

  17. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Self-Confinement Close to Extra-Galactic Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena; D'Angelo, Marta

    2015-09-18

    The ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays observed on the Earth are most likely accelerated in extra-Galactic sources. For the typical luminosities invoked for such sources, the electric current associated to the flux of cosmic rays that leave them is large. The associated plasma instabilities create magnetic fluctuations that can efficiently scatter particles. We argue that this phenomenon forces cosmic rays to be self-confined in the source proximity for energies Esources for energies Esource luminosity in units of 10^{44} erg/s.

  18. The Green Bank Third GB3 Survey of Extragalactic Radio Sources at 1400-MHZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, S.; Machalski, J.

    The NRAO 91-m telescope was used to make a 1400 MHz sky survey covering an area of 0.0988 sr at declinations 70° ≤ δ1950 ≤ 76°.8 with 10.1×10.5 arcmin resolution. This survey ends the series of smaller than 1-sr surveys made at 1400 MHz with that telescope. A catalogue of 502 radiosources is presented, statistically complete to 112 mJy, which is about five times the rms noise and extragalactic confusion. The observations and data reduction are briefly summarized; the position and flux density errors are discussed.

  19. Characterizing the AGN populating the NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Alexander, D.

    2017-10-01

    I will present a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 63 AGN detected in the NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey fields and selected to have bright fluxes in the 8-24 keV energy range. I will report on their properties measured through a broad-band joint NuSTAR+Chandra/XMM spectral analysis. In particular I will discuss on the derived observed/intrinsic column density distribution, Compton Thick and absorption fractions comparing them with Cosmic X-ray Background population synthesis model predictions.

  20. Distance Education Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ellen D.

    1995-01-01

    Anticipating and supporting the needs of users of technologies, programs, and services are critical to the success of distance education programs. Principal stakeholders are instructors who teach at a distance, learners pursuing distance education courses, site facilitators, and administrators. (JOW)

  1. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  2. Archival Investigation of Outburst Sites and Progenitors of Extragalactic Intermediate-Luminosity Mid-IR Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard

    2017-08-01

    Our team is using Spitzer in a long-term search for extragalactic mid-infrared (MIR) variable stars and transients-the SPIRITS project (SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey). In this first exploration of luminous astrophysical transients in the infrared, we have discovered a puzzling new class. We call them SPRITEs: eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events. They have maximum MIR luminosities between supernovae and classical novae, but are not detected in the optical to deep limits. To date, we have discovered more than 50 SPRITEs in galaxies out to 17 Mpc. In this Archival Research proposal, we request support in order to investigate the pre-eruption sites in HST images of some 3 dozen SPRITEs discovered to date, and an additional 2 dozen that we are likely to find until the end of Spitzer observing in late 2018. Our aims are (1) characterize the pre-outburst environments at HST resolution in the visible and near-IR, to understand the stellar populations, stellar ages and masses, and interstellar medium at the outburst sites; (2) search for progenitors; (3) help prepare the way for a better understanding of the nature of extragalactic IR transients that will be investigated by JWST.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Extragalactic peaked-spectrum radio sources (Callingham+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callingham, J. R.; Ekers, R. D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Line, J. L. B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Sadler, E. M.; Tingay, S. J.; Hancock, P. J.; Bell, M. E.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapinska, A. D.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Morgan, J.; Offringa, A. R.; Procopio, P.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wayth, R. B.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.

    2017-09-01

    The GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) extragalactic catalog represents a significant advance in selecting peaked-spectrum sources, since it is constituted of sources that were contemporaneously surveyed with the widest fractional radio bandwidth to date, with 20 flux density measurements between 72 and 231MHz. We also use the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS; Condon+ 1998, VIII/65) and the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS; See Mauch+ 2008, VIII/81). Since the combination of NVSS and SUMSS cover the entire GLEAM survey and are an order of magnitude more sensitive, this study is sensitive to peaked-spectrum sources that peak anywhere between 72MHz and 843MHz/1.4GHz. The GLEAM survey was formed from observations conducted by the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), which surveyed the sky between 72 and 231MHz from 2013 August to 2014 July (Wayth+ 2015PASA...32...25W - see also VIII/100). (5 data files).

  4. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optically Bright extragalactic Radio Sources II (Petrov, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, L.

    2014-06-01

    The first VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observing campaign in 2007 resulted in the detection of 398 targets with the European VLBI Network (EVN; Bourda et al., 2010, cat. J/A+A/520/A113). During the second observing campaign, a subset of 105 sources detected in the previous campaign was observed (Bourda et al., 2011, cat. J/A+A/526/A102). Their positions were derived by Petrov (2011, cat. J/AJ/142/105) and formed the OBRS-1 (Optically Bright extragalactic Radio Sources) catalog. The remaining sources were observed in the third campaign, called OBRS-2. During the OBRS-2 campaign, there were three observing sessions with 10 VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array) stations and 5-6 EVN stations from this list: EFLSBERG, MEDICINA, ONSALA60, YEBES40M, DSS63, HARTRAO, and NOTO. Observations were made on 2010 Mar 23 (session ID gc034a), on 2011 Nov 8 (gc034bcd), and on 2011 Mar 15 (gc034ef). The OBRS-2 catalog presents precise positions of the 295 extragalactic radio sources as well as median correlated flux densities at 8.4 and 2.2GHz at baseline lengths shorter than 900km and at baseline lengths longer than 5000km. (1 data file).

  6. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  7. Refactoring databases evolutionary database design

    CERN Document Server

    Ambler, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    Refactoring has proven its value in a wide range of development projects–helping software professionals improve system designs, maintainability, extensibility, and performance. Now, for the first time, leading agile methodologist Scott Ambler and renowned consultant Pramodkumar Sadalage introduce powerful refactoring techniques specifically designed for database systems. Ambler and Sadalage demonstrate how small changes to table structures, data, stored procedures, and triggers can significantly enhance virtually any database design–without changing semantics. You’ll learn how to evolve database schemas in step with source code–and become far more effective in projects relying on iterative, agile methodologies. This comprehensive guide and reference helps you overcome the practical obstacles to refactoring real-world databases by covering every fundamental concept underlying database refactoring. Using start-to-finish examples, the authors walk you through refactoring simple standalone databas...

  8. RDD Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database was established to oversee documents issued in support of fishery research activities including experimental fishing permits (EFP), letters of...

  9. Dealer Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer reporting databases contain the primary data reported by federally permitted seafood dealers in the northeast. Electronic reporting was implemented May 1,...

  10. Snowstorm Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Snowstorm Database is a collection of over 500 snowstorms dating back to 1900 and updated operationally. Only storms having large areas of heavy snowfall (10-20...

  11. National database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  12. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  13. A semianalytical method for calculating the parameters of the electromagnetic halos around extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kel'ner, [No Value; Khangulyan, DV; Aharonian, FA

    2004-01-01

    The ultrahigh-energy (>20 TeV) gamma rays emitted by active galactic nuclei can be absorbed in intergalactic space through the production of electron-positron pairs during their interaction with extragalactic background photon fields. The electrons and positrons produced by this interaction form an

  14. IceCube searches for neutrino emission from galactic and extragalactic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palczewski Tomasz Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located near the geographic South Pole, is currently the world’s largest neutrino telescope. IceCube is principally designed to detect high-energy neutrinos from galactic and extragalactic sources. The detector comprises more than a cubic-kilometer of glacial ice instrumented with 86 vertical strings, each with 60 optical sensors, and a square-kilometer array at the surface. IceCube sensors detect Cherenkov radiation from charged particles produced in all neutrino flavor interactions in the ice. We discuss the recent results from searches for high-energy neutrinos, including the first detection of a diffuse flux of extraterrestrial origin with energies between about 30 TeV and 2 PeV. The events with energies above 1 PeV are the highest energy neutrinos ever observed.

  15. The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Schady, P.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL isimportant to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z approx. 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  16. The Zurich Extragalactic Bayesian Redshift Analyzer and its first application: COSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, R.; Carollo, C. M.; Porciani, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Capak, P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Le Fèvre, O.; Renzini, A.; Scoville, N.; Ajiki, M.; Aussel, H.; Contini, T.; McCracken, H.; Mobasher, B.; Murayama, T.; Sanders, D.; Sasaki, S.; Scarlata, C.; Scodeggio, M.; Shioya, Y.; Silverman, J.; Takahashi, M.; Thompson, D.; Zamorani, G.

    2006-10-01

    We present the Zurich Extragalactic Bayesian Redshift Analyzer (ZEBRA). The current version of ZEBRA combines and extends several of the classical approaches to produce accurate photometric redshifts down to faint magnitudes. In particular, ZEBRA uses the template-fitting approach to produce Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian redshift estimates based on the following points. (i) An automatic iterative technique to correct the original set of galaxy templates to best represent the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of real galaxies at different redshifts. (ii) A training set of spectroscopic redshifts for a small fraction of the photometric sample to improve the robustness of the photometric redshift estimates. (iii) An iterative technique for Bayesian redshift estimates, which extracts the full two-dimensional redshift and template probability function for each galaxy. We demonstrate the performance of ZEBRA by applying it to a sample of 866 IAB astro.phys.ethz.ch/ZEBRA.

  17. Propagating ultra-high energy cosmic rays through galactic and extragalactic space using CRPropa 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Batista, Rafael; Dundovic, Andrej; Sigl, Guenter [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg University (Germany); Erdmann, Martin; Kuempel, Daniel; Mueller, Gero; Walz, David [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz [Fachbereich C, Wuppertal University (Germany); Vliet, Arjen van [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg University (Germany); IMAPP Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University (Netherlands); Winchen, Tobias [Fachbereich C, Wuppertal University (Germany); Astrophysical Institute, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

    2016-07-01

    The interpretation of the measured energy spectrum, composition and arrival direction of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above ∝10{sup 17} eV is still under controversial debate. The development and improvement of numerical tools to propagate UHECRs in galactic and extragalactic space is a crucial ingredient to interpret data and to draw conclusions on astrophysical parameters. In this contribution recent developments of the publicly available propagation code CRPropa 3 are outlined. Examples are given for 1D and 3D simulations in structured magnetic fields including secondary messengers such as photons and neutrinos. To take into account cosmological effects, also 4D simulations are possible and discussed in the talk.

  18. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazón-Boado, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Selva, A Della; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Herrero, R Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Kopmann, A; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kümpel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Thi, T Nguyen; Nierstenhöfer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Ngoc, Dieppham; Ngoc, Dongpham; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Porter, T A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; De Grande, N Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tascau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Waldenmaier, T; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Xu, J; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M; Kégl, B

    2007-11-09

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrated a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 6 x 10(19) electron volts and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within approximately 75 megaparsecs. We rejected the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays with at least a 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observed is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest-energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been substantially reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  19. Radio variability in complete samples of extragalactic radio sources at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, S.; Machalski, J.

    1990-09-01

    Complete samples of extragalactic radio sources obtained in 1970-1975 and the sky survey of Condon and Broderick (1983) were used to select sources variable at 1.4 GHz, and to investigate the characteristics of variability in the whole population of sources at this frequency. The radio structures, radio spectral types, and optical identifications of the selected variables are discussed. Only compact flat-spectrum sources vary at 1.4 GHz, and all but four are identified with QSOs, BL Lacs, or other (unconfirmed spectroscopically) stellar objects. No correlation of degree of variability at 1.4 GHz with Galactic latitude or variability at 408 MHz has been found, suggesting that most of the 1.4-GHz variability is intrinsic and not caused by refractive scintillations. Numerical models of the variability have been computed.

  20. A compiled catalogue of reference stars around 227 ICRF extragalactic radio sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryl'kov, V. P.; Narizhnaya, N. V.; Dement'eva, A. A.; Pinigin, G. I.; Maigurova, N. V.; Martinov, M. V.

    A compiled catalogue of21440 stars with magnitudes from 10 to 17 is prepared on the basis of original observations made from the end of the 20th to the beginning of the 21th century. The catalogue con tains 227 fields of the cetes tial sphere around extragalactic radio sources in a declination zone from -17 to +89°. The field size is 40' for both right ascension and declination. The internal accuracy of positions for both coordinates is not worse than 0.1". The comparison of stellar positions with the use of the UCAC2 and CMC13 catalogues shows that the average external accuracy is about 0.05-0.15" for the majority ofchosenfields of the compiled catalogue. The positions of 10795 stars up to +50° in declination are given at epoch J2000.0, whereas the positions of other stars are given at the epoch of an observation.

  1. The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts - I. Survey description and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, E. F.; Barr, E. D.; Jameson, A.; Morello, V.; Caleb, M.; Bhandari, S.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; Burgay, M.; Tiburzi, C.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Eatough, R. P.; Flynn, C.; Jankowski, F.; Johnston, S.; Kramer, M.; Levin, L.; Ng, C.; van Straten, W.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman

    2018-01-01

    We describe the Survey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts (SUPERB), an ongoing pulsar and fast transient survey using the Parkes radio telescope. SUPERB involves real-time acceleration searches for pulsars and single-pulse searches for pulsars and fast radio bursts. We report on the observational set-up, data analysis, multiwavelength/messenger connections, survey sensitivities to pulsars and fast radio bursts and the impact of radio frequency interference. We further report on the first 10 pulsars discovered in the project. Among these is PSR J1306-40, a millisecond pulsar in a binary system where it appears to be eclipsed for a large fraction of the orbit. PSR J1421-4407 is another binary millisecond pulsar; its orbital period is 30.7 d. This orbital period is in a range where only highly eccentric binaries are known, and expected by theory; despite this its orbit has an eccentricity of 10-5.

  2. The Extragalactic Background Light and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Krennrich, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is one of the fundamental observational quantities in cosmology. All energy releases from resolved and unresolved extragalactic sources, and the light from any truly diffuse background, excluding the cosmic microwave background (CMB), contribute to its intensity and spectral energy distribution. It therefore plays a crucial role in cosmological tests for the formation and evolution of stellar objects and galaxies, and for setting limits on exotic energy releases in the universe. The EBL also plays an important role in the propagation of very high energy gamma-rays which are attenuated en route to Earth by pair producing gamma-gamma interactions with the EBL and CMB. The EBL affects the spectrum of the sources, predominantly blazars, in the approx 10 GeV to 10 TeV energy regime. Knowledge of the EBL intensity and spectrum will allow the determination of the intrinsic blazar spectrum in a crucial energy regime that can be used to test particle acceleration mechanisms and VHE gamma-ray production models. Conversely, knowledge of the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum and the detection of blazars at increasingly higher redshifts will set strong limits on the EBL and its evolution. This paper reviews the latest developments in the determination of the EBL and its impact on the current understanding of the origin and production mechanisms of gamma-rays in blazars, and on energy releases in the universe. The review concludes with a summary and future directions in Cherenkov Telescope Array techniques and in infrared ground-based and space observatories that will greatly improve our knowledge of the EBL and the origin and production of very high energy gamma-rays.

  3. Optical counterpart positions of extragalactic radio sources and connecting optical and radio reference frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Z.; Gumerov, R.; Jin, W.; Khamitov, I.; Maigurova, N.; Pinigin, G.; Tang, Z.; Wang, S.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the results of an investigation of astrometric positions of extragalactic radio sources from a list for the International Celestial Reference Frame. About 300 fields around extragalactic radio sources were observed during the years 2000-2003. The observations were performed mainly using two telescopes equipped with CCD cameras at TUG, Turkey (Russian-Turkish Telescope - RTT150) and at YAO (1 m telescope), (Kunming, China). The mean accuracies of the measured positions are 38 mas in right ascension and 35 mas in declination. A comparison between the measured optical positions determined using the UCAC2 catalog and the radio positions from the current ICRF shows that the overall optical-minus- radio offsets are -4 and +15 mas for right ascension and declination, respectively. The formal internal errors of these mean offsets are 4 mas. The results of optical positions with respect to the reference catalogue 2MASS are also given. A search for a relation between optical and radio reference frames indicates that the orientation angles are near zero within their accuracy of about 5 mas. The link accuracy becomes 3 mas when our observations are combined with other studies. Tables 2 and 3 giving the positions are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/510/A10Present address: İstanbul Kültür University, Ataköy Yerleşkesi, 34156 Istanbul, Turkey

  4. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Burrows, D. N.; Cabella, P.; Capalbi, M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cutini, S.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Dickinson, C.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; King, O.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavonen, N.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindfors, E.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Michelson, P. F.; Mingaliev, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Monte, C.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nestoras, I.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nieppola, E.; Nilsson, K.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perri, M.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Procopio, P.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rainò, S.; Reach, W. T.; Readhead, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reeves, R.; Reinecke, M.; Reinthal, R.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, J.; Riller, T.; Riquelme, D.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Saarinen, J.; Sandri, M.; Savolainen, P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Sievers, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Sotnikova, Y.; Starck, J.-L.; Stevenson, M.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Takalo, L.; Tammi, J.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Thompson, D. J.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Turunen, M.; Umana, G.; Ungerechts, H.; Valenziano, L.; Valtaoja, E.; Varis, J.; Verrecchia, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wu, J.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhou, X.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper, physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law indexaround 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shocks. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission. Tables 1 and 4, Figs. 18-121 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Statistics of the fractional polarization of extragalactic dusty sources in Planck HFI maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavera, L.; González-Nuevo, J.; De Marco, B.; Argüeso, F.; Toffolatti, L.

    2017-11-01

    We estimate the average fractional polarization at 143, 217 and 353 GHz of a sample of 4697 extragalactic dusty sources by applying stacking technique. The sample is selected from the second version of the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources at 857 GHz, avoiding the region inside the Planck Galactic mask (fsky ˜ 60 per cent). We recover values for the mean fractional polarization at 217 and 353 GHz of (3.10 ± 0.75) per cent and (3.65 ± 0.66) per cent, respectively, whereas at 143 GHz we give a tentative value of (3.52 ± 2.48) per cent. We discuss the possible origin of the measured polarization, comparing our new estimates with those previously obtained from a sample of radio sources. We test different distribution functions and we conclude that the fractional polarization of dusty sources is well described by a log-normal distribution, as determined in the radio band studies. For this distribution we estimate μ217GHz = 0.3 ± 0.5 [that would correspond to a median fractional polarization of Πmed = (1.3 ± 0.7) per cent] and μ353GHz = 0.7 ± 0.4 (Πmed = (2.0 ± 0.8) per cent), σ217GHz = 1.3 ± 0.2 and σ353GHz = 1.1 ± 0.2. With these values we estimate the source number counts in polarization and the contribution given by these sources to the Cosmic Microwave Background B-mode angular power spectrum at 217, 353, 600 and 800 GHz. We conclude that extragalactic dusty sources might be an important contaminant for the primordial B-mode at frequencies >217 GHz.

  6. Solubility Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  7. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  8. “Real-Time” Cosmology with Extragalactic Proper Motions: the Secular Aberration Drift and Evolution of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebenbach, Alexandra; Darling, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    We present the VLBA Extragalactic Proper Motion Catalog, a catalog of extragalactic proper motions created using archival VLBI data and our own VLBA astrometry. The catalog contains 713 proper motions, with average uncertainties of ~ 24 microarcsec/yr, including 40 new or improved proper motion measurements using relative astrometry with the VLBA. We detect the secular aberration drift – the apparent motion of extragalactic objects caused by the solar system's acceleration around the Galactic Center – at 6.3 sigma significance with an amplitude of 1.69 +/- 0.27 microarcsec/yr and an apex consistent with the Galactic Center (275.2 +/- 10.0 deg, -29.4 +/- 8.8 deg). Our dipole model detects the aberration drift at a higher significance than some previous studies (e.g., Titov & Lambert 2013), but at a lower amplitude than expected or previously measured. We then use the correlated relative proper motions of extragalactic objects to place upper limits on the rate of large-scale structure collapse (e.g., Quercellini et al. 2009; Darling 2013). Pairs of small separation objects that are in gravitationally interacting structures such as filaments of large-scale structure will show a net decrease in angular separation (> - 15.5 microarcsec/yr) as they move towards each other, while pairs of large separation objects that are gravitationally unbound and move with the Hubble expansion will show no net change in angular separation. With our catalog, we place a 3 sigma limit on the rate of convergence of large-scale structure of -11.4 microarcsec/yr for extragalactic objects within 100 comoving Mpc of each other. We also confirm that large separation objects (> 800 comoving Mpc) move with the Hubble flow to within ~ 2.2 microarcsec/yr. In the future, we plan to incorporate the upcoming Gaia proper motions into our catalog to achieve a higher precision measurement of the average relative proper motion of gravitationally interacting extragalactic objects and to refine our

  9. A CMB foreground study in WMAP data: Extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It serves as a primary tool to understand the global properties, content and evolution of the universe. Since 2001, NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite has been napping the full sky anisotropy with unprecedented accuracy, precision and reliability. The CMB angular power spectrum calculated from the WMAP full sky maps not only enables accurate testing of cosmological models, but also places significant constraints on model parameters. The CMB signal in the WMAP sky maps is contaminated by microwave emission from the Milky Way and from extragalactic sources. Therefore, in order to use the maps reliably for cosmological studies, the foreground signals must be well understood and removed from the maps. This thesis focuses on the separation of two foreground contaminants from the WMAP maps: extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission. Extragalactic point sources constitute the most important foreground on small angular scales. Various methods have been applied to the WMAP single frequency maps to extract sources. However, due to the limited angular resolution of WMAP, it is possible to confuse positive CMB excursions with point sources or miss sources that are embedded in negative CMB fluctuations. We present a novel CMB-free source finding technique that utilizes the spectrum difference of point sources and CMB to form internal linear combinations of multifrequency maps to suppress the CMB and better reveal sources. When applied to the WMAP 41, 64 and 94 GHz maps, this technique has not only enabled detection of sources that are previously cataloged by independent methods, but also allowed disclosure of new sources. Without the noise contribution from the CMB, this method responds rapidly with the integration time. The number of detections varies as 0( t 0.72 in the two-band search and 0( t 0.70 in the three-band search from one year to five years

  10. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  11. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...

  12. SPHEREx: Understanding the Origin and Evolution of Galaxies Through the Extragalactic Background Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemcov, Michael; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    The near IR extragalactic background light (EBL) encodes the integrated light production over cosmic history, so traces the total emission from all galaxies along the line of sight up to the ancient first-light objects responsible for the epoch of reionization (EOR). The EBL can be constrained through measurements of anisotropies, taking advantage of the fact that extragalactic populations produce fluctuations with distinct spatial and spectral characteristics from local foregrounds. In particular, EBL anisotropies trace the underlying clustering of faint emission sources, such as stars, galaxies and accreting black holes present during the EOR, dwarf galaxies, and intra-halo light (IHL), all of which are components not readily detected in point source surveys. The fluctuation amplitude observed independently by a number of recent measurements exceeds that expected from the large-scale clustering of known galaxy populations, indicating the presence of a large integrated brightness from these faint and diffuse components. Improved large-area measurements covering the entire near-IR are required to constrain the possible models for the history of emission from stars back to the EOR.SPHEREx brings new capabilities to EBL fluctuation measurements, employing 96 spectral channels covering 0.75 to 5 microns with spectral resolving power R = 41 to 135 that enable SPHEREx to carry out a multi-frequency separation of the integrated light from galaxies, IHL, and EOR components using the rich auto- and cross-correlation information available from two 45 square degree surveys of the ecliptic poles. SPHEREx is an ideal intensity mapping machine, and has the sensitivity to disentangle the history of light production associated with EBL fluctuations. SPHEREx will search for an EOR component its to minimum required level through component separation and spectral fitting techniques optimized for the near-IR. In addition to broad-band intensity mapping that enhances and extends the

  13. Molecular transitions as probes of the physical conditions of extragalactic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, Serena

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We present a method to interpret molecular observations and molecular line ratios in nearby extragalactic regions. Methods: Ab initio grids of time dependent chemical models, varying in gas density, temperature, cosmic ray ionization rate, and radiation field, are used as inputs into RADEX calculations. Tables of abundances, column densities, theoretical line intensities, and line ratios for some of the most used dense gas tracers are provided. The degree of correlation as well as degeneracy inherent in molecular ratios is discussed. Comparisons of the theoretical intensities with example observations are also provided. Results: We find that, within the parameters space explored, chemical abundances can be constrained by a well-defined set of gas density, gas temperature, and cosmic ray ionization rates for the species we investigate here. However, line intensities, and more importantly line ratios, from different chemical models can be very similar, thereby leading to a clear degeneracy. We also find that the gas subjected to a galactic cosmic ray ionization rate will not necessarily have reached steady state in 1 million years. The species most affected by time dependency effects are HCN and CS, which are both high density tracers. We use our ab initio method to fit an example set of data from two galaxies, I.e. M 82 and NGC 253. We find that (I) molecular line ratios can be easily matched even with erroneous individual line intensities; (II) no set of species can be matched by a one-component interstellar medium (ISM); and (III) a species may be a good tracer of an energetic process but only under specific density and temperature conditions. Conclusions: We provide tables of chemical abundances and line intensities ratios for some of the most commonly observed extragalactic tracers of dense gas for a grid of models. We show that by taking the chemistry behind each species and the individual line intensities into consideration, many degeneracies that arise

  14. X-ray Variability In Extragalactic Jets as Seen by Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor, Max; Meyer, Eileen; Georganopoulos, Markos; Aubin, Sam; Hewitt, Jennifer; DeNigris, Natalie; Whitley, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    The unrivaled spatial resolution of Chandra has lead to the detection of over 100 extragalactic jetsemitting X-rays on kiloparsec scales, far from the central AGN. These jets are understood to be powerful redistributors of energy on galactic and extragalactic scales, with important effects on galaxy evolution and cluster heating. However, we lack an understanding of many important jet properties, including the particle makeup, particle acceleration characteristics, and total energy content, and even how fast the jet is at kpc scales. In the most powerful jets, a persistently open question is the nature of the emission mechanism for the Chandra-observed X-rays. While inverse Compton upscattering of CMB photons (IC/CMB) by a still-relativistic jet is widely adopted, our group has very recently ruled it out in several cases, suggesting that the X-rays from powerful sources, like the low-power jets, have a synchrotron origin, albeit one with unknown origins, requiring in-situ lepton acceleration at least up to 100 TeV. A very efficient way to extend this result to many more sources is to check for variability of the large scale jet X-ray emission, something that is definitively not expected in the case of IC/CMB due to the extremely long cooling times of the electrons responsible for the emission, but it is plausible if the X-rays are of synchrotron nature. Based on previously published observations of X-ray variability in the jets of M87 and Pictor A, as well as preliminary results suggesting variability in two more powerful jets, we have examined archival observations of over 40 jets which have been imaged twice or more with Chandra for variability, with timescales of a few to nearly 14 years. This analysis has two main goals, namely (i) to confirm a synchrotron origin for the X-rays in powerful sources, as variability is inconsistent with the competing IC/CMB model and (ii) to use the timescales and characteristics (e.g., spectral changes) of any detected X

  15. A Database Architecture for Web-Based Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, Daniel R.

    The goal of the Carnegie Mellon Online project is to build an infrastructure for delivery of courses via the World Wide Web. The project aims to deliver educational content and to assess student competency in support of courses across the Carnegie Mellon University (Pennsylvania) curriculum and beyond, thereby providing an asynchronous,…

  16. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  17. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  18. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  19. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.; Emmert-Streib, F.; Dehmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  20. Duty and Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Binder (C.); C. Heilmann (Conrad)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractEver since the publication of Peter Singer’s article ‘‘Famine, Affluence, and Morality’’ has the question of whether the (geographical) distance to people in need affects our moral duties towards them been a hotly debated issue. Does geographical distance affect our moral

  1. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Full spectroscopic data and auxiliary information release (PDR-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scodeggio, M.; Guzzo, L.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marchetti, A.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Moutard, T.; Peacock, J. A.; Zamorani, G.; Burden, A.; Fumana, M.; Jullo, E.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Percival, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    We present the full public data release (PDR-2) of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), performed at the ESO VLT. We release redshifts, spectra, CFHTLS magnitudes and ancillary information (as masks and weights) for a complete sample of 86 775 galaxies (plus 4732 other objects, including stars and serendipitous galaxies); we also include their full photometrically-selected parent catalogue. The sample is magnitude limited to iAB ≤ 22.5, with an additional colour-colour pre-selection devised as to exclude galaxies at z http://vipers.inaf.it and on the ESO Archive. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  2. Probing the Extragalactic Cosmic-Ray Origin with Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, Noemie; Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Allard, Denis; Parizot, Etienne [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, 10 rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2017-04-20

    GeV–TeV gamma-rays and PeV–EeV neutrino backgrounds provide a unique window on the nature of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We discuss the implications of the recent Fermi -LAT data regarding the extragalactic gamma-ray background and related estimates of the contribution of point sources as well as IceCube neutrino data on the origin of the UHECRs. We calculate the diffuse flux of cosmogenic γ -rays and neutrinos produced by the UHECRs and derive constraints on the possible cosmological evolution of UHECR sources. In particular, we show that the mixed-composition scenario considered in Globus et al., which is in agreement with both (i) Auger measurements of the energy spectrum and composition up to the highest energies and (ii) the ankle-like feature in the light component detected by KASCADE-Grande, is compatible with both the Fermi -LAT measurements and with current IceCube limits. We also discuss the possibility for future experiments to detect associated cosmogenic neutrinos and further constrain the UHECR models, including possible subdominant UHECR proton sources.

  3. Planck intermediate results. XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovatta, T.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Järvelä, E.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mingaliev, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nieppola, E.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A.; S Readhead, A. C.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Richards, J. L.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Sotnikova, Y.; Stolyarov, V.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tammi, J.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Valtaoja, E.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wehrle, A. E.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at high frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.

  4. The Nature of the Unresolved Extragalactic Cosmic Soft X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelluti, N.; Ranalli, P.; Roncarelli, M.; Arevalo, P.; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Rovilos, E.; Vignali, C.; Allevato, V.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the power spectrum of the unresolved 0.5-2 keV cosmic X-ray background (CXB) with deep Chandra 4-Msec (Ms) observations in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). We measured a signal that, on scales >30 arcsec, is significantly higher than the shot noise and is increasing with angular scale. We interpreted this signal as the joint contribution of clustered undetected sources like active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM). The power of unresolved cosmic source fluctuations accounts for approximately 12 per cent of the 0.5-2 keV extragalactic CXB. Overall, our modelling predicts that approximately 20 per cent of the unresolved CXB flux is produced by low-luminosity AGN, approximately 25 per cent by galaxies and approximately 55 per cent by the IGM. We do not find any direct evidence of the so-called 'warm hot intergalactic medium' (i.e. matter with 10(exp 5) less than T less than 10(exp 7) K and density contrast delta less than 1000), but we estimated that it could produce about 1/7 of the unresolved CXB. We placed an upper limit on the space density of postulated X-ray-emitting early black holes at z greater than 7.5 and compared it with supermassive black hole evolution models.

  5. Update on the correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.; Aminaei, A.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Lisbon, IST

    2010-06-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory through 31 August 2007 showed evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin energy threshold, 6 x 10{sup 19} eV. The anisotropy was measured by the fraction of arrival directions that are less than 3.1{sup o} from the position of an active galactic nucleus within 75 Mpc (using the Veron-Cetty and Veron 12th catalog). An updated measurement of this fraction is reported here using the arrival directions of cosmic rays recorded above the same energy threshold through 31 December 2009. The number of arrival directions has increased from 27 to 69, allowing a more precise measurement. The correlating fraction is (38{sub -6}{sup +7})%, compared with 21% expected for isotropic cosmic rays. This is down from the early estimate of (69{sub -13}{sup +11})%. The enlarged set of arrival directions is examined also in relation to other populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2 Microns All Sky Survey and active galactic nuclei detected in hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. A celestial region around the position of the radiogalaxy Cen A has the largest excess of arrival directions relative to isotropic expectations. The 2-point autocorrelation function is shown for the enlarged set of arrival directions and compared to the isotropic expectation.

  6. On Spatial Distribution of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts from Extragalactic Magnetar Flares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Chang

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, one interesting possibility is proposed that a magnetar can be a progenitor of short and hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs. If this is true, one may expect that the short and hard GRBs, at least some of GRBs in this class, are distributed in the Euclidean space and that the angular position of these GRBs is correlated with galaxy clusters. Even though it is reported that the correlation is statistically marginal, the observed value of deviates from the Euclidean value. The latter fact is often used as evidence against a local extragalactic origin for short GRB class. We demonstrate that GRB sample of which the value of deviates from the Euclidean value can be spatially confined within the low value of z. We select very short bursts (T90 of the short bursts is 0.4459. Considering a conic-beam and a cylindrical beam for the luminosity function, we deduce the corresponding spatial distribution of the GRB sources. We also calculate the fraction of bursts whose redshifts are larger than a certain redshift {z'}, i.e. f> z'. We find that GRBs may be distributed near to us, despite the non-Euclidean value of . A broad and uniform beam pattern seems compatible with the magnetar model in that the magnetar model requires a small zmax.

  7. Open Geoscience Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    treatment could be conducted in other programs after extraction the filtered data into *.csv file. It makes the database understandable for non-experts. The database employs open data format (*.csv) and wide spread tools: PHP as the program language, MySQL as database management system, JavaScript for interaction with GoogleMaps and JQueryUI for create user interface. The database is multilingual: there are association tables, which connect with elements of the database. In total the development required about 150 hours. The database still has several problems. The main problem is the reliability of the data. Actually it needs an expert system for estimation the reliability, but the elaboration of such a system would take more resources than the database itself. The second problem is the problem of stream selection - how to select the stations that are connected with each other (for example, belong to one water stream) and indicate their sequence. Currently the interface is English and Russian. However it can be easily translated to your language. But some problems we decided. For example problem "the problem of the same station" (sometimes the distance between stations is smaller, than the error of position): when you adding new station to the database our application automatically find station near this place. Also we decided problem of object and parameter type (how to regard "EC" and "electrical conductivity" as the same parameter). This problem has been solved using "associative tables". If you would like to see the interface on your language, just contact us. We should send you the list of terms and phrases for translation on your language. The main advantage of the database is that it is totally open: everybody can see, extract the data from the database and use them for non-commercial purposes with no charge. Registered users can contribute to the database without getting paid. We hope, that it will be widely used first of all for education purposes, but

  8. Does Distance Determine Who Attends a University in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of distance to the nearest university in the demand for higher education in Germany. Distance could matter due to transaction costs or due to neighborhood effects. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) combined with a database on university postal codes to estimate a discrete choice model of the demand for…

  9. Stackfile Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  10. Measuring Cosmic Distances with Stellar Heart Beats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    VLTI Watches the Changing Size of Bright Southern Cepheids Summary Taking advantage of the very high spatial resolution provided by the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, a team of French and Swiss astronomers [1] has measured directly the change in angular diameter of four southern Cepheid variable stars over their pulsation cycle. When combined with spectroscopic radial velocity measurements, this allowed the astronomers to measure very accurately the distances of these stars in a quasi-geometrical way, and to calibrate the zero-point of the Cepheid Period-Luminosity empirical law. These observations constitute a fundamental step towards an independent verification of the extragalactic distance scale by interferometry. PR Photo 30a/04: Observation Techniques of the Baade-Wesselink Method. PR Photo 30b/04: Paranal Platform and VLTI Baselines Used. PR Photo 30c/04: Pulsation of the Cepheid Variable L Car. (VINCI/VLTI) PR Photo 30d/04: Period-Luminosity relation for Cepheids. (VINCI/VLTI) Cepheids and the cosmic distance ladder It is very difficult to measure the distance to an astronomical object. In fact, this is one of the greatest challenges facing astronomers. There is indeed no accurate, direct way to determine the distance to galaxies beyond the Milky Way: astronomers first determine the distance to nearby stars in our galaxy as accurately as possible and then use a series of other techniques that reach progressively further into space to estimate distances to more distant systems. This process is often referred as the "cosmic distance ladder". Over the years, a number of different distance estimators have been found. One of these is a particular class of stars known as Cepheid variables. They are used as one of the first "steps" on this cosmic distance ladder. Cepheids are rare and very luminous stars whose luminosity varies in a very regular way. They are named after the star Delta Cephei in the constellation of Cepheus, the first known variable star of

  11. Weighted Feature Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Yazdani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of machine learning methods for clustering depends on the optimal selection of similarity functions. Conventional distance functions for the vector space might cause an algorithm to being affected by some dominant features that may skew its final results. This paper introduces a flexible...... environment for mining algorithms that uses the most suitable similarity functions to cover the diversity of both vector and feature spaces. The paper describes some well known conventional distance functions and introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD) and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD......). These novel functions attempt to balance the impact of the dominant features by covering both feature and vector spaces, additionally to optionally allowing us to increase or decrease the impact of some features. We evaluate and compare the accuracy of our proposed WFD(s) on conventional fuzzy...

  12. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  13. Benchmarking Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the myriad perspectives on measures of quality and benchmarking in distance education. Reviews the standards or benchmarks of quality that have been promulgated by various stakeholder groups. (EV)

  14. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  15. Improved Heterogeneous Distance Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, D. R.; Martinez, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Instance-based learning techniques typically handle continuous and linear input values well, but often do not handle nominal input attributes appropriately. The Value Difference Metric (VDM) was designed to find reasonable distance values between nominal attribute values, but it largely ignores continuous attributes, requiring discretization to map continuous values into nominal values. This paper proposes three new heterogeneous distance functions, called the Heterogeneous Value Difference M...

  16. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Extragalactic Sources at 148 GHz in the 2008 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, T. A.; Juin, J. B.; Lin, Y. T.; Marsden, D.; Nolta, M. R.; Partridge, B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on extragalactic sources detected in a 455 square-degree map of the southern sky made with data at a frequency of 148 GHz from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 2008 observing season. We provide a catalog of 157 sources with flux densities spanning two orders of magnitude: from 15 mJy to 1500 mJy. Comparison to other catalogs shows that 98% of the ACT detections correspond to sources detected at lower radio frequencies. Three of the sources appear to be associated with the brightest cluster galaxies of low redshift X-ray selected galaxy clusters. Estimates of the radio to mm-wave spectral indices and differential counts of the sources further bolster the hypothesis that they are nearly all radio sources, and that their emission is not dominated by re-emission from warm dust. In a bright (> 50 mJy) 148 GHz-selected sample with complete cross-identifications from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey, we observe an average steepening of the spectra between .5, 20, and 148 GHz with median spectral indices of alp[ha (sub 5-20) = -0.07 +/- 0.06, alpha (sub 20-148) -0.39 +/- 0.04, and alpha (sub 5-148) = -0.20 +/- 0.03. When the measured spectral indices are taken into account, the 148 GHz differential source counts are consistent with previous measurements at 30 GHz in the context of a source count model dominated by radio sources. Extrapolating with an appropriately rescaled model for the radio source counts, the Poisson contribution to the spatial power spectrum from synchrotron-dominated sources with flux density less than 20 mJy is C(sup Sync) = (2.8 +/- 0.3) x 1O (exp-6) micro K(exp 2).

  17. Constraints on leptonically annihilating dark matter from reionization and extragalactic gamma background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütsi, G.; Hektor, A.; Raidal, M.

    2009-10-01

    Context: The PAMELA, Fermi and HESS experiments (PFH) have shown anomalous excesses in the cosmic positron and electron fluxes. A very exciting possibility is that those excesses are due to annihilating dark matter (DM). Aims: In this paper we calculate constraints on leptonically annihilating DM using observational data on diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background and measurements of the optical depth to the last-scattering surface, and compare those with the PFH favored region in the mDM- plane. Methods: Having specified the detailed form of the energy input with PYTHIA Monte Carlo tools we solve the radiative transfer equation which allows us to determine the amount of energy being absorbed by the cosmic medium and also the amount left over for the diffuse gamma background. Results: We find that the constraints from the optical depth measurements are able to rule out the PFH favored region fully for the τ-+τ+ annihilation channel and almost fully for the μ-+μ+ annihilation channel. It turns out that those constraints are quite robust with almost no dependence on low redshift clustering boost. The constraints from the γ-ray background are sensitive to the assumed halo concentration model and, for the power law model, rule out the PFH favored region for all leptonic annihilation channels. We also find that it is possible to have models that fully ionize the Universe at low redshifts. However, those models produce too large free electron fractions at z ≳ 100 and are in conflict with the optical depth measurements. Also, the magnitude of the annihilation cross-section in those cases is larger than suggested by the PFH data.

  18. Legacy extragalactic UV survey (LEGUS) with the Hubble space telescope. I. Survey description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzetti, D.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts–Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T. M.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Smith, L. J. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thilker, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Silva, R. da [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California—Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Mink, S. E. de [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dobbs, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Elmegreen, D. M., E-mail: calzetti@astro.umass.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ∼kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(λ2704 Å), F336W(λ3355 Å), F438W(λ4325 Å), F555W(λ5308 Å), and F814W(λ8024 Å); the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(λ4328 Å), F606W(λ5921 Å), and F814W(λ8057 Å). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (≲50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas–star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.

  19. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Star formation history of passive red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, M.; Małek, K.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Pollo, A.; Haines, C. P.; Fritz, A.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; De Lucia, G.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Marchetti, A.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Ilbert, O.; Gargiulo, A.; Moscardini, L.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We trace the evolution and the star formation history of passive red galaxies, using a subset of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The detailed spectral analysis of stellar populations of intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies allows the build up of their stellar content to be followed over the last 8 billion years. Methods: We extracted a sample of passive red galaxies in the redshift range 0.4 history of passive red galaxies. We compare the results with a grid of synthetic spectra to constrain the star formation epochs of these galaxies. We characterize the formation redshift-stellar mass relation for intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies. Results: We find that at z 1 stellar populations in low-mass passive red galaxies are younger than in high-mass passive red galaxies, similar to what is observed at the present epoch. Over the full analyzed redshift range 0.4 time passes, I.e., what has become known as the downsizing picture. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  20. Path integral distance for data interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Volchenkov, D

    2015-01-01

    The process of data interpretation is always based on the implicit introduction of equivalence relations on the set of walks over the database. Every equivalence relation on the set of walks specifies a Markov chain describing the transitions of a discrete time random walk. In order to geometrize and interpret the data, we propose the new distance between data units defined as a "Feynman path integral", in which all possible paths between any two nodes in a graph model of the data are taken into account, although some paths are more preferable than others. Such a path integral distance approach to the analysis of databases has proven its efficiency and success, especially on multivariate strongly correlated data where other methods fail to detect structural components (urban planning, historical language phylogenies, music, street fashion traits analysis, etc. ). We believe that it would become an invaluable tool for the intelligent complexity reduction and big data interpretation.

  1. Statistical Distance For Chaotic Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Johal, R S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this letter is to define a distance on the underlying phase space of a chaotic map, based on natural invariant density of the map. It is observed that for logistic map this distance is equivalent to Wootters' statistical distance. This distance becomes the Euclidean distance for a map with constant invariant density.

  2. Database development and management

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction to Database Systems Functions of a DatabaseDatabase Management SystemDatabase ComponentsDatabase Development ProcessConceptual Design and Data Modeling Introduction to Database Design Process Understanding Business ProcessEntity-Relationship Data Model Representing Business Process with Entity-RelationshipModelTable Structure and NormalizationIntroduction to TablesTable NormalizationTransforming Data Models to Relational Databases .DBMS Selection Transforming Data Models to Relational DatabasesEnforcing ConstraintsCreating Database for Business ProcessPhysical Design and Database

  3. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, A. J.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; de la Torre, S.; Garilli, B.; Bolzonella, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Percival, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    We aim to develop a novel methodology for measuring thegrowth rate of structure around cosmic voids. We identified voids in the completed VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres. We measured the cross-correlation between the centres of voids and the complete galaxy catalogue. The cross-correlation function exhibits a clear anisotropy in both VIPERS fields (W1 and W4), which is characteristic of linear redshift space distortions. By measuring the projected cross-correlation and then de-projecting it we are able to estimate the un-distorted cross-correlation function. We propose that given a sufficiently well-measured cross-correlation function one should be able to measure the linear growth rate of structure by applying a simple linear Gaussian streaming model for the redshift space distortions (RSD). Our study of voids in 306 mock galaxy catalogues mimicking the VIPERS fields suggests that VIPERS is capable of measuring β, the ratio of the linear growth rate to the bias, with an error of around 25%. Applying our method to the VIPERS data, we find a value for the redshift space distortion parameter, β = 0.423-0.108+0.104 which, given the bias of the galaxy population we use, gives a linear growth rate of f σ8 = 0.296-0.078+0.075 at z = 0.727. These results are consistent with values observed in parallel VIPERS analyses that use standard techniques. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in

  4. Kinetic Alfven Waves and the Depletion of the Thermal Population in Extragalactic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafelice, L. C.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Chorros Extragalacticos (CE) y Fuentes Radio Extendidas (FRE) son locales de ricos y complejos procesos de plasma magnetizado. Recien tes observaciones indican que esas fuentes son estructuradas en filamen tos. Nos concentramos aqui en el analisis de dos problemas: 1) el prob[e ma de injecci6n,queespropuesto porlas teorias de aceleraci6n de p ? las en plasmas de CE e FRE, que necesitan partfculas que ya tengan ener gfas moderadamente relativisticas para que los procesos de Fermi sean efectivos; y 2) la reciente evidencia observacional de la ausencia de partfculas termicas en CE. El presente modelo pone en evidencia que ambos problemas estan 1ntimamente relacionados uno con el otro. Jafelice y Opher (1987a) (Astrophys. Space Sci. 137, 303) muestram que es espera da una abundante generaci6n de olas Alf cineticas (OAC) en CE y FRE. En el presente trabajo estudiamos Ia cadena de procesos: a) OAC aceleran electrons termicos al largo del campo magnetico de fondo producien- do electrones supratermicos fugitivos; b) que generan olas Langmuir; y c) las cuales por su vez aceleran una fraccion de los electrones fugi- tivos hasta energias moderadamente relativfsticas. Mostramos que supo - niendo que no haya otra fuente de poblaci6n termica a no ser la , la secuencia de procesos arriba puede encargarse delconsumo de los elec- trones termicos en una escala de tiempo %< que el tiempo de vida de la fuente. ABSTRACT: Extragalactic Jets (EJ) and Extended Radio Sources (ERS) are sites of rich and complex magnetized plasma processes.Recent observa - tions indicate that these sources are filamentary structured. We concentrate here on the analysis of two problems:i) the injection problem, faced by theories of particle acceleration in EJ and ERS plasmas, which need particles with already moderately relativistic energies for the Fer mi processes `to be effective; and 2) the recent observational evidence of the abscence of thermal particles within EJ. The present model makes

  5. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  6. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  7. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  8. Distance Training as Part of a Distance Consulting Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulantelli, Giovanni; Chiazzese, Giuseppe; Allegra, Mario

    "Distance Training" models, when integrated in a more complex framework, such as a "Distance Consulting" model, present specific features and impose a revision of the strategies commonly adopted in distance training experiences. This paper reports on the distance training strategies adopted in a European funded project aimed at…

  9. New HST Observations of the Halo Gas of NGC 3067: Limits on the Extragalactic Ionizing Background at Low Redshift and the Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumlinson, Jason; Giroux, Mark L.; Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.

    1999-01-01

    We present UV spectroscopy from HST/GHRS and reanalyze existing H_alpha images of the quasar/galaxy pair 3C 232/NGC 3067 and of the halo gas associated with NGC 3067. The spectra permit measurement of, or limits on, the column densities of Fe I, Fe II, Mg I, and Mg II in the absorbing cloud. Two distinct models of the extragalactic radiation field are considered: (1) the ionizing spectrum is dominated by a power-law extragalactic continuum, and (2) the power-law spectrum contains a Lyman brea...

  10. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1 and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than 5σ. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model a extra-Galactic component derived from the astrophysical muonic neutrinos reconstructed in the Northern hemisphere. A good agreement between the expected astrophysical neutrino flux and the IceCube data is found for the full sky as well as for the Galactic plane region.

  11. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, Antonio; Grasso, Dario; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than $5\\sigma$. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model) a extra-Galactic component derived from the as...

  12. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  13. The Tarantula Nebula as a template for extragalactic star forming regions from VLT/MUSE and HST/STIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul A.; Caballero-Nieves, Saida M.; Castro, Norberto; Evans, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    We present VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 2070, the dominant ionizing nebula of 30 Doradus in the LMC, plus HST/STIS spectroscopy of its central star cluster R136. Integral Field Spectroscopy (MUSE) and pseudo IFS (STIS) together provides a complete census of all massive stars within the central 30×30 parsec2 of the Tarantula. We discuss the integrated far-UV spectrum of R136, of particular interest for UV studies of young extragalactic star clusters. Strong He iiλ1640 emission at very early ages (1-2 Myr) from very massive stars cannot be reproduced by current population synthesis models, even those incorporating binary evolution and very massive stars. A nebular analysis of the integrated MUSE dataset implies an age of ~4.5 Myr for NGC 2070. Wolf-Rayet features provide alternative age diagnostics, with the primary contribution to the integrated Wolf-Rayet bumps arising from R140 rather than the more numerous H-rich WN stars in R136. Caution should be used when interpreting spatially extended observations of extragalactic star-forming regions.

  14. Databases and their application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimm, E.C.; Bradshaw, R.H.W; Brewer, S.; Flantua, S.; Giesecke, T.; Lézine, A.M.; Takahara, H.; Williams, J.W.,Jr; Elias, S.A.; Mock, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, several pollen database cooperatives have been established. These databases are now constituent databases of the Neotoma Paleoecology Database, a public domain, multiproxy, relational database designed for Quaternary-Pliocene fossil data and modern surface samples. The

  15. Mathematics for Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir. Sander van Laar

    2007-01-01

    A formal description of a database consists of the description of the relations (tables) of the database together with the constraints that must hold on the database. Furthermore the contents of a database can be retrieved using queries. These constraints and queries for databases can very well be

  16. A linguistic signature of psychological distancing in emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Schleider, Jessica L; Somerville, Leah H

    2017-03-01

    Effective emotion regulation is critical for mental health and well-being, rendering insight into underlying mechanisms that facilitate this crucial skill invaluable. We combined principles of cognitive linguistics and basic affective science to test whether shifting components of one's language might foster effective emotion regulation. In particular, we explored bidirectional relations between emotion regulation and linguistic signatures of psychological distancing. In Study 1, we assessed whether people spontaneously distance their language (i.e., shift their word use to be less socially and temporally proximate) when regulating emotions. Participants transcribed their thoughts while either passively viewing or actively regulating their emotional responses to negative images. Regulation increased linguistic markers of social and temporal distance, and participants who showed greater linguistic distancing were more successful regulators. Study 2 reversed this relation and investigated whether distancing one's language spontaneously regulated one's emotions. Participants wrote about negative images either using psychologically "close" or "distant" language in physical, social, and temporal domains. All 3 domains of linguistic distancing spontaneously reduced negative affect. Distancing language also "bled" across domains (e.g., temporal distancing spontaneously produced social distancing). This suggests that distancing one's language in 1 domain (e.g., reducing use of present-tense verbs) produces shifts in deep representations of psychological distance that are measurable across domains (e.g., reduced use of the word "I"). Results extend understanding of language-emotion interactions and reveal novel strategies for reducing negative affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The sound of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglia, Cristina D; Maglio, Sam J; Krehm, Madelaine; Seok, Jin H; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-07-01

    Human languages may be more than completely arbitrary symbolic systems. A growing literature supports sound symbolism, or the existence of consistent, intuitive relationships between speech sounds and specific concepts. Prior work establishes that these sound-to-meaning mappings can shape language-related judgments and decisions, but do their effects generalize beyond merely the linguistic and truly color how we navigate our environment? We examine this possibility, relating a predominant sound symbolic distinction (vowel frontness) to a novel associate (spatial proximity) in five studies. We show that changing one vowel in a label can influence estimations of distance, impacting judgment, perception, and action. The results (1) provide the first experimental support for a relationship between vowels and spatial distance and (2) demonstrate that sound-to-meaning mappings have outcomes that extend beyond just language and can - through a single sound - influence how we perceive and behave toward objects in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum Minimum Distance Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Enrica Santucci

    2017-01-01

    We propose a quantum version of the well known minimum distance classification model called Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC). In this regard, we presented our first results in two previous works. First, a quantum counterpart of the NMC for two-dimensional problems was introduced, named Quantum Nearest Mean Classifier (QNMC), together with a possible generalization to any number of dimensions. Secondly, we studied the n-dimensional problem into detail and we showed a new encoding for arbitrary n-...

  19. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...... of 11 urban families who have moved to the countryside and chosen to commute in order to dwell there....

  20. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mark D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in taxonomy such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The ambiguity of which branching height to choose, is resolved by postulating that branching occurs at the lowest height available. An ultrametric produces a measure of the complexity of sentences: presumably the complexity of sentences increases as a language is acquired so that this can be tested. All ultrametric triangles are equilateral or isosceles. Here it is shown that X̅ structure implies that there are no equilateral triangles. Restricting attention to simple syntax a minimum ultrametric distance between lexical categories is calculated. A matrix constructed from this ultrametric distance is shown to be different than the matrix obtained from features. It is shown that the definition of C-COMMAND can be replaced by an equivalent ultrametric definition. The new definition invokes a minimum distance between nodes and this is more aesthetically satisfying than previous varieties of definitions. From the new definition of C-COMMAND follows a new definition of of the central notion in syntax namely GOVERNMENT.

  1. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  2. Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Emission from Galactic and Extragalactic Photodissociation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David J.; Luhman, Michael L.

    1999-12-01

    Photodissociation region (PDR) models are computed over a wide range of physical conditions, from those appropriate to giant molecular clouds illuminated by the interstellar radiation field to the conditions experienced by circumstellar disks very close to hot massive stars. These models use the most up-to-date values of atomic and molecular data, the most current chemical rate coefficients, and the newest grain photoelectric heating rates, which include treatments of small grains and large molecules. In addition, we examine the effects of metallicity and cloud extinction on the predicted line intensities. Results are presented for PDR models with densities over the range n=101-107 cm-3 and for incident far-ultraviolet radiation fields over the range G0=10-0.5-106.5 (where G0 is the far-ultravioliet [FUV] flux in units of the local interstellar value), for metallicities Z=1 and 0.1 times the local Galactic value, and for a range of PDR cloud sizes. We present line strength and/or line ratio plots for a variety of useful PDR diagnostics: [C II] 158 μm, [O I] 63 μm and 145 μm, [C I] 370 μm and 609 μm, CO J=1-0, J=2-1, J=3-2, J=6-5, and J=15-14, as well as the strength of the far-infrared continuum. These plots will be useful for the interpretation of Galactic and extragalactic far-infrared and submillimeter spectra observable with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope, and other orbital and suborbital platforms. As examples, we apply our results to ISO and ground-based observations of M82, NGC 278, and the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our comparison of the conditions in M82 and NGC 278 show that both the gas density and FUV flux are enhanced in the starburst nucleus of M82 compared with those in the normal spiral NGC 278. We model the high [C II]/CO ratio observed in the 30 Doradus region of the LMC and find that it can be

  3. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  4. NoSQL databases

    OpenAIRE

    PANYKO, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with database systems referred to as NoSQL databases. In the second chapter, I explain basic terms and the theory of database systems. A short explanation is dedicated to database systems based on the relational data model and the SQL standardized query language. Chapter Three explains the concept and history of the NoSQL databases, and also presents database models, major features and the use of NoSQL databases in comparison with traditional database systems. In the fourth ...

  5. USAID Anticorruption Projects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Anticorruption Projects Database (Database) includes information about USAID projects with anticorruption interventions implemented worldwide between 2007 and...

  6. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  7. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J.E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D.O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Whitmore, B.C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L.J.; Bright, S.N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; Dale, D.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify

  8. Distance to Dark Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception. Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies. Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness. A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is. To determine OGLE-2005-SMC-001's distance

  9. PERBANDINGAN EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE DENGAN CANBERRA DISTANCE PADA FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhy Rachmat Wurdianarto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pada dunia komputer sangatlah pesat. Salah satu yang menandai hal ini adalah ilmu komputer telah merambah pada dunia biometrik. Arti biometrik sendiri adalah karakter-karakter manusia yang dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antara orang yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu pemanfaatan karakter / organ tubuh pada setiap manusia yang digunakan untuk identifikasi (pengenalan adalah dengan memanfaatkan wajah. Dari permasalahan diatas dalam pengenalan lebih tentang aplikasi Matlab pada Face Recognation menggunakan metode Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Model pengembangan aplikasi yang digunakan adalah model waterfall. Model waterfall beriisi rangkaian aktivitas proses yang disajikan dalam proses analisa kebutuhan, desain menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language, inputan objek gambar diproses menggunakan Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi face Recognation menggunakan metode euclidean Distance dan Canverra Distance terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing. Untuk kedepannya aplikasi tersebut dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan objek berupa video ataupun objek lainnya.   Kata kunci : Euclidean Distance, Face Recognition, Biometrik, Canberra Distance

  10. Distances and similarities in intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    CERN Document Server

    Szmidt, Eulalia

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in theory and practice regarding similarity and distance measures for intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Quantifying similarity and distances is crucial for many applications, e.g. data mining, machine learning, decision making, and control. The work provides readers with a comprehensive set of theoretical concepts and practical tools for both defining and determining similarity between intuitionistic fuzzy sets. It describes an automatic algorithm for deriving intuitionistic fuzzy sets from data, which can aid in the analysis of information in large databases. The book also discusses other important applications, e.g. the use of similarity measures to evaluate the extent of agreement between experts in the context of decision making.

  11. Defining functional distances over Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Pozo Angela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental problem when trying to define the functional relationships between proteins is the difficulty in quantifying functional similarities, even when well-structured ontologies exist regarding the activity of proteins (i.e. 'gene ontology' -GO-. However, functional metrics can overcome the problems in the comparing and evaluating functional assignments and predictions. As a reference of proximity, previous approaches to compare GO terms considered linkage in terms of ontology weighted by a probability distribution that balances the non-uniform 'richness' of different parts of the Direct Acyclic Graph. Here, we have followed a different approach to quantify functional similarities between GO terms. Results We propose a new method to derive 'functional distances' between GO terms that is based on the simultaneous occurrence of terms in the same set of Interpro entries, instead of relying on the structure of the GO. The coincidence of GO terms reveals natural biological links between the GO functions and defines a distance model Df which fulfils the properties of a Metric Space. The distances obtained in this way can be represented as a hierarchical 'Functional Tree'. Conclusion The method proposed provides a new definition of distance that enables the similarity between GO terms to be quantified. Additionally, the 'Functional Tree' defines groups with biological meaning enhancing its utility for protein function comparison and prediction. Finally, this approach could be for function-based protein searches in databases, and for analysing the gene clusters produced by DNA array experiments.

  12. Distance collaborations with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

    1998-06-01

    The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

  13. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...... and the organisational set-up. It is debated which kind of social learning that has taken place. The innovation process was based on the implementation of an inflexible video-conference system without any proactive considerations of organisational change or pedagocical development. User appropriation of the technology...... was confined to technical problem solving pursued by teachers, students and a limited technical staff. The outcome was a prolonged and troublesome learning and implementation process....

  14. Planck early results. XIII. Statistical properties of extragalactic radio sources in the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    The data reported in Planck's Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) are exploited to measure the number counts (dN/dS) of extragalactic radio sources at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz. Due to the full-sky nature of the catalogue, this measurement extends to the rarest and brightest...... sources in the sky. At lower frequencies (30, 44, and 70 GHz) our counts are in very good agreement with estimates based on WMAP data, being somewhat deeper at 30 and 70 GHz, and somewhat shallower at 44 GHz. Planck's source counts at 143 and 217 GHz join smoothly with the fainter ones provided by the SPT...... and ACT surveys over small fractions of the sky. An analysis of source spectra, exploiting Planck's uniquely broad spectral coverage, finds clear evidence of a steepening of the mean spectral index above about 70 GHz. This implies that, at these frequencies, the contamination of the CMB power spectrum...

  15. A WISE Measurement of the 2:4 mum Galaxy Luminosity Function and its Implications for the Extragalactic Background Light at 3:4 mum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Sean Earl

    2017-05-01

    The measurement of the the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) has seen some controversy in recent works, with direct and indirect measures conflicting. Specifi- cally, upper limits based on analyzing the plausible opacity obscuring TeV spectra of blazars suggests that the density of radiation with wavelengths near 3.4 mum is onethirdtoonehalfasintenseasdirectmeasuresofthesame(forexample: Aharonian et al., 2006; Levenson et al., 2007; Matsumoto et al., 2005). The dominant contributor of the EBL at 3.4mum is expected to be ordinary starlight from relatively local, z Function (LF) should provide a useful lower limit to the EBL. While analyses of this sort have been done by others (Dominguez et al., 2011; Helgason et al., 2012), the full sky coverage of the AllWISE database has made it possible for us to improve the measurement of both the LF at 2.4 mum and the EBL using the large public spectroscopic redshift surveys. In order to do so, we had to develop a mathematical model for the measurement of a generalization of the LF, which is the density of galaxies per unit comoving volume per unit luminosity, to the Spectro-Luminosity Functional (SLF), which replaces the density per unit single luminosity, dL, with the density per luminosi- ii ties at all frequencies, DL nu. Our best combined analysis of the data yields present day Shechter Function LF parameters of: L⋆ = 6.4+/-[0.1 stat, 0.3sys]x1010 L2.4mum [solar mass](M⋆ = -21.67+/-[0.02 stat, 0.05sys] AB mag), φ⋆ = 5.8+/-[0.3stat, 0.3sys]x10 -3 Mpc-3, and alpha = -1.050 +/- [0.004stat, 0.03sys]; this implies a present day density of galaxies of 0.08 Mpc-3 brighter that 106 L2.4mum [solar mass] (10-3 Mpc-3 brighter than L⋆) and a luminosity density equivalent to 3.8 x 108 L2.4mum [solar mass] Mpc-3. The net EBL at 3.4mum that our synthesis model produces from galaxies closer than z = 5 is Inu = 9.0 +/- 0.5 kJy sr-1 (nuInu = 8.0 +/- 0.4 nW m-2 sr -1), largely in agreement with similar LF based estimates of the

  16. Relation between the parameters of dust and of molecular and atomic gas in extragalactic star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, K. I.; Murga, M. S.; Wiebe, D. S.; Sobolev, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The relationships between atomic and molecular hydrogen and dust of various sizes in extragalactic star-forming regions are considered, based on observational data from the Spitzer and Herschel infrared space telescopes, the Very Large Array (atomic hydrogen emission) and IRAM (CO emission). The source sample consists of approximately 300 star-forming regions in 11 nearby galaxies. Aperture photometry has been applied to measure the fluxes in eight infrared bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, 24, 70, 100, and 160 μm), the atomic hydrogen 21 cm line, and CO (2-1) line. The parameters of the dust in the starforming regions were determined via synthetic-spectra fitting, such as the total dust mass, the fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), etc. Comparison of the observed fluxes with the measured parameters shows that the relationships between atomic hydrogen, molecular hydrogen, and dust are different in low- and high-metallicity regions. Low-metallicity regions contain more atomic gas, but less molecular gas and dust, including PAHs. The mass of dust constitutes about 1% of the mass of molecular gas in all regions considered. Fluxes produced by atomic and molecular gas do not correlate with the parameters of the stellar radiation, whereas the dust fluxes grow with increasing mean intensity of stellar radiation and the fraction of enhanced stellar radiation. The ratio of the fluxes at 8 and 24 μm, which characterizes the PAH content, decreases with increasing intensity of the stellar radiation, possibly indicating evolutionary variations of the PAH content. The results confirm that the contribution of the 24 μm emission to the total IR luminosity of extragalactic star-forming regions does not depend on the metallicity.

  17. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  18. New PARSEC database of α-enhanced stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones I. Calibration with 47 Tuc (NGC104) and the improvement on RGB bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo; Montalbán, Josefina; Chen, Yang; Nanni, Ambra

    2018-01-01

    Precise studies on the Galactic bulge, globular cluster, Galactic halo and Galactic thick disk require stellar models with α enhancement and various values of helium content. These models are also important for extra-Galactic population synthesis studies. For this purpose we complement the existing PARSEC models, which are based on the solar partition of heavy elements, with α-enhanced partitions. We collect detailed measurements on the metal mixture and helium abundance for the two populations of 47 Tuc (NGC 104) from the literature, and calculate stellar tracks and isochrones with these α-enhanced compositions. By fitting the precise color-magnitude diagram with HST ACS/WFC data, from low main sequence till horizontal branch, we calibrate some free parameters that are important for the evolution of low mass stars like the mixing at the bottom of the convective envelope. This new calibration significantly improves the prediction of the RGB bump brightness. Comparison with the observed RGB and HB luminosity functions also shows that the evolutionary lifetimes are correctly predicted. As a further result of this calibration process, we derive the age, distance modulus, reddening, and the red giant branch mass loss for 47 Tuc. We apply the new calibration and α-enhanced mixtures of the two 47 Tuc populations ( [α/Fe] ˜0.4 and 0.2) to other metallicities. The new models reproduce the RGB bump observations much better than previous models. This new PARSEC database, with the newly updated α-enhanced stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones, will also be part of the new stellar products for Gaia.

  19. Development of a Relational Database for Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperlioglu, Omer; Sarpkaya, Yilmaz; Ergun, Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, Web-Based Distance Education Systems have a great importance. Web-based Distance Education Systems are usually known as Learning Management Systems (LMS). In this article, a database design, which was developed to create an educational institution as a Learning Management System, is described. In this sense, developed Learning…

  20. Distances with forming environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick L; Filippenko, Alexei V; Burke, David L; Hicken, Malcolm; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Zheng, WeiKang

    2015-03-27

    The luminosities of type Ia supernovae (SNe), the thermonuclear explosions of white-dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and the rate at which they fade. From images taken with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we identified SNe Ia that erupted in environments that have high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, we calibrate these SNe using their broadband optical light curves to within ~0.065 to 0.075 magnitude, corresponding to <4% in distance. The tight scatter, probably arising from a small dispersion among progenitor ages, suggests that variation in only one progenitor property primarily accounts for the relationship between their light-curve widths, colors, and luminosities. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

  2. Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing......, and is being seen as an important activity for 'social life conducted at-a-distance' (Larsen et al, 2007: 244), and holidaying away from home has become an integral part of contemporary life (cf: Krippendorf, 1987; Hall, 2008; Urry, 1995; 2002a). Distances to other places are obviously a fundamental part...... by tourists in an increasingly mobile contemporary society. The research questions guiding this inquiry into distance's status in contemporary leisure mobility reflects the aims of the research: • How is distance being represented in the literature? (guiding the literature review) • How is distance being...

  3. Interaction in Distance Education Environments: A Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Serçin; Yilmaz, Ayse Bagriacik; Dikmen, Cemal Hakan; Ermis, Ugur Ferhat; Gürbüz, Onur

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the trend concerning interaction in distance education between the years 2011 and 2015. According to this aim, 544 articles in the databases of EBSCO, Scopus, and Web of Science were examined. The examination has been conducted on the basis of various variables including year, country, number of authors,…

  4. Interaction in Distance Education Environments: A Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Serçin; Yilmaz, Ayse Bagriacik; Dikmen, Cemal Hakan; Ermis, Ugur Ferhat; Gürbüz, Onur

    The aim of this study is to determine the trend concerning interaction in distance education between the years 2011 and 2015. According to this aim, 544 articles in the databases of EBSCO, Scopus, and Web of Science were examined. The examination has been conducted on the basis of various variables including year, country, number of authors,…

  5. The behavioural motivation model in open distance learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaikin, Oleg; Malinowska, Magdalena; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2014-01-01

    quality didactic material. Open and distance learning system assures a computer space for the teaching/learning process in open environment. The structure of the motivation model and formal assumptions are described. Additionally, there is presented a structure of the linguistic database, helping...

  6. Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (2nd edn) and Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology: An Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, Virginia [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Las Cumbres Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2007-05-07

    a while to find the bits you want. The index lists neither lambda nor the cosmological constant, and inflation is said to appear on pp 307-412. The chapters are of equal length, in traditional textbook fashion. Neither volume has much to say about issues that are currently 'hot'-the importance of extra dimensions, fine tuning of cosmological parameters, possible evidence for cosmic geometry different from the simplest. Discussions of such things will, of course, date a textbook quickly. On the other hand, they are often the items that physics (etc) students will have heard about in colloquia and would like to have clarified. Names appear only as eponyms, from Altarelli Parisi evolution (which is not on the page to which B and G's index refers you) to the Zeeman effect, which is where PS's index says it is. Can I imagine using either of these as texts? Definitely yes for PS, since it is a possible fit to an astrophysics course that UCI offers as a 'vocabulary builder' for students coming out of mainstream physics (and for which we have yet to find an entirely suitable text). We are contemplating a faculty hire or two in astro-particle physics, in which case B and G might well be a good fit to a seminar for students beginning work in that area. If I were asked to teach the course, however, I would probably want an instructor's solution manual for the text problems. One may well exist, though the book does not mention it. Using PS, you will have to make up your own problems (which you can then reasonably be expected to be able to work without help). (Book review of Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (2nd edn), Lars Bergstroem and Ariel Goobar, 2006 Berlin: Springer and Worthing: Praxis, ISBN 978-3-540-33174-2 and Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology: An Introduction, Peter Schneider, 2006 Berlin: Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-33174-2)

  7. Database Description - PSCDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase Description General information of database Database name PSCDB Alternative n...rial Science and Technology (AIST) Takayuki Amemiya E-mail: Database classification Structure Databases - Protein structure Database...554-D558. External Links: Original website information Database maintenance site Graduate School of Informat...available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database Descri...ption Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - PSCDB | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Quantum Minimum Distance Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Santucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a quantum version of the well known minimum distance classification model called Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC. In this regard, we presented our first results in two previous works. First, a quantum counterpart of the NMC for two-dimensional problems was introduced, named Quantum Nearest Mean Classifier (QNMC, together with a possible generalization to any number of dimensions. Secondly, we studied the n-dimensional problem into detail and we showed a new encoding for arbitrary n-feature vectors into density operators. In the present paper, another promising encoding is considered, suggested by recent debates on quantum machine learning. Further, we observe a significant property concerning the non-invariance by feature rescaling of our quantum classifier. This fact, which represents a meaningful difference between the NMC and the respective quantum version, allows us to introduce a free parameter whose variation provides, in some cases, better classification results for the QNMC. The experimental section is devoted: (i to compare the NMC and QNMC performance on different datasets; and (ii to study the effects of the non-invariance under uniform rescaling for the QNMC.

  9. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Coping with Distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    Coping with distances - Producing Nordic Atlantic Societies Mennesker håndterer afstande og producerer derved samfund. Dette er det grundlæggende synspunkt i en afhandling, hvor samfund ikke tages for givet. Samfund er tværtimod noget som hele tiden må produceres, genproduceres og forandres, og det...... været afgørende. Afhandlingen tages sit afsæt i en teoretisk diskussion af begreberne samfund, håndtering (coping på engelsk), social kapital, territorialitet, mobilitet, bonding (stærke identitetsbærende bånd) og bridging (svage, brobyggende forbindelser). Der gås på tværs af vante skel mellem kultur...... trussel mod samfundsbygningen. Men kap. 6 viser de mange måder hvori gennem turismen bidrager til samfundsbygningen, og det er en historie som indledes med en grundig diskussion af opdagelsesrejsernes grundlæggende betydning, også kulturelt. Begge disse kapitler tilføjer coping tilgangen flere analytiske...

  11. Cell Centred Database (CCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Cell Centered Database (CCDB) is a web accessible database for high resolution 2D, 3D and 4D data from light and electron microscopy, including correlated imaging.

  12. E3 Staff Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E3 Staff database is maintained by E3 PDMS (Professional Development & Management Services) office. The database is Mysql. It is manually updated by E3 staff as...

  13. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  14. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  15. Scopus database: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-03-08

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.

  16. Web database development

    OpenAIRE

    Tsardas, Nikolaos A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores the concept of Web Database Development using Active Server Pages (ASP) and Java Server Pages (JSP). These are among the leading technologies in the web database development. The focus of this thesis was to analyze and compare the ASP and JSP technologies, exposing their capabilities, limitations, and differences between them. Specifically, issues related to back-end connectivity using Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) and Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), application ar...

  17. Database Description - RMOS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base Description General information of database Database name RMOS Alternative nam...arch Unit Shoshi Kikuchi E-mail : Database classification Plant databases - Rice Microarray Data and other Gene Expression Database...s Organism Taxonomy Name: Oryza sativa Taxonomy ID: 4530 Database description The Ric...19&lang=en Whole data download - Referenced database Rice Expression Database (RED) Rice full-length cDNA Database... (KOME) Rice Genome Integrated Map Database (INE) Rice Mutant Panel Database (Tos17) Rice Genome Annotation Database

  18. Automated Oracle database testing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring database stability and steady performance in the modern world of agile computing is a major challenge. Various changes happening at any level of the computing infrastructure: OS parameters & packages, kernel versions, database parameters & patches, or even schema changes, all can potentially harm production services. This presentation shows how an automatic and regular testing of Oracle databases can be achieved in such agile environment.

  19. The Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive m...

  20. Latest developments in CRPropa. A tool to propagate UHE cosmic rays through galactic and extragalactic space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Batista, Rafael; Evoli, Carmelo; Sigl, Guenter; Vliet, Arjen van [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Erdmann, Martin; Kuempel, Daniel; Mueller, Gero; Walz, David [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz; Winchen, Tobias [Fachbereich C, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    More than 100 years after the discovery of cosmic rays and various experimental efforts, the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 17} eV) remains unclear. The understanding of production and propagation effects of these highest energy particles in the universe is one of the most intense research fields of high-energy astrophysics. With the advent of advanced simulation engines developed during the last couple of years, we are now in a unique position to model source and propagation parameters with an unprecedented precision and compare it to measured data from observatories. In this contribution latest developments and capabilities of the publicly available propagation code CRPropa are presented. In particular, the impact of new background photon fields and updated TALYS 1.6 databases for computing photodisintegration cross sections. Finally, some applications of the code are illustrated including the simulation of secondary particles.

  1. Distance : between deixis and perspectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Meermann, Anastasia; Sonnenhauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Discussing exemplary applications of the notion of distance in linguistic analysis, this paper shows that very different phenomena are described in terms of this concept. It is argued that in order to overcome the problems arising from this mixup, deixis, distance and perspectivity have to be distinguished and their interrelations need to be described. Thereby, distance emerges as part of a recursive process mediating between situation-bound deixis and discourse-level perspectivity. This is i...

  2. GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA-eXtended (GLEAM-X) survey: Pilot observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley-Walker, N.; Seymour, N.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapinska, A.; McKinley, B.

    2017-01-01

    This proposal is a pilot study for the extension of the highly successful GaLactic and Extragalactic MWA (GLEAM) survey (Wayth et al. 2015). The aim is to test out new observing strategies and data reduction techniques suitable for exploiting the longer baselines of the extended phase 2 MWA array. Deeper and wide surveys at higher resolution will enable a legion of science capabilities pertaining to galaxy evolution, clusters and the cosmic web, whilst maintaining the advantages over LOFAR including larger field-of-view, wider frequency coverage and better sensitivity to extended emission. We will continue the successful drift scan mode observing to test the feasibility of a large-area survey in 2017-B and onward. We will also target a single deep area with a bright calibrator source to establish the utility of focussed deep observations. In both cases, we will be exploring calibrating and imaging strategies across 72-231 MHz with the new long baselines. The published extragalactic sky catalogue (Hurley-Walker et al. 2017) improves the prospects for good ionospheric calibration in this new regime, as well as trivialising flux calibration. The new Alternative Data Release of the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS-ADR1; Intema et al. 2016), which has 30" resolution and covers the proposed observing area, allows us to test whether our calibration and imaging strategy correctly recovers the true structure of (high surface-brightness) resolved sources. GLEAM-X will have lower noise, higher surface brightness sensitivity, and have considerably wider bandwidth than TGSS. These properties will enable a wide range of science, such as: Detecting and characterising cluster relics and haloes beyond z=0.45; Accurately determining radio source counts at multiple frequencies; Measuring the low-v luminosity function to z 0.5; Performing Galactic plane science such as HII region detection and cosmic tomography; Determining the typical ionospheric diffractive scale at the MRO, feeding into

  3. T-PHOT: A new code for PSF-matched, prior-based, multiwavelength extragalactic deconfusion photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, E.; Fontana, A.; Ferguson, H. C.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Bourne, N.; Bruce, V. A.; Buitrago, F.; Castellano, M.; Schreiber, C.; Grazian, A.; McLure, R. J.; Okumura, K.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.; Amorín, R.; Boutsia, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Derriere, S.; Faber, S. M.; Santini, P.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The advent of deep multiwavelength extragalactic surveys has led to the necessity for advanced and fast methods for photometric analysis. In fact, codes which allow analyses of the same regions of the sky observed at different wavelengths and resolutions are becoming essential to thoroughly exploit current and future data. In this context, a key issue is the confusion (i.e. blending) of sources in low-resolution images. Aims: We present t-phot, a publicly available software package developed within the astrodeep project. t-phot is aimed at extracting accurate photometry from low-resolution images, where the blending of sources can be a serious problem for the accurate and unbiased measurement of fluxes and colours. Methods: t-phot can be considered as the next generation to tfit, providing significant improvements over and above it and other similar codes (e.g. convphot). t-phot gathers data from a high-resolution image of a region of the sky, and uses this information (source positions and morphologies) to obtain priors for the photometric analysis of the lower resolution image of the same field. t-phot can handle different types of datasets as input priors, namely i) a list of objects that will be used to obtain cutouts from the real high-resolution image; ii) a set of analytical models (as .fits stamps); iii) a list of unresolved, point-like sources, useful for example for far-infrared (FIR) wavelength domains. Results: By means of simulations and analysis of real datasets, we show that t-phot yields accurate estimations of fluxes within the intrinsic uncertainties of the method, when systematic errors are taken into account (which can be done thanks to a flagging code given in the output). t-phot is many times faster than similar codes like tfit and convphot (up to hundreds, depending on the problem and the method adopted), whilst at the same time being more robust and more versatile. This makes it an excellent choice for the analysis of large datasets

  4. An Interoperable Cartographic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka Ključanin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of producing a prototype of interoperable cartographic database is explored in this paper, including the possibilities of integration of different geospatial data into the database management system and their visualization on the Internet. The implementation includes vectorization of the concept of a single map page, creation of the cartographic database in an object-relation database, spatial analysis, definition and visualization of the database content in the form of a map on the Internet. 

  5. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  6. Galaxy distances and deviations from universal expansion; Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Kona, HI, Jan. 13-17, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Barry F. (Editor); Tully, R. Brent (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A collection of papers on galaxy distances and deviations from universal expansion is presented. Individual topics addressed include: new results on the distance scale and the Hubble constant, Magellanic Clouds and the distance scale, CCD observations of Cepheids in nearby galaxies, distances using A supergiant stars, infrared calibration of the Cepheid distance scale, two stepping stones to the Hubble constant, physical models of supernovae and the distance scale, 21 cm line widths and distances of spiral galaxies, infrared color-luminosity relations for field galaxies, minimizing the scatter in the Tully-Fisher relation, photometry of galaxies and the local peculiar motion, elliptical galaxies and nonuniformities in the Hubble flow, and large-scale anisotropy in the Hubble flow. Also discussed are: improved distance indicator for elliptical galaxies, anisotropy of galaxies detected by IRAS, the local gravitational field, measurements of the CBR, measure of cosmological times, ages from nuclear cosmochronology, extragalactic gas at high redshift, supercluster infall models, Virgo infall and the mass density of the universe, dynamics of superclusters and Omega(0), distribution of galaxies versus dark matter, peculiar velocities and galaxy formation, cosmological shells and blast waves.

  7. Database Description - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us GRIPDB Database Description General information of database Database name GRIPDB Alternative... databases - Protein sequence motifs and active sites Organism Taxonomy Name: Homo Sapiens Taxonomy ID: 9606 Database descript...ailable Web services Not available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Available About This Database Database Descript...ion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Database Description - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase Description General information of database Database name RED Alternative name Rice Expression Database...enome Research Unit Shoshi Kikuchi E-mail : Database classification Plant databases - Rice Database classifi...cation Microarray, Gene Expression Organism Taxonomy Name: Oryza sativa Taxonomy ID: 4530 Database descripti... Article title: Rice Expression Database: the gateway to rice functional genomics...nt Science (2002) Dec 7 (12):563-564 External Links: Original website information Database maintenance site

  9. Database Description - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Arabidopsis Phenome Database Database Description General information of database Database n... BioResource Center Hiroshi Masuya Database classification Plant databases - Arabidopsis thaliana Organism T...axonomy Name: Arabidopsis thaliana Taxonomy ID: 3702 Database description The Arabidopsis thaliana phenome i...heir effective application. We developed the new Arabidopsis Phenome Database integrating two novel database...seful materials for their experimental research. The other, the “Database of Curated Plant Phenome” focusing

  10. Visualization of multidimensional database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung

    2008-01-01

    The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.

  11. Effect of Image Linearization on Normalized Compression Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jonathan; Wu, Jia Jie; Furst, Jacob; Rogers, John; Raicu, Daniela

    Normalized Information Distance, based on Kolmogorov complexity, is an emerging metric for image similarity. It is approximated by the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) which generates the relative distance between two strings by using standard compression algorithms to compare linear strings of information. This relative distance quantifies the degree of similarity between the two objects. NCD has been shown to measure similarity effectively on information which is already a string: genomic string comparisons have created accurate phylogeny trees and NCD has also been used to classify music. Currently, to find a similarity measure using NCD for images, the images must first be linearized into a string, and then compared. To understand how linearization of a 2D image affects the similarity measure, we perform four types of linearization on a subset of the Corel image database and compare each for a variety of image transformations. Our experiment shows that different linearization techniques produce statistically significant differences in NCD for identical spatial transformations.

  12. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): galaxy segregation inside filaments at z ≃ 0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, N.; Arnouts, S.; Vibert, D.; de la Torre, S.; Moutard, T.; Pichon, C.; Davidzon, I.; Kraljic, K.; Bolzonella, M.; Guzzo, L.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Granett, B. R.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Dubois, Y.; Hawken, A.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Moscardini, L.; Sousbie, T.; Treyer, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first quantitative detection of large-scale filamentary structure at z ≃ 0.7 in the large cosmological volume probed by the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We use simulations to show the capability of VIPERS to recover robust topological features in the galaxy distribution, in particular the filamentary network. We then investigate how galaxies with different stellar masses and stellar activities are distributed around the filaments, and find a significant segregation, with the most massive or quiescent galaxies being closer to the filament axis than less massive or active galaxies. The signal persists even after downweighting the contribution of peak regions. Our results suggest that massive and quiescent galaxies assemble their stellar mass through successive mergers during their migration along filaments towards the nodes of the cosmic web. On the other hand, low-mass star-forming galaxies prefer the outer edge of filaments, a vorticity-rich region dominated by smooth accretion, as predicted by the recent spin alignment theory. This emphasizes the role of large-scale cosmic flows in shaping galaxy properties.

  13. Cosmic Ray Origin: Lessons from Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays and the Galactic/Extragalactic Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizot, Etienne

    2014-11-15

    We examine the question of the origin of the Galactic cosmic-rays (GCRs) in the light of the data available at the highest energy end of the spectrum. We argue that the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory and of the KASCADE-Grande experiment suggest that the transition between the Galactic and the extragalactic components takes place at the energy of the ankle in the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum, and at an energy of the order of 10{sup 17} eV for protons. Such a high energy for Galactic protons appears difficult to reconcile with the general view that GCRs are accelerated by the standard diffusive shock acceleration process at the forward shock of individual supernova remnants (SNRs). We also review various difficulties of the standard SNR-GCR connection, related to the evolution of the light element abundances and to significant isotopic anomalies. We point out that most of the power injected by the supernovæ in the Galaxy is actually released inside superbubbles, which may thus play an important role in the origin of cosmic-rays, and could solve some persistent problems of the standard SNR-GCR scenario in a rather natural way.

  14. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  15. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  16. THE DISTANCE TO M104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.

  17. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  18. Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2004-01-01

    Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…

  19. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  20. Distance transforms: Academics versus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.

    In image and video analysis, distance transformations (DT) are frequently used. They provide a distance image (DI) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. DT touches upon the core of many applications; consequently, not only science but also industry has conducted a significant body of

  1. Current Trends in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Richard F.; Thompson, Theron D.

    1995-01-01

    Defines distance education; provides a historical background; discusses emerging modes of instruction, including interactive television, computer-mediated communication, electronic mail, and national and international networks; and considers the future of distance education, including the use of the Internet, multimedia, and a new paradigm for…

  2. The Distance to M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  3. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  4. National Database of Geriatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Vinding, Kirsten L; Hare-Bruun, Helle

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. STUDY POPULATION: The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit....... Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14-15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past......, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Descriptive patient-related data include...

  5. Database Description - SAHG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base Description General information of database Database name SAHG Alternative nam...h: Contact address Chie Motono Tel : +81-3-3599-8067 E-mail : Database classification Structure Databases - ...e databases - Protein properties Organism Taxonomy Name: Homo sapiens Taxonomy ID: 9606 Database description... Links: Original website information Database maintenance site The Molecular Profiling Research Center for D...stration Not available About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - SAHG | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Update History of This Database - SKIP Stemcell Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us SKIP Stemcell Database Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2017/03/13 SKIP Stemcell Database... English archive site is opened. 2013/03/29 SKIP Stemcell Database ( https://www.skip.med.k...eio.ac.jp/SKIPSearch/top?lang=en ) is opened. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Databa...se Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - SKIP Stemcell Database | LSDB Archive ...

  7. Update History of This Database - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Arabidopsis Phenome Database Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2017/02/27 Arabidopsis Phenome Data...base English archive site is opened. - Arabidopsis Phenome Database (http://jphenom...e.info/?page_id=95) is opened. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database... Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Why Do Long-Distance Travelers Have Improved Pancreatectomy Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Manila; Zheng, Chaoyi; Quadri, Humair S; Ihemelandu, Chukwuemeka U; Hong, Young K; Smith, Andrew K; Dudeja, Vikas; Shara, Nawar M; Johnson, Lynt B; Al-Refaie, Waddah B

    2017-08-01

    Centralization of complex surgical care has led patients to travel longer distances. Emerging evidence suggested a negative association between increased travel distance and mortality after pancreatectomy. However, the reason for this association remains largely unknown. We sought to unravel the relationships among travel distance, receiving pancreatectomy at high-volume hospitals, delayed surgery, and operative outcomes. We identified 44,476 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for neoplasms between 2004 and 2013 at the reporting facility from the National Cancer Database. Multivariable analyses were performed to examine the independent relationships between increments in travel distance mortality (30-day and long-term survival) after adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidity, cancer stage, and time trend. We then examined how additional adjustment of procedure volume affected this relationship overall and among rural patients. Median travel distance to undergo pancreatectomy increased from 16.5 to 18.7 miles (p for trend distance was associated with delayed pancreatectomy, it was also related to higher odds of receiving pancreatectomy at a high-volume hospital and lower postoperative mortality. In multivariable analysis, difference in mortality among patients with varying travel distance was attenuated by adjustment for procedure volume. However, longest travel distance was still associated with a 77% lower 30-day mortality rate than shortest travel among rural patients, even when accounting for procedure volume. Our large national study found that the beneficial effect of longer travel distance on mortality after pancreatectomy is mainly attributable to increase in procedure volume. However, it can have additional benefits on rural patients that are not explained by volume. Distance can represent a surrogate for rural populations. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. IPSec Database Query Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Alberto; Chandra, Satish; Piuri, Vincenzo

    IPSec is a suite of protocols that adds security to communications at the IP level. Protocols within IPSec make extensive use of two databases, namely the Security Policy Database (SPD) and the Security Association Database (SAD). The ability to query the SPD quickly is fundamental as this operation needs to be done for each incoming or outgoing IP packet, even if no IPSec processing needs to be applied on it. This may easily result in millions of query per second in gigabit networks.

  10. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  11. Web Technologies And Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Nicoleta Odoraba

    2011-01-01

    The database means a collection of many types of occurrences of logical records containing relationships between records and data elementary aggregates. Management System database (DBMS) - a set of programs for creating and operation of a database. Theoretically, any relational DBMS can be used to store data needed by a Web server. Basically, it was observed that the simple DBMS such as Fox Pro or Access is not suitable for Web sites that are used intensively. For large-scale Web applications...

  12. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  13. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  14. IVR EFP Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains trip-level reports submitted by vessels participating in Exempted Fishery projects with IVR reporting requirements.

  15. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  16. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  17. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  18. Towards Sensor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes; Seshadri, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    . These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way; also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred regardless of the queries that are submitted. In our new concept of sensor database system, queries dictate which data is extracted...... from the sensors. In this paper, we define the concept of sensor databases mixing stored data represented as relations and sensor data represented as time series. Each long-running query formulated over a sensor database defines a persistent view, which is maintained during a given time interval. We...... also describe the design and implementation of the COUGAR sensor database system....

  19. LOWELL OBSERVATORY COMETARY DATABASE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The database presented here is comprised entirely of observations made utilizing conventional photoelectric photometers and narrowband filters isolating 5 emission...

  20. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures......, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3-6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database...

  1. Database Publication Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, P.A.; DeWitt, D.; Heuer, A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems.......There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems....

  2. Databases for LDEF results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the team supporting the LDEF Systems and Materials Special Investigative Groups is to develop databases of experimental findings. These databases identify the hardware flown, summarize results and conclusions, and provide a system for acknowledging investigators, tracing sources of data, and future design suggestions. To date, databases covering the optical experiments, and thermal control materials (chromic acid anodized aluminum, silverized Teflon blankets, and paints) have been developed at Boeing. We used the Filemaker Pro software, the database manager for the Macintosh computer produced by the Claris Corporation. It is a flat, text-retrievable database that provides access to the data via an intuitive user interface, without tedious programming. Though this software is available only for the Macintosh computer at this time, copies of the databases can be saved to a format that is readable on a personal computer as well. Further, the data can be exported to more powerful relational databases, capabilities, and use of the LDEF databases and describe how to get copies of the database for your own research.

  3. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  4. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  5. Nuclear Science References Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr.

  6. Database design and database administration for a kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with creation of database design for a standard kindergarten, installation of the designed database into the database system Oracle Database 10g Express Edition and demonstration of the administration tasks in this database system. The verification of the database was proved by a developed access application.

  7. Combination of evidence in recommendation systems characterized by distance functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L. M. (Luis Mateus)

    2002-01-01

    Recommendation systems for different Document Networks (DN) such as the World Wide Web (WWW), Digitnl Libarries, or Scientific Databases, often make use of distance functions extracted from relationships among documents and between documents and semantic tags. For instance, documents In the WWW are related via a hyperlink network, while documents in bibliographic databases are related by citation and collaboration networks.Furthermore, documents can be related to semantic tags such as keywords used to describe their content, The distance functions computed from these relations establish associative networks among items of the DN, and allow recommendation systems to identify relevant associations for iudividoal users. The process of recommendation can be improved by integrating associative data from different sources. Thus we are presented with a problem of combining evidence (about assochaons between items) from different sonrces characterized by distance functions. In this paper we summarize our work on (1) inferring associations from semi-metric distance functions and (2) combining evidence from different (distance) associative DN.

  8. Distance-invariant object recognition by real-time vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Chinh

    2003-04-01

    An efficient approach to recognize distance-invariant appearing in outdoor and indoor scenes is introduced. The differences of the sizes of object images caused by varying distances are normalized by a model-based subsampling of images. The distance-invariant images both simplify and due to their reduced number of pixels help to accelerate object recognition. This model-based subsampling has been used for creating a database of distance-independent representations of various objects allowing the subsequent recognition of such objects in real time. An interactive user interface with a learning ability was provided to facilitate the introduction of new objects into the database. A number of algorithms for recognizing objects were implemented and evaluated. They employ different forms of object representations and were analyzed regarding their effectiveness for recognizing objects in varying distances. In experiments two of the investigated recognition methods, one based on cross correlation and the other one on user-defined edges, appeared suitable for realizing a fairly reliable object recognition in real time, as required by autonomous vehicles and mobile robots.

  9. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  10. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

  11. Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Gent; D. Siem; M. van Middelkoop (Marienke); A.G. van Os (Anton); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to present a systematic overview of published reports on the incidence and associated potential risk factors of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners. An electronic database search was conducted using the PubMed-Medline database. Two

  12. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1.

  13. A Quality System Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  14. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  15. The Danish Anaesthesia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. STUDY POPULATION: The DAD was founded in 2004...

  16. Children's Culture Database (CCD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanting, Birgit

    a Dialogue inspired database with documentation, network (individual and institutional profiles) and current news , paper presented at the research seminar: Electronic access to fiction, Copenhagen, November 11-13, 1996......a Dialogue inspired database with documentation, network (individual and institutional profiles) and current news , paper presented at the research seminar: Electronic access to fiction, Copenhagen, November 11-13, 1996...

  17. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2008-01-01

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database reports analyses of animal cancer tests on 1,547 chemicals. These tests are used in support of cancer risk assessments for humans. Results are searchable and are made available via the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) TOXNET system. This column will provide background information on the database, as well as present search basics.

  18. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  19. Distance Education in Technological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, “Distance Education in Technological Age”. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE. The initial four chapters provide a detailed account of historical development and growth of distance education in India and State Open University and National Open University Model in India . Student support services are pivot to any distance education and much of its success depends on how well the support services are provided. These are discussed from national and international perspective. The issues of collaborative learning, learning on demand, life long learning, learning-unlearning and re-learning model and strategic alliances have also given due space by the authors. An assortment of technologies like communication technology, domestic technology, information technology, mass media and entertainment technology, media technology and educational technology give an idea of how these technologies are being adopted in the open universities. The study

  20. Some Remarks on Diffusion Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim J. Goldberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a diffusion distance, we propose to use a metric (closely related to cosine similarity which is defined as the 2 distance between two 2-normalized vectors. We provide a mathematical explanation as to why the normalization makes diffusion distances more meaningful. Our proposal is in contrast to that made some years ago by R. Coifman which finds the 2 distance between certain 1 unit vectors. In the second part of the paper, we give two proofs that an extension of mean first passage time to mean first passage cost satisfies the triangle inequality; we do not assume that the underlying Markov matrix is diagonalizable. We conclude by exhibiting an interesting connection between the (normalized mean first passage time and the discretized solution of a certain Dirichlet-Poisson problem and verify our result numerically for the simple case of the unit circle.

  1. Designing Instruction for Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Main, Robert

    1998-01-01

    ... pressure on the training and education fields to meet the demand. Emerging communication technologies have enabled alternative methods for delivering training via distance learning that are being rapidly adopted by academia and industry...

  2. Opportunity Cost of Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Recep

    2004-01-01

    In this study, opportunity cost (OC) of distance education (DE) has been examined. In addition, factors which affect OC of DE have been investigated. (Contains 1 table.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.

  3. ECONOMICS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION RECONSIDERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram LAASER

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT According to Gartner a certain hype of e-Learning was followed by a downturn but eLearning will continue to be an important factor in learning scenarios. However the economic viability of e-learning projects will be questioned with more scrutiny than in earlier periods. Therefore it seems to be a good opportunity to see what can be learned from past experience in costing distance learning projects and what aspects are added by current attempts to measure economic efficiency. After reviewing early research about costing distance learning some more recent approaches will be discussed, such as eLearning ROI-calculators and the concept of total cost of ownership. Furthermore some microeconomic effects referring to localization of distance learning courses are outlined. Finally several unsolved issues in costing distance education are summarized.

  4. Designing Instruction for Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Main, Robert

    1998-01-01

    .... While distance learning has been demonstrated to be an effective and efficient tool for increased access it also requires greater emphasis on instructional design and instructor training to obtain satisfactory results...

  5. Interactive Multimedia Distance Learning (IMDL)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christinaz, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    .... One avenue of investigation has been to evaluate emerging computer and network technologies to determine if training can be delivered at a distance more efficiently than traditional classroom training...

  6. The Kidney Development Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J A

    1999-01-01

    The Kidney Development Database is a bioinformatics resource dedicated to providing easily accessible information on gene expression during the development of the pro-, meso-, and metanephroi of a range of vertebrates. It also contains data on mutant phenotypes and on the effects of experimental manipulation of kidneys developing in culture. The database is searchable by gene name or by expression pattern. It is now being used as a test bed for more "advanced" search strategies that measure hypotheses of gene interactions against expression data to test for any clashes that would make the hypotheses untenable and that scan the database for potentially interesting correlations between changes in gene expression. The Kidney Development Database can be accessed free of charge via the World Wide Web at either of the following uniform resource locators (URLs); http://golgi.ana.ed.ac.uk/kidhome.html, and http://www.ana.ed.ac.uk/anatomy/database/kidbase/ kidhome.html.

  7. Distance Education in Technological Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor), New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode...

  8. A Deep Extragalactic Survey with the ART-XC Telescope of the Spectrum-RG Observatory: Simulations and Expected Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereminskiy, I. A.; Filippova, E. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Sazonov, S. Yu.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Tkachenko, A. Yu.; Lapshov, I. Yu.; Shtykovskiy, A. E.; Krivonos, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    To choose the best strategy for conducting a deep extragalactic survey with the ART-XC X-ray telescope onboard the Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory and to estimate the expected results, we have simulated the observations of a 1.1° × 1.1° field in the 5-11 and 8-24 keV energy bands. For this purpose, we have constructed a model of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population that reflects the properties of the X-ray emission from such objects. The photons that "arrived" from these sources were passed through a numerical model of the telescope, while the resulting data were processed with the standard ART-XC data processing pipeline. We show that several hundred AGNs at redshifts up to z ≈ 3 will be detected in such a survey over 1.2 Ms of observations with the expected charged particle background levels. Among them there will be heavily obscured AGNs, which will allow a more accurate estimate of the fraction of such objects in the total population to be made. Source confusion is expected at fluxes below 2 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 (5-11 keV). Since this value can exceed the source detection threshold in a deep survey at low particle background levels, it may turn out to be more interesting to conduct a survey of larger area (several square degrees) but smaller depth, obtaining a sample of approximately four hundred bright AGNs as a result.

  9. DECIPHERING CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND FROM 2 GeV TO 2 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Necib, Lina; Safdi, Benjamin R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Astrophysical sources outside the Milky Way, such as active galactic nuclei and star-forming galaxies, leave their imprint on the gamma-ray sky as nearly isotropic emission referred to as the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). While the brightest of these sources may be individually resolved, their fainter counterparts contribute diffusely. In this work, we use a recently developed analysis method, called the Non-Poissonian Template Fit, on up to 93 months of publicly available data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to determine the properties of the point sources (PSs) that comprise the EGB. This analysis takes advantage of photon-count statistics to probe the aggregate properties of these source populations below the sensitivity threshold of published catalogs. We measure the source-count distributions and PS intensities, as a function of energy, from ∼2 GeV to 2 TeV. We find that the EGB is dominated by PSs, likely blazars, in all seven energy sub-bins considered. These results have implications for the interpretation of IceCube’s PeV neutrinos, which may originate from sources that contribute to the non-blazar component of the EGB. Additionally, we comment on implications for future TeV observatories such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array. We provide sky maps showing locations most likely to contain these new sources at both low (≲50 GeV) and high (≳50 GeV) energies for use in future observations and cross-correlation studies.

  10. Extragalactic gamma-ray background from AGN winds and star-forming galaxies in cosmological galaxy-formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamastra, A.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Guetta, D.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-10-01

    We derive the contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) from active galactic nuclei (AGN) winds and star-forming galaxies by including a physical model for the γ-ray emission produced by relativistic protons accelerated by AGN-driven and supernova-driven shocks into a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This is based on galaxy interactions as triggers of AGN accretion and starburst activity and on expanding blast waves as the mechanism to communicate outwards the energy injected into the interstellar medium by the active nucleus. We compare the model predictions with the latest measurement of the EGB spectrum performed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) in the range between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. We find that AGN winds can provide 35 ± 15% of the observed EGB in the energy interval Eγ = 0.1-1 GeV, for 73 ± 15% at Eγ = 1-10 GeV, and for 60 ± 20% at Eγ ≳10 GeV. The AGN wind contribution to the EGB is predicted to be larger by a factor of 3-5 than that provided by star-forming galaxies (quiescent plus starburst) in the hierarchical clustering scenario. The cumulative γ-ray emission from AGN winds and blazars can account for the amplitude and spectral shape of the EGB, assuming the standard acceleration theory, and AGN wind parameters that agree with observations. We also compare the model prediction for the cumulative neutrino background from AGN winds with the most recent IceCube data. We find that for AGN winds with accelerated proton spectral index p = 2.2-2.3, and taking into account internal absorption of γ-rays, the Fermi-LAT and IceCube data could be reproduced simultaneously.

  11. The NSF Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Partnering with Arecibo Observatory to Offer Undergraduate and Faculty Extragalactic Radio Astronomy Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaudo, Joseph; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Denn, Grant R.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Lebron, Mayra E.; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Pisano, Daniel J.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Troischt, Parker; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 20 institutions across the US and Puerto Rico, founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The objective of the UAT is to provide opportunities for its members to develop expertise in the technical aspects of observational radio spectroscopy, its associated data analysis, and the motivating science. Partnering with Arecibo Observatory, the UAT has worked with more than 280 undergraduates and 26 faculty to date, offering 8 workshops onsite at Arecibo (148 undergraduates), observing runs at Arecibo (69 undergraduates), remote observing runs on campus, undergraduate research projects based on Arecibo science (120 academic year and 185 summer projects), and presentation of results at national meetings such as the AAS (at AAS229: Ball et al., Collova et al., Davis et al., Miazzo et al., Ruvolo et al, Singer et al., Cannon et al., Craig et al., Koopmann et al., O'Donoghue et al.). 40% of the students and 45% of the faculty participants have been women and members of underrepresented groups. More than 90% of student alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women.In this presentation, we summarize the UAT program and the current research efforts of UAT members based on Arecibo science, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, AST-121105, and AST-1637339.

  12. Globular clusters in the far-ultraviolet: evidence for He-enriched second populations in extragalactic globular clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Kundu, Arunav; Chael, Julia

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the integrated far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission from globular clusters. We present new FUV photometry of M87's clusters based on archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 F170W observations. We use these data to test the reliability of published photometry based on HST space telescope imaging spectrograph FUV-MAMA observations, which are now known to suffer from significant red-leak. We generally confirm these previous FUV detections, but suggest they may be somewhat fainter. We compare the FUV emission from bright (MV Metal-rich globular clusters show a large spread in FUV - V, with some clusters in M31, M81 and M87 being much bluer than standard predictions. This requires that some metal-rich clusters host a significant population of blue/extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars. These hot HB stars are not traditionally expected in metal-rich environments, but are a natural consequence of multiple populations in clusters - since the enriched population is observed to be He enhanced and will therefore produce bluer HB stars, even at high metallicity. We conclude that the observed FUV emission from metal-rich clusters in M31, M81 and M87 provides evidence that He-enhanced second populations, similar to those observed directly in the Milky Way, may be a ubiquitous feature of globular clusters in the local Universe. Future HST FUV photometry is required to both confirm our interpretation of these archival data and provide constraints on He-enriched second populations of stars in extragalactic globular clusters.

  13. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). PCA-based automatic cleaning and reconstruction of survey spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, A.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Identifying spurious reduction artefacts in galaxy spectra is a challenge for large surveys. Aims: We present an algorithm for identifying and repairing spurious residual features in sky-subtracted galaxy spectra by using data from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) as a test case. Methods: The algorithm uses principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the galaxy spectra in the observed frame to identify sky line residuals imprinted at characteristic wavelengths. We further model the galaxy spectra in the rest-frame using PCA to estimate the most probable continuum in the corrupted spectral regions, which are then repaired. Results: We apply the method to 90 000 spectra from the VIPERS survey and compare the results with a subset for which careful editing was performed by hand. We find that the automatic technique reproduces the time-consuming manual cleaning in a uniform and objective manner across a large data sample. The mask data products produced in this work are released together with the VIPERS second public data release (PDR-2). based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), that is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, which is a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/.

  14. DARK MATTER SEARCHES IN THE GAMMA-RAY EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND VIA CROSS-CORRELATIONS WITH GALAXY CATALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Regis, Marco; Fornengo, Nicolao [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Xia, Jun-Qing [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Branchini, Enzo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi “Roma Tre,” via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cuoco@to.infn.it, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: xiajq@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34141, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We compare the measured angular cross-correlation between the Fermi-Large Area Telescope γ-ray sky and catalogs of extragalactic objects with the expected signal induced by weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter (DM). We include a detailed description of the contribution of astrophysical γ-ray emitters such as blazars, misaligned active galactic nucleus (AGN), and star-forming galaxies, and perform a global fit to the measured cross-correlation. Five catalogs are considered: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-DR6 quasars, Two Micron All Sky Survey galaxies, NRAO VLA Sky Survey radio galaxies, SDSS-DR8 Luminous Red Galaxies, and the SDSS-DR8 main galaxy sample. To model the cross-correlation signal, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to estimate the number of galaxies of a given catalog in DM halos and their spatial correlation properties. We discuss uncertainties in the predicted cross-correlation signal arising from the DM clustering and WIMP microscopic properties, which set the DM γ-ray emission. The use of different catalogs probing objects at different redshifts significantly reduces, though not completely, the degeneracy among the different γ-ray components. We find that the presence of a significant WIMP DM signal is allowed by the data but not significantly preferred by the fit, although this is mainly due to a degeneracy with the misaligned AGN component. With modest substructure boost, the sensitivity of this method excludes thermal annihilation cross sections at 95% level for WIMP masses up to few tens of GeV. Constraining the low-redshift properties of astrophysical populations with future data will further improve the sensitivity to DM.

  15. Bridging the Gap from Galactic to Extragalactic: Star Formation and Giant Molecular Clouds within the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faesi, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The questions surrounding the origins of stars are of key importance in astrophysics across a huge range in physical scales. However, until recently, investigations have been restricted to either detailed studies targeting a few nearby regions in the Milky Way, or kpc- or larger-scale studies of entire galaxies. Between these two scales lies a crucial gap in understanding. In this thesis work, I have taken steps in bridging this gap between Galactic and extragalactic star formation. I will present the results of a campaign of observations and modeling targeting the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. Using an extensive suite of multi-wavelength data I have characterized the star formation activity and molecular gas in a large sample of star-forming regions within this galaxy. Additionally, I have assembled an extensive (300 clouds) and high resolution (10 pc) catalog of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) based on ALMA CO observations. This unprecedented look at the population of GMCs in a nearby spiral galaxy reveals an astonishing range of morphologies and properties in the Molecular Gas as well as providing a key testbed for comparison with GMCs in the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies. The GMCs in NGC 300 appear to have similar global properties and show scaling relations consistent with those seen in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the star formation rate appears to correlate with the mass of molecular gas with approximately 250 Gyr depletion time, extending the relation discovered in the Milky Way linearly to larger scales. These results suggest a level of universality in the star formation process within spiral galaxy disks like our own Milky Way.

  16. High-frequency variability of extragalactic radio sources. II: A statistical multi-frequency model of variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdziarz, P.; Machalski, J.

    1993-08-01

    The numerical model of extragalactic variability, proposed by Rys & Machalski (1990), is extended for multi-epoch and multi-frequency sampling of an imaginary population of variable sources. Variability observations gathered in Paper I of this series (cf. Introduction) are used to constrain free parameters of the model. The fits to the observations are satisfactory if the distributions of burst amplitude, duration, and recurrence time between consecutive bursts of radiation are frequency-dependent. The model shows how the characteristics of variability depends on the time-filter applied in observations. In particular we found that (1) the intrinsic amplitude A of the flux- density fluctuations varies with frequency as ν^0.41+/-0.14^, (2) the mean timescale of variability , characterizing the total population of variables, varies as ν^0.9+/-0.1^, and should increase from about 10-15 yr at 10.8 GHz to about 80-120 yr at 1.4 GHz. This behavior is explained by a loss of identity and dissolution of the burst in slowly decaying previous bursts, (3) the "intrinsic" fraction of variables (i.e. a fraction independent on the time filter applied) should increase (e.g. for sources with apparent fluctuation > 0.3, about five times) with increasing frequency from 1.4 to 10.8 GHz, (4) (i) the mean timescale observed in a sample of variables, ω^bar^, is shorter than that in the total population, and (ii) the observed fraction of variables is lower than the intrinsic one, if the time base of observations is shorter than (0.4-1.0) (depending on a number of sampling epochs).

  17. Foreign Concepts of Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Sklyarenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses various foreign concepts of distance education of the past and future. In spite of the considerable progress in theoretical concept developments, the distance education still lacks the required scientific basis. This retrospective analysis is aimed at systemizing the key elements of the theory and practice of education in question, and outlining the main trends. The technology of distance education is reviewed from the following standpoints: industrialization development, distance concept and communication environment. The author points out that the modern concept of distance education has been developed under the influence of the postindustrial society and differs from the preceding approaches to education (pre-industrial and industrial; from the instrument of standard mass education it turns into the individualized way of acquiring the necessary knowledge and information. The innovative information and communication technologies make it indifferent to the time and space barriers; though the distance education is more then just a new way of transmitting the content of traditional education. The author regards it as the potential alternative to the existing educational system due to its capability to assimilate the principles of modern information society and meet its requirements. 

  18. Cannibalization of Dwarf Galaxies by the Milky Way: Distance to the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi-Danso, Jacqueline; Barger, Kathleen; Haffner, L. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Tidal interactions between two dwarf galaxies near the Milky Way, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, have caused large quantities of gas to be flung into the halo of the Milky Way. Much of this tidal debris, known as the Magellanic System, is currently headed towards the disk of the Milky Way, spearheaded by the Leading Arm, with the Bridge connecting the two dwarf galaxies, and the trailing Magellanic Stream at the end. Estimates for the amount of gas that the Magellanic System contains are in the range of (2 - 4) × 109 M⊙ and this could supply our Galaxy with (3.7 - 6.7) M⊙ yr-1 (Fox et al. 2014). Although this is higher than the present star-formation rate of the Galaxy, the position of the tidal debris predisposes it to ionizing radiation from the extragalactic background and Galactic disk, as well as ram-pressure stripping from the halo, hindering gas accretion. Some parts of the Leading Arm, however, appear to have already survived the trip to the disk as their morphology is indicative of interaction with the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. The exact amount of gas that this structure contains is uncertain because of weak constrains in its distance. In this study, we made seven pointed Hα observations using the Wisconsin Hα Mapper Telescope and then compared the Hα intensity we obtained to models of the anticipated ionizing flux from the Milky Way and extragalactic background. From this, we calculated the distance from the Sun to the Leading Arm of the Magellanic System at the locations of our observations.

  19. PADB : Published Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  20. PADB : Published Association Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Sung

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; http://www.medclue.com/padb that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases.

  1. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  2. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  3. Enhanced perceptual distance functions and indexing for image replica recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamra, Arun; Meng, Yan; Chang, Edward Y

    2005-03-01

    The proliferation of digital images and the widespread distribution of digital data that has been made possible by the Internet has increased problems associated with copyright infringement on digital images. Watermarking schemes have been proposed to safeguard copyrighted images, but watermarks are vulnerable to image processing and geometric distortions and may not be very effective. Thus, the content-based detection of pirated images has become an important application. In this paper, we discuss two important aspects of such a replica detection system: distance functions for similarity measurement and scalability. We extend our previous work on perceptual distance functions, which proposed the Dynamic Partial Function (DPF), and present enhanced techniques that overcome the limitations of DPF. These techniques include the Thresholding, Sampling, and Weighting schemes. Experimental evaluations show superior performance compared to DPF and other distance functions. We then address the issue of using these perceptual distance functions to efficiently detect replicas in large image data sets. The problem of indexing is made challenging by the high-dimensionality and the nonmetric nature of the distance functions. We propose using Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) to index images while using the above perceptual distance functions and demonstrate good performance through empirical studies on a very large database of diverse images.

  4. Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Claus; Detlefsen, Sönke; Palnæs Hansen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database aims to prospectively register the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer in Denmark at an institutional and national level. STUDY POPULATION: Since May 1, 2011, all patients......, and survival. The results are published annually. CONCLUSION: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database has registered data on 2,217 patients with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The data have been obtained nationwide over a period of 4 years and 2 months. The completeness...

  5. Nuclear structure database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B.; Browne, E.

    1980-06-01

    A nuclear structure database has been created from the Table of Isotopes level-scheme file. This database contains evaluated data (through 1977) on level and deexcitation properties for all known isotopes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies. The data are organized in simple array formats to enable rapid searches for specific level or decay information. Examples of the use of this database to study the properties of first excited J/sup ..pi../ = 2/sup +/ states in even-even nuclei and Weisskopf enhancements of delayed ..gamma..-ray transitions are shown. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Product Licenses Database Application

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkovikj, Petar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to organize and centralize the data about software tools available to CERN employees, as well as provide a system that would simplify the license management process by providing information about the available licenses and their expiry dates. The project development process is consisted of two steps: modeling the products (software tools), product licenses, legal agreements and other data related to these entities in a relational database and developing the front-end user interface so that the user can interact with the database. The result is an ASP.NET MVC web application with interactive views for displaying and managing the data in the underlying database.

  7. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  8. Counting distance: Effects of egocentric distance on numerical perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronau, Nurit; Izoutcheev, Anna; Nave, Tsafnat; Henik, Avishai

    2017-01-01

    Numerical value is long known to be associated with a variety of magnitude representations, such as size, time and space. The present study focused on the interactive relations of numerical magnitude with a spatial factor which is dominant in everyday vision and is often overlooked, namely, egocentric distance, or depth. We hypothesized that digits denoting large magnitudes are associated with large perceived distances, and vice versa. While the relations of numerical value and size have been long documented, effects of egocentric distance on numeral perception have been scarcely investigated, presumably due to the difficulty to disentangle size and depth factors within three-dimensional visual displays. The current study aimed to assess the potential linkage between egocentric distance and number magnitude, while neutralizing any perceived and/or physical size parameters of target digits. In Experiment 1, participants conducted a numeral size-classification task ('bigger or smaller than 5'), to which they responded with a near-to-body or a far-from-body key. Results revealed shorter responses for small than for large numbers when responded with a key positioned close to the body, and for large than small numbers when responded with a key positioned far from the body (regardless of hand-key mapping). Experiment 2 used verbal stimuli denoting near/remote concepts as irrelevant primes to target digits, further demonstrating a priming effect of conceived distance on numerical value processing. Collectively, our results suggest that distance magnitudes are associatively linked to numerical magnitudes and may affect digit processing independently of the effects of visual size.

  9. Counting distance: Effects of egocentric distance on numerical perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Gronau

    Full Text Available Numerical value is long known to be associated with a variety of magnitude representations, such as size, time and space. The present study focused on the interactive relations of numerical magnitude with a spatial factor which is dominant in everyday vision and is often overlooked, namely, egocentric distance, or depth. We hypothesized that digits denoting large magnitudes are associated with large perceived distances, and vice versa. While the relations of numerical value and size have been long documented, effects of egocentric distance on numeral perception have been scarcely investigated, presumably due to the difficulty to disentangle size and depth factors within three-dimensional visual displays. The current study aimed to assess the potential linkage between egocentric distance and number magnitude, while neutralizing any perceived and/or physical size parameters of target digits. In Experiment 1, participants conducted a numeral size-classification task ('bigger or smaller than 5', to which they responded with a near-to-body or a far-from-body key. Results revealed shorter responses for small than for large numbers when responded with a key positioned close to the body, and for large than small numbers when responded with a key positioned far from the body (regardless of hand-key mapping. Experiment 2 used verbal stimuli denoting near/remote concepts as irrelevant primes to target digits, further demonstrating a priming effect of conceived distance on numerical value processing. Collectively, our results suggest that distance magnitudes are associatively linked to numerical magnitudes and may affect digit processing independently of the effects of visual size.

  10. Update History of This Database - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Trypanosomes Database Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2014/05/07 The co...ntact information is corrected. The features and manner of utilization of the database are corrected. 2014/02/04 Trypanosomes Databas...e English archive site is opened. 2011/04/04 Trypanosomes Database ( http://www.tan...paku.org/tdb/ ) is opened. About This Database Database Description Download Lice...nse Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  12. Social interaction distance and stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Wendy; Prandy, Kenneth

    2003-06-01

    There have been calls from several sources recently for a renewal of class analysis that would encompass social and cultural, as well as economic elements. This paper explores a tradition in stratification that is founded on this idea: relational or social distance approaches to mapping hierarchy and inequality which theorize stratification as a social space. The idea of 'social space' is not treated as a metaphor of hierarchy nor is the nature of the structure determined a priori. Rather, the space is identified by mapping social interactions. Exploring the nature of social space involves mapping the network of social interaction--patterns of friendship, partnership and cultural similarity--which gives rise to relations of social closeness and distance. Differential association has long been seen as the basis of hierarchy, but the usual approach is first to define a structure composed of a set of groups and then to investigate social interaction between them. Social distance approaches reverse this, using patterns of interaction to determine the nature of the structure. Differential association can be seen as a way of defining proximity within a social space, from the distances between social groups, or between social groups and social objects (such as lifestyle items). The paper demonstrates how the very different starting point of social distance approaches also leads to strikingly different theoretical conclusions about the nature of stratification and inequality.

  13. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  14. Callisto Crater Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This web page leads to a database of images and information about the 150 major impact craters on Callisto and is updated semi-regularly based on continuing analysis...

  15. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  16. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  17. The CAPEC Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Lund; Abildskov, Jens; Harper, Peter Mathias

    2001-01-01

    in the compound. This classification makes the CAPEC database a very useful tool, for example, in the development of new property models, since properties of chemically similar compounds are easily obtained. A program with efficient search and retrieval functions of properties has been developed.......The Computer-Aided Process Engineering Center (CAPEC) database of measured data was established with the aim to promote greater data exchange in the chemical engineering community. The target properties are pure component properties, mixture properties, and special drug solubility data....... The database divides pure component properties into primary, secondary, and functional properties. Mixture properties are categorized in terms of the number of components in the mixture and the number of phases present. The compounds in the database have been classified on the basis of the functional groups...

  18. Chemical Kinetics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  19. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  20. Venus Crater Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This web page leads to a database of images and information about the 900 or so impact craters on the surface of Venus by diameter, latitude, and name.

  1. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  2. Tethys Acoustic Metadata Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tethys database houses the metadata associated with the acoustic data collection efforts by the Passive Acoustic Group. These metadata include dates, locations...

  3. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  4. 1988 Spitak Earthquake Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1988 Spitak Earthquake database is an extensive collection of geophysical and geological data, maps, charts, images and descriptive text pertaining to the...

  5. IVR RSA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains trip-level reports submitted by vessels participating in Research Set-Aside projects with IVR reporting requirements.

  6. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  7. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  8. Kansas Cartographic Database (KCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Cartographic Database (KCD) is an exact digital representation of selected features from the USGS 7.5 minute topographic map series. Features that are...

  9. Records Management Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Records Management Database is tool created in Microsoft Access specifically for USAID use. It contains metadata in order to access and retrieve the information...

  10. Fine Arts Database (FAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  11. National Geochemical Database: Soil

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of soil samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US...

  12. NLCD 2011 database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Land Cover Database 2011 (NLCD 2011) is the most recent national land cover product created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium....

  13. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  14. Hawaii bibliographic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and s or (if no ) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  15. Hawaii bibliographic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  16. The Danish Depression Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming; Deleuran, Anette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD) is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. STUDY POPULATION: Inpatients as well as outpatients...... as an evaluation of the risk of suicide are measured before and after treatment. Whether psychiatric aftercare has been scheduled for inpatients and the rate of rehospitalization are also registered. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database was launched in 2011. Every year since then ~5,500 inpatients and 7,500 outpatients...... have been registered annually in the database. A total of 24,083 inpatients and 29,918 outpatients have been registered. The DDD produces an annual report published on the Internet. CONCLUSION: The DDD can become an important tool for quality improvement and research, when the reporting is more...

  17. The Danish Urogynaecological Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Brostrøm, Søren; Hansen, Jesper Kjær

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase) is a nationwide clinical database established in 2006 to monitor, ensure and improve the quality of urogynaecological surgery. We aimed to describe its establishment and completeness and to validate selected variables....... This is the first study based on data from the DugaBase. METHODS: The database completeness was calculated as a comparison between urogynaecological procedures reported to the Danish National Patient Registry and to the DugaBase. Validity was assessed for selected variables from a random sample of 200 women...... in the DugaBase from 1 January 2009 to 31 October 2010, using medical records as a reference. RESULTS: A total of 16,509 urogynaecological procedures were registered in the DugaBase by 31 December 2010. The database completeness has increased by calendar time, from 38.2 % in 2007 to 93.2 % in 2010 for public...

  18. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  19. National Assessment Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Assessment Database stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and other watershed plans designed to...

  20. Household Products Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database links over 4,000 consumer brands to health effects from Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturers and allows scientists and...

  1. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states and...

  2. National Geochemical Database: Concentrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemistry of concentrates from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US and...

  3. National Geochemical Database: Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment in...

  4. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  5. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  6. Nuclear Science References Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B., E-mail: pritychenko@bnl.gov [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Běták, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Singh, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Totans, J. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  7. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  8. Distance interviews in the field of qualitative health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila da Silva Gonçalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to present and discuss the results of a systematic literature review on the use of Distance Interviews (DI in qualitative health research. Searches were conducted in the PubMed and CINAHL databases and 37 references were included. Data were organized according to author, year of publication, journal title, and manuscript objective. The results revealed that the most recurrent theme was the comparison of Distance Interviews with other methods of data collection. Low cost, easier access to respondents, higher participation rates, and recruitment of volunteers were identified as the main benefits offered by DI. Distance Interviews were used for various purposes, from validation of instruments for data collection to diagnosis. We concluded that there is a need to expand on the theme explored in this article, because the incorporation of information and communication technologies in the healthcare field represents a valuable access route in capturing qualitative data.

  9. Steam Properties Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  10. The Nucleic Acid Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Helen M; Westbrook, John; Feng, Zukang; Iype, Lisa; Schneider, Bohdan; Zardecki, Christine

    2002-06-01

    The Nucleic Acid Database was established in 1991 as a resource to assemble and distribute structural information about nucleic acids. Over the years, the NDB has developed generalized software for processing, archiving, querying and distributing structural data for nucleic acid-containing structures. The architecture and capabilities of the Nucleic Acid Database, as well as some of the research enabled by this resource, are presented in this article.

  11. Database on Wind Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, J.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061......his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061...

  12. Database computing in HEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Baden, A. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics); Grossman, R.; Qin, X. (Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science); Cormell, L.; Leibold, P.; Liu, D

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors. I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototype based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  13. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  14. National Database of Geriatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Vinding, Kirsten L; Hare-Bruun, Helle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14-15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past 5 years. An important part of the geriatric approach is the interdisciplinary collaboration. Indicators, therefore, reflect the combined efforts directed toward the geriatric patient. The indicators include Barthel index, body mass index, de Morton Mobility Index, Chair Stand, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. Descriptive patient-related data include information about home, mobility aid, need of fall and/or cognitive diagnosing, and categorization of cause (general geriatric, orthogeriatric, or neurogeriatric). The National Database of Geriatrics covers ∼90% of geriatric admissions in Danish hospitals and provides valuable information about a large and increasing patient population in the health care system.

  15. Euclidean distance geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liberti, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook, the first of its kind, presents the fundamentals of distance geometry:  theory, useful methodologies for obtaining solutions, and real world applications. Concise proofs are given and step-by-step algorithms for solving fundamental problems efficiently and precisely are presented in Mathematica®, enabling the reader to experiment with concepts and methods as they are introduced. Descriptive graphics, examples, and problems, accompany the real gems of the text, namely the applications in visualization of graphs, localization of sensor networks, protein conformation from distance data, clock synchronization protocols, robotics, and control of unmanned underwater vehicles, to name several.  Aimed at intermediate undergraduates, beginning graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, the reader with a basic knowledge of linear algebra will gain an understanding of the basic theories of distance geometry and why they work in real life.

  16. Database Description - TMFunction | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sidue (or mutant) in a protein. The experimental data are collected from the literature both by searching th...the sequence database, UniProt, structural database, PDB, and literature database

  17. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme...... is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adaptive distance protection methodology has good selectivity and sensitivity. What is more, this system also has...

  18. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Kittler, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number

  19. Database Description - RPSD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base Description General information of database Database name RPSD Alternative nam...e Rice Protein Structure Database DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00749-000 Creator Creator Name: Toshimasa Yamazaki ... Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences Toshimasa Yamazaki E-mail : Databas...e classification Structure Databases - Protein structure Organism Taxonomy Name: Or...or name(s): Journal: External Links: Original website information Database maintenance site National Institu

  20. The NuSTAR  Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanzuisi, G.; Goulding, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Lanz, L.; Masini, A.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Treister, E.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8{--}24 {keV})=7× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z=0{--}2.1 (median =0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at > 10 {keV} to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution of spectral parameters such as photon index, column density ({N}{{H}}), reflection parameter ({\\boldsymbol{R}}), and 10–40 keV luminosity ({L}{{X}}). Heavily obscured ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 23) and Compton-thick (CT; {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 24) AGN constitute ∼25% (15–17 sources) and ∼2–3% (1–2 sources) of the sample, respectively. The observed {N}{{H}} distribution agrees fairly well with predictions of cosmic X-ray background population-synthesis models (CXBPSM). We estimate the intrinsic fraction of AGN as a function of {N}{{H}}, accounting for the bias against obscured AGN in a flux-selected sample. The fraction of CT AGN relative to {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=20{--}24 AGN is poorly constrained, formally in the range 2–56% (90% upper limit of 66%). We derived a fraction (f abs) of obscured AGN ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=22{--}24) as a function of {L}{{X}} in agreement with CXBPSM and previous z< 1 X-ray determinations. Furthermore, f abs at z=0.1{--}0.5 and {log}({L}{{x}}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1)≈ 43.6{--}44.3 agrees with observational measurements/trends obtained over larger redshift intervals. We report a significant anti-correlation of R with {L}{{X}} (confirmed by our companion paper on stacked spectra) with considerable scatter around the median R values.

  1. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: Average Broadband X-Ray Spectral Properties of the NuSTAR-detected AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Aird, J. A.; Bauer, F. E.; Civano, F.; Mullaney, J. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Brandt, W. N.; Comastri, A.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanz, L.; Luo, B.; Marchesi, S.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.; Zappacosta, L.

    2017-11-01

    We present a study of the average X-ray spectral properties of the sources detected by the NuSTAR extragalactic survey, comprising observations of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS), Extended Groth Strip (EGS), and the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). The sample includes 182 NuSTAR sources (64 detected at 8–24 keV), with 3–24 keV fluxes ranging between {f}3{--24{keV}}≈ {10}-14 and 6 × 10‑13 erg cm‑2 s‑1 ({f}8{--24{keV}}≈ 3× {10}-14{--}3× {10}-13 erg cm‑2 s‑1) and redshifts in the range of z=0.04{--}3.21. We produce composite spectra from the Chandra + NuSTAR data (E≈ 2{--}40 {keV}, rest frame) for all the sources with redshift identifications (95%) and investigate the intrinsic, average spectra of the sources, divided into broad-line (BL) and narrow-line (NL) active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and also in different bins of X-ray column density and luminosity. The average power-law photon index for the whole sample is {{Γ }}={1.65}-0.03+0.03, flatter than the {{Γ }}≈ 1.8 typically found for AGNs. While the spectral slope of BL and X-ray unabsorbed AGNs is consistent with the typical values ({{Γ }}={1.79}-0.01+0.01), a significant flattening is seen in NL AGNs and heavily absorbed sources ({{Γ }}={1.60}-0.05+0.08 and {{Γ }}={1.38}-0.12+0.12, respectively), likely due to the effect of absorption and to the contribution from the Compton reflection component to the high-energy flux (E> 10 keV). We find that the typical reflection fraction in our spectra is R≈ 0.5 (for {{Γ }}=1.8), with a tentative indication of an increase of the reflection strength with X-ray column density. While there is no significant evidence for a dependence of the photon index on X-ray luminosity in our sample, we find that R decreases with luminosity, with relatively high levels of reflection (R≈ 1.2) for {L}10{--40{keV}} {10}44 erg s‑1 AGNs, assuming a fixed spectral slope of {{Γ }}=1.8.

  2. National Database of Geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannegaard PN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pia Nimann Kannegaard,1 Kirsten L Vinding,2 Helle Hare-Bruun3 1Copenhagen University Hospital, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, Herlev-Gentofte, Geriatric Medical Unit, Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, 2Lillebaelt Hospital, Department of Medicine, Region of Southern Denmark, Kolding, 3Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Study population: The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14–15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past 5 years. Main variables: An important part of the geriatric approach is the interdisciplinary collaboration. Indicators, therefore, reflect the combined efforts directed toward the geriatric patient. The indicators include Barthel index, body mass index, de Morton Mobility Index, Chair Stand, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. Descriptive data: Descriptive patient-related data include information about home, mobility aid, need of fall and/or cognitive diagnosing, and categorization of cause (general geriatric, orthogeriatric, or neurogeriatric. Conclusion: The National Database of Geriatrics covers ~90% of geriatric admissions in Danish hospitals and provides valuable information about a large

  3. Measurements of absolute long distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Florian; Doloca, Nicolae Radu; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Wedde, Martin; Abou-Zeid, Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    The production of large components, e. g. in aerospace industries, requires flexible and yet highly precise measurement techniques to determine absolute lengths of up to one hundred metres. Two different approaches are presented in this paper. One is based on a time-of-flight measurement, using a femtosecond frequency comb as an advanced modulator. By the combined phase analysis of lines of different distinct frequencies in the Mega- and Gigahertz frequency range, a measurement distance of one hundred metres with a relative measurement uncertainty of 1x10-7 was achieved in laboratory conditions. In a second approach to long distance measurements, two standard interferometric measurement techniques, i.e. variable synthetic and fixed synthetic wavelength interferometry, were combined. The two interferometry techniques were realised within a single set-up, using two external cavity diode lasers as sources. Experimentally, lengths of up to twenty metres could thus be determined with relative uncertainties below 1x10-6, in good agreement with theoretical analysis. Both techniques, femtosecond fibre laser-based time-of-flight and diode laser-based multiwavelength interferometry, are therefore capable of absolute, guidance-free long distance measurements and have achieved demonstrated relative measurement uncertainties below 1x10-6 for distances over ten metres.

  4. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    (log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  5. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

  6. Challenges in Delivering Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawdhry, Adnan A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the challenges that exist with DE (Distance Education), university and faculty can provide a strong learning environment for their students if they understand and mitigate the challenges of the DE program. This paper describes a case study of a DE program that offers classroom instruction for multiple sites that are connected using a…

  7. The Future of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Farhad

    2000-01-01

    Examines factors that will influence how distance education is practiced in the first few decades of this new century. Discusses developments in digital technology; the exponential growth of knowledge about the brain, as well as physiology, chemistry, and psychology of learning; the system relationship between individual learners and instructors;…

  8. Video surveillance using distance maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A,

    2006-01-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

  9. Distance, Lending Relationships and Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2002-01-01

    A recent string of theoretical papers highlights the importance of geographical distance in explaining pricing and availability of loans to small firms.Lenders located in the vicinity of small firms have significantly lower monitoring and transaction costs, and hence considerable market power if

  10. Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2003-01-01

    A recent string of theoretical papers has highlighted the importance of geographical distance in explaining loan rates for small firms.Lenders located in the vicinity of small firms face significantly lower transportation and monitoring costs, and hence wield considerable market power, if competing

  11. Affective Touch at a Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    Touch is an important modality for affective communication between individuals. Here we present a system, named the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), that allows two people to communicate different types of touch at a distance by touching their own forearm. In this paper we will introduce the

  12. Distance bounds on quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar, Daniel A.; Zanardi, Paolo; Khodjasteh, Kaveh

    2008-07-01

    We derive rigorous upper bounds on the distance between quantum states in an open-system setting in terms of the operator norm between Hamiltonians describing their evolution. We illustrate our results with an example taken from protection against decoherence using dynamical decoupling.

  13. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

  14. Quality Connection: Going the Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenney, Timothy R.; Roupas, Eva K.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, Virginia Beach City Public Schools launched a completely new distance learning (DL) initiative, Quality Connection. Since that time, through perseverance and creative thinking, the program has become a model of technology as well as a highly successful method of delivering services to a wide variety of stakeholders. Not only do students…

  15. Distance Learning: A Game Changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger; LaBrecque, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Previous research identified a variety of special populations which may be serviced through online learning activities. These have included the military, Native Americans, prisoners, remote occupations, and others. This paper focuses the growing role of distance learning opportunities for student and professional athletes. Special attention is…

  16. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  17. The Danish Depression Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videbech P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Poul Videbech,1 Anette Deleuran2 1Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, 2Psychiatric Centre Amager, Copenhagen S, Denmark Aim of database: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. Study population: Inpatients as well as outpatients with depression, aged above 18 years, and treated in the public psychiatric hospital system were enrolled. Main variables: Variables include whether the patient has been thoroughly somatically examined and has been interviewed about the psychopathology by a specialist in psychiatry. The Hamilton score as well as an evaluation of the risk of suicide are measured before and after treatment. Whether psychiatric aftercare has been scheduled for inpatients and the rate of rehospitalization are also registered. Descriptive data: The database was launched in 2011. Every year since then ~5,500 inpatients and 7,500 outpatients have been registered annually in the database. A total of 24,083 inpatients and 29,918 outpatients have been registered. The DDD produces an annual report published on the Internet. Conclusion: The DDD can become an important tool for quality improvement and research, when the reporting is more complete. Keywords: quality assurance, suicide, somatic diseases, national database

  18. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  19. Distributed database schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, John; Ericson, Jon; Mousessian, Ardvas

    2007-09-01

    The Science Data Processing System (SDPS) application, described herein as an example, has had a long development cycle. The SDPS application incorporates IDL, C++, and Perl programming languages, with significant use of an Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The time involved from initial design, 1996, to operational deployment, on July 15 th, 2004, with the launch of the Aura spacecraft, spans several releases of the Oracle RDBMS. New database versions usher in new features and performance enhancements, sometimes requiring modifications to custom application code to take full advantage of improvements in technology. For a project with an aggressive release schedule, major redesigns of the custom code could jeopardize the successful completion of mission criteria. Over time, higher throughput requirements and hardware improvements in the application computing infrastructure revealed database performance bottlenecks due to increased scanning frequency of ever-growing tables and indexes. The Distributed Schema (DS) database redesign successfully addressed the database scalability and performance limitations, with only minor SIPS application changes and no changes to the TES SDPS application.

  20. S4EI (Spectral Sampling with Slicer for Stellar and Extragalactical Instrumentation), a new-generation of 3D spectro-imager dedicated to night astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayède, Frédéric; Puech, Mathieu; Mein, Pierre; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Malherbe, Jean-Marie; Galicher, Raphaël.; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Fasola, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass (MSDP) spectrographs have been widely used in solar spectroscopy because of their ability to provide an excellent compromise between field of view and spatial and spectral resolutions. Compared with other types of spectrographs, MSDP can deliver simultaneous monochromatic images at higher spatial and spectral resolutions without any time-scanning requirement (as with Fabry-Perot spectrographs), and with limited loss of flux. These performances are obtained thanks to a double pass through the dispersive element. Recent advances with VPH (Volume phase holographic) Grisms as well as with image slicers now make MSDP potentially sensitive to much smaller fluxes. We present S4EI (Spectral Sampling with Slicer for Stellar and Extragalactical Instrumentation), which is a new concept for extending MSDP to night-time astronomy. It is based on new generation reflecting plane image slicers working with large apertures specific to night-time telescopes. The resulting design could be potentially very attractive and innovative for different domains of astronomy, e.g., the simultaneous spatial mapping of accurately flux-calibrated emission lines between OH sky lines in extragalactic astronomy or the simultaneous imaging of stars, exoplanets and interstellar medium. We present different possible MSDP/S4EI configurations for these science cases and expected performances on telescopes such as the VLT.

  1. A survey of HC3N in extragalactic sources - is HC3N a tracer of activity in ULIRGs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan; Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.

    2011-01-01

    Context. HC3N is a molecule that is mainly associated with Galactic star-forming regions, but it has also been detected in extragalactic environments. Aims. To present the first extragalactic survey of HC3N, when combining earlier data from the literature with six new single-dish detections......) and of the J = 1-0 transitions of HCN and HNC. Our combined HC3N data account for 13 galaxies (excluding the upper limits reported for the non-detections), while we have HCN and HNC data for more than 20 galaxies. Results. A preliminary definition "HC3N-luminous galaxy" is made based upon the HC3N/HCN ratio....... Most (~80 %) HC3N-luminous galaxies seem to be deeply obscured galaxies and (U)LIRGs. A majority (~60 % or more) of the HC3N-luminous galaxies in the sample present OH mega- or strong kilomaser activity. A possible explanation is that both HC3N and OH megamasers need warm dust for their excitation...

  2. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Normand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-fly, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

  3. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  4. The Jungle Database Search Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter; Bukauskas, Linas; Dyreson, Curtis

    1999-01-01

    Information spread in in databases cannot be found by current search engines. A database search engine is capable to access and advertise database on the WWW. Jungle is a database search engine prototype developed at Aalborg University. Operating through JDBC connections to remote databases, Jungle...... extracts and indexes database data and meta-data, building a data store of database information. This information is used to evaluate and optimize queries in the AQUA query language. AQUA is a natural and intuitive database query language that helps users to search for information without knowing how...

  5. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures...... for gynecological cancer. STUDY POPULATION: DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. MAIN VARIABLES: DGCD data are organized within separate...... Danish personal identification number (CPR number). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation...

  6. The LHCb configuration database

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, Lana; Gaspar, Clara; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat; Neufeld, Niko

    2005-01-01

    The Experiment Control System (ECS) will handle the monitoring, configuration and operation of all the LHCb experimental equipment. All parameters required to configure electronics equipment under the control of the ECS will reside in a configuration database. The database will contain two kinds of information: 1.\tConfiguration properties about devices such as hardware addresses, geographical location, and operational parameters associated with particular running modes (dynamic properties). 2.\tConnectivity between devices : this consists of describing the output and input connections of a device (static properties). The representation of these data using tables must be complete so that it can provide all the required information to the ECS and must cater for all the subsystems. The design should also guarantee a fast response time, even if a query results in a large volume of data being loaded from the database into the ECS. To fulfil these constraints, we apply the following methodology: Determine from the d...

  7. Database Vs Data Warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouse technology includes a set of concepts and methods that offer the users useful information for decision making. The necessity to build a data warehouse arises from the necessity to improve the quality of information in the organization. The date proceeding from different sources, having a variety of forms - both structured and unstructured, are filtered according to business rules and are integrated in a single large data collection. Using informatics solutions, managers have understood that data stored in operational systems - including databases, are an informational gold mine that must be exploited. Data warehouses have been developed to answer the increasing demands for complex analysis, which could not be properly achieved with operational databases. The present paper emphasizes some of the criteria that information application developers can use in order to choose between a database solution or a data warehouse one.

  8. DistiLD Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleja, Albert; Horn, Heiko; Eliasson, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of hundreds of diseases. However, there is currently no database that enables non-specialists to answer the following simple questions: which SNPs associated...... blocks, so that SNPs in LD with each other are preferentially in the same block, whereas SNPs not in LD are in different blocks. By projecting SNPs and genes onto LD blocks, the DistiLD database aims to increase usage of existing GWAS results by making it easy to query and visualize disease......-associated SNPs and genes in their chromosomal context. The database is available at http://distild.jensenlab.org/....

  9. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  10. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgensen PH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peter Holmberg Jørgensen,1 Gunnar Schwarz Lausten,2 Alma B Pedersen3 1Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy; complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System. Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative

  11. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  12. Pressen, personoplysninger og databaser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2006-01-01

    Det undersøges i hvilket omfang persondatalovens til tider meget restriktive og ikke særlig medieegnede regler dækker journalistisk virksomhed, og der redegøres for den særlige regulering af mediers databaser og samspillet med persondataloven og medieansvarsloven......Det undersøges i hvilket omfang persondatalovens til tider meget restriktive og ikke særlig medieegnede regler dækker journalistisk virksomhed, og der redegøres for den særlige regulering af mediers databaser og samspillet med persondataloven og medieansvarsloven...

  13. The Danish Anaesthesia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. STUDY POPULATION: The DAD was founded in 2004...... and eleven defined complications all covering the anesthetic process from the preoperative assessment through anesthesia and surgery until the end of the postoperative recovery period. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Registered variables include patients' individual social security number (assigned to all Danes) and both...

  14. The CATH database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudsen Michael

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CATH database provides hierarchical classification of protein domains based on their folding patterns. Domains are obtained from protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank and both domain identification and subsequent classification use manual as well as automated procedures. The accompanying website http://www.cathdb.info provides an easy-to-use entry to the classification, allowing for both browsing and downloading of data. Here, we give a brief review of the database, its corresponding website and some related tools.

  15. Database Description - GETDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase Description General information of database Database name GETDB Alternative n...ame Gal4 Enhancer Trap Insertion Database DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00236-000 Creator Creator Name: Shigeo Haya... Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047 Tel: +81-78-306-3185 FAX: +81-78-306-3183 E-mail: Database classification Expression... Invertebrate genome database Organism Taxonomy Name: Drosophila melanogaster Taxonomy ID: 7227 Database des...riginal website information Database maintenance site Drosophila Genetic Resource

  16. Database Description - Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Database Description General information of database Database... name Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Alternative name - DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00954-0...iomedical Innovation 7-6-8, Saito-asagi, Ibaraki-city, Osaka 567-0085, Japan TEL:81-72-641-9826 Email: Database... classification Toxicogenomics Database Organism Taxonomy Name: Rattus norvegi... Article title: Author name(s): Journal: External Links: Original website information Database

  17. Computational Developments for Distance Determination of Stellar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, the determination of distances within our galaxy allows us to cali- brate the distance indicators (Shanks 1997; Tanvir 1997; Brochkhadze & Kogoshvili. 1999) used to estimate distances outside it. Moreover, determining distances would also help astronomers in their quest to understand the size and the ...

  18. When Do Distance Effects Become Empirically Observable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Integrating distance research with the behavioral strategy literature on MNC headquarters-subsidiary relations, this paper explores how the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries relates to value added by the headquarters. We show for 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe that...... pronounced for cultural, economic, and administrative distances than for pure geographic distance, highlighting the critical role of contextual variation for MNCs....

  19. Long distance transportation patterns : mode choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Americans total 1.3 trillion person-miles of long distance travel a year on about 2.6 : billion long-distance trips. Long-distance trips are journeys of more than 50 miles : from home to the furthest destination. More than half of long-distance trips...

  20. Distance Education Use in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Wallace H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Banks, Jonathan B.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    A national survey of rural school systems in the United States was conducted to determine the extent to which distance education is being utilized by rural schools, the technologies used, the curriculum areas impacted, the perceived needs for distance education, their satisfaction with distance education, and the barriers to distance education…

  1. History and Heritage in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Distance education's history is a tremendous resource for all involved in distance education. Some aspects of that history provide enduring touchstones for present distance educators, creating a heritage that should not be overlooked as distance education continues to develop and expand. In this article we draw on the concept of generational…

  2. Moral distance in dictator games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aguiar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experimental investigation using a dictator game in which individuals must make a moral decision --- to give or not to give an amount of money to poor people in the Third World. A questionnaire in which the subjects are asked about the reasons for their decision shows that, at least in this case, moral motivations carry a heavy weight in the decision: the majority of dictators give the money for reasons of a consequentialist nature. Based on the results presented here and of other analogous experiments, we conclude that dicator behavior can be understood in terms of moral distance rather than social distance and that it systematically deviates from the egoism assumption in economic models and game theory. %extit{JEL}: A13, C72, C91

  3. Determining distances using asteroseismic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Victor Silva; Casagrande, L.; Basu, Sarbina

    2013-01-01

    Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification...... of the results is needed. In this talk, I present a new technique developed to obtain stellar properties by coupling asteroseismic analysis with the InfraRed Flux Method. Using two global seismic observables and multi-band photometry, the technique determines masses, radii, effective temperatures, bolometric...... fluxes, and thus distances for field stars in a self-consistent manner. Applying our method to a sample of solar-like oscillators in the {\\it Kepler} field that have accurate {\\it Hipparcos} parallaxes, we find agreement in our distance determinations to better than 5%. Comparison with measurements...

  4. MARKS ON ART database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vlierden, Marieke; Wadum, Jørgen; Wolters, Margreet

    2016-01-01

    Mestermærker, monogrammer og kvalitetsmærker findes ofte præget eller stemplet på kunstværker fra 1300-1700. En illustreret database med denne typer mræker er under etablering på Nederlands Kunsthistoriske Institut (RKD) i Den Haag....

  5. Databases in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    databases is not so much due to particular Inventions , but is a logical step in the natural development of computing technology. The evolution of...During order processing, free form text messages such as "patient needs wheelchair " may be included. A message file is provided from which automatic

  6. The Indra Simulation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Bridget; Budavari, T.; Cole, S.; Crankshaw, D.; Dobos, L.; Lemson, G.; Neyrinck, M.; Szalay, A.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present the Indra suite of cosmological N-body simulations and the design of its companion database. Indra consists of 512 different instances of a 1 Gpc/h-sided box, each with 100 million dark matter particles and the same input cosmology, enabling a characterization of very large-scale modes of the matter power spectrum with galaxy-scale mass resolution and an excellent handle on cosmic variance. Each simulation outputs 64 snapshots, giving over 100 TB of data for the full set of simulations, all of which will be loaded into a SQL database. We discuss the database design for the particle data, consisting of the positions and velocities of each particle; the FOF halos, with links to the particle data so that halo properties can be calculated within the database; and the density field on a power-of-two grid, which can be easily linked to each particle's Peano-Hilbert index. Initial performance tests and example queries will be given. The authors are grateful for support from the Gordon and Betty Moore and the W.M. Keck Foundations.

  7. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  8. Dansk kolorektal Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, Henrik; Nickelsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The Danish Colorectal Cancer Database was established in 1994 with the purpose of monitoring whether diagnostic and surgical principles specified in the evidence-based national guidelines of good clinical practice were followed. Twelve clinical indicators have been listed by the Danish Colorectal...

  9. Database on wind characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Courtney, M.S. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The organisations that participated in the project consists of five research organisations: MIUU (Sweden), ECN (The Netherlands), CRES (Greece), DTU (Denmark), Risoe (Denmark) and one wind turbine manufacturer: Vestas Wind System A/S (Denmark). The overall goal was to build a database consisting of a large number of wind speed time series and create tools for efficiently searching through the data to select interesting data. The project resulted in a database located at DTU, Denmark with online access through the Internet. The database contains more than 50.000 hours of measured wind speed measurements. A wide range of wind climates and terrain types are represented with significant amounts of time series. Data have been chosen selectively with a deliberate over-representation of high wind and complex terrain cases. This makes the database ideal for wind turbine design needs but completely unsuitable for resource studies. Diversity has also been an important aim and this is realised with data from a large range of terrain types; everything from offshore to mountain, from Norway to Greece. (EHS)

  10. The CEBAF Element Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  11. From database to normbase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, R.K.; Liu, Kecheng; Liu, K.; Kolkman, M.; Kolkman, M.; Klarenberg, P.; Ades, Y.; van Slooten, C.; van Slooten, F.; Ades, Y.

    1991-01-01

    After the database concept, we are ready for the normbase concept. The object is to decouple organizational and technical knowledge that are now mixed inextricably together in the application programs we write today. The underlying principle is to find a way of specifying a social system as a system

  12. Distributed XML Database Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiljanic, M.; Blanken, Henk; van Keulen, Maurice; Jonker, Willem

    Invention of XML as a universal standard for data representation triggered enormously wide efforts for its adaptation into almost every IT activity. Databases took one of the focusing places of the XML research. This paper investigates the development path of XML from its origins to its current

  13. Updating a cracked database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Idreos (Stratos); M.L. Kersten (Martin); S. Manegold (Stefan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA cracked database is a datastore continuously reorganized based on operations being executed. For each query, the data of interest is physically reclustered to speed-up future access to the same, overlapping or even disjoint data. This way, a cracking DBMS self-organizes and adapts

  14. Simulation of Numerical Distance Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwali, Hamid; Abdlrahem, Abdlmnam

    2010-01-01

    As modern numerical relays are widely employed in protection systems nowadays and modeling of these types of relays is important to adjust and settle protection equipment in electrical facilities and to train protection personnel, the simulation of distance relays using MATLAB offers a good opportunity to perform these activities efficiently and with minimum cost. Another advantages is that, as MATLAB is a powerful tool rich with component models, any shape of relay characteristic (Impedance,...

  15. Reidentification by Relative Distance Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Shi; Gong, Shaogang; Xiang, Tao

    2013-03-01

    Matching people across nonoverlapping camera views at different locations and different times, known as person reidentification, is both a hard and important problem for associating behavior of people observed in a large distributed space over a prolonged period of time. Person reidentification is fundamentally challenging because of the large visual appearance changes caused by variations in view angle, lighting, background clutter, and occlusion. To address these challenges, most previous approaches aim to model and extract distinctive and reliable visual features. However, seeking an optimal and robust similarity measure that quantifies a wide range of features against realistic viewing conditions from a distance is still an open and unsolved problem for person reidentification. In this paper, we formulate person reidentification as a relative distance comparison (RDC) learning problem in order to learn the optimal similarity measure between a pair of person images. This approach avoids treating all features indiscriminately and does not assume the existence of some universally distinctive and reliable features. To that end, a novel relative distance comparison model is introduced. The model is formulated to maximize the likelihood of a pair of true matches having a relatively smaller distance than that of a wrong match pair in a soft discriminant manner. Moreover, in order to maintain the tractability of the model in large scale learning, we further develop an ensemble RDC model. Extensive experiments on three publicly available benchmarking datasets are carried out to demonstrate the clear superiority of the proposed RDC models over related popular person reidentification techniques. The results also show that the new RDC models are more robust against visual appearance changes and less susceptible to model overfitting compared to other related existing models.

  16. Tuning the Cepheid distance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing observational programs (both from the ground and space) will provide a significantly larger sample of galaxies with well-studied Cepheids both within the Local Group and in more distant galaxies. Recent efforts in the calibration of the Cepheid distance scale utilizing Cepheids in star clusters in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic Clouds are described. Some of the significant advantages of utilizing LMC Cepheids in particular are emphasized, and the current status of the field is summarized.

  17. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hengwei; Josep M. Guerrero; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Liu, Chengxi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adap...

  18. Model-based distance sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland, Stephen Terrence; Oedekoven, Cornelia Sabrina; Borchers, David Louis

    2015-01-01

    CSO was part-funded by EPSRC/NERC Grant EP/1000917/1. Conventional distance sampling adopts a mixed approach, using model-based methods for the detection process, and design-based methods to estimate animal abundance in the study region, given estimated probabilities of detection. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in fully model-based methods. Model-based methods are less robust for estimating animal abundance than conventional methods, but offer several advantages: they ...

  19. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D' Andrea, C B; Dalal, N; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Kuhlmann, S.

    2015-03-15

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  20. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  1. Social interaction distance and stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Bottero, Wendy; Prandy, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    There have been calls from several sources recently for a renewal of class analysis that would encompass social and cultural, as well as economic elements. This paper explores a tradition in stratification that is founded on this idea: relational or social distance approaches to mapping hierarchy and inequality which theorize stratification as a social space. The idea of 'social space' is not treated as a metaphor of hierarchy nor is the nature of the structure determined a priori. Rather, th...

  2. Database management systems understanding and applying database technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, Michael M

    1991-01-01

    Database Management Systems: Understanding and Applying Database Technology focuses on the processes, methodologies, techniques, and approaches involved in database management systems (DBMSs).The book first takes a look at ANSI database standards and DBMS applications and components. Discussion focus on application components and DBMS components, implementing the dynamic relationship application, problems and benefits of dynamic relationship DBMSs, nature of a dynamic relationship application, ANSI/NDL, and DBMS standards. The manuscript then ponders on logical database, interrogation, and phy

  3. Support Services for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Frieden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation and operation of a distance education support infrastructure requires the collaboration of virtually all administrative departments whose activities deal with students and faculty, and all participating academic departments. Implementation can build on where the institution is and design service-oriented strategies that strengthen institutional support and commitment. Issues to address include planning, faculty issues and concerns, policies and guidelines, approval processes, scheduling, training, publicity, information-line operations, informational materials, orientation and registration processes, class coordination and support, testing, evaluations, receive site management, partnerships, budgets, staffing, library and e-mail support, and different delivery modes (microwave, compressed video, radio, satellite, public television/cable, video tape and online. The process is ongoing and increasingly participative as various groups on campus begin to get involved with distance education activities. The distance education unit must continuously examine and revise its processes and procedures to maintain the academic integrity and service excellence of its programs. It’s a daunting prospect to revise the way things have been done for many years, but each department has an opportunity to respond to new ways of serving and reaching students.

  4. Elite Distance Runners and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Audrey R; Phillipps, Breanna; Darroch, Francine E; McGettigan-Dumas, Roisin

    2016-11-01

    Elite female distance runners lack guidelines regarding breastfeeding while training at a high intensity. The purpose of this research was to understand how elite female distance runners manage breastfeeding. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 women who had had at least one pregnancy within the past 5 years and had achieved a minimum of the USA Track and Field 2012 Olympic Trials "B" entry standard for running for the marathon or equivalent performance for 1,500 m or longer. Using thematic analysis, we identified the following themes: breastfeeding as a barrier to training and competition, limited access to relevant breastfeeding information, and concerns for the baby's health. Our findings show that despite the considerable barriers with which these women contend, they breastfed at higher rates and for longer duration than members of the general public. Based on our findings, we argue that elite female distance runners' experiences of breastfeeding would be enhanced if more research were conducted on breastfeeding practices while training and competing at an elite level.

  5. Expected distance between terminal nucleotides of RNA secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clote, Peter; Ponty, Yann; Steyaert, Jean-Marc

    2012-09-01

    In "The ends of a large RNA molecule are necessarily close", Yoffe et al. (Nucleic Acids Res 39(1):292-299, 2011) used the programs RNAfold [resp. RNAsubopt] from Vienna RNA Package to calculate the distance between 5' and 3' ends of the minimum free energy secondary structure [resp. thermal equilibrium structures] of viral and random RNA sequences. Here, the 5'-3' distance is defined to be the length of the shortest path from 5' node to 3' node in the undirected graph, whose edge set consists of edges {i, i + 1} corresponding to covalent backbone bonds and of edges {i, j} corresponding to canonical base pairs. From repeated simulations and using a heuristic theoretical argument, Yoffe et al. conclude that the 5'-3' distance is less than a fixed constant, independent of RNA sequence length. In this paper, we provide a rigorous, mathematical framework to study the expected distance from 5' to 3' ends of an RNA sequence. We present recurrence relations that precisely define the expected distance from 5' to 3' ends of an RNA sequence, both for the Turner nearest neighbor energy model, as well as for a simple homopolymer model first defined by Stein and Waterman. We implement dynamic programming algorithms to compute (rather than approximate by repeated application of Vienna RNA Package) the expected distance between 5' and 3' ends of a given RNA sequence, with respect to the Turner energy model. Using methods of analytical combinatorics, that depend on complex analysis, we prove that the asymptotic expected 5'-3' distance of length n homopolymers is approximately equal to the constant 5.47211, while the asymptotic distance is 6.771096 if hairpins have a minimum of 3 unpaired bases and the probability that any two positions can form a base pair is 1/4. Finally, we analyze the 5'-3' distance for secondary structures from the STRAND database, and conclude that the 5'-3' distance is correlated with RNA sequence length.

  6. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling....

  7. Danish clinical databases: An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Clinical databases contain data related to diagnostic procedures, treatments and outcomes. In 2001, a scheme was introduced for the approval, supervision and support to clinical databases in Denmark.......Clinical databases contain data related to diagnostic procedures, treatments and outcomes. In 2001, a scheme was introduced for the approval, supervision and support to clinical databases in Denmark....

  8. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Timothy N; Carter, Rickey E; Rosedahl, Jordan K; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings.

  9. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N Kruse

    Full Text Available The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings.

  10. Accessing and using chemical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor; Niemelä, Jay Russell

    2013-01-01

    Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval......, and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details...

  11. The Danish Melanoma Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hölmich Lr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lisbet Rosenkrantz Hölmich,1 Siri Klausen,2 Eva Spaun,3 Grethe Schmidt,4 Dorte Gad,5 Inge Marie Svane,6,7 Henrik Schmidt,8 Henrik Frank Lorentzen,9 Else Helene Ibfelt10 1Department of Plastic Surgery, 2Department of Pathology, Herlev-Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, 3Institute of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Breast Surgery and Burns, Rigshospitalet – Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 6Center for Cancer Immune Therapy, Department of Hematology, 7Department of Oncology, Herlev-Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, 8Department of Oncology, 9Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 10Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup – Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients.Study population: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD. In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register.Main variables: The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a, results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date

  12. The GLIMS Glacier Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project has built a geospatial and temporal database of glacier data, composed of glacier outlines and various scalar attributes. These data are being derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each "snapshot" of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. We have implemented two web-based interfaces to the database; one enables exploration of the data via interactive maps (web map server), while the other allows searches based on text-field constraints. The web map server is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant Web Map Server (WMS) and Web Feature Server (WFS). This means that other web sites can display glacier layers from our site over the Internet, or retrieve glacier features in vector format. All components of the system are implemented using Open Source software: Linux, PostgreSQL, PostGIS (geospatial extensions to the database), MapServer (WMS and WFS), and several supporting components such as Proj.4 (a geographic projection library) and PHP. These tools are robust and provide a flexible and powerful framework for web mapping applications. As a service to the GLIMS community, the database contains metadata on all ASTER imagery acquired over glacierized terrain. Reduced-resolution of the images (browse imagery) can be viewed either as a layer in the MapServer application, or overlaid on the virtual globe within Google Earth. The interactive map application allows the user to constrain by time what data appear on the map. For example, ASTER or glacier outlines from 2002 only, or from Autumn in any year, can be displayed. The system allows users to download their selected glacier data in a choice of formats. The results of a query based on spatial selection (using a mouse) or text-field constraints can be downloaded in any of these formats: ESRI shapefiles, KML (Google Earth), Map

  13. KALIMER database development (database configuration and design methodology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Young Bum; Chang, Won Pyo; Hahn, Do Hee

    2001-10-01

    KALIMER Database is an advanced database to utilize the integration management for Liquid Metal Reactor Design Technology Development using Web Applicatins. KALIMER Design database consists of Results Database, Inter-Office Communication (IOC), and 3D CAD database, Team Cooperation system, and Reserved Documents, Results Database is a research results database during phase II for Liquid Metal Reactor Design Technology Develpment of mid-term and long-term nuclear R and D. IOC is a linkage control system inter sub project to share and integrate the research results for KALIMER. 3D CAD Database is s schematic design overview for KALIMER. Team Cooperation System is to inform team member of research cooperation and meetings. Finally, KALIMER Reserved Documents is developed to manage collected data and several documents since project accomplishment. This report describes the features of Hardware and Software and the Database Design Methodology for KALIMER.

  14. The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS). II. VIMOS I, z wide field imaging of ELAIS-S1 and selection of distant massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Rubele, S.; Franceschini, A.; Held, E. V.; Rizzi, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Cimatti, A.; Dias, J. E.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Maiolino, R.; Matute, I.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sacchi, N.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-09-01

    Context: The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS) is the optical follow up of the Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic survey (SWIRE) in the ELAIS-S1 region of the sky. Aims: In the era of observational cosmology, the main efforts are focused on the study of galaxy evolution and its environmental dependence. Wide area, multiwavelength, extragalactic surveys are needed in order to probe sufficiently large volumes, minimize cosmic variance and find significant numbers of rare objects. Methods: We present VIMOS I and z band imaging belonging to the ESIS survey. A total of ~4 deg2 was targeted in I and ~1 deg2 in z. Accurate data processing includes removal of fringing, and mosaicking of the complex observing pattern. Completeness levels and photometric uncertainties are estimated through simulations. The multi-wavelength data available in the area are exploited to identify high-redshift galaxies, using the IR-peak technique. Results: More than 300 000 galaxies have been detected in the I band and ~50 000 in the z band. Object coordinates are defined within an uncertainty of ~0.2 arcsec rms, with respect to GSC 2.2. We reach a 90% average completeness at 23.1 and 22.5 mag (Vega) in the I and z bands, respectively. On the basis of IRAC colors, we identify galaxies having the 1.6 μm stellar peak shifted to z = 1-3. The new I, z band data provide reliable constraints to help avoid low-redshift interlopers and reinforce this selection. Roughly 1000 galaxies between z = 2-3 are identified over the ESIS ~4 deg^2, at the SWIRE 5.8 μm depth (25.8 μJy at 3σ). These are the best galaxy candidates to dominate the massive tail (M > 1011 M_⊙) of the z > 2 mass function. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO No. 168.A-0322(A). ESIS web page:http://www.astro.unipd.it/esis Appendix A, Tables 4 and 5 are only available at http://www.aanda.org The full I and z band catalogs (see Table [see full textsee full textsee full

  15. Odense Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Poulsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Hansen, Morten Rix

    2017-01-01

    The Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED) is a prescription database established in 1990 by the University of Southern Denmark, covering reimbursed prescriptions from the county of Funen in Denmark and the region of Southern Denmark (1.2 million inhabitants). It is still active......-related registers in Denmark. Among its research uses, we review record-linkage studies of drug effects, advanced drug utilization studies, some examples of method development and use of OPED as sampling frame to recruit patients for field studies or clinical trials. With the advent of other, more comprehensive...... sources of prescription data in Denmark, OPED may still play a role as in certain data-intensive regional studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor...... characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered...... of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. CONCLUSION: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring...

  17. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  18. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  19. Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristrup, Claus; Detlefsen, Sönke; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Ladekarl, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database aims to prospectively register the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer in Denmark at an institutional and national level. Since May 1, 2011, all patients with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas have been registered in the database. As of June 30, 2014, the total number of patients registered was 2,217. All data are cross-referenced with the Danish Pathology Registry and the Danish Patient Registry to ensure the completeness of registrations. The main registered variables are patient demographics, performance status, diagnostic workup, histological and/or cytological diagnosis, and clinical tumor stage. The following data on treatment are registered: type of operation, date of first adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and first palliative chemo- or chemoradiation therapy, and dates for milestones in referrals, diagnostic workup, treatment decisions, and treatment. For patients undergoing resection, data on operative evaluation of tumor stage, histological diagnosis, and duration of hospital stay are registered. Death is monitored using data from the Danish Civil Registry. This registry monitors the survival status of the Danish population, and the registration is virtually complete. All data in the database are audited by all participating institutions, with respect to baseline characteristics, key indicators, and survival. The results are published annually. The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database has registered data on 2,217 patients with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The data have been obtained nationwide over a period of 4 years and 2 months. The completeness of registration was 82%. The observed overall 3-year survival after diagnosis was 6%.

  20. Real Time Baseball Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  1. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  2. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  3. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  4. Curcumin Resource Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs. Database URL: http://www.crdb.in PMID:26220923

  5. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish "Pathology Registry", the "National Patient Registry", and the "Cause of Death Registry" using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications.

  6. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  7. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  8. Interactive database management (IDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, R

    1995-08-01

    Interactive database management (IDM) is a data editing software that provides complete data editing at the time of initial data entry when information is 'fresh at hand'. Under the new interactive system, initial data recording is subjected to instant data editing by the interactive computer software logic. Data are immediately entered in final form to the database and are available for analysis. IDM continuously checks all variables for acceptability, completeness, and consistency. IDM does not allow form duplication. Many functions including backups have been automated. The interactive system can export the database to other systems. The software has been implemented for two Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies (CCSHS #5 and CSP #385) which collect data for 1400 and 1000 variables, respectively at 28 VA medical centers. IDM is extremely user friendly and simple to operate. Researchers with no computer background can be trained quickly and easily to use the system. IDM is deployed on notebook microcomputers making it portable for use anywhere in the hospital setting.

  9. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  10. Otkrivenje i etika: pitanje distance

    OpenAIRE

    Kiš, Miroslav M.

    1993-01-01

    Osnovna teza ovoga članka jest da objava nije beznačajna niti bez važnosti za čovjekovo grešno stanje zbog svog nadnaravnog podrijetla. Autor prvo nastoji promotriti odnose između teologije i etike i problem distance. Zatim, ispituje načine na koje su dva istaknuta teologa Reinhold Niebuhr i Carl F. H. Henry objasnili odnos između objave i kršćanske etike. Napokon, autor zaključuje. Obojica teologa, Niebuhr i Henry podvlače apsolutni zahtjev moralnog ideala; ipak obojica (iz različitih raz...

  11. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    a household. Due to a high share of corner solutions among the expenditures on plane tickets and package travelling, the expenditures on these specific commodities are examined with a Tobit approach. The model results find both plane tickets and travel packages to be luxury goods. It also states that travel......With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...

  12. Minimum Distance and Robust Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-05

    K(a)) - (L(b) - L(a))j -m<a maximal ’ interval probability distance. , , ,, i iv) Z ab(KL) a f (K(x) - L(x))2 dL(x) + b[7 (K(x) - L(x...support this proposition, showing :MD-8titors to be competitive with some of the better estimators thus far pro DD , O: ’\\1473 EDITIO O’ ROY 5 IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATIONI OF TWIS PAGE (whmt Desl ’ntld) ~J

  13. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  14. Lithological Uncertainty Expressed by Normalized Compression Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatnieks, J.; Saks, T.; Delina, A.; Popovs, K.

    2012-04-01

    Lithological composition and structure of the Quaternary deposits is highly complex and heterogeneous in nature, especially as described in borehole log data. This work aims to develop a universal solution for quantifying uncertainty based on mutual information shared between the borehole logs. This approach presents tangible information directly useful in generalization of the geometry and lithology of the Quaternary sediments for use in regional groundwater flow models as a qualitative estimate of lithological uncertainty involving thousands of borehole logs would be humanly impossible due to the amount of raw data involved. Our aim is to improve parametrization of recharge in the Quaternary strata. This research however holds appeal for other areas of reservoir modelling, as demonstrated in the 2011 paper by Wellmann & Regenauer-Lieb. For our experiments we used extracts of the Quaternary strata from general-purpose geological borehole log database maintained by the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, spanning the territory of Latvia. Lithological codes were generalised into 2 aggregation levels consisting of 5 and 20 rock types respectively. Our calculation of borehole log similarity relies on the concept of information distance proposed by Bennet et al. in 1998. This was developed into a practical data mining application by Cilibrasi in the 2007 dissertation. The resulting implementation called CompLearn utilities provide a calculation of the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) metric. It relies on the universal data compression algorithms for estimating mutual information content in the data. This approach has proven to be universally successful for parameter free data mining in disciplines from molecular biology to network intrusion monitoring. To improve this approach for use in geology it is beneficial to apply several transformations as pre-processing steps to the borehole log data. Efficiency of text stream compressors, such as

  15. Establishment of a database of fetal congenital heart malformations and preliminary investigation of its clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xue Gao

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: A database of 40 different cross-sectional fetal CHDs was established. An extensive database library of fetal CHDs, from which sonographers and students can study the anatomical features of fetal CHDs and virtualize fetal echocardiography findings via either centralized training or distance education, can be established in the future by accumulating further cases.

  16. PLASMA EFFECTS ON EXTRAGALACTIC ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY HADRON BEAMS IN COSMIC VOIDS. II. KINETIC INSTABILITY OF PARALLEL ELECTROSTATIC WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R., E-mail: steffen.krakau@rub.de, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-02-20

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of parallel electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays from their distant sources to Earth. As opposed to the previous paper, we calculate the minimum instability growth time for Lorentz-distributed cosmic rays which traverse the hot IGM. The growth times are orders of magnitude higher than the cosmic-ray propagation time in the IGM. Since the backreaction of the generated plasma fluctuations (plateauing) lasts longer than the propagation time, the cosmic-ray hadron beam can propagate to the Earth without losing a significant amount of energy to electrostatic turbulence.

  17. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  18. Braking distance algorithm for autonomous cars using road surface recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, C.; Ashok, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; Desai, Rohan; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    India is yet to accept semi/fully – autonomous cars and one of the reasons, was loss of control on bad roads. For a better handling on these roads we require advanced braking and that can be done by adapting electronics into the conventional type of braking. In Recent years, the automation in braking system led us to various benefits like traction control system, anti-lock braking system etc. This research work describes and experiments the method for recognizing road surface profile and calculating braking distance. An ultra-sonic surface recognition sensor, mounted underneath the car will send a high frequency wave on to the road surface, which is received by a receiver with in the sensor, it calculates the time taken for the wave to rebound and thus calculates the distance from the point where sensor is mounted. A displacement graph will be plotted based on the output of the sensor. A relationship can be derived between the displacement plot and roughness index through which the friction coefficient can be derived in Matlab for continuous calculation throughout the distance travelled. Since it is a non-contact type of profiling, it is non-destructive. The friction coefficient values received in real-time is used to calculate optimum braking distance. This system, when installed on normal cars can also be used to create a database of road surfaces, especially in cities, which can be shared with other cars. This will help in navigation as well as making the cars more efficient.

  19. An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barbato, F.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalani, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Cobos Cerutti, A. C.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Consolati, G.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D’Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farmer, J.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fenu, F.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaïor, R.; García, B.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Halliday, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Jurysek, J.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemmerich, N.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; Lago, B. L.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, R. G.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lo Presti, D.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Lorek, R.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Merenda, K.-D.; Michal, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Morlino, G.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlin, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Poh, J.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Ridky, J.; Riehn, F.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schröder, S.; Schulz, A.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Soriano, J. F.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strafella, F.; Streich, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šupík, J.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Ventura, C.; Vergara Quispe, I. D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiedeński, M.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A new analysis of the data set from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 {EeV} with zenith angles up to 80° recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects, and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0σ, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 {EeV}. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7σ–3.2σ significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed. Any correspondence should be addressed to .

  20. Indication of anisotropy in arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays through comparison to the flux pattern of extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2018-01-18

    A new analysis of the dataset from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 EeV with zenith angles up to 80 deg recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0 sigma, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 EeV. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7-3.2 sigma significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed.

  1. The Danish fetal medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  2. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  3. Multilevel security for relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Faragallah, Osama S; El-Samie, Fathi E Abd

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of Database Security Database Concepts Relational Database Security Concepts Access Control in Relational Databases      Discretionary Access Control      Mandatory Access Control      Role-Based Access Control Work Objectives Book Organization Basic Concept of Multilevel Database Security IntroductionMultilevel Database Relations Polyinstantiation      Invisible Polyinstantiation      Visible Polyinstantiation      Types of Polyinstantiation      Architectural Consideration

  4. Open and Distance Learning Today. Routledge Studies in Distance Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Fred, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on open and distance learning today: "Preface" (Daniel); "Big Bang Theory in Distance Education" (Hawkridge); "Practical Agenda for Theorists of Distance Education" (Perraton); "Trends, Directions and Needs: A View from Developing Countries" (Koul); "American…

  5. License - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pliance with the terms and conditions of the license described below. The license s...List Contact us Trypanosomes Database License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2014/02/04 You may use this database in com

  6. Distance Learning Plan Development: Initiating Organizational Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poole, Clifton

    1998-01-01

    .... Army distance learning plan managers to examine the DLPs they were directing. The analysis showed that neither army nor civilian distance learning plan managers used formalized requirements for organizational structure development (OSD...

  7. Measuring Corporate Readiness To Implement Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slick, Joan Friton

    2001-01-01

    Examines distance education issues for corporations and offers a measurement tool to assess corporate readiness for distance education. Topics include costs; competitive advantages; customized training; effectiveness; organizational support; instructional design; managerial support; and learner attitudes. (Author/LRW)

  8. The Danish Melanoma Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow's tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research.

  9. Towards Temporal Graph Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Alexander; Mozzino, Jorge; Vaisman, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the extensive literature on graph databases (GDBs), temporal GDBs have not received too much attention so far. Temporal GBDs can capture, for example, the evolution of social networks across time, a relevant topic in data analysis nowadays. In this paper we propose a data model and query language (denoted TEG-QL) for temporal GDBs, based on the notion of attribute graphs. This allows a straightforward translation to Neo4J, a well-known GBD. We present extensive examples of the use...

  10. Harmonization of Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlifue, Susan; Tate, Denise; Biering-Sorensen, Fin

    2016-01-01

    highlights the need for validated and relevant data for longitudinal clinical trials and observational and epidemiologic SCI-related studies. Three existing SCI clinical research databases/registries are reviewed and summarized with regard to current formats, collection methods, and uses, including major...... a variety of statistical skills and epidemiologic techniques. Ultimately, our ability to speak the same language with regard to variables and assessment tools will facilitate international collaborations and enhance comparability, data pooling, and the ability to generalize findings to a broader population....

  11. Databases for Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    LANGOF, LADO

    2015-01-01

    This work is about looking for synergies between data mining tools and databa\\-se management systems (DBMS). Imagine a situation where we need to solve an analytical problem using data that are too large to be processed solely inside the main physical memory and at the same time too small to put data warehouse or distributed analytical system in place. The target area is therefore a single personal computer that is used to solve data mining problems. We are looking for tools that allows us to...

  12. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen SM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Mejer Sørensen,1 Signe Frahm Bjørn,1 Kirsten Marie Jochumsen,2 Pernille Tine Jensen,2 Ingrid Regitze Thranov,1 Helle Hare-Bruun,3 Lene Seibæk,4 Claus Høgdall1 1Department of Gynecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population: DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables: DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish "Pathology Registry", the "National Patient Registry", and the "Cause of Death Registry" using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number. Descriptive data: Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion: The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many

  13. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification...... of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. CONCLUSION: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring...

  14. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose ...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  15. EMU Lessons Learned Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kevin M., Jr.; Crocker, Lori; Cupples, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    As manned space exploration takes on the task of traveling beyond low Earth orbit, many problems arise that must be solved in order to make the journey possible. One major task is protecting humans from the harsh space environment. The current method of protecting astronauts during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is through use of the specially designed Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). As more rigorous EVA conditions need to be endured at new destinations, the suit will need to be tailored and improved in order to accommodate the astronaut. The Objective behind the EMU Lessons Learned Database(LLD) is to be able to create a tool which will assist in the development of next-generation EMUs, along with maintenance and improvement of the current EMU, by compiling data from Failure Investigation and Analysis Reports (FIARs) which have information on past suit failures. FIARs use a system of codes that give more information on the aspects of the failure, but if one is unfamiliar with the EMU they will be unable to decipher the information. A goal of the EMU LLD is to not only compile the information, but to present it in a user-friendly, organized, searchable database accessible to all familiarity levels with the EMU; both newcomers and veterans alike. The EMU LLD originally started as an Excel database, which allowed easy navigation and analysis of the data through pivot charts. Creating an entry requires access to the Problem Reporting And Corrective Action database (PRACA), which contains the original FIAR data for all hardware. FIAR data are then transferred to, defined, and formatted in the LLD. Work is being done to create a web-based version of the LLD in order to increase accessibility to all of Johnson Space Center (JSC), which includes converting entries from Excel to the HTML format. FIARs related to the EMU have been completed in the Excel version, and now focus has shifted to expanding FIAR data in the LLD to include EVA tools and support hardware such as

  16. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Suduc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  17. Database Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), held in Vienna, Austria, on September 23-24, 2007. DBPL 2007 was one of 15 meetings co-located with VLBD (the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases). DBPL continues...... to present the very best work at the intersection of dataase and programming language research. The proceedings include a paper based on the invited talk by Wenfie Fan and the 16 contributed papers that were selected by at least three members of the program committee. In addition, the program commitee sought...

  18. Rett networked database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillo, Elisa; Villard, Laurent; Clarke, Angus

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with one principal phenotype and several distinct, atypical variants (Zappella, early seizure onset and congenital variants). Mutations in MECP2 are found in most cases of classic RTT but at least two additional genes, CDKL5 and FOXG1, can...... underlie some (usually variant) cases. There is only limited correlation between genotype and phenotype. The Rett Networked Database (http://www.rettdatabasenetwork.org/) has been established to share clinical and genetic information. Through an "adaptor" process of data harmonization, a set of 293...

  19. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  20. Auditory Perception in Open Field: Distance Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    in a concert hall, while the musicians have the tendency to underestimate such a distance. 6. Distance Estimation in an Open Field The difficulty... Musicians and Sound Engineers in Estimation of Egocentric Source Distance in a Concert Hall Stereophonic Recording. Proceedings of the 28th International...Servos, P. Distance Estimation in the Visual and Visuomotor Systems. Experimental Brain Research 2000, 130, 35–47. Shaw, B. K.; McGowan, R. S.; Turvey, M

  1. China's Natural Resources Database (CNRD)

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zehui

    2006-01-01

    China's Natural Resources Database (CNRD) is a comprehensive database, developed to support the research on natural resources, social sustainable development and environmental security in China. This paper intends to introduce the background, contents, characteristics and application of the CNRD.

  2. Concepts Hierarchies for Extensible Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    of measurement. Finally, a concept is defined for each relation in the database. These concepts can be used to build a concept hierarchy to help ensure queries are consistent with the semantics of the database design.

  3. A Case for Database Filesystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, P A; Hax, J C

    2009-05-13

    Data intensive science is offering new challenges and opportunities for Information Technology and traditional relational databases in particular. Database filesystems offer the potential to store Level Zero data and analyze Level 1 and Level 3 data within the same database system [2]. Scientific data is typically composed of both unstructured files and scalar data. Oracle SecureFiles is a new database filesystem feature in Oracle Database 11g that is specifically engineered to deliver high performance and scalability for storing unstructured or file data inside the Oracle database. SecureFiles presents the best of both the filesystem and the database worlds for unstructured content. Data stored inside SecureFiles can be queried or written at performance levels comparable to that of traditional filesystems while retaining the advantages of the Oracle database.

  4. Categorical database generalization in GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Categorical database, categorical database generalization, Formal data structure, constraints, transformation unit, classification hierarchy, aggregation hierarchy, semantic similarity, data model,

  5. Brasilia’s Database Administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Adriana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Database administration has gained an essential role in the management of new database technologies. Different data models are being created for supporting the enormous data volume, from the traditional relational database. These new models are called NoSQL (Not only SQL databases. The adoption of best practices and procedures, has become essential for the operation of database management systems. Thus, this paper investigates some of the techniques and tools used by database administrators. The study highlights features and particularities in databases within the area of Brasilia, the Capital of Brazil. The results point to which new technologies regarding database management are currently the most relevant, as well as the central issues in this area.

  6. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database being developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the US Environmental...

  7. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    schemata, query evaluation, semantic processing, information retrieval, temporal and spatial databases, querying XML, organisational aspects of databases, natural language processing, ontologies, Web data extraction, semantic Web, data stream management, data extraction, distributed database systems......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  8. The USAID Environmental Compliance Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Environmental Compliance Database is a record of environmental compliance submissions with their outcomes. Documents in the database can be found by visiting the...

  9. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality (formerly the Office of Mobile Sources).

  10. Database Description - ConfC | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase Description General information of database Database name ConfC Alternative name Database...amotsu Noguchi Tel: 042-495-8736 E-mail: Database classification Structure Database...s - Protein structure Structure Databases - Small molecules Structure Databases - Nucleic acid structure Database... services - Need for user registration - About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database... Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - ConfC | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Psychological distance can improve decision making under information overload via gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukura, Jun; Ferguson, Melissa J; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-08-01

    Making a decision can be especially difficult when it is based upon a large amount of information. A number of demonstrations in the literature suggest that decision making under information overload leads to suboptimal outcomes. In this article, we draw on construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) and fuzzy-trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 1993) to suggest that psychologically distancing oneself from the information can be beneficial to decision making under information overload. Specifically, we propose that distancing prompts organization of information in terms of its gist. Across 4 studies, we demonstrated that increasing spatial distance, temporal distance, and abstraction lead to better decision outcomes when decision makers were overloaded with many pieces of information per decision. Furthermore, we showed that the relationship between psychological distance and decision outcome is mediated by gist memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Brazilian publications on distance education in nursing: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cardoso Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the publications that focus on distance education in nursing in Brazil from 2010 to 2016. Method: Integrative review of the literature with data collection in June 2016 in the following databases: LILACS, MEDLINE via PUBMED, CINAHL and SCOPUS. For the data analysis and interpretation, the thematic categorization was chosen. Results: We selected 18 articles for discussion, whose textual analysis permitted the construction of three thematic categories: use of virtual technologies for distance education in nursing; construction of virtual learning environments with the aid of virtual technologies for distance education in nursing; and evaluation of the learning process through virtual technologies for distance education of nurses. Conclusion: Distance Education stands out as an effective teaching-learning strategy in this type of education in Brazilian nursing, focused mainly on the improvement and complement of traditional teaching.

  13. Perceptions of distance education among nursing faculty members in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Josephine M

    2009-06-01

    A strategy to increase access to nursing education, train nurses for practice, and prepare future nurse educators is distance education. Faculty member shortages are cited as the main reason for not accepting qualified applicants. Faculty members are the core of nursing education. In order to address nursing faculty members' concerns regarding distance education and to assist in faculty member recruitment, retention, growth, and development in order to improve and enhance the quality of distance education, one must answer the question: What are nursing faculty members' perceptions of distance education in nursing? Utilizing a number of databases to locate research specific to this topic, this article provides an integrative review of the nursing literature to ascertain the faculty members' perspective of distance education. The research was analyzed, findings summarized, and limitations mentioned. Utilizing a brief supplementary review of the literature, the implications, recommendations, and need for future research are discussed.

  14. MetricMap: an embedding technique for processing distance-based queries in metric spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jason T L; Wang, Xiong; Shasha, Dennis; Zhang, Kaizhong

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we present an embedding technique, called MetricMap, which is capable of estimating distances in a pseudometric space. Given a database of objects and a distance function for the objects, which is a pseudometric, we map the objects to vectors in a pseudo-Euclidean space with a reasonably low dimension while preserving the distance between two objects approximately. Such an embedding technique can be used as an approximate oracle to process a broad class of distance-based queries. It is also adaptable to data mining applications such as data clustering and classification. We present the theory underlying MetricMap and conduct experiments to compare MetricMap with other methods including MVP-tree and M-tree in processing the distance-based queries. Experimental results on both protein and RNA data show the good performance and the superiority of MetricMap over the other methods.

  15. Distance effects in electrochemical micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhong; Pan, Yue; Zhao, Chuanjun

    2016-09-01

    Considering exponential dependence of currents on double-layer voltage and the feedback effect of the electrolyte resistance, a distance effect in electrochemical micromachining is found, namely that both time constant and double-layer voltage depend on the separation of electrodes. The double-layer voltage is the real voltage used in processing. Under DC voltage, the apparent voltages between two electrodes are constant for different separations, but the real voltages change with the separations. Small separations exert substantial effects on the real voltages. Accordingly, a DC-voltage small-separation electrochemical micromachining technique was proposed. The double-layer voltage drops sharply as the small separation increases. Thus, the electrochemical reactions are confined to electrode regions in very close proximity even under DC voltage. The machining precision can be significantly enhanced by reducing the voltage and separation between electrodes. With this technique, the machining of conducting materials with submicrometre precision was achieved.

  16. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies con......, but corporate governance and fiduciary behavior more generally.......Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies......-seeking outside owners of the company. Consistent with this hypothesis, our empirical analysis shows a positive, significant, and robust association between managerial distance and the economic performance of foundation owned companies. The findings appear to illuminate not just foundation governance...

  17. Continuity Properties of Distances for Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Mao, Hua; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate distance functions on finite state Markov processes that measure the behavioural similarity of non-bisimilar processes. We consider both probabilistic bisimilarity metrics, and trace-based distances derived from standard Lp and Kullback-Leibler distances. Two desirabl...

  18. Generating Signed Distance Fields From Triangle Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    A method for generating a discrete, signed 3D distance field is proposed. Distance fields are used in a number of contexts. In particular the popular level set method is usually initialized by a distance field. The main focus of our work is on simplifying the computation of the sign when generati...

  19. The History of Distance Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative…

  20. E-LEARNING AND DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Andreev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the term, date and reasons for appearance of distance education and different aspects of its development in Russia. The description and characteristics of Russian distance learning technologies are given. The peculiarities of modern Internet based distance education are outlined.