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Sample records for extracts significantly increased

  1. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  2. The Oral Bioavailability of Trans-Resveratrol from a Grapevine-Shoot Extract in Healthy Humans is Significantly Increased by Micellar Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Castro, Laura A; Schiborr, Christina; David, Franziska; Ehrt, Heidi; Voggel, Jenny; Sus, Nadine; Behnam, Dariush; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Frank, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 contains abundant resveratrol monomers and oligomers with health-promoting potential. However, the oral bioavailability of these compounds in humans is low (˂1-2%). The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of resveratrol from vineatrol by micellar solubilization. Twelve healthy volunteers (six women, six men) randomly ingested a single dose of 500 mg vineatrol (30 mg trans-resveratrol, 75 mg trans-ε-viniferin) as native powder or liquid micelles. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and over 24 h after intake. Resveratrol and viniferin were analyzed by HPLC. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma trans-resveratrol concentrations were 5.0-fold and 10.6-fold higher, respectively, after micellar supplementation relative to the native powder. However, no detectable amounts of trans-ε-viniferin were found in either plasma or urine. The transepithelial permeability of trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin across differentiated Caco-2 monolayers was consistent to the absorbed fractions in vivo. The oral bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from the grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 was significantly increased using a liquid micellar formulation, without any treatment-related adverse effects, making it a suitable system for improved supplementation of trans-resveratrol. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  4. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  5. Short communication Increase in metal extractability after liming of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decreased in extractability (Statistically significant differences could not be determined for the trial due to the trial not having been designed for the results that were obtained). Similar results were reported in the literature for EDTA metal extraction but the phenomenon was not elaborated upon, except for Cr. The increased ...

  6. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-02-11

    helps the subsequent release of intracellular lipids in the second extraction step, thus improving the global lipids extraction yield. In addition, the water treatment positively modifies the intracellular lipid class ratios of the final extract, in which TAG ratio is significantly increased without changes in the fatty acids composition. The novel method thus provides an efficient way to improve lipid extraction yield of existing methods, as well as selectively favoring TAG, a lipid of the upmost interest for biodiesel production.

  7. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  8. Significance in the increase of women psychiatrists in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Soo In

    2008-01-01

    The number of female doctors has increased in Korea; 18.9% (13,083) of the total medical doctors registered (69,097) were women in 2006, compared to 13.6% (2,216) in 1975. The proportion of female doctors will jump up by 2010 considering that nearly 40% of the medical students are women as of today. This trend has had strong influence on the field of psychiatry; the percentage of women psychiatrists rose from 1.6 (6)% to 18% (453), from 1975 to 2006 and now women residents comprise 39% (206) of all. This is not only a reflection of a social phenomenon of the increase in professional women but also attributed to some specific characteristics of the psychiatry. Psychiatric practice may come more natural to women. While clinical activities of women psychiatrists are expanding, there are few women leaders and much less women are involving in academic activities in this field as yet. Though there is less sexual discrimination in the field of psychiatry, women psychiatrists are still having a lot of difficulties in balancing work and family matters. Many women psychiatrists also report they've ever felt an implied discrimination in their careers. In this study, we are to identify the characteristics of women psychiatrists and to explore the significance of the increase in women psychiatrists in Korea and the situation in which they are.

  9. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Sönke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-05-28

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.

  10. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Zeng-Bing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. We show this to be the case for an error model in which the variance of an observable is interpreted as its error and for the standard error model in photonic experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Mermin inequality yields a Bell test which is statistically more significant than the Ardehali inequality in the case of a photonic four-qubit state that is close to a GHZ state. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the above inequalities for different levels of noise.

  11. Computation of spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of spatial significance is an important aspect of geospatial analysis and hence, various methods have been proposed to compute the spatial significance of entities based on spatial distances with other entities within the cluster. This paper is aimed at studying the spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models (DEMs). At each scale, the value of spatial significance index SSI of a mountain object is the minimum number of morphological dilation iterations required to occupy all the other mountain objects in the terrain. The mountain object with the lowest value of SSI is the spatially most significant mountain object, indicating that it has the shortest distance to the other mountain objects. It is observed that as the area of the mountain objects reduce with increasing scale, the distances between the mountain objects increase, resulting in increasing values of SSI. The results obtained indicate that the strategic location of a mountain object at the centre of the terrain is more important than its size in determining its reach to other mountain objects and thus, its spatial significance

  12. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  13. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Chunqi Li; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-10-01

    The effect of water treatment at 500 and 600 K on solvent extractions of Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) coals was investigated. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly in the extractions with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent, NMP, or 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). However, the water treatments at 500 K and the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave only a slight increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were performed using ultimate and proximate compositions, Fourier transform infrared analysis, solvent swelling, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The swelling degree in methanol and toluene was increased by the water treatment at 600 K, suggesting that crosslinks become loosened by the treatment. The results of infrared analysis and the extraction temperature dependency of the extraction yields with NMP and 1-MN suggest that the loosening of {pi} - interactions, and of both {pi} - interactions and hydrogen bonds, are responsible for the yield enhancements for PO and UF coals, respectively. However, for IL coal, which exhibited a decrease in oxygen content and the amount of hydrogen-bonded OH, suggesting the occurrence of some chemical reactions, the yield enhancements may be due to the relaxation of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups, such as the breaking of ether bonds. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Increasing the extraction efficiency of algal lipid for biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various studies have been conducted recently using microalgal system for the production of algal lipid for biodiesel production. This study aimed at increasing the extraction efficiency of algal lipid from Chlorella sp. by the application of Chlorella viruses. The calorific value of lipid from Chlorella sp. has been reported to be ...

  15. The increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Iino; T. Takanohashi; C. Li; N. Kashimura; K. Masaki; T. Shishido; I. Saito; H. Kumagai [Institute for Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have reported that the water treatments of bituminous coals at 600 K for 1 h increased their extraction yields greatly (Energy Fuels, 2005, 18, 1414). In this paper the effect of coal rank on the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment has been investigated using four Argonne Premium coals, i.e., Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), Illinois No.6 (IL), and Beulah Zap (BZ) coals with C % (daf) in the range 67 - 90%. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly with a 1:1 carbon disulfide / N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone mixed solvent (CS2 / NMP) at room temperature. While, the water treatments at 500 K or the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave little increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were carried out from ultimate and proximate compositions, FT-IR spectrum, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The effect of extraction temperature on the extraction yield enhancement was also investigated using polar NMP or non-polar 1-MN solvent. From these results it is concluded that for high coal rank coals the loosening of non-covalent bonds is responsible for the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment. The loosening non-covalent bonds may be {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic rings for PO, and both {pi}-{pi} interactions and hydrogen bonds for UF. While, for lower rank IL and BZ, which showed decrease in O% and hydrogen-bonded OH, the yield enhancements may be due to the loosening of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Increasing Scalability of Researcher Network Extraction from the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yohei; Matsuo, Yutaka; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Social networks, which describe relations among people or organizations as a network, have recently attracted attention. With the help of a social network, we can analyze the structure of a community and thereby promote efficient communications within it. We investigate the problem of extracting a network of researchers from the Web, to assist efficient cooperation among researchers. Our method uses a search engine to get the cooccurences of names of two researchers and calculates the streangth of the relation between them. Then we label the relation by analyzing the Web pages in which these two names cooccur. Research on social network extraction using search engines as ours, is attracting attention in Japan as well as abroad. However, the former approaches issue too many queries to search engines to extract a large-scale network. In this paper, we propose a method to filter superfluous queries and facilitates the extraction of large-scale networks. By this method we are able to extract a network of around 3000-nodes. Our experimental results show that the proposed method reduces the number of queries significantly while preserving the quality of the network as compared to former methods.

  17. Dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S R; Ikezaki, H; Gao, X P; Rubinstein, I

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch and, if so, whether this response is specific. By using intravital microscopy, we found that an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa) from the in situ hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust extract- and substance P-induced increases in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch in a specific fashion.

  18. Does stoma site specimen extraction increase postoperative ileostomy complication rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanglin; Benlice, Cigdem; Stocchi, Luca; Kessler, Hermann; Gorgun, Emre; Costedio, Meagan

    2017-09-01

    Minimizing incisions has the potential to decrease hernia formation and wound complications following laparoscopic surgery. It is currently unknown if using the stoma site for specimen extraction affects outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the impact of stoma site extraction on postoperative complication rates in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. After IRB approval, a retrospective comparative review of 738 consecutive patients (405 M) who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery with ileostomy between January 2008 and December 2014 was performed. Patients who had a minimally invasive surgery that required an ileostomy were included. Patients were classified into two groups: stoma site extraction (SSE) or non-stoma site extraction (NSSE) and compared by body mass index (BMI), age, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, length of stay, estimated blood loss, parastomal complications, and hernia rate. The parastomal hernia rate was 10.1% for the SSE group (n = 14) and 4.2% for the NSSE group (n = 25) (p = 0.007). The need for additional surgeries was 7/139 (5.0%) for the SSE group and 27/599 (4.5%) for the NSSE group (p = 0.79). There was no difference in the hernia rate after stoma closure in either group. There was no difference in single incision laparoscopic surgery versus conventional laparoscopy or robotic-assisted laparoscopy on stoma site complications in patients with SSE. SSE, transfusion, and BMI >30 were found to be independent factors associated with increased stoma site complications. SSE does increase stoma site complications. SSE should be used with caution, or in conjunction with other techniques to reduce hernias in patients requiring a permanent stoma or with an elevated BMI. The increase in stoma site complications does not translate into additional surgeries or postoperative sequelae following stoma reversal and is a reasonable option in patients requiring a temporary stoma.

  19. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  20. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  1. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  2. Effects of Increasing Aqueous Root Extract of Moringa oleifera on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical effects of aqueous extract of root on sperm production of White albino rats were investigated. The rats were divided into five treatment dose levels; 0 (5.0 ml saline); 5.0; 10.0; 15.0 and 20.0 mls consisting five (5) animals per treatment and administered orally for 10 days using aqueous extract of Moringa ...

  3. Method of extracting significant trouble information of nuclear power plants using probabilistic analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio; Miyazaki, Takamasa

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze and evaluate large amounts of trouble information of overseas nuclear power plants, it is necessary to select information that is significant in terms of both safety and reliability. In this research, a method of efficiently and simply classifying degrees of importance of components in terms of safety and reliability while paying attention to root-cause components appearing in the information was developed. Regarding safety, the reactor core damage frequency (CDF), which is used in the probabilistic analysis of a reactor, was used. Regarding reliability, the automatic plant trip probability (APTP), which is used in the probabilistic analysis of automatic reactor trips, was used. These two aspects were reflected in the development of criteria for classifying degrees of importance of components. By applying these criteria, a simple method of extracting significant trouble information of overseas nuclear power plants was developed. (author)

  4. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  5. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  6. The remineralization potential of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean extract to increase the enamel micro hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistianingsih Sulistianingsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization is the process of returning mineral ions into a hydroxyapatite structure characterized by mineral deposition on the enamel surface. The presence of mineral deposition would affect the micro hardness of tooth enamel. The use of fluorine as remineralization agent with side effects such as fluorosis. Cocoa bean extract contains theobromin that can be used as an alternative remineralization ingredients. The objectives was to determine micro hardness email after remineralization using cocoa bean extract as natural material and to compare with fluorine use as synthetic material. Methods: Thirty-six maxillary first premolar tooth crown was cut and planted in the epoxy resin. Teeth were then immersed in demineralization solution at pH 4 for 6 hours. The sample were divided into 2 groups, 18 for the fluorine group and the remaining group of cocoa extract. Vickers microhardness test was used before treatment, after demineralized and after remineralization. Results: Enamel microhardness value before treatment in the fluorine group average value was 376.17 VHN and the cocoa extract group was 357.33 VHN. After demineralization in fluorine group was 268,13 VHN and cocoa extract group was 235,93 VHN. After remineralization in fluorine group was 321,08 VHN and cocoa extract group was 293,86 VHN. The results of the analysis showed that the level of micro hardness email after remineralization was not significantly different in two groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Cocoa extract is able to increase the microhardness of enamel so it can act as a substitution for fluorine remineralization.

  7. Extraction Strings for Ureteric Stents: Is There an Increased Risk for Urinary Tract Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Maryna; Fehr, Jan; Sulser, Tullio; Eberli, Daniel; Mortezavi, Ashkan

    To evaluate urinary tract infections associated with placement of ureteric stents, we performed a retrospective study and compared rates between patients with and patients without an extraction string attached to the ureteric stent. Indwelling ureteric stents are routinely removed by cystoscopy. If an extraction string has been connected to the stent at the time of placement, however, the removal can be performed without an invasive procedure. Concerns exist regarding the risk for an unintentional dislocation, increased stent-related discomfort, or an increase of the post-operative urinary tract infection rate. All elective transurethral ureteric stent placements performed between November 2011 and December 2012 in our department were included for this investigation. Urinary tract infection was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definition of health-care-associated infections. Patients with an existing urinary tract infection at the time of admission were excluded from the analysis. A total of 342 patients receiving ureteric stents were evaluated regarding post-operative urinary tract infections. Of these patients, 127 (37.1%) had an extraction string and 215 (62.9%) a stent without a string. The total urinary tract infection rate was 6.4% with no significant difference between the two groups (7.9% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.49). In the present study, we did not observe an increased rate of post-operative urinary tract infections in patients with an extraction string attached to the ureteral stent. Extraction string is a good option for patients to avoid cystoscopic stent removal.

  8. Suppressions of Serotonin-Induced Increased Vascular Permeability and Leukocyte Infiltration by Bixa orellana Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke Keong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Bixa orellana (AEBO leaves and its possible mechanisms in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using serotonin-induced rat paw edema, increased peritoneal vascular permeability, and leukocyte infiltrations in an air-pouch model. Nitric oxide (NO, indicated by the sum of nitrites and nitrates, and vascular growth endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured in paw tissues of rats to determine their involvement in the regulation of increased permeability. Pretreatments with AEBO (50 and 150 mg kg−1 prior to serotonin inductions resulted in maximum inhibitions of 56.2% of paw volume, 45.7% of Evans blue dye leakage in the peritoneal vascular permeability model, and 83.9% of leukocyte infiltration in the air-pouch model. 57.2% maximum inhibition of NO and 27% of VEGF formations in rats’ paws were observed with AEBO at the dose of 150 mg kg−1. Pharmacological screening of the extract showed significant (P<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, indicated by the suppressions of increased vascular permeability and leukocyte infiltration. The inhibitions of these inflammatory events are probably mediated via inhibition of NO and VEGF formation and release.

  9. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  11. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Different extraction pretreatments significantly change the flavonoid contents of Scutellaria baicalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhao; Qu, Fengyun; Mao, Yanyong; Li, Dong; Zhen, Zhong; Nass, Rachael; Calway, Tyler; Wang, Yunwei; Yuan, Chun-Su; Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Context Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. However, compared to many pharmacological studies of this botanical, much less attention has been paid to the quality control of the herb’s pretreatment prior to extract preparation, an issue that may affect therapeutic outcomes. Objective The current study was designed to evaluate whether different pretreatment conditions change the contents of its four major flavonoids in the herb, i.e., two glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) and two aglycons (baicalein and wogonin). Materials and methods An HPLC assay was used to quantify the contents of these four flavonoids. The composition changes of four flavonoids by different pretreatment conditions including solvent, treatment time, temperature, pH value, and herb/solvent ratio were evaluated. Results After selection of the first order time-curve kinetics, our data showed that at 50°C, 1:5 herb/water (in w/v) ratio and pH 6.67 yielded an optimal conversion rate from flavonoid glycosides to their aglycons. In this optimized condition, the contents of baicalin and wogonoside were decreased to 1/70 and 1/13, while baicalein and wogonin were increased 3.5 and 3.1 folds, respectively, compared to untreated herb. Discussion and conclusion The markedly variable conversion rates by different pretreatment conditions complicated the quality control of this herb, mainly due to the high amount of endogenous enzymes of S. baicalensis. Optimal pretreatment conditions obtained from this study could be used obtain the highest level of desired constituents to achieve better pharmacological effects. PMID:23738852

  13. THE SMALL BUT SIGNIFICANT AND NONTRANSITORY INCREASE IN PRICES (SSNIP TEST

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    Liviana Niminet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Small but Significant Nontransitory Increase in Price Test was designed to define the relevant market by concepts of product, geographical area and time. This test, also called the ,,hypothetical monopolistic test” is the subject of many researches both economical and legal as it deals with economic concepts as well as with legally aspects.

  14. Therapeutic Significance of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) ink Extract: A Biomedical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Sri Kumaran; Vijayaraj, Radha; Mani, Jayaprakashvel

    2017-01-01

    Background: The squid ink extract is well known for its biomedical properties. Objective: In this study, squid Loligo vulgaris was collected from Tuticorin costal water, Bay of Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Proximate composition of the crude squid ink was studied and found to have protein as the major component over lipid and carbohydrates. Further, bioactive fractions of squid ink were extracted with ethanol, and therapeutic applications such as hemolytic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties were analyzed using standard methods. Results: In hemolytic assay, the squid ink extract exhibited a maximum hemolytic activity of 128 hemolytic unit against tested erythrocytes. In DPPH assay, the ethanolic extract of squid ink has exhibited an antioxidant activity of 83.5%. The squid ink was found to be potent antibacterial agent against the pathogens tested. 200 μL of L. vulgaris ink extract showed remarkable antibacterial activity as zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (28 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (24 mm). The 68.9% inhibition of protein denaturation by the squid ink extract indicated that it has very good in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the ethanolic extracts of the squid ink indicated the presence of functional groups such as 1° and 2° amines, amides, alkynes (terminal), alkenes, aldehydes, nitriles, alkanes, aliphatic amines, carboxylic acids, and alkyl halides, which complements the biochemical background of therapeutic applications. Conclusion: Hence, results of this study concluded that the ethanolic extract of L. vulgaris has many therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. SUMMARY Squid ink is very high in a number of important nutrients. It’s particularly high in antioxidants for instance, which as well all know help to protect

  15. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  16. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using 99m Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  17. Introducing extra NADPH consumption ability significantly increases the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Fuliang; Meng, Hengkai; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  19. Sweet waste extract uptake by a mosquito vector: Survival, biting, fecundity responses, and potential epidemiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Abang, Fatimah; Meli, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti; Ghani, Idris A; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Hakim, Hafijah; Miake, Fumio; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Noor, Sabina; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ahmad, Hamdan; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-05-01

    In nature, adult mosquitoes typically utilize nectar as their main energy source, but they can switch to other as yet unidentified sugary fluids. Contemporary lifestyles, with their associated unwillingness to consume leftovers and improper disposal of waste, have resulted in the disposal of huge amounts of waste into the environment. Such refuse often contains unfinished food items, many of which contain sugar and some of which can collect water from rain and generate juices. Despite evidence that mosquitoes can feed on sugar-rich suspensions, semi-liquids, and decaying fruits, which can be abundant in garbage sites, the impacts of sweet waste fluids on dengue vectors are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of extracts from some familiar sweet home waste items on key components of vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Adult mosquitoes were fed one of five diets in this study: water (WAT); sucrose (SUG); bakery product (remnant of chocolate cake, BAK); dairy product (yogurt, YOG); and fruit (banana (BAN). Differences in survival, response time to host, and egg production were examined between groups. For both males and females, maintenance on BAK extract resulted in marked survival levels that were similar to those seen with SUG. Sweet waste extracts provided better substrates for survival compared to water, but this superiority was mostly seen with BAK. Females maintained on BAK, YOG, and BAN exhibited shorter response times to a host compared to their counterparts maintained on SUG. The levels of egg production were equivalent in waste extract- and SUG-fed females. The findings presented here illustrate the potential of sweet waste-derived fluids to contribute to the vectorial capacity of dengue vectors and suggest the necessity of readdressing the issue of waste disposal, especially that of unfinished sweet foods. Such approaches can be particularly relevant in dengue endemic areas where rainfall is frequent and waste collection infrequent. Copyright

  20. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  1. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  2. Significant increase of surface ozone at a rural site, north of eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in eastern China has become one of the top environmental issues. Quantifying the temporal trend of surface ozone helps to assess the impacts of the anthropogenic precursor reductions and the likely effects of emission control strategies implemented. In this paper, ozone data collected at the Shangdianzi (SDZ regional atmospheric background station from 2003 to 2015 are presented and analyzed to obtain the variation in the trend of surface ozone in the most polluted region of China, north of eastern China or the North China Plain. A modified Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ filter method was performed on the maximum daily average 8 h (MDA8 concentrations of ozone to separate the contributions of different factors from the variation of surface ozone and remove the influence of meteorological fluctuations on surface ozone. Results reveal that the short-term, seasonal and long-term components of ozone account for 36.4, 57.6 and 2.2 % of the total variance, respectively. The long-term trend indicates that the MDA8 has undergone a significant increase in the period of 2003–2015, with an average rate of 1.13 ± 0.01 ppb year−1 (R2 = 0.92. It is found that meteorological factors did not significantly influence the long-term variation of ozone and the increase may be completely attributed to changes in emissions. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation between the long-term O3 and NO2 trends. This study suggests that emission changes in VOCs might have played a more important role in the observed increase of surface ozone at SDZ.

  3. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    and Rhodospirillaceae, were found to be the significantly increased by the BOF addition and the genus Lysobacter may identify members of this group effective in biological control-based plant disease management and the members of family Rhodospirillaceae had an important role in fixing molecular nitrogen. These results strengthen the understanding of responses to the BOF and possible interactions within bacterial communities in soil that can be associated with disease suppression and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen. The increase of apple yields after the application of BOF might be attributed to the fact that the application of BOF increased SOM, and soil total nitrogen, and changed the bacterial community by enriching Rhodospirillaceae, Alphaprotreobateria, and Proteobacteria.

  4. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  5. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  6. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol extract of Oenanthe javanica increases cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the adolescent rat dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb that belongs to the Oenanthe genus in Apiaceae family, and it displays well-known medicinal properties such as protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. However, few studies regarding effects of Oenanthe javanica on neurogenesis in the brain have been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of a normal diet and a diet containing ethanol extract of Oenanthe javanica on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adolescent rats using Ki-67 (an endogenous marker for cell proliferation and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblast. Our results showed that Oenanthe javanica extract significantly increased the number of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells and doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the adolescent rats. In addition, the immunoreactivity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of the Oenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. However, we did not find that vascular endothelial growth factor expression was increased in the Oenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. These results indicate that Oenanthe javanica extract improves cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in the rat dentate gyrus.

  8. Rye and Wheat Bran Extracts Isolated with Pressurized Solvents Increase Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Potential of Beef Meat Hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-02-01

    Rye and wheat bran extracts containing phenolic compounds and demonstrating high DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(•+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were tested in beef hamburgers as possible functional ingredients. Bran extracts significantly increased the indicators of antioxidant potential of meat products and their global antioxidant response (GAR) during physiological in vitro digestion. The extracts also inhibited the formation of oxidation products, hexanal and malondialdehyde, of hamburgers during their storage; however, they did not have significant effect on the growth of microorganisms. Hamburgers with 0.8% wheat bran extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential. Some effects of bran extracts on other quality characteristics such as pH, color, formation of metmyoglobin were also observed, however, these effects did not have negative influence on the overall sensory evaluation score of hamburgers. Consequently, the use of bran extracts in meat products may be considered as promising means of increasing oxidative product stability and enriching with functional ingredients which might possess health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  10. Skipping one or more dialysis sessions significantly increases mortality: measuring the impact of non-adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gottlieb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis sessions frequency ranges from 2% to 50% of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of detecting and measuring the non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis frequency and to determine the importance of a multidisciplinary approach with the aim of improving adherence. Methods: longitudinal cohort study including 8,164 prevalent hemodialysis patients in April 2010, with more than 90 days of treatment, in Fresenius Medical Care Argentina units that were monitored for 3 years. The survey evaluated: interruption of at least one dialysis session in a month or reduction at least 10 minutes of a dialysis session in a month, during 6 months prior to the survey. Relative mortality risks were evaluated among groups. Results: 648 patients (7.9% interrupted dialysis sessions: 320 (3.9% interrupted one session per month and 328 (4.01% interrupted more than one session per month. After 3 years monitoring, 349 patients (53.8 % remained active in hemodialysis and 299 were inactive due to different reasons: 206 deceased (31.8 %, 47 transfers or monitoring losses (7.25 %, 36 transplanted (5.55 %, 8 changes to PD modality (1.2% and 2 recovered their kidney function (0.3 %.Interrupting one session per month significantly increased the mortality risk comparing both groups (interrupters and non-interrupters: RR 2.65 (IC 95% 2.24 – 3.14. Interrupting more than one dialysis session also increased significantly mortality risk comparing to the non-interrupters: RR 2.8 (IC 95% 2.39 – 3.28. After 3 years monitoring, 41.6 % of interrupters at the beginning had improved their adherence through a multidisciplinary program of quality improvement. Conclusion: Global mortality was greater among patients who interrupted dialysis sessions. A considerable proportion of interrupter patients at the beginning modified their behavior through the implementation of a multidisciplinary program of quality

  11. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  12. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

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    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMPH. Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  14. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  15. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  16. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  17. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  18. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density

  19. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  20. Increased sensitivity of Hep G2 cells toward the cytotoxicity of cisplatin by the treatment of piper betel leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2006-06-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of de-toxication, anti-oxidation and anti-mutation. In this study we first examined the effect of PBL extract on the activity of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms, and found that it inhibited total GST and the alpha class of GST (GSTA), but not the pi class of GST (GSTP), and the mu class of GST (GSTM), activity in Hep G2 cells. RT-PCR results verified a reduction in the expression of GSTA1. Next, we examined whether PBL extract could increase the sensitivity of Hep G2 cells to anti-cancer drugs. The data showed that the cytotoxicity of cisplatin was significantly enhanced by the presence of PBL extract, accompanied by a reduction in the expression of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2). These effects of PBL extract were compared to its major constitute, eugenol. Although eugenol decreased MRP2 level more effectively than PBL extract, it exhibited less sensitizing effect. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PBL extract was able to increase the sensitivity of Hep G2 cells to cisplatin via at least two mechanisms, reducing the expression of MRP2 and inhibiting the activity of total GST and the expression of GSTA. The data of this study support an application of PBL as an additive to reduce drug resistance.

  1. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing...

  2. Increased cerebral oxygen extraction capacity in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Gyldensted, Louise; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban

    Vascular risk factors are suspected to play a role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, a model that relates capillary dysfunction to the development of AD was proposed [1]. The model predicts that increased capillary dysfunction leads to increased oxygen extraction in order to support...

  3. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  5. Transabdominal cerclage: the significance of dual pathology and increased preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Roy G; Topping, Joanne; Quenby, Siobhan M

    2005-10-01

    Transabdominal cerclage is a recognised treatment for cervical weakness with a history of recurrent mid-trimester loss and a failed elective vaginal suture. The emergence of dual pathology, such as antiphospholipid syndrome and bacterial vaginosis, is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-5.8). The first 40 cases are described where strict adherence to an investigation protocol and consistent treatment plan has been implemented.

  6. Clinical significance of increased lung/heart ratio in 210Tl stress myocardial image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zaoli; Chang Fengqin; Zhang Fengge; Wang Xiaoyuan; Liu Liuhua

    1990-01-01

    230 cases were studied with 201 Tl stress image. The results showed that the lung/heart ratio closely correlated with the presence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Among them, 18 cases (7.8%) showed significantly elevated lung/heart ratio (> 0.50). It was confirmed that all of the 18 cases have severe CHD with left ventricular insufficiency. The author emphasizes that measurement of the lung/heart ratio during 201 Tl stress myocardial image may be useful for the assessment of the severity, evalation of the left ventricular function and judgement of prognosis in CHD

  7. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  8. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  9. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  10. Combining modularity, conservation, and interactions of proteins significantly increases precision and coverage of protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sers Christine T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the number of newly sequenced genomes and genes is constantly increasing, elucidation of their function still is a laborious and time-consuming task. This has led to the development of a wide range of methods for predicting protein functions in silico. We report on a new method that predicts function based on a combination of information about protein interactions, orthology, and the conservation of protein networks in different species. Results We show that aggregation of these independent sources of evidence leads to a drastic increase in number and quality of predictions when compared to baselines and other methods reported in the literature. For instance, our method generates more than 12,000 novel protein functions for human with an estimated precision of ~76%, among which are 7,500 new functional annotations for 1,973 human proteins that previously had zero or only one function annotated. We also verified our predictions on a set of genes that play an important role in colorectal cancer (MLH1, PMS2, EPHB4 and could confirm more than 73% of them based on evidence in the literature. Conclusions The combination of different methods into a single, comprehensive prediction method infers thousands of protein functions for every species included in the analysis at varying, yet always high levels of precision and very good coverage.

  11. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Atkinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and treated with modern COG protocols (n=80 to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5% were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P<0.004 for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P=0.7. Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P=0.0005, disease risk (P<0.0001, age (P=0.0001, and BMI z-score (P<0.0001 at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P=0.01. Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  12. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  13. Significantly Increased Extreme Precipitation Expected in Europe and North America from Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Walsh, E.; Zappa, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, changes in circulation are key to determining the impacts of climate warming. The mechanisms governing these circulation changes are complex, leading to the well documented uncertainty in projections of the future location of the mid-latitude storm tracks simulated by climate models. These storms are the primary source of precipitation for North America and Europe and generate many of the large-scale precipitation extremes associated with flooding and severe economic loss. Here, we show that in spite of the uncertainty in circulation changes, by analysing the behaviour of the storms themselves, we find entirely consistent and robust projections across an ensemble of climate models. In particular, we find that projections of change in the most intensely precipitating storms (above the present day 99th percentile) in the Northern Hemisphere are substantial and consistent across models, with large increases in the frequency of both summer (June-August, +226±68%) and winter (December-February, +186±34%) extreme storms by the end of the century. Regionally, both North America (summer +202±129%, winter +232±135%) and Europe (summer +390±148%, winter +318±114%) are projected to experience large increases in the frequency of intensely precipitating storms. These changes are thermodynamic and driven by surface warming, rather than by changes in the dynamical behaviour of the storms. Such changes in storm behaviour have the potential to have major impacts on society given intensely precipitating storms are responsible for many large-scale flooding events.

  14. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. EDDY - a FORTRAN program to extract significant features from eddy-current test data - the basis of the CANSCAN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.; Cranston, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    The FORTRAN program EDDY is designed to analyse data: from eddy-current scans of steam generator tubes. It is written in modular form, for future development, and it uses signal-recognition techniques that the authors developed in the profilometry of irradiated fuel elements. During a scan, significant signals are detected and extracted for immediate attention or more detailed analysis later. A version of the program was used in the CANSCAN system 'for automated eddy-current in-service inspection of nuclear steam generator tubing'

  16. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  19. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  1. Pollen extracts and constituent sugars increase growth of a trypanosomatid parasite of bumble bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan C. Palmer-Young

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals produced by plants, including at flowers, function in protection against plant diseases, and have a long history of use against trypanosomatid infection. Floral nectar and pollen, the sole food sources for many species of insect pollinators, contain phytochemicals that have been shown to reduce trypanosomatid infection in bumble and honey bees when fed as isolated compounds. Nectar and pollen, however, consist of phytochemical mixtures, which can have greater antimicrobial activity than do single compounds. This study tested the hypothesis that pollen extracts would inhibit parasite growth. Extracts of six different pollens were tested for direct inhibitory activity against cell cultures of the bumble bee trypanosomatid gut parasite Crithidia bombi. Surprisingly, pollen extracts increased parasite growth rather than inhibiting it. Pollen extracts contained high concentrations of sugars, mainly the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Experimental manipulations of growth media showed that supplemental monosaccharides (glucose and fructose increased maximum cell density, while a common floral phytochemical (caffeic acid with inhibitory activity against other trypanosomatids had only weak inhibitory effects on Crithidia bombi. These results indicate that, although pollen is essential for bees and other pollinators, pollen may promote growth of intestinal parasites that are uninhibited by pollen phytochemicals and, as a result, can benefit from the nutrients that pollen provides.

  2. Effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto extract on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y; Kreder, Karl J; Avins, Andrew L; Nickel, J Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G; Crawford, E David; Foster, Harris E; Kaplan, Steven A; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L; Naslund, Michael J; Williams, O Dale; Kusek, John W; Meyers, Catherine M; Betz, Joseph M; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T

    2011-09-28

    Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); however, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg/d). To determine the effect of saw palmetto extract (Serenoa repens, from saw palmetto berries) at up to 3 times the standard dose on lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to BPH. A double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial at 11 North American clinical sites conducted between June 5, 2008, and October 10, 2010, of 369 men aged 45 years or older, with a peak urinary flow rate of at least 4 mL/s, an American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) score of between 8 and 24 at 2 screening visits, and no exclusions. One, 2, and then 3 doses (320 mg/d) of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Difference in AUASI score between baseline and 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes included measures of urinary bother, nocturia, peak uroflow, postvoid residual volume, prostate-specific antigen level, participants' global assessments, and indices of sexual function, continence, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Between baseline and 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.42 to 12.22 points (-2.20 points; 95% CI, -3.04 to -1.36) [corrected]with saw palmetto extract and from 14.69 to 11.70 points (-2.99 points; 95% CI, -3.81 to -2.17) with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto extract and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (upper bound of the 1-sided 95% CI most favorable to saw palmetto extract was 1.77 points, 1-sided P = .91). Saw palmetto extract was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No clearly attributable adverse effects were identified. Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower urinary tract symptoms more than placebo. clinicaltrials

  3. Cigarette smoke extract increases albumin flux across pulmonary endothelium in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation, and a characteristic of inflammation is an increase in vascular permeability. To determine if cigarette smoke could alter endothelial permeability, we studied flux of radiolabeled albumin across monolayers of porcine pulmonary artery endothelium grown in culture on microporous membranes. Extracts (in either dimethylsulfoxide or phosphate-buffered saline) of cigarette smoke in a range estimate of concentrations simulating cigarette smoke exposure to the lungs in vivo caused a dose-dependent increase in albumin flux that was dependent on extracellular divalent cations and associated with polymerization of cellular actin. The effect was reversible, independent of the surface of endothelial cells exposed (either luminal or abluminal), and due primarily to components of the vapor phase of smoke. The effects occurred without evidence of cell damage, but subtle morphological changes were produced by exposure to the smoke extracts. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke can alter permeability of the lung endothelium through effects on cytoskeletal elements

  4. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  5. A new biocompatible microemulsion increases extraction yield and bioavailability of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Xin; Feng, Qian-Jin; Yang, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Dan-Wei; Zhao, Tong; Li, Lei; DU, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible microemulsion of Andrographis paniculata (BMAP) containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble constituents. We determined the contents of active constituents of BMAP and evaluated its bioavailability. The biocompatible microemulsion (BM), containing lecithin and bile salts, was optimized in the present study, showing a good physical stability. The mean droplet size was 19.12 nm, and the average polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.153. The contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in BMAP, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were higher than that in ethanol extraction. The pharmacokinetic results of BMAP showed that the AUC0-7 and AUC0→∞ values of BMAP were 2.267 and 27.156 μg·mL(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and were about 1.41-fold and 6.30-fold greater than that of ethanol extraction, respectively. These results demonstrated that the bioavailability of and rographolide extracted by BMAP was significantly higher than that extracted by ethanol. In conclusion, the BMAP preparation displayed ann improved dose form for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyyne-Enriched Extract from Oplopanax elatus Significantly Ameliorates the Progression of Colon Carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. Oplopanax elatus is widely used in traditional medicine. However, little is known about its pharmacological effects and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the effects of the polyyne-enriched extract from O. elatus (PEO on the progression of colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, these effects were also investigated in HCT116 and SW480 cells. After PEO oral administration (0.2% diet for 12 weeks, PEO significantly improved body weight changes and reduced the tumor burden and tumor multiplicity compared with the untreated mice. Meanwhile, western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed PEO significantly reduced the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 in both small intestine and the colon tissues compared with the untreated mice. In addition, PEO treatment significant decreased the cell viability in both HCT116 and SW480 cell lines. It also decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, c-myc and p-GSK-3β in HCT116 and SW480 cells at 25 μM. These results indicate that PEO may have potential value in prevention of colon cancer by down-regulating Wnt-related protein.

  7. Root extracts of Bracchiaria humidicola andSaccharum spontaneum to increase N use by sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Tiago Kölln

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Retaining the mineral N in the form of NH4+ in the soil for a lengthy period is desirable for reducing losses. Furthermore, there is evidence that sugarcane prefers NH4+-N in place of NO3−-N. This study aimed firstly, to evaluate the potential of root extracts of Bracchiaria humidicola andSaccharum spontaneum, in contrast with the DCD (Dicyandiamide inhibitor, to increase absorption of N by plants fertilized with ammonium sulfate, and secondly, to quantify the emission of N2O fluxes with the use of this inhibitor. The experiment was developed in a glasshouse in an entirely randomized design where four treatments were applied: AS ammonium sulfate (control; AS+DCD ammonium sulfate associated with dicyandiamide; AS+BCH ammonium sulfate associated with root extracts ofBrachiaria humidicola; and AS+SCS ammonium sulfate associated with root extracts of Saccharum spontaneum. Differences were observed in biomass production in plants 45 and 60 days after fertilization (DAF and 15 and 60 days in biomass accumulation of roots. The application of AS associated with DCD synthetic inhibitor kept NO3−-N values low throughout the evaluation period, while in other treatments the concentration increased right up to the second evaluation 15 DAF. Sugarcane plants did not benefit from the increased presence of ammoniacal N promoted by DCD. The use of DCD reduced the average flux of N2O during the evaluation period compared to plants receiving AS treatments only, which was not observed when root extracts of B. humidicola and S. spontaneum were used.

  8. The use of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage in polar organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züfle, Simon; Altazin, Stéphane; Hofmann, Alexander; Jäger, Lars; Neukom, Martin T.; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang; Ruhstaller, Beat

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the application of the CELIV (charge carrier extraction by linearly increasing voltage) technique to bilayer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) in order to selectively determine the hole mobility in N,N0-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N0-diphenyl-1,10-biphenyl-4,40-diamine (α-NPD). In the CELIV technique, mobile charges in the active layer are extracted by applying a negative voltage ramp, leading to a peak superimposed to the measured displacement current whose temporal position is related to the charge carrier mobility. In fully operating devices, however, bipolar carrier transport and recombination complicate the analysis of CELIV transients as well as the assignment of the extracted mobility value to one charge carrier species. This has motivated a new approach of fabricating dedicated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices, where the extraction current contains signatures of only one charge carrier type. In this work, we show that the MIS-CELIV concept can be employed in bilayer polar OLEDs as well, which are easy to fabricate using most common electron transport layers (ETLs), like Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3). Due to the macroscopic polarization of the ETL, holes are already injected into the hole transport layer below the built-in voltage and accumulate at the internal interface with the ETL. This way, by a standard CELIV experiment only holes will be extracted, allowing us to determine their mobility. The approach can be established as a powerful way of selectively measuring charge mobilities in new materials in a standard device configuration.

  9. The increased number of osteoblasts and capillaries in orthodontic tooth movement post-administration of Robusta coffee extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herniyati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The application of orthodontic forces subjects blood capillaries to considerable pressure, resulting in hypoxia on the pressure side. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, expressed in osteoblasts represents an important mitogen that induces angiogenesis. Osteoblasts and blood capillaries play an important role in bone formation. Robusta coffee contains chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid both of which produce antioxidant effects capable of reducing oxidative stress in osteoblasts. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of Robusta coffee extract on the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries in orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: This research constituted a laboratory-based experimental study involving the use of sixteen male rodents divided into two groups, namely; control group (C consisting of eight mice given orthodontic mechanical force (OMF and a treatment group (T containing eight mice administered OMF and dried Robusta coffee extract at a dose of 20mg/ 100 g BW. The OMF was performed by installing a ligature wire on the maxillary right first molar and both maxillary incisors. In the following stage, the maxillary right first molar was moved to the mesial using Tension Gauze with a Nickel Titanium Orthodontic closed coil spring. Observation was subsequently undertaken on the 15th day by extracting the maxillary right first and second molar with their periodontal tissues. Thereafter, histological examination was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining technique to measure the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries on the mesial and distal periodontal ligaments of the maxillary right first molar. Results: The administration of Robusta coffee extract increases the number of blood capillaries and osteoblasts on both the pressure and tension sides were found to be significantly higher in the T group compared to the C group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Robusta coffee extract increase the number of

  10. Effects of increased low-level diode laser irradiation time on extraction socket healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Bong; Ahn, Su-Jin; Kang, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Heo, Jung Sun; Kang, Kyung Lhi

    2015-02-01

    In our previous studies, we confirmed that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a 980-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser was beneficial for the healing of the alveolar bone in rats with systemic disease. However, many factors can affect the biostimulatory effects of LLLT. Thus, we attempted to investigate the effects of irradiation time on the healing of extraction sockets by evaluating the expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. The left and right first maxillary molars of 24 rats were extracted. Rats were randomly divided into four groups in which extraction sockets were irradiated for 0, 1, 2, or 5 min each day for 3 or 7 days. Specimens containing the sockets were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. LLLT increased the expressions of all tested genes, Runx2, collagen type 1, osteocalcin, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in a time-dependent manner. The highest levels of gene expressions were in the 5-min group after 7 days. Five minutes of irradiation caused prominent increases of the expression of all tested proteins after both 3 and 7 days. The expression level of each protein in group 4 was higher by almost twofold compared with group 1 after 7 days. Laser irradiation for 5 min caused the highest expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. In conclusion, LLLT had positive effects on the early stages of bone healing of extraction sockets in rats, which were irradiation time-dependent.

  11. Geothermal heat from solid rock - increased energy extraction through hydraulic pressurizing of drill wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramstad, Randi Kalskin; Hilmo, Bernt Olav; Skarphagen, Helge

    2005-01-01

    New equipment for hydraulic pressurizing, a double collar of the type FrakPak - AIP 410-550, is developed by the Broennteknologi AS. The equipment is tested in the laboratory and in the field at Lade in Trondheim. By the construction of two pilot plants for geothermal heat at Bryn and on the previous grounds of the energy company in Asker and Baerum (EAB) extensive studies connected to hydraulic pressurizing are carried out both with water and sand injection. The geothermal heat plants at Bryn and AEB were supposed to be based on pumped ground water from rock wells where increased effect was obtained through pumping up, returning and circulating the water. The aim of the study was to test and develop the methods for hydraulic pressurizing both with water and sand injection, document the effect of the various types of pressurizing as well as mapping the hydro- and rock geological conditions for this type of geothermal heat plants. In addition to stimulating 10 drill holes with hydraulic pressurizing with water and sand injection, the studies have carried out test pumping, water sampling, geophysical logging, measurements of alterations in the terrain, current and rock strain measurements and geothermal response tests. Furthermore an efficacy test and a theoretical model of the energy potential of the plants are carried out. The results from the pilot plant at Bryn show that the drill hole capacities are significantly increased both through hydraulic pressurizing with water and sand injection. There seems to be a greater need for sand as ''prepping agent'' or distance maker in cracks with high pressure resistance than in cracks with lower resistance. The grain size of the sand should be adapted to the resistance pressure and injection of coarser sand is recommended in cracks with lower resistance pressure. The rock strength and strain conditions determine the successes of hydraulic pressurizing at the reopening of existing or opening of new faults. Test pumping was

  12. White bread enriched with polyphenol extracts shows no effect on glycemic response or satiety, yet may increase postprandial insulin economy in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Shelly; Ryan, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from different plant sources have been shown to modify starch digestion from carbohydrate-rich foods and lower resulting glycemia. It was hypothesized that extracts rich in polyphenols, added to white bread, would improve the glycemic response and insulin response and increase satiety in healthy participants. An in vitro dose-response analysis was performed to determine the optimal dose of a variety of extracts (baobab fruit extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, and resveratrol) for reducing rapidly digestible starch in white bread. The 2 extracts with the greatest sugar reducing potential were then used for the human study in which 13 volunteers (9 female and 4 male) were recruited for a crossover trial of 3 different meals. On separate days, participants consumed a control white bread, white bread with green tea extract (0.4%), and white bread with baobab fruit extract (1.88%). Glycemic response, insulin response, and satiety were measured 3 hours postprandially. Although enriched breads did not reduce glycemic response or hunger, white bread with added baobab fruit extract significantly (P bread to improve insulin economy in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A genetic algorithm applied to a PWR turbine extraction optimization to increase cycle efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Wagner F.; Schirru, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    In nuclear power plants feedwater heaters are used to heat feedwater from its temperature leaving the condenser to final feedwater temperature using steam extracted from various stages of the turbines. The purpose of this process is to increase cycle efficiency. The determination of the optimal fraction of mass flow rate to be extracted from each stage of the turbines is a complex optimization problem. This kind of problem has been efficiently solved by means of evolutionary computation techniques, such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs). GAs, which are systems based upon principles from biological genetics, have been successfully applied to several combinatorial optimization problems in nuclear engineering, as the nuclear fuel reload optimization problem. We introduce the use of GAs in cycle efficiency optimization by finding an optimal combination of turbine extractions. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we have chosen a typical PWR as case study. The secondary side of the PWR was simulated using PEPSE, which is a modeling tool used to perform integrated heat balances for power plants. The results indicate that the GA is a quite promising tool for cycle efficiency optimization. (author)

  14. Anti-Cancer Potential of Homemade Fresh Garlic Extract Is Related to Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voin Petrovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of garlic and garlic-based extracts has been linked to decreased incidence of cancer in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the molecular and cellular activities of a simple homemade ethanol-based garlic extract (GE. We show that GE inhibits growth of several different cancer cells in vitro, as well as cancer growth in vivo in a syngeneic orthotopic breast cancer model. Multiple myeloma cells were found to be especially sensitive to GE. The GE was fractionated using solid-phase extractions, and we identified allicin in one GE fraction; however, growth inhibitory activities were found in several additional fractions. These activities were lost during freeze or vacuum drying, suggesting that the main anti-cancer compounds in GE are volatile. The anti-cancer activity was stable for more than six months in −20 °C. We found that GE enhanced the activities of chemotherapeutics, as well as MAPK and PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, GE affected hundreds of proteins involved in cellular signalling, including changes in vital cell signalling cascades regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and the cellular redox balance. Our data indicate that the reduced proliferation of the cancer cells treated by GE is at least partly mediated by increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress.

  15. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved

  16. Territorial approach to increased energy consumption of water extraction from depletion of a highlands Mexican aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Esteller, María Vicenta; Díaz-Delgado, Carlos

    2013-10-15

    This work proposes a method to estimate increased energy consumption of pumping caused by a drawdown of groundwater level and the equivalent energy consumption of the motor-pump system in an aquifer under intensive exploitation. This method has been applied to the Valley of Toluca aquifer, located in the Mexican highlands, whose intensive exploitation is reflected in a decline in the groundwater level of between 0.10 and 1.6 m/year. Results provide a summary of energy consumption and a map of energy consumption isopleths showing the areas that are most susceptible to increases in energy consumption due to pumping. The proposed method can be used to estimate the effect of the intensive exploitation of the Valley of Toluca aquifer on the energy consumption of groundwater extraction. Finding reveals that, for the year 2006, groundwater extraction in the urban zone required 2.39 times more energy than the conditions observed 38 years earlier. In monetary terms, this reflects an increase of USD$ 3 million annually, according to 2005 energy production costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn.) to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirwana, Intan; Rachmadi, Priyawan; Rianti, Devi

    2017-08-01

    Pomegranates fruit extracts have several activities, among others, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidants that have the main content punicalagin and ellagic acid. Pomegranate has the ability of various therapies through different mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) function was to form new blood vessels produced by various cells one of them was macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was a growth factor proven chemotactic, increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen matrix production. In addition, VEGF and PDGF synergize in their ability to vascularize tissues. The PDGF function was to stabilize and regulate maturation of new blood vessels. Activities of pomegranate fruit extract were observed by measuring the increased of VEGF and PDGF expression as a marker of wound healing process. To investigate the potential of pomegranate extracts on the tooth extraction wound to increase the expression of VEGF and PDGF on the 4 th day of wound healing process. This study used 12 Cavia cobaya , which were divided into two groups, namely, the provision of 3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and pomegranate extract. The 12 C. cobaya would be executed on the 4 th day, the lower jaw of experimental animals was taken, decalcified about 30 days. The expression of VEGF and PDGF was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. The differences of VEGF and PDGF expression were evaluated statistically using t-test. Statistically analysis showed that there were significant differences between control and treatment groups (p<0.05). Pomegranate fruit extract administration increased VEGF and PDGF expression on post-tooth extraction wound.

  18. Consequences of increased extraction of forest fuel; Konsekvenser av ett oekat uttag av skogsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency research program 'Sustainable supply and processing of biofuels', also known as Fuel program, ran from 2007-01-01 to 2011-06-30. The results of the program are reported in synthesis reports for the different sub-areas. The purpose of the synthesis reports is to compile knowledge in various areas, to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed further, and to place and discuss the aggregated research results in a larger energy and societal perspective, including environmental quality goals and forest policy environmental and production goals. This report covers sub area 'Forest fuel and environmental impacts' conducted in 2007-2011. Biomass from forests, e.g. logging residues, has become an increasingly more important energy resource over the last decades. There is a strong ambition from the society (the Swedish parliament, European Union etc.) to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy system and decrease the use of fossil fuel. However, by increasing biomass extraction from our forests a number of environmental services, as well as future forest production will be affected. In this report we discuss if it is possible to increase biomass harvesting, how to combine biomass extraction with sustainable forestry including conservation of environmental services, and if there are any threshold values for avoiding negative impact. The report mainly covers consequences of extracting logging residues, such as branches and tops (in Swedish this is summarised as grot), and stumps. Connected to this we also discuss effects of ash recycling. We also discuss intensive forestry including plantations with short rotation and nutrient optimisation. At present this is only carried out in a small scale for research purpose, but might be a possibility in the future. Finally, we analyse consequences of peat extraction, but only consequences for biodiversity. At the moment peat harvesting is of limited importance in Sweden, but it might

  19. Consequences of increased extraction of forest fuel; Konsekvenser av ett oekat uttag av skogsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency research program 'Sustainable supply and processing of biofuels', also known as Fuel program, ran from 2007-01-01 to 2011-06-30. The results of the program are reported in synthesis reports for the different sub-areas. The purpose of the synthesis reports is to compile knowledge in various areas, to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed further, and to place and discuss the aggregated research results in a larger energy and societal perspective, including environmental quality goals and forest policy environmental and production goals. This report covers sub area 'Forest fuel and environmental impacts' conducted in 2007-2011. Biomass from forests, e.g. logging residues, has become an increasingly more important energy resource over the last decades. There is a strong ambition from the society (the Swedish parliament, European Union etc.) to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy system and decrease the use of fossil fuel. However, by increasing biomass extraction from our forests a number of environmental services, as well as future forest production will be affected. In this report we discuss if it is possible to increase biomass harvesting, how to combine biomass extraction with sustainable forestry including conservation of environmental services, and if there are any threshold values for avoiding negative impact. The report mainly covers consequences of extracting logging residues, such as branches and tops (in Swedish this is summarised as grot), and stumps. Connected to this we also discuss effects of ash recycling. We also discuss intensive forestry including plantations with short rotation and nutrient optimisation. At present this is only carried out in a small scale for research purpose, but might be a possibility in the future. Finally, we analyse consequences of peat extraction, but only consequences for biodiversity. At the moment peat harvesting is of limited importance in

  20. COCOA (Theobroma cacao) Polyphenol-Rich Extract Increases the Chronological Lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiges, I; Arola, L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism with conserved aging pathways. Yeast chronological lifespan experiments mimic the processes involved in human non-dividing tissues, such as the nervous system or skeletal muscle, and can speed up the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects before proceeding to animal studies. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a cocoa polyphenol-rich extract (CPE) in expanding the S. cerevisiae chronological lifespan in two conditions: in the stationary phase reached after glucose depletion and under severe caloric restriction. MEASUREMENTS: Using a high-throughput method, wild-type S. cerevisiae and its mitochondrial manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase null mutant (sod2Δ) were cultured in synthetic complete dextrose medium. After 2 days, 0, 5 and 20 mg/ml of CPE were added, and viability was measured throughout the stationary phase. The effects of the major components of CPE were also evaluated. To determine yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction conditions, cultures were washed with water 24 h after the addition of 0 and 20 mg/ml of CPE, and viability was followed over time. RESULTS : CPE increased the chronological lifespan of S. cerevisiae during the stationary phase in a dose-dependent manner. A similar increase was also observed in (sod2Δ). None of the major CPE components (theobromine, caffeine, maltodextrin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and procyanidin B2) was able to increase the yeast lifespan. CPE further increased the yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction. CONCLUSION: CPE increases the chronological lifespan of S. cerevisiae through a SOD2-independent mechanism. The extract also extends yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction conditions. The high-throughput assay used makes it possible to simply and rapidly test the efficacy of a large number of compounds on yeast aging, requiring only small amounts, and is thus a convenient screening assay to accelerate

  1. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption.

  2. Increase of survival of x-irradiated mice by postirradiation injections of a splenic extract prepared from vaccine or endotoxin-treated syngeneic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneoka, K; Takagi, Y; Shikita, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1977-05-01

    Spleens of mice which had been treated with E. coli endotoxin or typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were extracted with isotonic saline. The extract was filtered through an asbestos filter and chromatographed on a Sephadex G-200 column. The fraction which was excluded at around 2.5-void volume (molecular weight, about 20,000) was significantly effective in increasing survival of animals when it was repeatedly injected in mice after x irradiation (600 R). The injection caused an increase of the weight of spleen of the animals with an increased number of endogenous spleen colonies. The result suggests that the life-saving effect of the spleen extract is based on its effect of stimulating repopulation of autochthonous hematopoietic cells in the x-irradiated animals. A similar splenic extract prepared from normal mice had an ambiguous effect on the survival of x-irradiated animals.

  3. A novel method for RNA extraction from FFPE samples reveals significant differences in biomarker expression between orthotopic and subcutaneous pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Malachia; Adamian, Yvess; Brown, Mark; Maawy, Ali; Chang, Alexander; Lee, Jacqueline; Gharibi, Armen; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael; Doebler, Robert; Kelber, Jonathan A

    2017-01-24

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mH-purified FFPE RNAs are longer and of higher integrity. Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) gene expression signatures vary significantly under in vitro versus in vivo and in vivo subcutaneous versus orthotopic conditions. By using our improved mH-based method, we were able to preserve established expression patterns of KRas-dependency genes within these three unique microenvironments. Finally, expression analysis of novel biomarkers in KRas mutant PDAC samples revealed that PEAK1 decreases and MST1R increases by over 100-fold in orthotopic versus subcutaneous microenvironments. Interestingly, however, only PEAK1 levels remain elevated in orthotopically grown KRas wild-type PDAC cells. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the orthotopic tumor microenvironment when evaluating the clinical relevance of new biomarkers in cells or patient-derived samples. Furthermore, this new mH-based FFPE RNA extraction method has the potential to enhance and expand future FFPE-RNA-NGS cancer biomarker studies.

  4. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  6. Hovenia dulcis Thunb extract and its ingredient methyl vanillate activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway and increase bone mass in growing or ovariectomized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Hyeon Cha

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV, one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis.

  7. Increased blastocyst formation of cloned porcine embryos produced with donor cells pre-treated with Xenopus egg extract and/or digitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Østrup, Olga; Li, Juan

    2012-01-01

    from Xenopus laevis eggs. In Experiment 1, fetal fibroblasts were permeabilized by digitonin, incubated in egg extract and, after re-sealing of cell membranes, cultured for 3 or 5 days before use as donor cells in handmade cloning (HMC). Controls were produced by HMC with non-treated donor cells....... The blastocyst rate for reconstructed embryos increased significantly when digitonin-permeabilized, extract-treated cells were used after 5 days of culture after re-sealing. In Experiment 2, fetal and adult fibroblasts were treated with digitonin alone before re-sealing the cell membranes, then cultured for 3...... cells after pre-treatment with permeabilization/re-sealing and Xenopus egg extract. Interestingly, we observe a similar increase in cloning efficiency by permeabilization/re-sealing of donor cells without extract treatment that seems to depend on choice of donor cell type. Thus, pre-treatment of donor...

  8. Survival Rate of Delayed Implants Placed in Healed Extraction Sockets is Significantly Higher Than That of Immediate Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antetomaso, Jordan; Kumar, Satish

    2018-03-01

    Immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets versus delayed implants into healed sockets: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mello CC, Lemos CAA, Verri FR, Dos Santos DM, Goiato MC, Pellizzer EP. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 46(9):1162-77. None TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ground source energy in crystalline bedrock - increased energy extraction by using hydraulic fracturing in boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstad, Randi Kalstad

    2004-11-01

    The use of improved equipment and methodology can result in considerable reductions in the drilling costs for medium- to large sized ground source heat pump system in crystalline bedrock. The main point has been to use special techniques within hydraulic fracturing to create a larger heat exchange area in the bedrock, and thus a greater energy extraction per borehole. The energy extraction is based on circulating groundwater. Stimulation with hydraulic fracturing is a well known technique in order to improve borehole yields for drinking water-, oil-, and geothermal purposes. A procedure for injection of propping agents in selected borehole sections, and custom-made equipment for hydraulic fracturing in crystalline bedrock, a double packer, have been developed in this study. The propping agents are likely to ensure a permanent improvement of the hydraulic conductivity in a long-run perspective. In addition to a pre-test, a comprehensive test programme has been performed at each of the two pilot plants at Bryn and at the former property of Energiselskapet Asker og Baerum (EAB) in Baerum municipality outside Oslo, Norway. A total of 125 stimulations with hydraulic fracturing using water-only and hydraulic fracturing with injection of sand have been performed in 9 boreholes. Test pumping and geophysical logging (temperature, electrical conductivity, gamma radiation, optical televiewer and flow measurements) have been carried out in order to document the effect of the hydraulic fracturing. The pilot plants at Bryn and EAB, where the ground source heat pump systems are based on circulating groundwater, have demonstrated the short-period energy extraction, limitations and opportunities of the concept for hydraulic fracturing and increased energy extraction in different geological and hydrogeological areas. The bedrock at Bryn and EAB is characterized as a low-metamorphic sandstone and a nodular limestone, respectively. At Bryn, the five boreholes were organised with a

  10. Method for increasing the lifetime of an extraction medium used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and/or breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, H.; Stieglitz, L.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for increasing the lifetime of an extraction medium containing an organophosphorus acid ester and a hydrocarbon and being used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and/or breeder materials. Impurities resulting from chemical and/or radiolytic decomposition and interfering compounds of such impurities with radionuclides are removed from the extraction medium by bringing the extraction medium, after use, into intimate contact with an aqueous hydrazine hydrate solution having a concentration of between 0.1 and 1.0 molar at a temperature between 20 to 75 0 C. The aqueous hydrazine hydrate solution is then separated from the extraction medium

  11. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Peijnenburg, Willie J.G.M.; Allen, Herbert E.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods with a lowest pH of 4.34. Metals were enriched in topsoils after decades of horticultural cultivation, with highest concentrations of Cu (132 kg −1 ) and Zn (168 mg kg −1 ) in old apple orchards and Pb (73 mg kg −1 ) and Cd (0.57 mg kg −1 ) in vineyard soil. Earthworm tissue concentrations of Cu and Pb significantly correlated with 0.01 M CaCl 2 -extractable soil concentrations (R 2  = 0.70, p < 0.001 for Cu; R 2  = 0.58, p < 0.01 for Pb). Because of the increased bioavailability, regular monitoring of soil conditions in old orchards and vineyards is recommended, and soil metal guidelines need reevaluation to afford appropriate environmental protection under acidifying conditions. - Highlights: • Soil acidity of Chinese orchards increased with increasing fruit cultivation period. • Metal levels were enriched in topsoils after decades of horticultural cultivation. • Earthworm bioassays and chemical assays were used to assess metal bioavailability. • Earthworm Cu and Pb concentrations correlated with CaCl 2 -extractable concentrations. • Regular monitoring of soil conditions in old orchards and vineyards is recommended. - Long-term cultivation leads to increased acidification and metal accumulation in horticultural soils, with higher metal bioavailability to earthworms

  12. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  13. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  14. Use of 60Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from 60 Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from 60 Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  15. Use of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo.yara@gmail.com, E-mail: tadeu1903@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  16. Moringa Oleifera aqueous leaf extract down-regulates nuclear factor-kappaB and increases cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Liron; Earon, Gideon; Ron, Ilan; Rimmon, Adam; Vexler, Akiva; Lev-Ari, Shahar

    2013-08-19

    Fewer than 6% patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas live up to five years after diagnosis. Chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment, however, these tumors often develop drug resistance over time. Agents for increasing the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or reducing the cancer cells' chemo-resistance to the drugs are required to improve treatment outcome. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), a pro-inflammatory transcription factor, reportedly plays a significant role in the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis-based chemotherapy. This study investigated the effect of aqueous Moringa Oleifera leaf extract on cultured human pancreatic cancer cells - Panc-1, p34, and COLO 357, and whether it can potentiates the effect of cisplatin chemotherapy on these cells. The effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract alone and in combination with cisplatin on the survival of cultured human pancreatic cancer cells was evaluated by XTT-based colorimetric assay. The distribution of Panc-1 cells in the cell cycle following treatment with Moringa leaf extract was evaluated by flow cytometry, and evaluations of protein levels were via immunoblotting. Data of cell survival following combined treatments were analyzed with Calcusyn software. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibited the growth of all pancreatic cell lines tested. This effect was significant in all cells following exposure to ≥0.75 mg/ml of the extract. Exposure of Panc-1 cells to Moringa leaf extract induced an elevation in the sub-G1 cell population of the cell-cycle, and reduced the expression of p65, p-IkBα and IkBα proteins in crude cell extracts. Lastly, Moringa Oleifera leaf extract synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on Panc-1 cells. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, the cells NF-κB signaling pathway, and increases the efficacy of chemotherapy in human pancreatic cancer cells.

  17. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Herbal tea extract combined with light-induced significant in vitro cytotoxicity of human bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nicholas E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, U. U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, and antidepressant activities of the Greek herb, Hypericum Perforatum L, HP L, have been attributed to the total extract or single constituents. We investigated the use of the extract,specifically of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Epirus"HPL in photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone and in combination with recombinant Interferon-a2b (IFN) and gemcitabine (GCB) in the treatment of human bladder cancer cells. The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with petroleum ether. T-24 bladder cancer cells were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PMF 60ug/ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were subjected to laser light (630nm) treatment with 0, 1, 4 and 8 Joules. After reincubation for 24 hours, IFN, (50,000 IU) or GCB, (2ug/ml) was added to the PDT-treated cells. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT alone-induced percent cell kill of 0%, 8%, 44% and 80% versus 31%, 64 and 86 % for PMF-PDT and IFN, versus 63%, 80% and 88% for MPF-PDT plus GCB at 1, 2, 4 and 8 Joules respectively. IFN and GCB induced 20% and 53% cell kill respectively. Our data suggest that MPF may be an effective agent for in vitro photodynamic therapy. PMF-PDT combined with Intron A, or gemcitabine achieved improved kill of cultured bladder cancer cells. Confirmation of these results in preclinical studies may lead to clinical trials.

  19. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  20. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  1. The influence of snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract to increase hyperglycemic mice fertility based on spermatogenic cell composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Lukitasari, Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is recognized as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Previous study revealed that snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract can repairing the pancreas histological structure which by that decreasing the blood glucose levels. Further research was conducted to determine the influence of snakehead fish extract (SHFE) to increasing the fertility of hyperglycemic mice based on spermatogenic cell composition. Twenty five adult mice (Mus musculus) were induced intraperitoneally to be hyperglycemic using alloxan monohydrate single dose of 190 mg/kg body weight. Hyperglycemic mice treated orally for 14 days using SHFE which grouped into five treatment dosages. Testicular histology were prepared using the paraffin methods and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. According to ANOVA and Tukey's test, it was found that spermatogenic cells population as well as its composition in the testis of mice that treated with SHFE are significantly higher than hyperglichemic mice. The highest dose of SHFE (0.15 ml/day), showed highest spermatogenic cell. All hyperglichemic mice that treated with SHFE exhibited the ratio composition of spermatogonia: spermatocytes: spermatids as same as with control (healthy mice) i.e. 1:1:3 respectively.

  2. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  3. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Matthew E.; Schaff, Cody W.; Horne, Alexandra J.; Lessner, Faith H.

    2014-01-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens. PMID:24222618

  4. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  5. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  6. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  7. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Brey, Robert H; Hughes, Christine A; Larson, Dirk R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-08-01

    This controlled trial was designed to investigate the influence of osteoporosis-related kyphosis (O-K) on falls. Twelve community-dwelling women with O-K (Cobb angle, 50-65 degrees measured from spine radiographs) and 13 healthy women serving as controls were enrolled. Mean age of the O-K group was 76 years (+/-5.1), height 158 cm (+/-5), and weight 61 kg (+/-7.9), and mean age of the control group was 71 years (+/-4.6), height 161 cm (+/-3.8), and weight 66 kg (+/-11.7). Quantitative isometric strength data were collected. Gait was monitored during unobstructed level walking and during stepping over an obstacle of four different heights randomly assigned (2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the subject's height). Balance was objectively assessed with computerized dynamic posturography consisting of the sensory organization test. Back extensor strength, grip strength, and all lower extremity muscle groups were significantly weaker in the O-K group than the control group (P controls for all conditions of unobstructed and obstructed level walking. Obstacle height had a significant effect on all center-of-mass variables. The O-K subjects had significantly greater balance abnormalities on computerized dynamic posturography than the control group (P =0.002). Data show that thoracic hyperkyphosis on a background of reduced muscle strength plays an important role in increasing body sway, gait unsteadiness, and risk of falls in osteoporosis.

  8. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  9. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  10. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  11. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  12. Significance of increased lung thallium-201 activity on serial cardiac images after dipyridamole treatment in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Increased lung thallium-201 (Tl-201) activity occurs in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) on initial postexercise images. To determine the significance of assessing lung Tl-201 on serial imaging after dipyridamole therapy, initial and delayed (2 to 3 hours) Tl-201 imaging was performed in 40 patients with CAD and 26 normal control subjects. Lung Tl-201 activity was quantitated as a percentage of maximal myocardial activity for each imaging time (lung Tl-201 index). The mean initial lung Tl-201 activity was 42 +/- 2% (+/- standard error of the mean) in 26 control subjects, 56 +/- 2% in 25 patients with 2- or 3-vessel CAD (p less than 0.001) and 53 +/- 2% in 15 patients with 1-vessel CAD (p less than 0.005 compared with control subjects) (difference not significant between 1-vessel and multivessel CAD). Dipyridamole lung Tl-201 activity decreased relative to the myocardium from initial to delayed images (p less than 0.001) in patients with CAD but not in control subjects. When a dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index of 58% (mean +/- 2 standard deviations for control subjects) was chosen as the upper limit of normal, 14 of 40 of the CAD patients (35%) had abnormal values and all control patients had values within normal limits. These 14 patients with CAD and abnormal initial lung Tl-201 indexes had rest ejection fractions that were not significantly different from those in patients with CAD, and normal initial dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index (58 +/- 4% and 63 +/- 2%, respectively)

  13. Antioxidant-rich leaf extract of Barringtonia racemosa significantly alters the in vitro expression of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in methylglyoxal degradation III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Weng Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Barringtonia racemosa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lecythidaceae family. The water extract of B. racemosa leaf (BLE has been shown to be rich in polyphenols. Despite the diverse medicinal properties of B. racemosa, information on its major biological effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still lacking. Methods In this study, the effect of the antioxidant-rich BLE on gene expression in HepG2 cells was investigated using microarray analysis in order to shed more light on the molecular mechanism associated with the medicinal properties of the plant. Results Microarray analysis showed that a total of 138 genes were significantly altered in response to BLE treatment (p < 0.05 with a fold change difference of at least 1.5. SERPINE1 was the most significantly up-regulated gene at 2.8-fold while HAMP was the most significantly down-regulated gene at 6.5-fold. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA revealed that “Cancer, cell death and survival, cellular movement” was the top network affected by the BLE with a score of 44. The top five canonical pathways associated with BLE were Methylglyoxal Degradation III followed by VDR/RXR activation, TR/RXR activation, PXR/RXR activation and gluconeogenesis. The expression of genes that encode for enzymes involved in methylglyoxal degradation (ADH4, AKR1B10 and AKR1C2 and glycolytic process (ENO3, ALDOC and SLC2A1 was significantly regulated. Owing to the Warburg effect, aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells may increase the level of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound. Conclusions BLE has the potential to be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent provided that the cytotoxic effects related to methylglyoxal accumulation are minimized in normal cells that rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy supply.

  14. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing a Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, M; Citak, M; Tilkorn, D-J; Meindl, R; Schildhauer, T A; Fehmer, T

    2011-11-01

    Retrospective chart review. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mortality rate and further specific risk factors for Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Division of Spinal Cord Injury, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. All patients with a SCI and a Fournier's gangrene treated in our hospital were enrolled in this study. Following parameters were taken form patients medical records: age, type of SCI, cause of Fournier's gangrene, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, co morbidity factors and mortality rate. In addition, laboratory parameter including the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score and microbiological findings were analyzed. Clinical diagnosis was made via histological examination. A total of 16 male patients (15 paraplegic and one tetraplegic) were included in the study. In 81% of all cases, the origin of Fournier's gangrene was a pressure sore. The median LRINEC score on admission was 6.5. In the vast majority of cases, a polybacterial infection was found. No patient died during the hospital stay. The mean number of surgical debridements before soft tissue closure was 1.9 and after a mean time interval of 39.1 days wound closure was performed in all patients. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing Fournier's gangrene in patients with SCI. We reported the results of our patients to increase awareness among physicians and training staff working with patients with a SCI in order to expedite the diagnosis.

  15. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  16. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the experimentallaying hens were fed for 3 times and drinking water was provided ad libitum. Variables observed were thenumber of eggs, egg weight, time of first laying, egg laying intervals, egg quality ( water content, crudeprotein, and crude fat, and liver function (SGPT and SGOT values . Results of this research showed thatadministration of kemangi leaves extract at a dose of 3 mg/kg BW significantly increased the number ofegg production and egg weight (p<0.05. Time of first laying and laying interval did not show any significantdifference among treatments. Examination of moisture, crude protein, and crude fat content of the eggindicated that the administration of kemangi leaves extract did not affect egg quality. Extract of kemangileaves decreased SGPT and SGOT values that indicated improvement of liver function. It was concludedthat administration of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves could increase laying hens productivity byimprovement of liver function that is critical in vitellogenesis.

  17. Chronic administration of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) may compromise glycaemic efficacy of Sitagliptin with no significant effect in retinopathy in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Comfort; Kwanashie, Helen; Zezi, Abdulkadiri; Danjuma, Nuhu; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2016-12-24

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) has gained awareness for its antidiabetic effect, and is used as alternative therapy or concurrently with orthodox medicines such as sitagliptin in diabetes mellitus. This is without ascertaining the possibility of drug-herb interactions, which could either lead to enhanced antidiabetic efficacy, increased toxicity, or compromised glycaemic control with negative consequence in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the effect, of sitagliptin (50mg/kg), Moringa oleifera (300mg/kg) leaf extract, and a combination of both on glycaemic control parameters, lenticular opacity and changes in retinal microvasculature in alloxan (150mg/kg i.p) induced diabetic rat model. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with groups I, II and VII as normal (NC), diabetic (DC) and post-prandial controls (PPC). Groups III to VI were diabetic rats on sitagliptin (III), M. oleifera (IV), sitagliptin and M. oleifera (SM) (V), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a post-prandial hyperglycaemic group (PPSM) (VI). Glycaemic control parameters, insulin levels, body weights, and effects of retinal microvasculature on lenticular opacity/morphology were investigated. A significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels was displayed in SM group from day 14(60%) (p<0.01) to day 28 (38%) (p<0.01) of treatment, compared to day 1. Thereafter, a steady increase of up to 57% on day 42 compared to day 28 was observed. A significant decrease in random blood glucose (RBG) levels, were demonstrated on day 42 (24%) (p<0.001), compared to day 1. No significant difference was seen in mean serum levels of insulin across groups. No significant changes in body weights. Evidence of mild lenticular opacity was observed, with no significant effect in pathologic lesions in the retina. The chronic co-administration of sitagliptin and M. oleifera showed a progressive decrease in anti-hyperglycaemic effect of sitagliptin, and although it delayed the onset of

  18. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Liposome-containing Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract formulations with increased antioxidant activity, improved dermal penetration and reduced dermal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsuwan, Sirirat; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Ungphaiboon, Suwipa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn, or Roselle, is a medicinal plant used extensively in traditional Thai medicine since ancient times. The extracts of Roselle calyces possess antioxidant activity and have potential for development as active ingredients in cosmetic products. However the limitations of using Roselle extracts in cosmetics are its low skin permeation and dermal irritation. Liposome technology is an obvious approach that might overcome these problems. Liposome formulations of standardized Roselle extracts were developed with various lipid components. The formulation showing the highest entrapment efficiency was selected for stability, skin permeation and dermal irritability studies. The liposome formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (83%) and smalôlest particle size (332 mm) was formulated with phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SPC): Tween 80: deoxycholic acid (DA); 84:16:2.5 weight ratio, total lipid of 200 g/mL and 10% w/v Roselle extract in final liposomal preparation. This liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4 degrees C, protected from light, for 2 months. The in vitro skin permeation studies, using freshly excised pig skin and modified Franz-diffusion cells, showed that the liposome formulation was able to considerably increased the rate of permeation of active compounds in Roselle extracts compared to the Roselle extract solution. The in vivo dermal irritability testing on rabbit skin showed that the liposome formulation dramatically decreased skin irritability compared to the unformulated extract. These results showed that the liposomes containing Roselle extracts had good stability, high entrapment efficacy, increased skin permeation and low skin irritation.

  20. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  1. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  2. The addition of pineapple flesh and pineapple peels extracts to increase the quality of used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawardani, R.; Hasanah, N.; Sukemi

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, reuse of cooking oil is high and common. Heating process and reuse of the cooking oil causes a change in its chemical constituents and decrease its qualities. This research aimed to investigate the addition of pineapple flesh extract (PFE) and pineapple peel extract (PPE) on the increment of the quality of oxidized (used) cooking oil. The cooking oil has been used three times. Treatment was done by mixing the used cooking oil with the extract (2:1) at 50°C. Peroxide value, FFA and iodine number of treated and untreated used cooking oils were measured by using titration method. The result showed that the treatment could increase the quality of the used cooking oils. PPE was better than PFE to increase the quality of the used cooking oil.

  3. Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B. Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. (kale and several materials of Pieris brassicae L., a common pest of Brassica cultures using a cellular model with hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cells under quiescent conditions and subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and glutathione was determined by the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-oxidized glutathione (GSSG reductase recycling assay. The phenolic composition of the extracts was also established by HPLC-DAD. They presented acylated and non acylated flavonoid glycosides, some of them sulfated, and hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides. All extracts were cytotoxic by themselves at high concentrations and failed to protect V79 cells against H2O2 acute toxicity. No relationship between phenolic composition and cytotoxicity of the extracts was found. Rather, a significant increase in glutathione was observed in cells exposed to kale extract, which contained the highest amount and variety of flavonoids. It can be concluded that although flavonoids-rich extracts have the ability to increase cellular antioxidant defenses, the use of extracts of kale and P. brassicae materials by pharmaceutical or food industries, may constitute an insult to health, especially to debilitated individuals, if high doses are consumed.

  4. Bioconversion of Scutellaria baicalensis extract can increase recovery of auditory function in a mouse model of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Isabel; Hong, Bin Na; Nam, Youn Hee; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Geun Ha; Ji, Min Gun; Kang, Tong Ho

    2017-09-01

    In noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), noise exposure damages cochlear sensory hair cells, which lack the capacity to regenerate. Following noise insult, intense metabolic activity occurs, resulting in a cochlear free radical imbalance. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme alterations, including lipoxygenase upregulation, have been linked to chronic inflammation, which contributes to hearing impairment. We previously proposed Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) extract as an alternative therapeutic for preventing NIHL and attributed its pharmacological effects to baicalein. Although baicalein was most effective, its concentration in SB extract is much lower compared to baicalin. In this study, we performed enzymatic bioconversion using an Sumizyme (SM) enzyme to increase baicalein concentration in SB extract and consequently improve its therapeutic efficacy. HPLC analysis revealed that baicalein concentration in SB extract after bioconversion (BSB) was significantly increased. Moreover, BSB-treated mice exhibited significantly improved auditory function compared with control mice and tended to have improved auditory function compared with SB-treated mice. We also demonstrated that BSB effectively stimulates hair cell regeneration compared to SB that did not achieve the same effect in a zebrafish model. Finally, when compared the abilities of SB and BSB to inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX), BSB showed a greater efficacy. Cumulatively, our data suggest that BSB exhibits improved pharmacological properties for treating NIHL compared with SB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Charge transport and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar cells studied by the photoinduced charge extraction in linearly increasing voltage technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mozer, AJ; Sariciftci, NS; Osterbacka, R; Westerling, M; Juska, G; LUTSEN, Laurence; VANDERZANDE, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Charge carrier mobility and recombination in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on the mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)-C-61 (PCBM) has been studied using the novel technique of photoinduced charge carrier extraction in a linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV). In this technique, charge carriers are photogenerated by a short laser flash, and extracted under a reverse bias voltage ramp after ...

  6. About increasing informativity of diagnostic system of asynchronous electric motor by extracting additional information from values of consumed current parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskiy, Y.; Korolev, N.; Koteleva, N.

    2018-05-01

    This article is devoted to expanding the possibilities of assessing the technical state of the current consumption of asynchronous electric drives, as well as increasing the information capacity of diagnostic methods, in conditions of limited access to equipment and incompleteness of information. The method of spectral analysis of the electric drive current can be supplemented by an analysis of the components of the current of the Park's vector. The research of the hodograph evolution in the moment of appearance and development of defects was carried out using the example of current asymmetry in the phases of an induction motor. The result of the study is the new diagnostic parameters of the asynchronous electric drive. During the research, it was proved that the proposed diagnostic parameters allow determining the type and level of the defect. At the same time, there is no need to stop the equipment and taky it out of service for repair. Modern digital control and monitoring systems can use the proposed parameters based on the stator current of an electrical machine to improve the accuracy and reliability of obtaining diagnostic patterns and predicting their changes in order to improve the equipment maintenance systems. This approach can also be used in systems and objects where there are significant parasitic vibrations and unsteady loads. The extraction of useful information can be carried out in electric drive systems in the structure of which there is a power electric converter.

  7. Dietary Yeast Cell Wall Extract Alters the Proteome of the Skin Mucous Barrier in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar: Increased Abundance and Expression of a Calreticulin-Like Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Micallef

    Full Text Available In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Forty-nine spots showed a statistically significant change in their normalised volumes between the control and yeast cell wall diets. Thirteen spots were successfully identified by peptide fragment fingerprinting and LC-MS/MS and these belonged to a variety of functions and pathways. To assess the validity of the results from the proteome approach, the gene expression of a selection of these proteins was studied in skin mRNA from two different independent feeding trials using yeast cell wall extracts. A calreticulin-like protein increased in abundance at both the protein and transcript level in response to dietary yeast cell wall extract. The calreticulin-like protein was identified as a possible biomarker for yeast-derived functional feeds since it showed the most consistent change in expression in both the mucus proteome and skin transcriptome. The discovery of such a biomarker is expected to quicken the pace of research in the application of yeast cell wall extracts.

  8. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  9. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  10. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  11. New tools for extracting cork from Quercus suber L.: increasing productivity and reducing damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Beira Davila

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study is to test new tools designed to debark cork oak trees: mechanized tools to perform cutting operations (IPLA-Morell, Stihl MC200 and COVELESS and manual tools to separate and extract the cork (cork pincers, MIJURO.Area of study: Southwestern Spain.Material and methods: One of the longstanding problems affecting the sector is the shortage of skilled labor to perform debarking due to the difficulty of handling axes and the temporary nature of the work. To overcome these problems, four debarking systems using the new tools were designed according to the morphological properties of cork oak. The viability of the debarking systems were evaluated based on productivity (kg · person–1 · hour–1, production costs (€ · t1 and percentage of pieces smaller than 400 cm2 (%, and compared with the traditional system. Debarking quality and operator experience were also evaluated. A total of 204 trees were debarked.Main results: The new systems obtain better results: productivity is higher, the percentage of pieces is slightly lower and production costs are reduced, except for one system. Debarking quality improves with the new tools as cork is extracted in a more precise and cleaner manner, thus permitting cork manufacturers to obtain higher yields from the cork planks.Research highlights: Semi-skilled operators using the new tools obtain very similar results to skilled operators using axes. This would therefore resolve the problem of the lack of skilled labor, while improving the working conditions of operators. The results demonstrate that the new tools are viable for cork debarking and can bring potential benefits to the sector.Key words: Q. suber L.; cork debarking; mechanization; productivity; cork stripping damage; axe; IPLA_Morell, Sthil MC 200, COVELESS.

  12. Modifications resulting in significant increases in the beam usage time of a 60 keV electron beam welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Harrison, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Short beam usage times were encountered using a 60 keV electron beam welder. These short times were the direct result of a buildup of a reaction product (WO 2 . 90 ) that occurred on graphite washers which housed the tungsten emitter plate. While it was not possible to prevent the reaction product, its growth rate was sufficiently altered by changing graphite materials and minor design changes of the washers. With these modifications beam usage times increased from an original 40 min to approximately 675 min

  13. Was there significant tax evasion after the 1999 50 cent per pack cigarette tax increase in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, S; White, M; Gilpin, E; Pierce, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Several states, including California, have implemented large cigarette excise tax increases, which may encourage smokers to purchase their cigarettes in other lower taxed states, or from other lower or non-taxed sources. Such tax evasion thwarts tobacco control objectives and may cost the state substantial tax revenues. Thus, this study investigates the extent of tax evasion in the 6–12 months after the implementation of California's $0.50/pack excise tax increase. Design and setting: Retrospective data analysis from the 1999 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS), a random digit dialled telephone survey of California households. Main outcome measures: Sources of cigarettes, average daily cigarette consumption, and reported price paid. Results: Very few (5.1 (0.7)% (±95% confidence limits)) of California smokers avoided the excise tax by usually purchasing cigarettes from non- or lower taxed sources, such as out-of-state outlets, military commissaries, or the internet. The vast majority of smokers purchased their cigarettes from the most convenient and expensive sources: convenience stores/gas (petrol) stations (45.0 (1.9)%), liquor/drug stores (16.4 (1.6)%), and supermarkets (8.8 (1.2)%). Conclusions: Despite the potential savings, tax evasion by individual smokers does not appear to pose a serious threat to California's excise tax revenues or its tobacco control objectives. PMID:12035006

  14. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 'Knowledge for better health' revisited - the increasing significance of health research systems: a review by departing Editors-in-Chief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2017-10-02

    How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems. HARPS has maintained its focus on a range of central themes that are key components of a national health research system in any country. These include building capacity to conduct and use health research, identifying appropriate priorities, securing funds and allocating them accountably, producing scientifically valid research outputs, promoting the use of research in polices and practice in order to improve health, and monitoring and evaluating the health research system. Some of the themes covered in HARPS are now receiving increased attention and, for example, with the assessment of research impact and development of knowledge translation platforms, the journal has covered their progress throughout that expansion of interest. In addition, there is increasing recognition of new imperatives, including the importance of promoting gender equality in health research if benefits are to be maximised. In this Editorial, we outline some of the diverse and developing perspectives considered within each theme, as well as considering how they are held together by the growing desire to build effective health research systems in all countries.From 2003 until mid-June 2017, HARPS published 590 articles on the above and related themes, with authors being located in 76 countries. We present quantitative data tracing

  17. Alpha adrenergic receptor blockade increases capillarisation and fractional O2 extraction and lowers blood flow in contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Egginton, Stuart; Madsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of elevated basal shear stress on angiogenesis in humans, and the role of enhanced skeletal muscle capillarisation on blood flow and O2 extraction. METHODS: Limb haemodynamics and O2 extraction was measured at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise (12 and 24W......) in 10 healthy untrained young men before and after 4 weeks treatment with an α1 receptor-antagonist (Terazosin, 1-2 mg day(-1) ). Corresponding biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: Resting leg blood flow was increased by 57% 6 hours following Terazosin treatment (P... basal capillary-to-fibre ratio was 1.69±0.08 and increased to 1.90±0.08 after treatment (Pblood flow and venous lactate levels lower (6-7%; P

  18. Maceration enzymes and mannoproteins: a possible strategy to increase colloidal stability and color extraction in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Palacios, Antonio; Ayestaran, Belén

    2007-06-13

    Different strategies were adopted to achieve increases in color stability in Tempranillo wines: (i) addition of maceration enzymes directly to the must, (ii) addition of commercial mannoproteins to the must, and (iii) inoculation of must with yeast overexpressed of mannoproteins. The addition of enzymes favored color extraction, and the wines obtained presented higher values of wine color, color intensity, bisulfite-stable color, and visually enhanced color intensity. The enzyme hydrolytic activity produced an increase in the acid polysaccharide content and polyphenol index and yielded to wines with more astringency, tannin, and length. Added mannoproteins had clearer effects on the analyzed parameters than yeast. Contrary to what may be thought, mannoproteins did not maintain the extracted polyphenols in colloidal dispersion and neither ensured color stability. These compounds clearly modified the gustative structure of the wines, enhancing the sweetness and roundness.

  19. EFFECTIVITY OF EXTRACT RED BETEL LEAF (Piper crocatum WITH WEIGHT INCREASE OF MALE WHITE MICE (Rattus novergicus IN CONDUTION DIABETES WHICH INDUCE ALLOXAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to learn the level of effectiveness of ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum within increase weight of male white mouse in condition for diabetes mellitus. 20 male white mice (Rattus novergicus in 3 mounth with weight between 190-250 gram which adapted during 2 weeks. It classified to be 5 groups random, each group consisty by 4 mice. The first treatment as a negative control (healty mouse whitout giving treatment. The second treatment as alloxan positive control, the third treatment alloxan added by 2% suspension of ethaol extract from red betel leaf (dose 100 mg/kg bb per oral. The fifth treatment is alloxan added by 0.02% suspension glibenclamide (dose 1 ml/kg bb per oral. Giving extract betel leaf is done by oral with used sonde. Giving treatment at treatment III, IV and V is done everyday start from day 3 until the end of the day (21 day. The weight of mouse is measure at day 7, 14 and day 21 used analytical balanced. The result of this research show up that giving 2% ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum with dose (50 mg/kg bb, dose (100 mg/kg bb and glibenclamide 0,02% ( 1 ml/kg bb with significant can increase weight (P<0,05 of white mice which induce alloxan. Result of this research could be conclude that ethanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum can used for increase the weight.

  20. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  1. Oral administration of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris increases physical stamina in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Hyun-Myung; Park, Hyeung-Suk; Han, Jae-Gab; Lee, Eun-Hee; Park, Young-Sig; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2006-01-01

    A unicellular algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was used as a biological response modifier. Although hot water extracts of C. vulgaris (CVE) are thought to augment immune responses, the effect of CVE on fatigue and physical stamina has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CVE on forced swimming test and blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose (Glc), and total protein (TP). CVE (0.05-0.15 g/kg/day) was orally administered to mice. After 7 days, the immobility time was decreased in the 0.1- and 0.15-g/kg CVE-treated groups (179 +/- 8.3 and 175 +/- 2.1 s) in comparison with the control group (223 +/- 5.4 s). In addition, the contents of BUN, CK, and LDH in the blood serum were decreased in the CVE-fed group. However, they had no effect on the elevation of Glc and TP level. The results predict a potential benefit of CVE for enhancing immune function and improving physical stamina. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  3. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  4. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  5. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan T.; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hall, Gillian C.; Ford, Ian; Mills, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment. Methods The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions. Results Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4–2.6]. High dose was classified as 40–80mg daily and low dose 10–20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2–12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9–2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0–2.2] for HDS. Conclusions The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small. PMID:26983033

  6. A significant increase in the pepsinogen I/II ratio is a reliable biomarker for successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Osumi

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication is usually assessed using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT, anti-H. pylori antibody and the H. pylori stool antigen test. However, a few reports have used pepsinogen (PG, in particular, the percentage change in the PG I/II ratio. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios for determining the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.In total, 650 patients received eradication therapy from October 2008 to March 2013 in our Cancer Institute Hospital. We evaluated the relationship between H. pylori eradication and percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios before and 3 months after treatment with CLEIA® (FUJIREBIO Inc, Tokyo, Japan. The gold standard of H. pylori eradication was defined as negative by the UBT performed 3 months after completion of eradication treatment. Cut-off values for percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios were set as +40, +25 and +10% when the serum PG I/II ratio before treatment was below 3.0, above 3.0 but below 5.0 and 5.0 or above, respectively.Serum PG I and PG II levels were measured in 562 patients with H. pylori infection before and after eradication therapy. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 433 patients studied (77.0%. The ratios of first, second, third-line and penicillin allergy eradication treatment were 73.8% (317/429, 88.3% (99/112, 75% (12/16 and 100% (5/5, respectively. An increasing percentage in the serum levels of the PG I/II ratios after treatment compared with the values before treatment clearly distinguished success from failure of eradication (108.2±57.2 vs. 6.8±30.7, p<0.05. Using the above cut-off values, the sensitivity, specificity and validity for determination of H. pylori were 93.1, 93.8 and 93.2%, respectively.In conclusion, the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios are useful as evaluation criteria for assessing the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.

  7. Effects of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) extract consumption on leukocytes increase in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro Terrazos, Jony; Moisés Saldaña, Ítalo

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the article published by Amaro, which shows that there is an increase of leukocytes to manage beets in albino mice of the species Mus musculus Balb / c (1) strain. We want to share the results of a study that bean (Vicia faba L.), a plant that has the role in the diet of rural and urban dwellers for its contribution in proteins characteristic of all legume was used, and for their contribution carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. The importance of this kind is increasing ...

  8. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H; Warner, Nathaniel R; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J; Osborn, Stephen G; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D

    2013-07-09

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P gas (4)He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases.

  9. Charge transport and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar cells studied by the photoinduced charge extraction in linearly increasing voltage technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, A. J.; Sariciftci, N. S.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Österbacka, R.; Westerling, M.; Juška, G.

    2005-03-01

    Charge carrier mobility and recombination in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on the mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)-C61 (PCBM) has been studied using the novel technique of photoinduced charge carrier extraction in a linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV). In this technique, charge carriers are photogenerated by a short laser flash, and extracted under a reverse bias voltage ramp after an adjustable delay time (tdel). The Photo-CELIV mobility at room temperature is found to be μ =2×10-4cm2V-1s-1, which is almost independent on charge carrier density, but slightly dependent on tdel. Furthermore, determination of charge carrier lifetime and demonstration of an electric field dependent mobility is presented.

  10. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica increases hair inductive property through inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in three-dimensional spheroid cultured human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong Min; An, Sungkwan; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Kim, Young Sam; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Bae, Seunghee

    2017-12-01

    Dermal papilla (DP) is a pivotal part of hair follicle, and the smaller size of the DP is related with the hair loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) on hair growth inductive property on 3D spheroid cultured human DP cells (HDP cells). Significantly increased effect of TECA on cell viability was only shown in 3D sphered HPD cells, not in 2D cultured HDP cells. Also, TECA treatment increased the sphere size of HDP cells. The luciferase activity of STAT reporter genes and the expression of STAT-targeted genes, SOCS1 and SOCS3, were significantly decreased. Also, TECA treatment increased the expression of the hair growth-related signature genes in 3D sphered HDP cells. Furthermore, TECA led to downregulation of the level of phosphorylated STAT proteins in 3D sphered HDP cells. Overall, TECA activates the potential of hair inductive capacity in HDP cells.

  11. Injection of a Phase Modulated Source into the Z-Beamlet Laser for Increased Energy Extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Armstrong, Darrell J.; Schwarz, Jens; Smith, Ian C; Shores, Jonathon; Speas, Christopher; Porter, John L.

    2014-11-01

    The Z-Beamlet laser has been operating at Sandia National Laboratories since 2001 to provide a source of laser-generated x-rays for radiography of events on the Z-Accelerator. Changes in desired operational scope have necessitated the increase in pulse duration and energy available from the laser system. This is enabled via the addition of a phase modulated seed laser as an alternative front-end. The practical aspects of deployment are discussed here.

  12. Ixeris dentata Extract Increases Salivary Secretion through the Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Diabetes-Induced Xerostomia Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2018-04-02

    This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD), a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate. Similarly, the IXD extract and its purified compound increased amylase secretion in high glucose-exposed human salivary gland cells. Furthermore, increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the submandibular gland of diabetic rats was inhibited by treatment with the IXD extract, suggesting that IXD extract treatment improves the ER environment by increasing the protein folding capacity. Thus, pharmacological treatment with the IXD extract is suggested to relieve DM-induced dry mouth symptoms.

  13. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes from termite extract, elephant faecal solution and buffalo ruminal fluid to increase in vitro digestibility of King Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Prabowo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a compound of plant cell walls which is difficult to be degraded because it composed of glucose monomers linked by β-(1.4-bound. It will be hydrolysed by cellulase enzyme secreted by cellulolytic microbes. The effective digestion of cellulose needs high activity of cellulase enzyme. This research aims to increase in vitro king grass digestibility utilizing mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid. Twelve syringes contained gas test media were randomly divided into four treatments based on sources of microbe (SM, namely: S (SM: cattle ruminal fluid [S], RGK (SM: mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid [RGK], with composition 1 : 1 : 1, S-RGK (SM: S + RGK, with composition 1:1, and TM (without given treatment microbe. Digestibility was measured using gas test method. Average of gas production treatment of S-RGK (70.2 + 0.6 ml was higher and significantly different (P<0.01 compared to treatment of S (60.3 + 0.8 ml, RGK (40.8 + 2.3 ml, and TM (13.3 + 2.0 ml. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid (RGK that combined with microbes of cattle ruminal fluid (S could increase in vitro digestibility of king grass.

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis of potential groundwater extraction capacity increase: case study of 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis of the groundwater regime undertaken to assess the potential for expanding the 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci, or developing a new groundwater source for a future baby food factory, including the quantification of the impact on the production wells of the nearby 'Pepsi' groundwater source, is presented in the paper. The existing Nelt source is comprised of three active production wells that tap a subartesian aquifer formed in sands and gravelly sands; however, the analysis considers only the two nearest wells. A long-term group pumping test was con-ducted of production wells N-1 and N2 (Nelt source and production wells B-1 and B-2 (Pepsi source, while the piezometric head in the vicinity of these wells was monitored at observation well P-1, which is located in the area considered for Nelt source expansion. Data were collected at maximum pumping capacity of all the production wells. A hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow in the extended area of the Nelt source was generated for the purposes of the comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis. Hydrodynamic prognostic calculations addressed two solution alternatives for the capacity increase over a period of ten years. Licensed Visual MODFLOW Pro software, deemed to be at the very top in this field, was used for the calculations.

  15. Increase in nitrite content and functionality of ethanolic extracts of Perilla frutescens following treatment with atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Lee, Chul Woo; Lee, Juri; Yong, Hae In; Yum, Su Jin; Jeong, Hee Gon; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on nitrite content and functionality of plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of Perilla frutescens (EEP) were prepared and treated with APP for 60min. Nitrite content increased from 0 to 45.8mg/l in EEP after APP treatment for 60min. Antimicrobial activity of EEP against Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella Typhimurium was increased by APP with no influence on antioxidative activity (p<0.05). Lyophilized EEP (LEEP) treated with APP for 60min contained 3.74mg/g nitrite. The control (LEEP without APP) contained no nitrite. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEEP for C. perfringens was 200µg/ml. The control did not inhibit C. perfringens growth between 25 and 1000µg/ml. MICs of LEEP and the control against S. Typhimurium were 25 and 50µg/ml, respectively. New nitrite sources with increased antimicrobial activity can be produced from natural plants by APP treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gaharu Leaf Extract Water Reduce MDA and 8-OHdG Levels and Increase Activities SOD and Catalase in Wistar Rats Provided Maximum Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Adi Parwata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress occurs due to an imbalance of the number of free radicals by the number of endogenous antioxidant produced by the body i.e. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Gluthathione Peroxidase (GPx, and Catalase. The imbalance between the number of free radicals and antioxidants can be overcome with the endogenous antioxidant intake that exogenous oxidative stress can be reduced. One of exogenous antioxidants is natural Gaharu leaf water extract. Objective: This research focus on the effect of Gaharu leaf water extract in reducing MDA and 8-OHdG and increase the activity of SOD and Catalase. Methods: This study was an experimental with post only controls group design. Experiment was divided  into 5 groups of wistar rats, each consisting of 5 animals, i.e. negative control group without extract [K (-], treatment 1 treated 50 mg/kg BW/day of the extract (T1, treatment 2 treated 100 mg/kg BW/day of the extract (T2, treatment 3 treated 200 mg/ kg BW/day of the extract (T3, and positive control group [K (+] treated with vitamin Cat a dose 50 mg/kg BW/day. All groups treated for 10 weeks. Every day, before treatment, each group was given a maximum swimming activity for 1.5 hours for 10 weeks. ELISA was used to measure MDA, 8-OHdG, SOD, and Catalase activities. Result: The research results showed that treatment of extract of  leaves of Gaharu with an higher dose from 50 mg/kg BW up to 200 mg/ kg BW significantly decline (p <0.05 levels of MDA with the average ranging from 6.37±0.23, 5,56±0.27 and 4.32±0.27, 8-OHdG with a mean of 1.64±0.11, 1.26±0.46, and 1.09±0.17. On the other hand the treatment also increase SOD activity with less ranging from 12.15±1.04, 15.70±2.02, and 18.84±1.51, and Catalase ranging from 6,68±0.63, 8.20±1.14 and 9.29±0,79 in the blood of Wistar rats were given a maximum activity compared to the negative control group. This is probably higher phenol compounds (bioflavonoids quantity content of the extract

  17. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Status and perspectives of fish industry of Azerbaijan in conditions of increased oil and gas extraction in the Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjiev, R.V; Kasimov, R.Yu; Akhundov, M.M; Karaev, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The Caspian Sea plays important role in supply of the population of Azerbaijan Republic with fish products. Furthermore, the Caspian Sea is the single pond where more than 70% of sturgeons are harvested all over the world. Besides, more than 80% of the big bony fishes harvested in the ponds of Azerbaijan, are caught in the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, the entrails of the Caspian Sea contain tremendous amounts of oil and gas deposits whose extraction disturbs partially the ecological equilibrium in this unique pond. It should be noticed that since 1973-1974 the increase of sturgeon harvest was observed. The special scientific Institute of Fish Industry in Astrakhan city with its branch in Azerbaijan was founded. In the same years top amount of oil was extracted in the Caspian Sea and simultaneously high pollution level of the sea with oil and oil products, having been clearly seen in the Sea-attached Boulevard, was fixed. However, in spite of these unfavorable conditions, the sturgeon harvests, due to their reproduction in the hatcheries and following release into the sea, increased not only in Azerbaijan, but also all over the whole Caspian Sea basin. It is impossible to keep serenity today owing to the fact that broadening of oil extraction in the Caspian Sea for new deposits are situated near to the fattening areas of juveniles of valuable fish species, in the estuary of the Kura river and other small rivers where sex-mature fishes migrate. Besides, the migration ways of sturgeons the North origin pass through these zones: in autumn- from the North to the South, while in early and middle spring- in opposite direction

  19. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  20. Increase in 4-coumaryl alcohol units during lignification in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) alters the extractability and molecular weight of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebell, Angela; Gracom, Kristen; Katahira, Rui; Chen, Fang; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Art; Dixon, Richard A; Davis, Mark

    2010-12-10

    The lignin content of biomass can impact the ease and cost of biomass processing. Lignin reduction through breeding and genetic modification therefore has potential to reduce costs in biomass-processing industries (e.g. pulp and paper, forage, and lignocellulosic ethanol). We investigated compositional changes in two low-lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lines with antisense down-regulation of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT). We investigated whether the difference in reactivity during lignification of 4-coumaryl alcohol (H) monomers versus the naturally dominant sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol lignin monomers alters the lignin structure. Sequential base extraction readily reduced the H monomer content of the transgenic lines, leaving a residual lignin greatly enriched in H subunits; the extraction profile highlighted the difference between the control and transgenic lines. Gel permeation chromatography of isolated ball-milled lignin indicated significant changes in the weight average molecular weight distribution of the control versus transgenic lines (CTR1a, 6000; C3H4a, 5500; C3H9a, 4000; and HCT30a, 4000).

  1. Pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. var. hainanensis Tsiang increase LκB-α expression and ameliorate ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X P; Sun, X N; Wei, H; Liu, Z J; Cui, L J; Deng, T Z

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic potential of pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. var. hainanensis Tsiang in ulcerative colitis were investigated. This study showed that pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. var. hainanensis Tsiang ameliorated ulcerative colitis and were proposed to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects via increased expression of IκB-α proteins and suppressing NF-αB translocation.

  2. Application of the method of optimum increase of Carboniferous gass exploitation for the determination of its extractable amount from the space of attenuated plant of the Paskov Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragon Vladimír

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A way of optimum extraction increase of Carboniferous gas which can be applied in any mine of the Ostrava-Karviná Mining District (OKMD during the current period of the restructuralisation and mining attenuation.

  3. Astragalus Extract Mixture HT042 Increases Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate by Upregulating Circulatory IGF-1 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a standardized ingredient of health functional food approved by Korean FDA with a claim of “height growth of children.” HT042 stimulates bone growth rate and increases local IGF-1 expression in growth plate of rats which can be considered as direct stimulation of GH and its paracrine/autocrine actions. However, it remains unclear whether HT042 stimulates circulatory IGF-1 which also plays a major role to stimulate bone growth. To determine the effects on circulatory IGF-1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 expressions and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5 were evaluated in the liver after 10 days of HT042 administration. HT042 upregulated liver IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, IGF-1 protein expression, and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5. HT042 also increased bone growth rate and proliferative zonal height in growth plate. In conclusion, HT042 stimulates bone growth rate via increment of proliferative rate by upregulation of liver IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA followed by IGF-1 protein expression through phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5, which can be regarded as normal functioning of GH-dependent endocrine pathway.

  4. Increased glucose metabolism and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in Cordyceps militaris water extract-treated HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kang, Yun Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Kon; Kim, Tae Woo; Park, Jae Bong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recent living condition improvements, changes in dietary habits, and reductions in physical activity are contributing to an increase in metabolic syndrome symptoms including diabetes and obesity. Through such societal developments, humankind is continuously exposed to metabolic diseases such as diabetes, and the number of the victims is increasing. This study investigated Cordyceps militaris water extract (CMW)-induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and the effect of CMW treatment on glucose metabolism. MATERIALS/METHODS Colorimetric assay kits were used to determine the glucokinase (GK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities, glucose uptake, and glycogen content. Either RT-PCR or western blot analysis was performed for quantitation of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1α), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, GK, PDH, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) expression levels. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of acarbose and CMW were evaluated by absorbance measurement. RESULTS CMW induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by increasing GLUT2 through HNF-1α expression stimulation. Glucose in the cells increased the CMW-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. In turn, glycolysis was stimulated, and glyconeogenesis was inhibited. Furthermore, by studying the mechanism of action of PI3k, Akt, and GSK-3β, and measuring glycogen content, the study confirmed that the glucose was stored in the liver as glycogen. Finally, CMW resulted in a higher level of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than that from acarbose. CONCLUSION CMW induced the uptake of glucose into HepG2 cells, as well, it induced metabolism of the absorbed glucose. It is concluded that CMW is a candidate or potential use in diabetes prevention and treatment. PMID:28584574

  5. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  6. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ixeris dentata Extract Increases Salivary Secretion through the Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Diabetes-Induced Xerostomia Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashi Raj Bhattarai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD, a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5 and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate. Similarly, the IXD extract and its purified compound increased amylase secretion in high glucose-exposed human salivary gland cells. Furthermore, increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the submandibular gland of diabetic rats was inhibited by treatment with the IXD extract, suggesting that IXD extract treatment improves the ER environment by increasing the protein folding capacity. Thus, pharmacological treatment with the IXD extract is suggested to relieve DM-induced dry mouth symptoms.

  8. Leptospira santorosai Serovar Shermani detergent extract induces an increase in fibronectin production through a Toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Yi-Jung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Wu, Mai-Szu; Phillips, Aled; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2011-03-01

    Leptospirosis can activate inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and may cause renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). We have previously demonstrated that Leptospira santorosai serovar Shermani detergent extract stimulates ECM accumulation in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanistic basis of these previous observations and, in particular, to examine the potential involvement of TLRs. The addition of serovar Shermani detergent extract led to an increase in fibronectin gene expression and production. Inhibition of TLR2 but not TLR4 expression abrogated serovar Shermani detergent extract-mediated increases in fibronectin production. This response was also blocked by the knockdown of the gene expression of the TLR2 downstream transducers myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Serovar Shermani detergent extract also activated nuclear factor-κB, and its inhibition by curcumin-attenuated serovar Shermani detergent extract induced increases in fibronectin production. These effects were also mimicked by the specific TLR2 agonist, Pam(3)CsK(4), a response that was also abrogated by the knockdown of MyD88 and TRAF6. Similarly, the administration of live leptospires to cells also induced fibronectin production that was blocked by inhibition of TLR2 and MyD88 expression. In conclusion, serovar Shermani detergent extract can induce fibronectin production through the TLR2-associated cascade, providing evidence of an association between TLRs and leptospirosis-mediated ECM deposition.

  9. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani Jay K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp. bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g at the screening visit (V1-Day 0 and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2. They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31, as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51 and 42 days (V5-Day 72 after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041. These same subtypes (18C and 23F also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001 and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003. Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There

  10. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Singh, Betsy B; Barrett, Marilyn L; Singh, Vijay J

    2010-08-26

    Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp.) bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccine in healthy adults. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g) at the screening visit (V1-Day 0) and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2). They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31), as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51) and 42 days (V5-Day 72) after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific) were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific) were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F) at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002) and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041). These same subtypes (18C and 23F) also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001) and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003). Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There was no effect from the vaccine or

  11. Arsenic Speciation and Extraction and the Significance of Biodegradable Acid on Arsenic Removal—An Approach for Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Osanai, Yasuhito; Do Nguyen, Hai; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A series of arsenic remediation tests were conducted using a washing method with biodegradable organic acids, including oxalic, citric and ascorbic acids. Approximately 80% of the arsenic in one sample was removed under the effect of the ascorbic and oxalic acid combination, which was roughly twice higher than the effectiveness of the ascorbic and citric acid combination under the same conditions. The soils treated using biodegradable acids had low remaining concentrations of arsenic that are primarily contained in the crystalline iron oxides and organic matter fractions. The close correlation between extracted arsenic and extracted iron/aluminum suggested that arsenic was removed via the dissolution of Fe/Al oxides in soils. The fractionation of arsenic in four contaminated soils was investigated using a modified sequential extraction method. Regarding fractionation, we found that most of the soil contained high proportions of arsenic (As) in exchangeable fractions with phosphorus, amorphous oxides, and crystalline iron oxides, while a small amount of the arsenic fraction was organic matter-bound. This study indicated that biodegradable organic acids can be considered as a means for arsenic-contaminated soil remediation.

  12. Final report of a randomized trial on altered-fractionated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma prematurely terminated by significant increase in neurologic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter Man Lung; Leung, Sing Fai; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Choi, Peter Ho Keung; Kwan, Wing Hong; Lee, Wai Yee; Chau, Ricky Ming Chun; Yu, Peter Kau Wing; Johnson, Philip James

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the survival, local control and complications of conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From February 1993 to October 1995, 159 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (M0) NPC with N0 or 4 cm or less N1 disease (Ho's N-stage classification, 1978) were randomized to receive either conventional radiotherapy (Arm I, n = 82) or conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Arm II, n = 77). Stratification was according to the T stage. The biologic effective dose (10 Grays) to the primary and the upper cervical lymphatics were 75.0 and 73.1 for Arm I and 84.4 and 77.2 for Arm II, respectively. Results: With comparable distribution among the T stages between the two arms, the free from local failure rate at 5 years after radiotherapy was not significantly different between the two arms (85.3%; 95% confidence interval, 77.2-93.4% for Arm I; and 88.9%; 95% confidence interval, 81.7-96.2% for Arm II). The two arms were also comparable in overall survival, relapse-free survival, and rates of distant metastasis and regional relapse. Conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with significantly increased radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system (including temporal lobe, cranial nerves, optic nerve/chiasma, and brainstem/spinal cord) in Arm II. Although insignificant, radiation-induced cranial nerve(s) palsy (typically involving VIII-XII), trismus, neck soft tissue fibrosis, and hypopituiturism and hypothyroidism occurred more often in Arm II. In addition, the complications occurred at significantly shorter intervals after radiotherapy in Arm II. Conclusion: Accelerated hyperfractionation when used in conjunction with a two-dimensional radiotherapy planning technique, in this case the Ho's technique, resulted in increased radiation damage to the central

  13. Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.; Lu, T.C.; Kuo, H.C.; Wang, S.C.; Hsu, T.C.; Hsieh, M.H.; Jou, M.J.; Lee, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    A chemical wet etching technique is presented to form a nano-roughened surface with triangle-like morphology on n-side-up AlGaInP-based LEDs fabricated by adopting adhesive layer bonding scheme. A simple and commonly used H 3 PO 4 -based solution was applied for chemical wet etching. The morphology of nano-roughened surfaces is analyzed by the atomic force microscope (AFM) and significantly related to the enhancement factor of the LED output power. The output power shows 80% increase after optimizing the nano-roughened morphology of n-side surface, as compared to the ordinary flat surface LED

  14. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  16. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    histopathology had died compared to 2 (3.2%) of non-worsening patients. Biopsy worsening was associated with a significantly greater 15-year risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 4.2, p=0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 4.3, p=0.022), adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. Time between first and second biopsies was 5years in 28. Over a 15-year period, those with <1year between first and second biopsies (presumably enriched for patients with early clinical signs of progression) had a significantly greater risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 13.7, p<0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 16.9, p=0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. A repeat renal biopsy demonstrating worsening pathology increases the risk of ESRD and death more than four-fold compared to non-worsening patients. Given known potential mismatch between biopsy and clinical data, repeat biopsies may add important information and justify changes in treatment not considered on clinical grounds. Earlier detection of poor prognostic signs in those without early clinical deterioration might improve outcomes in enough patients to reconsider cost effectiveness of routine repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-08-15

    There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in OSA patients existed at least within 3 months of CPAP treatment. Methods to prevent OSA as well as treatment in its early stage may be recommended. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  19. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  20. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  2. Prognostic Significance of Creatinine Increases During an Acute Heart Failure Admission in Patients With and Without Residual Congestion: A Post Hoc Analysis of the PROTECT Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metra, Marco; Cotter, Gad; Senger, Stefanie; Edwards, Christopher; Cleland, John G; Ponikowski, Piotr; Cursack, Guillermo C; Milo, Olga; Teerlink, John R; Givertz, Michael M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Dittrich, Howard C; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Voors, Adriaan A; Davison, Beth A

    2018-05-01

    The importance of a serum creatinine increase, traditionally considered worsening renal function (WRF), during admission for acute heart failure has been recently debated, with data suggesting an interaction between congestion and creatinine changes. In post hoc analyses, we analyzed the association of WRF with length of hospital stay, 30-day death or cardiovascular/renal readmission and 90-day mortality in the PROTECT study (Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function). Daily creatinine changes from baseline were categorized as WRF (an increase of 0.3 mg/dL or more) or not. Daily congestion scores were computed by summing scores for orthopnea, edema, and jugular venous pressure. Of the 2033 total patients randomized, 1537 patients had both available at study day 14. Length of hospital stay was longer and 30-day cardiovascular/renal readmission or death more common in patients with WRF. However, these were driven by significant associations in patients with concomitant congestion at the time of assessment of renal function. The mean difference in length of hospital stay because of WRF was 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.73) more days ( P =0.0019), and the hazard ratio for WRF on 30-day death or heart failure hospitalization was 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.09) times higher ( P =0.0205), in significantly congested than nonsignificantly congested patients. A similar trend was observed with 90-day mortality although not statistically significant. In patients admitted for acute heart failure, WRF defined as a creatinine increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL was associated with longer length of hospital stay, and worse 30- and 90-day outcomes. However, effects were largely driven by patients who had residual congestion at the time of renal function assessment. URL: https

  3. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  4. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p snacks and sweets during the day (36% reduction, p snacks, respectively, and decreased subjective liking for sweet (28% reduction, p snacks, sweet-and-fat snacks in particular, were positively correlated to higher emotional eating scores (p obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts...... in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence......, we concluded that the EO and solvent extracts of C. citrinus and C. citratus have potential as control agents against brown spot and other seed-borne fungal diseases in rice under both conventional and organic farming....

  7. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  8. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  9. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, Christoph; Souza, Richard B.; Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008–0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  10. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  11. Vitex Agnus Castus Extract Improves Learning and Memory and Increases the Transcription of Estrogen Receptor α in Hippocampus of Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Honari, Najmeh; Pourabolli, Iran; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Ghafarian, Hossein; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Esmaeili Nadimi, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Lower level of estrogen hormone is considered as an important factor for loss of learning and memory in postmenopausal women. Although estrogen replacement therapy is used for compensation, but long-term usage of estrogen is associated with a higher risk of hormone-dependent cancers. Phytoestrogens, due to fewer side effects, have been proposed to prevent menopause-related cognitive decline. 24 female Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used in this study. The animals were ovariectomized and randomly divided into four groups including, control and two groups which received 8 and 80 mg/kg Vitex agnus castus (VAC) ethanolic extract orally. The last groups were treated with 40 μg/kg of estradiol valerat. Step-through passive avoidance (STPA) test was used for the evaluation of learning and memory. The hippocampal estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression was measured using Real-Time PCR. The results demonstrated that VAC extract or estradiol had better performance on step-through passive avoidance test than control group (all P<0.05). Moreover, administration of either estradiol or VAC extract increased the hippocampal mRNA level of ERα and prevented the decrease in uterine weight of ovariectomized rats. Based on our data, VAC extract improves learning and memory in ovariectomized rats. The positive effect of VAC extract on learning and memory is possibly associated with an increase in ERα gene expression in the hippocampal formation.

  12. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  13. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  14. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (Pphytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  15. Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-02-10

    In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for drugs at such low concentrations, as suggested by the new MPA guidelines, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening kits were used to screen for the drugs of abuse at the new MPA cut-offs. The above comparison revealed significantly increased detection rates of drug use or exposure during the rehabilitation period as follows: 1.61, 2.33, 3.33, and 7 times higher for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), morphine, benzoylecgonine and amphetamine respectively. The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glehnia littoralis Extract Promotes Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of the Adult Mouse through Increasing Expressions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Tropomyosin-Related Kinase B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Ha Park

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: G. littoralis extract promots cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and neuronal maturation in the hippocampal DG, and neurogenic effects might be closely related to increases of BDNF and TrkB proteins by G. littoralis extract treatment.

  17. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  19. Multi-Locus Next-Generation Sequence Typing of DNA Extracted From Pooled Colonies Detects Multiple Unrelated Candida albicans Strains in a Significant Proportion of Patient Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningxin Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida albicans is an important opportunistic human pathogen. For C. albicans strain typing or drug susceptibility testing, a single colony recovered from a patient sample is normally used. This is insufficient when multiple strains are present at the site sampled. How often this is the case is unclear. Previous studies, confined to oral, vaginal and vulvar samples, have yielded conflicting results and have assessed too small a number of colonies per sample to reliably detect the presence of multiple strains. We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS modification of the highly discriminatory C. albicans MLST (multilocus sequence typing method, 100+1 NGS-MLST, for detection and typing of multiple strains in clinical samples. In 100+1 NGS-MLST, DNA is extracted from a pool of colonies from a patient sample and also from one of the colonies. MLST amplicons from both DNA preparations are analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Using base call frequencies, our bespoke DALMATIONS software determines the MLST type of the single colony. If base call frequency differences between pool and single colony indicate the presence of an additional strain, the differences are used to computationally infer the second MLST type without the need for MLST of additional individual colonies. In mixes of previously typed pairs of strains, 100+1 NGS-MLST reliably detected a second strain. Inferred MLST types of second strains were always more similar to their real MLST types than to those of any of 59 other isolates (22 of 31 inferred types were identical to the real type. Using 100+1 NGS-MLST we found that 7/60 human samples, including three superficial candidiasis samples, contained two unrelated strains. In addition, at least one sample contained two highly similar variants of the same strain. The probability of samples containing unrelated strains appears to differ considerably between body sites. Our findings indicate the need for wider surveys to

  20. An extract of pomegranate fruit and galangal rhizome increases the numbers of motile sperm: a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, Maja D K; Jakobsen, Henrik B; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P; Parner, Erik T; Fedder, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4-8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets

  1. The Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto Fruit Extract on Serum PSA Levels: Analysis of the CAMUS Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Gerald L.; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S.; Crawford, E. David; Barry, Michael J.; Cantor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Saw palmetto extracts are used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence concluding that saw palmetto was ineffective in reducing lower urinary symptoms. We sought to determine whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in CAMUS affect serum PSA levels. Materials and Methods The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind multi-centered North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012 in which 369 men >45 years of age with AUA symptom score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation saw palmetto, which consisted of 320mg for first 24 weeks to 640mg for next 24 weeks to 960mg for last 24 weeks of this 72 week trial. Serum PSA levels (Beckman-Coulter) were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72 and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t and Fisher's exact tests. Results Serum PSA levels were similar at baseline for the placebo (1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in PSA levels over the course of the study were similar: placebo group mean change 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and saw palmetto group mean change 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml (p value 0.50). Additionally, no differential effect on serum PSA levels was observed between treatment arms when groups were stratified by baseline PSA values. Conclusions Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum PSA levels more than placebo even at relatively high doses. PMID:23253958

  2. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  3. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    V was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity.

  4. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    .007). Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glehnia littoralis Extract Promotes Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of the Adult Mouse through Increasing Expressions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Tropomyosin-Related Kinase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Ha; Shin, Bich Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Kang, Il Jun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Choong Hyun; Noh, Yoo Hun; Kim, Sung-Su; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Jong Dai

    2018-03-20

    Glehnia littoralis has been used for traditional Asian medicine, which has diverse therapeutic activities. However, studies regarding neurogenic effects of G. littoralis have not yet been considered. Therefore, in this study, we examined effects of G. littoralis extract on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the maturation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice. A total of 39 male ICR mice (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to vehicle-treated and 100 and 200 mg/kg G. littoralis extract-treated groups (n = 13 in each group). Vehicle and G. littoralis extract were orally administrated for 28 days. To examine neurogenic effects of G. littoralis extract, we performed immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, an indicator for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (DCX, an immature neuronal marker) and double immunofluorescence staining for BrdU and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, a mature neuronal marker). In addition, we examined expressional changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its major receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) using Western blotting analysis. Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg, significantly increased number of BrdU-immunoreactive ( + ) and DCX + cells (48.0 ± 3.1 and 72.0 ± 3.8 cells/section, respectively) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and BrdU + /NeuN + cells (17.0 ± 1.5 cells/section) in the granule cell layer as well as in the SGZ. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB (about 232% and 244% of the vehicle-treated group, respectively) were significantly increased in the DG of the mice treated with 200 mg/kg of G. littoralis extract. G. littoralis extract promots cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and neuronal maturation in the hippocampal DG, and neurogenic effects might be closely related to increases of BDNF and TrkB proteins by G. littoralis extract treatment.

  6. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Allen, Herbert E.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods

  7. Germacrone and sesquiterpene-enriched extracts from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. increase skin penetration of minoxidil, a hair growth promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Waranuch, Neti; Tangsumranjit, Anothai; Khorana, Nantaka; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2018-02-01

    Minoxidil is approved for topical treatment of androgenic alopecia but hampered by poor cutaneous absorption. Recently, the randomized control trial showed that hair loss treatment of minoxidil was improved by co-application of the anti-androgen, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract. Here, we aimed to show that the apparent synergism arises from improved cutaneous penetration of minoxidil by bioactive compound, germacrone or C. aeruginosa (as an n-hexane extract, or essential oil). The partition coefficient of germacrone was determined by HPLC. Skin penetration was measured ex vivo on Franz diffusion cells using full thickness human foreskin as membranes. The receiver solution was sampled hourly for 8 h after which the skin was removed, the stratum corneum separated, and minoxidil assayed in this and in the remaining viable skin layer by HPLC. Skin penetration of minoxidil with 0.2 and 2% extract was increased ~ 4-fold (accumulated amount in receiver + skin viable layer after 8 h). Furthermore, germacrone enhanced minoxidil flux by ~ 10-fold and C. aeruginosa essential oil by ~ 20-fold. This work suggests three clinical consequences: (i) minoxidil efficacy is promoted, (ii) lower doses of minoxidil suffice, and (iii) C. aeruginosa extract/essential oil or germacrone can supplement treatment outcomes by acting as anti-androgen, thereby introducing a more effective topical treatment strategy for androgenic alopecia.

  8. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Chou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements.

  9. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  10. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusztal Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  13. Significant inhibitory impact of dibenzyl trisulfide and extracts of Petiveria alliacea on the activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro: An assessment of the potential for medicinal plant-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J; Picking, D; Lamm, A; McKenzie, J; Hartley, S; Watson, C; Williams, L; Lowe, H; Delgoda, R

    2016-06-01

    Dibenzyl trisulfide (DTS) is the major active ingredient expressed in Petiveria alliacea L., a shrub widely used for a range of conditions, such as, arthritis, asthma and cancer. Given its use alone and concomitantly with prescription medicines, we undertook to investigate its impact on the activities of important drug metabolizing enzymes, the cytochromes P450 (CYP), a key family of enzymes involved in many adverse drug reactions. DTS and seven standardized extracts from the plant were assessed for their impact on the activities of CYPs 1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 on a fluorometric assay. DTS revealed significant impact against the activities of CYPs 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4 with IC50 values of 1.9, 4.0 and 3.2μM, respectively, which are equivalent to known standard inhibitors of these enzymes (furafylline, and tranylcypromine), and the most potent interaction with CYP1A2 displayed irreversible enzyme kinetics. The root extract, drawn with 96% ethanol (containing 2.4% DTS), displayed IC50 values of 5.6, 3.9 and 4.2μg/mL respectively, against the same isoforms, CYPs 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4. These investigations identify DTS as a valuable CYP inhibitor and P. alliacea as a candidate plant worthy of clinical trials to confirm the conclusions that extracts yielding high DTS may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions, whilst extracts yielding low levels of DTS, such as aqueous extracts, are unlikely to cause adverse herb-drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  15. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylak...

  16. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  17. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  18. Ibuprofen therapy resulted in significantly decreased tissue bacillary loads and increased survival in a new murine experimental model of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2013-07-15

    C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.

  19. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  20. Increased hepatic FAT/CD36, PTP1B and decreased HNF4A expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with ethanol-induced liver dysfunction: Rescue effect of ginger extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Heshmati, Elaheh; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Chodari, Leila; Naderi, Roya; Majd, Farideh Nezami; Samadi, Mahrokh

    2018-05-28

    The association between chronic alcohol consumption and the development of alcpholic liver disease is a very well known phenomenon, but the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced liver disease remain elusive. This study aimed to characterize the lipid metabolism alterations and the molecular mediators which are related to lipid metabolism in liver under the heavy ethanol exposure alone or combined with ginger extract. Twenty-four male wistar rats were assigned into three groups, namely control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanol (GETE) groups. Six weeks after the treatment, the ethanol group showed a significant increase in fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and decrease hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 Alpha (HNF4A) genes expressions compared to the control group. The ethanol administration also significantly increased plasma LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed liver histhological changes, such as fibrosis, focal microvesicular steatosis, some apoptotic hepatocytes, spotty necrosis, portal lymphocytic inflammation, mallory-denk bodies, giant mitochondria, piecemeal necrosis. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol, partially ameliorated gene expression alteration and histological changes, improved undesirable lipid profile and liver enzymes changes compare to those in the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced liver abnormalities may in part be associated with lipid homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of FAT/CD36, PTP1B and downexpressionof HNF4A genes. It also show that these effects can be reduced by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China's forests between 2005 and 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-06-25

    China's forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China's forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China's forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 10(15) g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr(-1) (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr(-1); 1 Tg = 10(12) g). Our findings suggest that China's forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050.

  2. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2005 and 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China’s forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China’s forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr−1 (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr−1; 1 Tg = 1012 g). Our findings suggest that China’s forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050. PMID:26110831

  3. Increased eating control and energy levels associated with consumption of bitter orange (p-synephrine extract: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaats GR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gilbert R Kaats,1 Robert B Leckie,2 Nate Mrvichin,1 Sidney J Stohs3 1Integrative Health Technologies, Inc., 2R.B. Leckie Research Consultants, San Antonio, TX, 3Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Using a placebo-controlled double-blinded 30-day protocol, 40 overweight adults were asked to consume a chocolate-flavored chew 15–30 min before their two largest meals of the day. The chews contained either a placebo or an “active” product (100 mg of a bitter orange extract, standardized to 51.5 mg p-synephrine. Subjects completed a 13-item Weight Control Support Scale (WCSS containing eating control, energy level, and palatability subscales daily throughout the study. All 40 subjects completed the study. No adverse effects were reported in either the placebo or active groups. As compared to placebo, subjects consuming the active product reported statistically more (p≤0.001 positive responses on the WCSS as well as on each of the three subscales. This study suggests that, as compared to a placebo control, consuming a chew containing bitter orange extract (51.5 mg p-synephrine 15–30 min before the two largest meals of the day resulted in a statistically significant greater and more positive response to eating/appetite control and a weight-control support scale. Keywords: bitter orange extract, p-synephrine, Citrus aurantium, appetite suppression, energy, safety

  4. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Sieve-based device for MALDI sample preparation. I. Influence of sample deposition conditions in oligonucleotide analysis to achieve significant increases in both sensitivity and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Laura; Cristoni, Simone; Crotti, Sara; Bernardi, Luigi Rossi; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-11-01

    Spraying of oligonucleotide-matrix solutions through a stainless steel (ss) sieve (38 microm, 450 mesh) leads to the formation, on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sample holder, of uniformly distributed microcrystals, well separated from each other. When the resulting sample holder surface is irradiated by laser, abundant molecular species form, with a clear increase in both intensity and resolution with respect to values obtained by 'Dried Droplet', 'Double Layer', and 'Sandwich' deposition methods. In addition, unlike the usual situation, the sample is perfectly homogeneous, and identical spectra are obtained by irradiating different areas. On one hand, the data indicate that this method is highly effective for oligonucleotide MALDI analysis, and on the other, that it can be validly employed for fully automated MALDI procedures.

  6. Reinnervation of Vastus lateralis is increased significantly in seniors (70-years old with a lifelong history of high-level exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mosole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that histological changes observed in aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to muscle deterioration and that disuse accelerates the process while running activity, sustained for decades, protects against age-related loss of motor units. Here we show at the histological level that lifelong increased physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers. In muscle biopsies from 70-year old men with a lifelong history of high-level physical activity, we observed a considerable increase in fiber-type groupings (almost exclusively of the slow type in comparison to sedentary seniors, revealing a large population of reinnervated muscle fibers in the sportsmen. Slow-type transformation by reinnervation in senior sportsmen seems to be a clinically relevant mechanism: the muscle biopsies fluctuate from those with scarce fiber-type transformation and groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, going through a process in which isolated fibers co-expressing fast and slow MHCs seems to fill the gaps. Taken together, our results suggest that, beyond the direct effects of aging on the muscle fibers, changes occurring in skeletal muscle tissue appear to be largely, although not solely, a result of sparse denervation. Our data suggest that lifelong exercise allows the body to adapt to the consequences of the age-related denervation and to preserve muscle structure and function by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through recruitment to different, mainly slow, motor units. These beneficial effects on motoneurons and, subsequently on muscle fibers, serve to maintain size, structure and function of muscle fibers, delaying the functional decline and loss of independence that are commonly seen in late aging.

  7. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatment orklortalidon at dose 0.315 mg/100 body weight (p>0.05. Furthermore, Na+ content in treatment rats’ wasurine lower compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p<0.05. in contrast, high content of K+ wasobserveb in treatment  rast’ urine compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p> 0.05. It is concludedthat the administration of carambola fruit juice extract may increase K+ content in urine and produce moreconcentrated urine. The mechanism of action, however, remains need to be proven, further.

  8. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  9. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  13. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  15. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Site-directed immobilization of a genetically engineered anti-methotrexate antibody via an enzymatically introduced biotin label significantly increases the binding capacity of immunoaffinity columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kaitlynn R; Smith, Christopher A; Hofstetter, Heike; Horn, James R; Hofstetter, Oliver

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the effect of random vs. site-directed immobilization techniques on the performance of antibody-based HPLC columns was investigated using a single-domain camelid antibody (VHH) directed against methotrexate (MTX) as a model system. First, the high flow-through support material POROS-OH was activated with disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC), and the VHH was bound in a random manner via amines located on the protein's surface. The resulting column was characterized by Frontal Affinity Chromatography (FAC). Then, two site-directed techniques were explored to increase column efficiency by immobilizing the antibody via its C-terminus, i.e., away from the antigen-binding site. In one approach, a tetra-lysine tail was added, and the antibody was immobilized onto DSC-activated POROS. In the second site-directed approach, the VHH was modified with the AviTag peptide, and a biotin-residue was enzymatically incorporated at the C-terminus using the biotin ligase BirA. The biotinylated antibody was subsequently immobilized onto NeutrAvidin-derivatized POROS. A comparison of the FAC analyses, which for all three columns showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.999), revealed that both site-directed approaches yield better results than the random immobilization; the by far highest efficiency, however, was determined for the immunoaffinity column based on AviTag-biotinylated antibody. As proof of concept, all three columns were evaluated for quantification of MTX dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Validation using UV-detection showed excellent linearity in the range of 0.04-12μM (R(2)>0.993). The lower limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were found to be independent of the immobilization strategy and were 40nM and 132nM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 11.6%, and accuracy was between 90.7% and 112%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the AviTag-system in chromatography, and the first

  17. Cranberry extract-enriched diets increase NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and catalase activities in obese but not in nonobese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boušová, Iva; Bártíková, Hana; Matoušková, Petra; Lněničková, Kateřina; Zappe, Lukáš; Valentová, Kateřina; Szotáková, Barbora; Martin, Jan; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A strategy to improve nitrogen utilization, reduce environmental impact, and increase performance and antioxidant capacity of fattening lambs using pomegranate peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, M; Rouzbehan, Y; Rezaei, J

    2017-01-01

    Dietary natural plant secondary metabolites (PSM) extracted from a pomegranate peel (PP) byproduct have the potential to improve milk yield and the milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. This experiment was performed to assess the influence of different dietary levels of PP extract (PPE) on feedlot performance, ruminal status, nutrient utilization, and antioxidant status in fattening Moghani lambs. Thirty-two lambs (initial BW of 22 ± 1.2 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with a 72-d period and 4 treatments: PPE0 (no extract), PPE15 (15 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), PPE30 (30 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), and PPE45 (45 mL PPE/kg of diet DM). Feed intake, lamb growth, diet digestibility, microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis (MNS), N retention, rumen parameters, and blood metabolites were determined. The addition of PPE to the diet of lambs had no effect on DMI (linear [L], = 0.96; quadratic [Q], = 0.65). In vivo digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, and Ash-free NDF were not affected (L, ≥ 0.28; Q, ≥ 0.26) by different levels of PPE, but it increased ADG (L, = 0.045; Q, = 0.19) and G:F (L, = 0.046; Q, = 0.20). Rumen pH, VFA concentrations, and acetate-to-propionate ratio were not affected (L, ≥ 0.14; Q, ≥ 0.23) by PPE supplementation. Dietary inclusion of PPE decreased the ruminal concentration of ammonia N (L, = 0.014; Q, = 0.67), total protozoa enumeration (L, concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, or albumin-to-globulin ratio. Blood urea N (L, = 0.021; Q, = 0.32) decreased with dietary addition of PPE, while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the rumen fluid (L, = 0.032; Q, = 0.64) and TAC in the blood (L, = 0.041; Q, = 0.51) increased. Overall, dietary inclusion of PPE, up to 45 mL/kg of diet DM, linearly improved animal growth, N retention, and antioxidant capacities of the blood and rumen fluid. The PPE is a safe natural additive for use in sheep diets that can help to reduce environmental pollution by reducing

  19. Sonodynamic therapy combined with novel anti-cancer agents, sanguinarine and ginger root extract: Synergistic increase in toxicity in the presence of PANC-1 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Matthew; Mitchell, James; Totti, Stella; Lee, Judy; Velliou, Eirini; Bussemaker, Madeleine

    2018-01-01

    The presence of ultrasound-induced cavitation in sonodynamic therapy (SDT) treatments has previously enhanced the activity and delivery of certain sonosensitisers in biological systems. The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential for two novel anti-cancer agents from natural derivatives, sanguinarine and ginger root extract (GRE), as sonosensitisers in an SDT treatment with in vitro PANC-1 cells. Both anti-cancer compounds had a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the presence of PANC-1 cells. A range of six discreet ultrasound power-frequency configurations were tested and it was found that the cell death caused directly by ultrasound was likely due to the sonomechanical effects of cavitation. Combined treatment used dosages of 100μM sanguinarine or 1mM of GRE with 15s sonication at 500kHz and 10W. The sanguinarine-SDT and GRE-SDT treatments showed a 6% and 17% synergistic increase in observed cell death, respectively. Therefore both sanguinarine and GRE were found to be effective sonosensitisers and warrant further development for SDT, with a view to maximising the magnitude of synergistic increase in toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, Annex 5: Preliminary study of some organic nitrogen extracts significant in fuel reprocessing; Prerada isluzenog nuklearnog goriva, Prilog 5: Preliminarna ispitivanja nekih organo-azotnih ekstragenasa od znacaja u preradi goriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za hemiju visoke aktivnosti, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-12-15

    Investigations covered two classes of organic compounds: nitro paraffines and trialkilamines. Their extraction properties were investigated separately in the organic solution of inert solvent or in the mixture with other known extracting agents. In the latter (mixture) the objective was to determine the synergy effect in extraction. Extraction experiments were performed on the metal cation traces of U, Pu, and fission products, and {sup 59}Fe from aqueous solutions of HNO{sub 3} and HCL. Summary of the results is presented in this report.

  1. Preexposure to Olive Oil Polyphenols Extract Increases Oxidative Load and Improves Liver Mass Restoration after Hepatectomy in Mice via Stress-Sensitive Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Marinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols can act as oxidants in some conditions, inducing redox-sensitive genes. We investigated the effect of preexposure to the olive oil polyphenols extract (PFE on time-dependent changes in the hepatic oxidative state in a model of liver regeneration—a process in which oxidative stress associated with the metabolic overload accounts for the early events that contribute to the onset of liver self-repair. Liver regeneration was induced by one-third hepatectomy in mice. Prior to hepatectomy, mice were intraperitoneally given either PFE (50 mg/kg body weight or saline for seven consecutive days, while respective controls received vehicle alone. Redox state-regulating enzymes and thiol proteins along with the mRNA levels of Nrf2 gene and its targets γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and heme oxygenase-1 were determined at different time intervals after hepatectomy. The liver mass restoration was calculated to assess hepatic regeneration. The resulting data demonstrate the effectiveness of preexposure to PFE in stimulating liver regeneration in a model of a small tissue loss which may be ascribed to the transient increase in oxidant load during the first hours after hepatectomy and associated induction of stress response gene-profiles under the control of Nrf2.

  2. Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Wright, Benjamin D; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Aqueous and ethanol leaf-extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... thonningii (Schum) increase locomotor activity in ... show that the lower doses of both extracts did not significantly increase LA but the higher doses significantly (P < 0.05) ... the absence of data on the central nervous system.

  4. Encapsulation of Piper cabralanum (Piperaceae) nonpolar extract in poly(methyl methacrylate) by miniemulsion and evaluation of increase in the effectiveness of antileukemic activity in K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Filgueiras, Lívia Alves; Siqueira, Monica Regina Pimentel; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Holandino, Carla; de Lima Moreira, Davyson; Pinto, José Carlos; Nele, Marcio

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to synthesize and characterize nanoparticles (NPs) of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and evaluate their ability to incorporate plant extracts with antitumor activity and low dissolution in aqueous media. The extract used was n -hexane partition of the methanol extract of Piper cabralanum (PCA-HEX). PMMA NPs were obtained using the mini-emulsion method, which was able to encapsulate almost 100% of PCA-HEX. The synthesized polymeric particles presented with a size of 200 nm and a negative charge. Cytotoxicity tests by MTT and trypan blue assays showed that NPs without PCA-HEX did not kill leukemic cells (K562 cells). NPs containing PCA-HEX were able to enhance cell death when compared to pure extract. The results showed that PMMA NPs could be useful as a drug delivery system as they can enhance the antitumor activity of the PCA-HEX extract by more than 20-fold. PMMA NPs containing plant extracts with antitumor activities may be an alternative to control the evolution of diseases such as leukemia.

  5. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Burdock (Arctium lappa Leaf Extracts Increase the In Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Common Antibiotics on Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirvu Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the potential effects of four Arctii folium extracts, 5 mg gallic [GAE] acid equivalents per 1 mL sample, on six antibiotics (Ampicillin/AM, Tetracycline/TE, Ciprofloxacin/CIP, Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim/SXT, Chloramphenicol/C and Gentamicin/CN tested on four Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and five Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis ATCC 29245, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, E. coli ATCC 11229, E. coli ATCC 8739, and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 bacteria. Arctii folium extracts were the whole ethanol extract/W and subsequent ethyl acetate/EA, aqueous/AQ, and chloroform/CHL fractions. Chemical qualitative analysis (HPTLC method emphasized five main polyphenol compounds in Arctii folium polar extracts: chlorogenic acid (Rf≈0.52/0.55 and its isomer, 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (Rf≈0.90/0.92, plus cynarin (Rf≈0.77, hyperoside (Rf≈0.68/0.64 and isoquercitrin (Rf≈0.69/0.71. Microbiological screening indicated Arctii folium polar extracts (AQ and W efficacy on S. epidermidis ATCC 12228; the MIC values were in the range of common antibiotics, being 32 and 128 μg GAE per mL sample respectively. The unpredictable effects (stimulatory or inhibitory of Arctii folium extracts in combination with typical antibiotics as well as a potential use of the whole ethanol extract/W for restoring the antimicrobial potency of susceptible antibiotics have also been evidenced.

  7. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which may result in mixed infections of humans and exacerbation of the clinical course of Lyme disease cases on the studied area.

  8. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola) (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA) FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan; Maria Bintang

    2014-01-01

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatm...

  9. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  10. Saw palmetto extract enhances erectile responses by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 activity and increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Surong; Chen, Changrui; Li, Yiying; Ren, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yungang; Wu, Gantong; Wang, Hao; Hu, Zhenzhen; Yao, Minghui

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate whether saw palmetto extract (SPE) relaxes corpus cavernosum and explore the underlying mechanisms. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats and 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into 3 SPE-treated groups (low-, middle-, and high-dose) and 1 saline-treated control group. SPE was administered intragastrically for 7 consecutive days. Another 23 rats treated with sildenafil were used to appraise the erectile response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum. The erectile functions of rats and rabbits were evaluated 24 hours after the last SPE administration or 15 minutes after intragastric sildenafil. Outcome measures included corpus cavernosum electrical activity recording, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity detected by the colorimetric quantitative method, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level for PDE5 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the SPE-treated animals, the relaxant response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum, reflected by the amplitude of the electrical activity within the cavernosum, was significantly and dose-dependently augmented. Similar effects were observed in the sildenafil-treated rats. PDE5 activity in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissues was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited in SPE-treated animals, whereas the iNOS mRNA level increased compared with the saline group. PDE5 mRNA, however, was only significantly enhanced in the rats treated with the middle dose of SPE. The results suggest that SPE may have potential application value for the prevention or treatment of erectile dysfunction through an increase in iNOS mRNA expression and inhibition of PDE5 activity in corpus cavernosum smooth muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MR exams of human subjects are associated with significant increases in the DNA repair marker 53BP1, but not the damage marker γH2AX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McDonald

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males. Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded. MR sequence data were recorded and blood samples obtained immediately before and after MR exposure. An automated immunofluorescence assay quantified γH2AX or 53BP1 foci number in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Changes in foci number were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinical and MR procedural characteristics were compared between patients who had a >10% increase in γH2AX or 53BP1 foci numbers and patients who did not. The number of γH2AX foci did not significantly change following cardiac MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.11, post-MR = 0.11, p = .90, but the number of 53BP1 foci significantly increased following MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.46, post-MR = 0.54, p = .0140. Clinical and MR characteristics did not differ significantly between patients who had at least a 10% increase in foci per cell and those who did not. We conclude that MR exposure leads to a small (median 25% increase in 53BP1 foci, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unknown and may be attributable to normal variation instead of MR exposure.

  12. Increasing of the efficiency of energetic production by leachating control and biogas extraction in municipal waste sanitary landfills; Incremento del rendimiento de produccion energetica mediante sistema simultaneo de control de lixiviados y extraccion de biogas en vertederos de R.S.U.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Carrillo, J.

    2000-07-01

    A new practice have been introduced to combat the problems in dual extraction, leachate and biogas, where the leachate is pumped directly from the gas extraction well. Using dual extraction, leachate levels can be kept to a minimum, LFG extraction increased and methane content improved for electricity production. (Author)

  13. Mining Significant Semantic Locations from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  14. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  15. Leptospira santorosai serovar shermani detergent extract induces an increase in fibronectin production through a toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Yi-Jung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Wu, Mai-Szu; Phillips, Aled Owain; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Leptospirosis can activate inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and may cause renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). We have previously demonstrated that Leptospira santorosai serovar Shermani detergent extract stimulates ECM accumulation in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanistic basis of these previous observations and, in particular, to examine the potential involvement of TLRs. The additio...

  16. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägeli, Mirjam; Fasshauer, Mario; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Fendel, Angela; Brandi, Giovanna; Stover, John F

    2014-07-02

    Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet been defined. Changes in plasma and cerebral glutamine, alanine, and glutamate as well as indirect signs of metabolic impairment reflected by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), lactate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were determined before, during, and after continuous intravenous infusion of 0.75 g L-alanine-L-glutamine which was given either for 24 hours (group 1, n = 6) or 5 days (group 2, n = 6) in addition to regular enteral nutrition. Lab values including nitrogen balance, urea and ammonia were determined daily. Continuous L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion significantly increased plasma and cerebral glutamine as well as alanine levels, being mostly sustained during the 5 day infusion phase (plasma glutamine: from 295 ± 62 to 500 ± 145 μmol/ l; brain glutamine: from 183 ± 188 to 549 ± 120 μmol/ l; plasma alanine: from 327 ± 91 to 622 ± 182 μmol/ l; brain alanine: from 48 ± 55 to 89 ± 129 μmol/ l; p alanine-L-glutamine infusion (0.75 g/ kg/ d up to 5 days) increased plasma and brain glutamine and alanine levels. This was not associated with elevated glutamate or signs of potential glutamate-mediated cerebral injury. The increased nitrogen load should be considered in patients with renal and hepatic dysfunction. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02130674. Registered 5 April 2014.

  17. FTY720-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) electrospun scaffold significantly increases microvessel density over 7 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57b16/J mice: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, D T; Chhabra, P; Langman, L; Botchwey, E A; Brayman, K L

    2011-11-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds could improve islet transplant success by physically mimicking the shape of extracellular matrix and by acting as a drug-delivery vehicle. Scaffolds implanted in alternate transplant sites must be prevascularized or very quickly vascularized following transplantation to prevent hypoxia-induced islet necrosis. The local release of the S1P prodrug FTY720 induces diameter enlargement and increases in length density. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate length and diameter differences between diabetic and nondiabetic animals implanted with FTY720-containing electrospun scaffolds using intravital imaging of dorsal skinfold window chambers. Electrospun mats of randomly oriented fibers we created from polymer solutions of PLAGA (50:50 LA:GA) with and without FTY720 loaded at a ratio of 1:200 (FTY720:PLAGA by wt). The implanted fiber mats were 4 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 mm thick. Increases in length density and vessel diameter were assessed by automated analysis of images over 7 days in RAVE, a Matlab program. Image analysis of repeated measures of microvessel metrics demonstrated a significant increase in the length density from day 0 to day 7 in the moderately diabetic animals of this preliminary study (P < .05). Furthermore, significant differences in length density at day 0 and day 3 were found between recently STZ-induced moderately diabetic and nondiabetic animals in response to FTY720 local release (P < .05, Student t test). Driving the islet revascularization process using local release of factors, such as FTY720, from biodegradable polymers makes an attractive system for the improvement of islet transplant success. Preliminary study results suggest that a recently induced moderately diabetic state may potentiate the mechanism by which local release of FTY720 from polymer fibers increases length density of microvessels. Therefore, local release of S1P receptor-targeted drugs is under further investigation for improvement of

  18. Plant extracts in the control of Phytophthora cryptogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, L B

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit extract at dose 40 micrograms/cm3 inhibited Phytophtora cryptogea linear growth about 50% and almost completely suppressed zoosporangia formation. Drenching of gerbera plants with the extract at dose 165 micrograms/cm3 reduced population density of the pathogen about 70% and this high efficacy was noted at least one month after application. Treatment of gerberas with grapefruit extract resulted in protection of about 50% of plants against the pathogen. Biological activity of purple coneflower extract was lower than extract from grapefruit. Significant decrease of population density of the pathogen during the first 5 days and increase of gerbera healthy stand was observed, however, in peat treated with that extract.

  19. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  20. Complex nuclear geophysical methods and apparatus to increase the efficiency of prospecting extracting and processing nonradioactive minerals as examplified by tin ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, S.A.; Voloshchuk, S.N.; Egiazarov, B.G.; Zernov, L.V.; Luchin, I.A.; Matveev, V.V.; Pukhal'skij, L.Ch.; Chesnokov, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Described is the complex of nuclear geophysical methods and apparatus, with the help of which the problem of the industrial control at all stages of ore concentrating industry are being solved. γ resonance and X-ray radiometric methods and apparatus providing express and not less accurate determination of general tin and tin in the form of cassiterite are used in the complex. The devices developed on the base of semiconductor spectrometers and used both under industrial conditions and in production regimes are used for the first time in the practice of ore concentrating industry. The essential positive effect of the complex on technical economical indices of the industry is found out; it allows to use more effective methods of extracting and processing technology. The similar complexes may be developed for other kinds of nonradioactive minerals

  1. Use of extraction chromatography, ion chromatography and liquid scintillation spectrometry for rapid determination of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in food in cases of increased release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    2000-01-01

    For rapid determination of 89 Sr and 90 Sr in food, isocratic ion chromatography used for Sr isolation and purification is integrated in a complete analytical system comprising sample preparation, incineration, dissolution, phosphate precipitation for alkali/alkaline earth separation, and Sr specific extraction chromatography on crown ether basis for Ca/Sr separation. Strontium-89 and 90 Sr are determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after carbonate precipitation. The components of the mixed spectra obtained are calculated by the computerized spectra subtraction method. Two days plus measuring time are required for single, three for double analysis. The limit of detection for 89 Sr and 90 Sr is ca. 0.1 Bq x kg -1 , related to the fresh produce. (author)

  2. Centrifugal extraction of highly enriched tin isotopes and increase of specific activity of the radionuclide 119mSn on the gas centrifuge cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorov, I.A.; Tcheltsov, A.N.; Sosnin, L.Yu.; Sazikin, A.A.; Rudnev, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    This work contains the results of research on centrifugal enrichment of 118 Sn isotope followed by irradiation and, finally, a second centrifugal enrichment to produce high specific activity 119m Sn. Non-steady-state separation methods were used for the effective extraction of the radionuclide 119m Sn from the irradiated target. As a result of this work, radiation sources based on 119m Sn were obtained with a specific activity of 500 mCi/g. This is 100 times greater than the specific activity obtained after irradiation in the reactor alone. In addition, the sources had an previously unattainable radio-purity ratio of 113 Sn/ 119m Sn of approximately 10 -6

  3. The effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto fruit extract on serum prostate specific antigen: analysis of the CAMUS randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Gerald L; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S; Crawford, E David; Barry, Michael J; Cantor, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Saw palmetto extracts are used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence that saw palmetto is ineffective in reducing these lower urinary tract symptoms. We determined whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in the CAMUS (Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms) trial affect serum prostate specific antigen levels. The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, multicenter, North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012, in which 369 men older than 45 years with an AUA symptom score of 8 to 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation of saw palmetto, which consisted of 320 mg for the first 24 weeks, 640 mg for the next 24 weeks and 960 mg for the last 24 weeks of this 72-week trial. Serum prostate specific antigen levels were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72, and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t test and Fisher's exact test. Serum prostate specific antigen was similar at baseline for the placebo (mean ± SD 1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in prostate specific antigen during the study were similar, with a mean change in the placebo group of 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml in the saw palmetto group (p = 0.50). In addition, no differential effect on serum prostate specific antigen was observed between treatment arms when the groups were stratified by baseline prostate specific antigen. Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum prostate specific antigen more than placebo, even at relatively high doses. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols from Punica granatum (Grenada) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Chanfrau, Jorge Enrique; Lopez Armas, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of bioactive compounds from vegetable materials is a classical operation applied in many industrial processes. Few studies have made reference to processes to obtain extracts from Punica granatum. This fruit is generally consumed as such or as fermented juices. In Cuba, it is known as grenade and numerous studies have shown antiviral, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Maceration process is the main used technology in the preparation of extracts from Punica granatum fruit, being this a long and expensive process. Ultrasound-assisted extractions have been proven to significantly decreased extraction time and increased extraction yields in many vegetable materials. However, few papers report the use of this methodology in the extraction processes of Punica granatum. To evaluate an ultrasound-assisted extraction process to extract polyphenols from Punica granatum fruit

  5. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  6. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Azusa [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wouters, Bradly G. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); DaCosta, Ralph S., E-mail: rdacosta@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. Results: In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Conclusions: Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  7. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  8. Pinus densiflora extract protects human skin fibroblasts against UVB-induced photoaging by inhibiting the expression of MMPs and increasing type I procollagen expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe-Yune Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet (UV light can cause skin photoaging, which is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and downregulation of collagen synthesis. It has been reported that MMPs, especially MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, decrease the elasticity of the dermis by degrading collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of Pinus densiflora extract (PDE on photoaging and investigated its mechanism of action in human skin fibroblast (Hs68 cells after UVB exposure using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity assays. PDE exhibited an antioxidant activity and inhibited elastase activities in vitro. We also found that PDE inhibited UVB-induced cytotoxicity, MMP-1 production and expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 mRNA in Hs68 cells. In addition, PDE decreased UVB-induced MMP-2 activity and MMP-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, PDE prevented the decrease of type I procollagen mediated by exposure to UVB irradiation, an effect that is linked to the upregulation and downregulation of Smad3 and Smad7, respectively. Another effect of UV irradiation is to stimulate activator protein 1 (AP-1 activity via overexpression of c-Jun/c-Fos, which, in turn, upregulates MMP-1, -3, and -9. In this study, we found that PDE suppressed UV-induced c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDE regulates UVB-induced expression of MMPs and type I procollagen synthesis by inhibiting AP-1 activity and restoring impaired Smad signaling, suggesting that PDE may be useful as an effective anti-photoaging agent.

  9. Incorporation of the Time-Varying Postprandial Increase in Splanchnic Blood Flow into a PBPK Model to Predict the Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Orally Administered High-Extraction Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rachel H; Turner, David B; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Jamei, Masoud

    2017-07-01

    Following a meal, a transient increase in splanchnic blood flow occurs that can result in increased exposure to orally administered high-extraction drugs. Typically, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have incorporated this increase in blood flow as a time-invariant fed/fasted ratio, but this approach is unable to explain the extent of increased drug exposure. A model for the time-varying increase in splanchnic blood flow following a moderate- to high-calorie meal (TV-Q Splanch ) was developed to describe the observed data for healthy individuals. This was integrated within a PBPK model and used to predict the contribution of increased splanchnic blood flow to the observed food effect for two orally administered high-extraction drugs, propranolol and ibrutinib. The model predicted geometric mean fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios of 1.24 and 1.29 for propranolol, which were within the range of published values (within 1.0-1.8-fold of values from eight clinical studies). For ibrutinib, the predicted geometric mean fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios were 2.0 and 1.84, respectively, which was within 1.1-fold of the reported fed/fasted AUC ratio but underestimated the reported C max ratio by up to 1.9-fold. For both drugs, the interindividual variability in fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios was underpredicted. This suggests that the postprandial change in splanchnic blood flow is a major mechanism of the food effect for propranolol and ibrutinib but is insufficient to fully explain the observations. The proposed model is anticipated to improve the prediction of food effect for high-extraction drugs, but should be considered with other mechanisms.

  10. Significant reduction of peripheral blood interleukin-35 and CD4+EBI3+ T cells, which are negatively correlated with an increase in the plasma IL-17 and cTnI level, in viral myocarditis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ouyang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral myocarditis (VMC has become an increasingly common heart disease that endangers human health. In the present study, the plasma interleukin-35 (IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients were detected to investigate the significance of changes in these parameters in the plasma of VMC patients and their association with the disease. Material and methods: ELISA was performed to detect the plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of peripheral blood CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in 40 VMC patients and in 20 healthy individuals. Moreover, the plasma IL-17 levels in the VMC patients and in the healthy individuals were detected using an ELISA, and the cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI levels were detected using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay to compare the differences in the groups. Results : Plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in acute phase VMC patients was lower than that in the healthy control group and the convalescent phase VMC patients. Additionally, the plasma IL-35 level in the VMC patients exhibited a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. The percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells also showed a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. Conclusions : The plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients was reduced, and the amount of the decrease was associated with the severity of the disease. These results suggest that IL-35 and CD4 + EBI3 + T might play important roles in the progression of VMC and could be used as indictors of the disease.

  11. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  12. Enhancement of 2,3-butanediol production from Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract by a recombinant Bacillus sp. strain BRC1 with increased inulinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Min; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kang, In Yeong; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Park, Seung-Moon; Hong, Won-Kyung; Kim, Chul Ho

    2017-07-01

    A Bacillus sp. strain named BRC1 is capable of producing 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) using hydrolysates of the Jerusalem artichoke tuber (JAT), a rich source of the fructose polymer inulin. To enhance 2,3-BD production, we undertook an extensive analysis of the Bacillus sp. BRC1 genome, identifying a putative gene (sacC) encoding a fructan hydrolysis enzyme and characterizing the activity of the resulting recombinant protein expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Introduction of the sacC gene into Bacillus sp. BRC1 using an expression vector increased enzymatic activity more than twofold. Consistent with this increased enzyme expression, 2,3-BD production from JAT was also increased from 3.98 to 8.10 g L -1 . Fed-batch fermentation of the recombinant strain produced a maximal level of 2,3-BD production of 28.6 g L -1 , showing a high theoretical yield of 92.3%.

  13. Automation of technological processes at surface mines in the GDR as one of the main directions of increased coal extraction effectiveness by surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jona, U.

    1987-12-01

    In the GDR, about 53% of brown coal is mined with the use of overburden conveyor bridges, 27% with the use of belt conveyors, and 20% with the use of rail transport. Compares efficiency and cost per 1 m/sup 3/ of these transport methods. The overburden conveyor bridges, their specifications and microcomputer control are described. Describes utilization of microcomputer techniques, especially the stereochart system of Carl Zeiss Jena, for automated processing of data on surface mine geometry. Other computer applications are also presented, e.g. for surveying, slope stability calculation, and conveyor bridge control. Maintains that application of the KED/KEM microcomputer system for overburden conveyor bridge control increases its effectiveness by 10%, i.e. by 8 million m/sup 3//a.

  14. Extracting the normal lung dose–response curve from clinical DVH data: a possible role for low dose hyper-radiosensitivity, increased radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J J; Snyder, K; Zhong, H; Barton, K; Sun, Z; Chetty, I J; Matuszak, M; Ten Haken, R K

    2015-01-01

    In conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis’ (RP) dependence on the normal lung dose-volume histogram (DVH) is not well understood. Complication models alternatively make RP a function of a summary statistic, such as mean lung dose (MLD). This work searches over damage profiles, which quantify sub-volume damage as a function of dose. Profiles that achieve best RP predictive accuracy on a clinical dataset are hypothesized to approximate DVH dependence.Step function damage rate profiles R(D) are generated, having discrete steps at several dose points. A range of profiles is sampled by varying the step heights and dose point locations. Normal lung damage is the integral of R(D) with the cumulative DVH. Each profile is used in conjunction with a damage cutoff to predict grade 2 plus (G2+) RP for DVHs from a University of Michigan clinical trial dataset consisting of 89 CFRT patients, of which 17 were diagnosed with G2+ RP.Optimal profiles achieve a modest increase in predictive accuracy—erroneous RP predictions are reduced from 11 (using MLD) to 8. A novel result is that optimal profiles have a similar distinctive shape: enhanced damage contribution from low doses (<20 Gy), a flat contribution from doses in the range ∼20–40 Gy, then a further enhanced contribution from doses above 40 Gy. These features resemble the hyper-radiosensitivity / increased radioresistance (HRS/IRR) observed in some cell survival curves, which can be modeled using Joiner’s induced repair model.A novel search strategy is employed, which has the potential to estimate RP dependence on the normal lung DVH. When applied to a clinical dataset, identified profiles share a characteristic shape, which resembles HRS/IRR. This suggests that normal lung may have enhanced sensitivity to low doses, and that this sensitivity can affect RP risk. (paper)

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) water extract and increase in glucose tolerance pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf water extract and increase in glucose tolerance. The food that is the subject of the health claim, olive leaf water extract standardised by its content of oleuropein, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, an increase...... is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive leaf water extract and an increase in glucose tolerance....... in glucose tolerance, is a beneficial physiological effect as long as serum insulin concentrations are not disproportionately increased. One human intervention study showed an increase in glucose tolerance without disproportionate increase in insulin concentrations after daily consumption of the olive leaf...

  16. Increased sensitivity of UV-repair-deficient human cells to DNA bound platinum products which unlike thymine dimers are not recognised by an endonuclease extracted from Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraval, H N.A.; Rawlings, C J; Roberts, J J [Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Cancer Hospital, Pollards Wood Research Station, Chalfont St. Giles, Bucks, UK

    1978-07-01

    The response of human cells in culture to cis platinum (II) diammine dichloride (cis Pt(II)) induced DNA damage has been studied. The survival data, measured as a function of cis Pt(II) dose were similar in a normal cell line (Human foetal lung) compared to a UV-sensitive, thymine dimer excision repair-deficient cell line (Xeroderma pigmentatosum). However, there was a marked difference between the two cell lines when binding to DNA was plotted against dose of cis Pt(II) given for 1 h. When these findings were expressed as cell survival versus binding to DNA, a 4.1-fold difference between the slopes of the survival curves for the two cell lines was obtained. These findings are consistent with the notion that normal cells are able to excise cis Pt(II) induced damage from their genome and thus increase their ability to survive as compared to excision deficient cells. An endonuclease preparation from Micrococcus luteus is able to recognise UV damage in DNA, but did not recognise cis Pt(II) induced damage. These results possibly indicate differences in the pathways of repair of damage caused by the two agents.

  17. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  18. Behavioural studies on the ethanol leaf extract of Grewia carpinifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: At the tested doses, the extract significantly increased the time spent on the hanging wire and decreased locomotor ac- tivity at 800 mg/kg. ..... Myelin Deficit in Neonatal Rats. ... manganese on short- term spatial memory and anxiety-.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Felicia muricata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa. Accepted 13 January, 2009. The effect of the aqueous extract of Felicia muricata leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in. Wistar rats was evaluated for 14 days. The extract caused significant increase in white blood cell (WBC).

  20. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  1. Release of Hormones from Conjugates: Chloroplast Expression of β-Glucosidase Results in Elevated Phytohormone Levels Associated with Significant Increase in Biomass and Protection from Aphids or Whiteflies Conferred by Sucrose Esters1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA1 and GA4 levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts. PMID:21068365

  2. Release of hormones from conjugates: chloroplast expression of β-glucosidase results in elevated phytohormone levels associated with significant increase in biomass and protection from aphids or whiteflies conferred by sucrose esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA(1) and GA(4) levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts.

  3. AGS slow extraction improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, J.W.; Smith, G.A.; Sandberg, J.N.; Repeta, L.; Weisberg, H.

    1979-01-01

    Improvement of the straightness of the F5 copper septum increased the AGS slow extraction efficiency from approx. 80% to approx. 90%. Installation of an electrostatic septum at H2O, 24 betatron wavelengths upstream of F5, further improved the extraction efficiency to approx. 97%

  4. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Significant increase of Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficient in Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O3-0.5(Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bi; Yang, Yaodong; Gao, Kun; Wang, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (abbreviated as BTZ-0.5BCT) is a piezoelectric ceramic with a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 (˜620 pC N-1) and has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates to replace PZT-based materials (200-710 pC N-1). However, its Curie temperature TC is relatively low (93 °C) limiting its application. In this letter, we found a temperature dependent Raman spectrum in BTZ-0.5BCT nanofibers (NFs), demonstrating a diffused tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition at 300 °C. This means that the TC of the NFs is nearly 207 °C higher than that of the normal bulk material. The increased TC is considered to be associated with the size effect of BTZ-0.5BCT nanoceramic subunits and the nanoporous nature of the fiber, resulting in discontinuous physical properties. The variation of the ferro/piezoelectricity over the fiber surface is attributed to the polycrystalline structure. The d33 (173.32 pm V-1) is improved in terms of the decreased Q factor result in an increase in d33 of 236.54 pm V-1 after polarization. With a high TC and a very large d33, BTZ-0.5BCT NFs are capable of providing electromechanical behavior used in moderate temperatures.

  6. Guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression is increased following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but guanylins do not play a significant role in body weight regulation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cachon, María L; Pedersen, Søren L; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether intestinal expression of guanylate cyclase activator 2A (GUCA2A) and guanylate cyclase activator 2B (GUCA2B) genes is regulated in obese humans following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and to evaluate the corresponding guanylin (GN) and uroguanylin (UGN) peptides...... for potentially contributing to the beneficial metabolic effects of RYGB. METHODS: Enteroendocrine cells were harvested peri- and post-RYGB, and GUCA2A/GUCA2B mRNA expression was compared. GN, UGN and their prohormones (proGN, proUGN) were administered subcutaneously in normal-weight mice to evaluate effects...... on food intake. GN and UGN, as well as their prohormones, were evaluated for effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat pancreatic islets and perfused rat pancreas. RESULTS: GUCA2A and GUCA2B mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in enteroendocrine cells after RYGB. Peripheral...

  7. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  9. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzeneva, Inna B.; Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Elizaveta S.; Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  10. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Ershova, Elizaveta S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation); Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  11. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Gaurav; Majumdar, Abha; Lall, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C.; Upadhyaya, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively), while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis. PMID:27382234

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahziela Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v, 100% ethanol (w/v, and 100% water (w/v. The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium.

  13. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  14. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  15. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) - a fast and automated technique with low solvent consumption for the extraction of solid samples (T12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is a modern extraction technique that significantly streamlines sample preparation. A common organic solvent as well as water is used as extraction solvent at elevated temperature and pressure to increase extraction speed and efficiency. The entire extraction process is fully automated and performed within 15 minutes with a solvent consumption of 18 ml for a 10 g sample. For many matrices and for a variety of solutes, ASE has proven to be equivalent or superior to sonication, Soxhlet, and reflux extraction techniques while requiring less time, solvent and labor. First ASE has been applied for the extraction of environmental hazards from solid matrices. Within a very short time ASE was approved by the U.S. EPA for the extraction of BNAs, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, herbicides, TPH, and dioxins from solid samples in method 3545. Especially for the extraction of dioxins the extraction time with ASE is reduced to 20 minutes in comparison to 18 h using Soxhlet. In food analysis ASE is used for the extraction of pesticide and mycotoxin residues from fruits and vegetables, the fat determination and extraction of vitamins. Time consuming and solvent intensive methods for the extraction of additives from polymers as well as for the extraction of marker compounds from herbal supplements can be performed with higher efficiencies using ASE. For the analysis of chemical weapons the extraction process and sample clean-up including derivatization can be automated and combined with GC-MS using an online ASE-APEC-GC system. (author)

  16. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  17. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percent and decrease in heterophils percent that indicates positive effect the on enhancement of body immune system by Satureja bachtiarica. In present study Satureja bachtiarica extract did not show a significant increase in IgM compared to control group. Satureja bachtiarica showed a significant increase in neutrophils ...

  18. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  19. Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or...

  20. Significantly increased lifetime of recent microchannel-plate photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britting, Alexander; Eyrich, Wolfgang; Lehmann, Albert; Uhlig, Fred [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Micro-channel plate photo multipliers (MCP-PMT) are the favored sensors for the DIRC detectors (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light) of the PANDA experiment. The main reasons for this are their usability in high magnetic fields of up to 2 T, a time resolution of better than σ = 50 ps and a rate capability high enough to withstand a detected photon rate of about 200 kHz cm{sup -2} at the MCP-PMTs surface, which is anticipated at the average luminosity of 2 . 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in PANDA. Moreover, for the reconstruction of the Cherenkov angle using the planned optics for the barrel DIRC a spatial resolution of about 5 mm at the focal plane is needed. Until recently the major drawback of MCP-PMTs was their limited lifetime which was by far not sufficient to stand the integrated anode charge, which is ∼ 5 C/cm{sup 2} for the Barrel-DIRC and even more for the Disc-DIRC. However, the latest MCP prototype devices show a hugh step forward in this respect. The results of these lifetime measurements are presented. The achieved values are meanwhile close to the PANDA requirements for the Barrel-DIRC.

  1. Improvements in solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughwane, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction columns are used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. For an effective reprocessing operation a solvent extraction column is required which is capable of distributing the feed over most of the column. The patent describes improvements in solvent extractions columns which allows the feed to be distributed over an increased length of column than was previously possible. (U.K.)

  2. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  3. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  4. Nephroprotective effects of Feijoa Sellowiana leaves extract on renal injury induced by acute dose of ecstasy (MDMA in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-01-01

    : Both extracts at 40 mg/kg resulted in a significant reversal in the raised serum creatinine levels (P 0.05. A decrease in urea/ creatinine ratio was observed following aqueous extract treatment. Methanolic extract showed higher activity in increasing kidney glutathione (P

  5. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  6. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflmmatory activities of Ximenia americana extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kashivishwanath Shettar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Ximenia americana extracts. Methods: Herbal extraction was done by Soxhlet extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents viz., chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was done using different biochemical tests. Antioxidant potential of plant extracts were analyzed by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolybdenum and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, and anti-inflammatory activity by using protein denaturation in vitro bioassay. Total phenolic content of each extract was also determined to assess their corresponding effect on antioxidant capacity of plant. Results: Phytochemical analysis showed that each solvent extract contained broad spectrum of secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides, whereas compared to other solvent extracts, chloroform extract showed negative result for phenolic compounds whereas aqueous extract exhibited the highest phenolic content and the significant antioxidant capacity based on the test performed. Out of all extracts, methanol extract showed high anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: The present study revealed that different solvent extracts of Ximenia americana leaves contain broad spectrum of bioactive compounds. Results confirm that aqueous extract exhibited high antioxidant activity and methanol extract exhibited high antiinflammatory activity. Further study requires purification, characterization and structural elucidation of phenolic compounds in both extracts that may help in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals.

  7. Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Liu, Cuiying; Jin, Xin; Jiang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Maseno Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Bioavailability is mainly influenced by aging and desorption of contaminants in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil and to investigate whether chemical extractions are suitable for the bioavailability assessment of CBs in soil. A soil spiked with CBs and aged for different periods was extracted with Tenax, hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and butanol to assess the bioavailability of CBs in soil, respectively. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) accumulation was used as bioassay in parallel experiments to evaluate the chemical extractions. The results showed that desorption of CBs from soil with consecutive Tenax extraction fitted into triphasic kinetics model. Different chemical methods extracted different amounts of CBs over different aging periods. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the extraction efficiency was in the order of butanol > Tenax-6h > HPCD extraction, while the order of butanol > HPCD > Tenax-6h extraction for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The bioaccumulation by earthworm decreased with increasing aging period and was significantly higher for HCB than for PeCB (p < 0.05). Earthworm accumulated CBs correlated well with all the three chemical extracted CBs. However, HPCD extraction showed the converse extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs. Chemical extraction could be used to assess the bioavailability of contaminants in soil; however, they were method and compound specific. Tenax and butanol extractions were more reliable than HPCD extraction for bioavailability assessment of the tested CBs and the soil used since they showed the consistent extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs.

  8. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  9. Effects of Puerariae Radix extract on the activity of antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Eun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Puerariae Radix extract. Method : Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, Total antioxidant response (TAR, Total phenolic content, Reactive oxygen species (ROS, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation were examined. Result : Total antioxidant status was examined by total antioxidant capacity(TAC and total antioxidant response(TAR against potent free radical reactions. TAC and TAR of Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 5 mg/㎖ were 2.02 and 1.50 mM Trolox equivalents, respectively. Total phenolic content of Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 5mg/㎖ was 2.29 mM gallic acid equivalent. Concentration of Puerariae Radix extract at which DPPH radical scavenging activity was inhibited by 50% was 5.91 mg/㎖ as compared to 100% by pyrogallol solution as a reference. The inhibitory effect of the extract on lipid peroxidation was examined using rat liver mitochondria induced by FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 1 mg/㎖ slightly but significantly decreased TBARS concentration. The extract further prevented lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of Puerariae Radix extract on reactive oxygen species (ROS generation was examined using cell-free system induced by hydrogen peroxide/FeSO4. Addition of 1 mg/㎖ of Puerariae Radix extract significantly reduced dichloroflurescein (DCF fluorescence. The extract caused concentration-dependent attenuation of the increase in DCF fluorescence, indicating that the extract significantly prevented ROS generation in vitro. Thus antioxidant effects of Puerariae Radix extract seem to be due to, at least in part, the prevention from free radicals-induced oxidation, followed by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Conclusion : As a result, Puerariae Radix seems to have antioxitative effect and antioxidant compount.

  10. Antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Gabriella; Dobos, Ildiko; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2003-11-01

    The extract of Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) containing several flavonoids is widely used as an antiinflammatory agent in folk medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that various flavonoids or flavonoid-containing plant extracts produce significant antinociception, but no data are available concerning their antinociceptive effect especially at the spinal level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract on acute and inflammatory pain sensitivity in awake rats. The pain sensitivity was assessed by the acute tail- flick test in intact rats and by the paw withdrawal test after carrageenan-induced inflammation using heat stimulus. The plant extract was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally in rats. The intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of the extract (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the paw withdrawal latency of the inflamed paw. The intrathecal administration (30-300 micro g) caused a small, but significant increase (10%-15%) in tail- flick latency. In the carrageenan-induced inflammatory model, the intrathecally applied extract (30-1000 micro g) significantly decreased, but did not relieve the thermal hyperalgesia. The results suggest that the spinal cord does not seem to play an important role in the antinociceptive effects of this plant extract. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Selected Korean Edible Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaejin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of various plant extracts. A total of 94 kinds of edible plant extracts obtained from the Korea Plant Extract Bank were screened for cytotoxicity, following which the total phenolic content of 24 shortlisted extracts was determined. Of these, extracts from three plants, namely, Castanea crenata (CC leaf, Camellia japonica (CJ fruit, and Viburnum dilatatum (VD leaf, were examined for antioxidant capabilities by measuring radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. In addition, cellular antioxidant activities of the three extracts were assessed by a cell-based dichlorofluorescein assay and antioxidant response element (ARE reporter activity assay. The results demonstrated that all three extracts concentration-dependently scavenged free radicals, inhibited lipid peroxidation, reduced the cellular level of reactive oxygen species, and increased ARE-luciferase activity, indicating antioxidant enzyme-inducing potential. In particular, CJ extract showed significantly greater antioxidative activity and antimigratory effect in a breast cancer cell line compared to CC and VD extracts. Hence, CJ extract deserves further study for its in vivo functionality or biologically active constituents.

  12. Optimization of flavanones extraction by modulating differential solvent densities and centrifuge temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Jayaprakasha, G K; Jifon, J; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-07-15

    Understanding the factors influencing flavonone extraction is critical for the knowledge in sample preparation. The present study was focused on the extraction parameters such as solvent, heat, centrifugal speed, centrifuge temperature, sample to solvent ratio, extraction cycles, sonication time, microwave time and their interactions on sample preparation. Flavanones were analyzed in a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and later identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The five flavanones were eluted by a binary mobile phase with 0.03% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in 20 min and detected at 280 nm, and later identified by mass spectral analysis. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl formamide (DMF) had optimum extraction levels of narirutin, naringin, neohesperidin, didymin and poncirin compared to methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and acetonitrile (ACN). Centrifuge temperature had a significant effect on flavanone distribution in the extracts. The DMSO and DMF extracts had homogeneous distribution of flavanones compared to MeOH, EtOH and ACN after centrifugation. Furthermore, ACN showed clear phase separation due to differential densities in the extracts after centrifugation. The number of extraction cycles significantly increased the flavanone levels during extraction. Modulating the sample to solvent ratio increased naringin quantity in the extracts. Current research provides critical information on the role of centrifuge temperature, extraction solvent and their interactions on flavanone distribution in extracts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  14. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  15. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  16. Kaempferia parviflora rhizome extract and Myristica fragrans volatile oil increase the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and impact the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus: Mechanistic insights into their neuroprotective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluga Plaingam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Potentially useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, Kaempferia parviflora and Myristica fragrans have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of neuropharmacological activities and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we determined whether and how K. parviflora ethanolic extract and M. fragrans volatile oil could influence the levels of neurotransmitters and the whole proteomic profile in the hippocampus of Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The effects of K. parviflora and M. fragrans on protein changes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-gel, and proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The target proteins were then confirmed by Western blot. The levels of neurotransmitters were evaluated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The results showed that K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine (the control drug for this study increased serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the rat hippocampus compared to that of the vehicle-treated group. Our proteomic data showed that 37 proteins in the K. parviflora group were up-regulated, while 14 were down-regulated, and 27 proteins in the M. fragrans group were up-regulated, while 16 were down-regulated. In the fluoxetine treatment group, we found 29 proteins up-regulated, whereas 14 proteins were down-regulated. In line with the proteomic data, the levels of GFAP, PDIA3, DPYSL2 and p-DPYSL2 were modified in the SD rat groups treated with K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine as confirmed by Western blot. K. parviflora and M. fragrans mediated not only the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters but also the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus, thus shedding light on the mechanisms targeting neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Kinetic models for supercritical CO2 extraction of oilseeds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nagy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction of oilseeds is gaining increasing interest in commercial application for the last few decades, most particularly thanks to technical and environmental advantages of supercritical fluid extraction technology compared to current extraction methods with organic solvents. Furthermore, CO2 as a solvent is generally recognized as safe (GRAS. At present moment, supercritical fluid extractions on a commercial scale are limited to decaffeination, production of soluble hops extracts, sesame seed oil production and extraction of certain petroleum products. When considering industrial application, it is essential to test the applicability of the appropriate model for supercritical fluid extraction of oilseeds used for scale up of laboratory data to industrial design purposes. The aim of this paper is to review the most significant kinetic models reported in the literature for supercritical fluid extraction.

  18. Changes in the Position of Mandibular Third Molars Following Extraction and Non-Extraction Orthodontic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poosti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction of third molars can be associated with a number of sequelae, each requiring a different type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the position of lower third molars following extraction and non-extraction orthodontic treatments. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs of 26 class I malocclusion patients (4 male and 22 female who were treated on a non-extraction basis were compared with those of 30 class I malocclusion patients (5 male and 25 female who received orthodontic treatment following the extraction of all first premolars. In each group, the lower third molar angulations and their distance from the lower border of the mandible were assessed. Results: Paired t-tests and independent t-tests detected significant changes in the position of the lower third molars in the extraction group. Both the left and right molars became more upright and their distance from the lower border of the mandible increased. Similar changes were only seen in the position of the right mandibular third molars in the non-extraction group. Conclusion: Tooth extractions can bring about favorable changes in the position of mandibular third molars and possibly reduce their incidence of impaction.

  19. Changes in the Position of Mandibular Third Molars Following Extraction and Non-Extraction Orthodontic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poosti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction of third molars can be associated with a number of sequelae, each requiring a different type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the position of lower third molars following extraction and non-extraction orthodontic treatments. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs of 26 class I malocclusion patients (4 male and 22 female who were treated on a non-extraction basis were compared with those of 30 class I malocclusion patients (5 male and 25 female who received orthodontic treatment following the extraction of all first premolars. In each group, the lower third molar angulations and their distance from the lower border of the mandible were assessed. Results: Paired t-tests and independent t-tests detected significant changes in the position of the lower third molars in the extraction group. Both the left and right molars became more upright and their distance from the lower border of the mandible increased. Similar changes were only seen in the position of the right mandibular third molars in the non-extraction group. Conclusion: Tooth extractions can bring about favorable changes in the position of mandibular third molars and possibly reduce their incidence of impaction

  20. Structural characteristics of pumpkin pectin extracted by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Byeong-Hoo; Lee, Heungsook; Lee, Suyong; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Fishman, Marshall L; Chau, Hoa K; Savary, Brett J; Hotchkiss, Arland T

    2012-11-01

    To improve extraction yield of pumpkin pectin, microwave heating was adopted in this study. Using hot acid extraction, pumpkin pectin yield decreased from 5.7% to 1.0% as pH increased from pH 1.0 to 2.0. At pH 2.5, no pectin was recovered from pumpkin flesh powder. After a pretreatment at pH 1.0 and 25 °C for 1 h, pumpkin powder was microwave-extracted at 120 °C for 3 min resulting in 10.5% of pectin yield. However, premicrowave treatment at 60 °C for 20 min did not improve extraction yield. When microwave heating at 80 °C for 10 min was applied after premicrowave treatment, final pectin yield increased to 11.3%. When pH was adjusted to 2.0, the yield dropped to 7.7% under the same extraction conditions. Molecular shape and properties as well as chemical composition of pumpkin pectin were significantly affected depending on extraction methods. Galacturonic acid content (51% to 58%) of pumpkin pectin was lower than that detected in commercial acid-extracted citrus pectin, while higher content of neutral sugars and acetyl esters existed in pumpkin pectin structure. Molecular weight (M(w) ) and intrinsic viscosity (η(w) ) determined for microwave-extracted pumpkin pectins were substantially lower than acid-extracted pectin, whereas polydispersity was greater. However, microwave-extracted pectin at pH 2.0 had more than 5 times greater M(w) than did the pectin extracted at pH 1.0. The η(w) of microwave-extracted pectin produced at pH 2.0 was almost twice that of other microwave-extracted pectins, which were comparable to that of acid-extracted pectin. These results indicate that extraction yield of pumpkin pectin would be improved by microwave extraction and different pectin structure and properties can be obtained compared to acid extraction. Pumpkin is a promising alternative source for pectin material. Pumpkin pectin has a unique chemical structure and physical properties, presumably providing different functional properties compared to conventional commercial

  1. Stability of extraction space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Bressane, Larissa Borges; Janson, Guilherme; Gribel, Bruno Frazão

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and long-term behavior of extraction space reopening in patients with Class I malocclusion and to identify some associated factors. A sample of 43 patients met the inclusion criteria. Dental casts at the onset of treatment, after treatment, and 1 and 5 years after debonding were used. Initial and final cephalometric radiographs were used to measure the amount of incisor retraction. Cochran tests were used to compare the numbers of open and closed extraction spaces after treatment and at 1 and 5 years after debonding (P space reopening with t tests. Of the sample, 30.23% had extraction space reopening. The frequency of open spaces significantly increased between the final and the 1-year posttreatment dental casts and decreased between the casts at 1 and 5 years posttreatment. Patients with space reopening had less initial anterior crowding and greater amounts of mandibular incisor retraction during treatment. There was a high prevalence of space reopening 1 year after treatment. However, these spaces tended to decrease by 5 years after treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Significance of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R.

    2002-05-01

    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  3. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  4. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  5. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  6. Asymptomatic proteinuria. Clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, S

    1977-09-01

    Patients with asymptomatic proteinuria have varied reasons for the proteinuria and travel diverse courses. In the individual with normal renal function and no systemic cause, ie, idiopathic asymptomatic proteinuria, the outlook is generally favorable. Microscopic hematuria probably raises some degree of question about prognosis. The kidney shows normal glomeruli, subtle changes, or an identifiable lesion. The initial approach includes a clinical and laboratory search for systemic disease, repeated urinalyses, quantitative measurements of proteinuria, determination of creatinine clearance, protein electrophoresis where indicated, and intravenous pyelography. The need for regularly scheduled follow-up evaluation is emphasized. Although the initial approach need not include renal biopsy, a decline in creatinine clearance, an increase in proteinuria, or both are indications for biopsy and consideration of drug therapy.

  7. IMMUNO-MODULATORY PROPERTIES OF PREBIOTICS EXTRACTED FROM vernonia amygdalina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ezeonu; Ae, Asuquo; Bn, Ukwah; Po, Ukoha

    2016-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina , commonly called bitter-leaf, is widely consumed in many parts of Africa, and Nigeria, in particular. The leaf extract has been reported to have antimicrobial, anti-plasmodial, anti-helminthic, as well as prebiotic properties, but its immuno-modulatory effects have not been well-studied, neither have the prebiotics been identified. This study evaluated the immuno-modulatory properties of the aqueous leaf extract and identified the prebiotic components. The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus , while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the extract. Consumption of the extract caused significant increases in CD4+-, white blood cell-, total lymphocyte- and high density lipid (HDL) counts; decreases in low density lipid (LDL) and triglycerides and no significant effect on haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) in the blood of test animals. The water-soluble fraction of the extract contained most of the phyto-constituents of the extract and Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis of the fraction revealed the presence of fructo-oligosaccharide and galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotics. The results from this study have shown that the aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina has positive immune-modulatory and haematologic effects and contains some important prebiotic compounds.

  8. Efficient light extraction from GaN LEDs using gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Alhadidi, A.

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the effect of depositing gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of GaN multi-quantum well LED structures. We show that this method can significantly increase the amount of extracted light.

  9. Performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Roseberg, N.D.; Edlund, K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Vapor extraction wells used for site remediation of volatile organic chemicals in the vadose zone are typically vertical wells. Over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in horizontal wells for environmental remediation. Despite the interest and potential benefits of horizontal wells, there has been little study of the relative performance of horizontal and vertical vapor extraction wells. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate the relative performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells under a variety of conditions. The most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that in a homogeneous medium, a single, horizontal vapor extraction well outperforms a single, vertical vapor extraction well (with surface capping) only for long, linear plumes. Guidelines are presented regarding the use of horizontal wells

  10. Alkali-assisted coal extraction with polar aprotic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, M.H.; Moitsheki, L.J.; Shoko, L.; Kgobane, B.L.; Morgan, D.L.; Focke, W.W. [SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, Institute of Applied Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2009-04-15

    Coal extraction experiments were conducted using a coal, containing ca. 10% ash, from the Tshikondeni mine in South Africa. This coal dissolves only to a limited extent in pure polar aprotic solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). However, the addition of a strong base, e.g. sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or sodium tert-butoxide increased the degree of coal dissolution in these organic solvents. Depending on the extraction conditions, carbon extraction efficiencies of up to 90% were obtained. Carbon precursor material was recovered from the solution as a gel by precipitation with water. Ash content was reduced from 10% in the coal to less than 1.6% in the coal extracts. Sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) addition further reduced ash content and aided the recovery of carbon precursors that led to graphitizable cokes but the degree of extraction was significantly reduced. (author)

  11. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  12. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  13. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  14. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  15. Novel Approaches to Extraction Methods in Recovery of Capsaicin from Habanero Pepper (CNPH 15.192).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Frederico S; Borges, Leonardo L; Ribeiro, Claudia S C; Reifschneider, Francisco J B; Conceição, Edemilson C

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three capsaicin extraction methods: Shoxlet, Ultrasound-assisted Extraction (UAE), and Shaker-assisted Extraction (SAE) from Habanero pepper, CNPH 15.192. The different parameters evaluated were alcohol degree, time extraction, and solid-solvent ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). The three parameters found significant ( p Soxhlet increased the extraction in 10-25%; however, long extraction times (45 minutes) degraded 2% capsaicin. The extraction of capsaicin was influenced by extraction method and by the operating conditions chosen. The optimized conditions provided savings of time, solvent, and herbal material. Prudent choice of the extraction method is essential to ensure optimal yield of extract, thereby making the study relevant and the knowledge gained useful for further exploitation and application of this resource. Habanero pepper , line CNPH 15.192, possess capsaicin in higher levels when compared with others speciesHigher levels of ethanolic strength are more suitable to obtain a higher levels of capsaicinBox-Behnken design indicates to be useful to explore the best conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction of capsaicin. Abbreviations used: Nomenclature UAE: Ultrasound-assisted Extraction; SAE: Shaker-assisted Extraction.

  16. Screening for antibiofilm and antioxidant potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sumreen; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-07-01

    The antibiofilm and antioxidant activities associated with turmeric were the main focus of the study. Antibacterial activity was explored against bacteria isolated from dental plaques and dental unit water lines exhibiting resistance against antibiotics and biocides respectively. This study provides a comparison of the natural plant extract against synthetic mouthwash, chemicals and commonly prescribed antibiotics. Methanol extract was more effective as compared to other extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 2.5-10mg/ml. Time based killing kinetic assay showed a significant reduction of bacterial load with increasing concentration of turmeric. Micro titer plate assay indicated significant inhibition of biofilm formation in cells treated with turmeric extract. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of vital secondary metabolites. Flavonoid content and total phenolic content varied among extracts, phenolic content for methanolic extract was 61.669 mg GAE/ gm dry extract and flavonoid content was 3.119mg quercitin/gm dry extract. The values of ferric reducing power were in the range of 5.55- 15.55 mmol of FeSO4 equivalent/ liter of the extract. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of the turmeric extracts had significant positive correlation. On the basis of these results turmeric may confidently be recommended as natural antibiofilm and antioxidant agent.

  17. Optimized ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp improves the antioxidant activity of extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruifen; Su, Dongxiao; Hou, Fangli; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Dong, Lihong; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-08-01

    To establish optimal ultra-high-pressure (UHP)-assisted extraction conditions for procyanidins from lychee pericarp, a response surface analysis method with four factors and three levels was adopted. The optimum conditions were as follows: 295 MPa pressure, 13 min pressure holding time, 16.0 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio, and 70% ethanol concentration. Compared with conventional ethanol extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods, the yields of the total procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolics extracted using the UHP process were significantly increased; consequently, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and cellular antioxidant activity of UHP-assisted lychee pericarp extracts were substantially enhanced. LC-MS/MS and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification results for individual phenolic compounds revealed that the yield of procyanidin compounds, including epicatechin, procyanidin A2, and procyanidin B2, from lychee pericarp could be significantly improved by the UHP-assisted extraction process. This UHP-assisted extraction process is thus a practical method for the extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp.

  18. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  19. Uranium extraction at Rossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, S.B.; Fahrbach, D.O.E.

    1982-01-01

    Rossing Uranium Ltd. operates a large open pit uranium mine and extraction plant at a remote site in the Namib desert. Production started at the plant in 1978. A ferric leach process was introduced later, and the new leach plant began commissioning in October 1981. The process has proved to be reliable and easily controlled. Ferric iron is supplied through recovery from the acid plant calcine, and levels can be maintained above the design levels. Leach extractions were increased more than expected when this process was adopted, and the throughput has been considerably reduced, allowing cost savings in mining and milling

  20. Extraction spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batik, J.; Vitha, F.

    1985-01-01

    Automation is discussed of extraction spectrophotometric determination of uranium in a solution. Uranium is extracted from accompanying elements in an HCl medium with a solution of tributyl phosphate in benzene. The determination is performed by measuring absorbance at 655 nm in a single-phase ethanol-water-benzene-tributyl phosphate medium. The design is described of an analyzer consisting of an analytical unit and a control unit. The analyzer performance promises increased productivity of labour, improved operating and hygiene conditions, and mainly more accurate results of analyses. (J.C.)

  1. Diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens L. roots and rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozaien, Hoda E; El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Temraz, Abeer; El-Gindi, Omayma D; Taha, Kamilia F

    2018-02-08

    The diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens was investigated in rats. A single oral dose of 500 mg/kg of P. repens extract were given to rats, after 24 h, urine volume, its sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated. Treatment with P. repens extract caused a significant increase in tested parameters as compared to their corresponding controls, p < 0.05.

  2. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen. The Panel...... the combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder was consumed for three months, that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided, and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the food could exert the claimed effect. The Panel...... concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase...

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Uranium being strategic material, its separation and purification is of utmost importance in nuclear industry, for which solvent extraction is being employed. During solvent extraction significant quantity of radioactive liquid waste gets generated which is of environmental concern. In recent decades supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has emerged as promising alternative to solvent extraction owing to its inherent advantage of reduction in liquid waste generation and simplification of process. In this paper a brief overview of research work carried out so far on SFE of uranium by BARC has been given

  5. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  6. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLuengo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  8. Postoperative ocular higher-order aberrations and contrast sensitivity: femtosecond lenticule extraction versus pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Deborah K L; Tay, Wan Ting; Chan, Cordelia; Tan, Donald T H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate and compare changes in contrast sensitivity and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore. Retrospective case series. Patients had femtosecond lenticule extraction (Group 1) or pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction (Group 2) between March 2010 and December 2011. The main outcome measures were manifest refraction, HOAs, and contrast sensitivity 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Fifty-two consecutive patients (102 eyes) were recruited, 21 patients (42 eyes) in Group 1 and the 31 patients (60 eyes) in Group 2. The uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities were significantly better in Group 2 than in Group 1 at 12 months (P = .032). There was no significant increase in 3rd- or 4th-order aberrations at 1 year and no significant difference between the 2 groups preoperatively or postoperatively. At 1 year, there was a significant increase in mesopic contrast sensitivity in Group 2 at 1.5 cycles per degree (cpd) (P = .008) that was not found in Group 1, and photopic contrast sensitivity at 6.0 cpd was higher in Group 2 (P = .027). These results indicate that refractive lenticule extraction is safe and effective with no significant induction of HOAs or deterioration in contrast sensitivity at 1 year. Induction of HOAs was not significantly different between both variants of refractive lenticule extraction. However, there was significant improvement in photopic contrast sensitivity after pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction, which persisted through 1 year. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraction and characterization of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. coir dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel1,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the characterization and extraction of coconut coir dust using water, acetone, acetone/water (70/30, (50/50 respectively. The acetone extract of the coir dust was phytochemically screened for tannins, polyphenols,flavanoids, phlobatannins. The moisture, ash, lignin, and cellulose contents of the coir dust were determined bymeasuring the cation exchange capacity (CEC and the pH were found to be 2.39 mmol g-1 and 6.4 respectively. The degree ofswelling of coir dust increased with increased solvent contact time. The percentage extract showed the best solvent systemto be acetone/water (70/30. In all the solvent systems, the smaller the particle size of coir dust, the greater the amount ofextract. The phytochemical screening of the acetone extract indicated significant amount of tannins, flavanoids and otherpolyphenols in coir dust.

  10. Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., in Stored Wheat Grains with Mesquite Plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW, D.C. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. AI-Moajel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mesquite plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. (Family: Mimosaceae, seed extracts against rice weevil. Sitophilus oryzae (L, reared on wheat grains was investigated in the laboratory. The tested plant extracts of P. juliflora in petroleum ether, chloroform, and acetone, effectively controlled adults and their toxicity based on LC95 and LC5O values respectively was in order: acetone (12.0, 5.8ml/kg < pet ether (8.0, 4.1ml/kg chloroform (6.3, 2.2ml/kg. A highly significant oviposition deterency effect (P< 0.05 was found for all extracts at LC50 levels, while at LC95 levels, oviposition was nearly completely inhibited. Thus, progeny emergence was completely suppressed at Legs levels, also at LCSC, of acetone extract. Chlorofonn extract indicated a slow rate of degradation alter one month of storage (90% mortality. All tested plant extracts reduced weight loss in wheat grains after 45 days of storage, but chloroform extract was the most effective. Most treatments did not significantly affect water absorption but viability was significantly reduced. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts caused a significant inhibition effect on acetyl choline esterase (AchE in adults while acetone extract caused a significant activation effect. All three different extracts, caused a significant activation effect on phosphases (AcP and AlkP, except for chloroform and acetone extract treatments which caused significant inhibition of AcP in adults. All extracts caused a significant decrease in protein and carbohydrate contents of adults, except the carbohydrate content of adults treated with acetone extract. There was a significant increase in lipid content in adults treated with all three extracts and significant increase of carbohydrate content only in adults treated with acetone extract.

  11. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  12. Supercritical Extraction of Scopoletin from Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić, Stela; Rajić, Marina; Bilić, Blanka; Molnar, Maja

    2016-09-01

    The increasing popularity of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don) and its products, particularly in the cosmetic industry, is evident nowadays. This plant is a source of coumarins, especially scopoletin, which are highly soluble in supercritical CO2 . The objective of this study was to perform the supercritical CO2 extraction process of Helichrysum italicum flowers at different values of pressure and temperature and to optimise the extraction process using response surface methodology in terms of obtaining the highest extraction yield and yield of extracted scopoletin. Extraction was performed in a supercritical extraction system under different extraction conditions of pressure and temperature determined by central composite rotatable design. The mass of flowers in the extractor of 40 g, extraction time of 90 min and CO2 mass flow rate of 1.94 kg/h were kept constant during experiments. Antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay method. Scopoletin concentration was determined by HPLC. Changes in extraction conditions affect the extracting results remarkably. The greatest extraction yield (6.31%) and the highest yield of scopoletin (1.933 mg/100 g) were obtained under extraction conditions of 20 MPa and 40°C. Extracts have also proven to possess antioxidant activity (44.0-58.1% DPPH scavenging activity) influenced by both temperature and pressure applied within the investigated parameters. The extraction conditions, especially pressure, exhibited significant influence on the extraction yield as well as the yield of extracted scopoletin and antioxidant activity of extracts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  14. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. {sup 14}C-labelled volatilised and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the {sup 14}C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the {sup 14}C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the {sup 14}C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues.

  15. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. 14 C-labelled volatilised and 14 CO 2 fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the 14 C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the 14 C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the 14 C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues

  16. Effect of mangosteen peel extract combined with demineralized freezed-dried bovine bone xenograft on osteoblast and osteoclast formation in post tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction, a common procedure in dentistry, can cause bone resorption during socket healing. Therefore, it is important to perform socket preservation procedure to maintain alveolar bone. Providing a combination of mangosteen peel extract with demineralized freezed-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFDBBX in tooth extraction socket was expected to accelerate alveol bone formation. Purpose: This study aims to determine the effect of mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX introduced into the socket of post tooth extraction on the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Method: Twenty-eight (28 Cavia cobayas were divided into four groups. Extraction to the lower left incisor of Cavia cobaya was performed. The extraction socket was filled with 25 gram of PEG (group I as a control, active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 0.5% (group II, active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 1% (group III, and active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% (group IV. After thirty days, those Cavia cobayas were sacrificed. By using HE on Histopatological examination, the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were measured by light microscope with 400 times of magnification. The statistical analysis was then performed using oneway Anova & TukeyHSD test. Result: The component active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% had the most significant results related to the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Conclusion: Mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX can increase osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts in the socket of tooth extraction in Cavia cobaya. The combination of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% is the most effective material in increasing osteoblast and decreasing osteoclast.

  17. Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Mohamed Nor, Zurainee; Mansor, Marzida; Azhar, Fadzly; Hasan, M S; Kassim, Mustafa

    2015-10-24

    The threat posed by drug-resistant pathogens has resulted in the increasing momentum in research and development for effective alternative medications. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phytochemical extracts makes them attractive alternative complementary medicines. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Melaleuca cajuputi flower and leaf (GF and GL, respectively) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Total antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assays were used to determine antibacterial activity against eight pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida. We identified and quantified the phytochemical constituents in methanol extracts using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS. This study reports the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of M. cajuputi methanolic extracts. The GF extract showed better efficacy than that of the GL extract. The total phenolic contents were higher in the flower extract than they were in the leaf extract (0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05 gallic acid equivalent per mg extract dry weight, respectively). As expected, the percentage radical inhibition by GF was higher than that by the GL extract (81 and 75 %, respectively). A similar trend was observed in Fe(2+)-chelating activity and β-carotene bleaching tests. The antibacterial assay of the extracts revealed no inhibition zones with the Gram-negative bacteria tested. However, the extracts demonstrated activity against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis. In

  18. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  19. Hexane neem leaf extract more potent than ethanol extract against Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hidayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aspergillus flavus is one of the causes of aspergillosis, with a high virulence and resistance to standard antifungals, resulting in a high mortality rate. Medicinal plants are increasingly used as they are relatively safer with minimal side effects. Previously we found that the ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss leaves inhibits A. flavus growth in vitro. However, most chemical compounds with antifungal effect are nonpolar. The purpose of this research was to compare the antifungal effect of neem leaves extracted in a nonpolar solvent to that of leaves extracted in a polar solvent. METHODS An in vitro experimental research was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Neem leaves were extracted in ethanol or hexane at various concentrations. A macrodilution test with 48-hour incubation time was done in triplicate on 8 groups of samples. These comprised the neem leaf ethanol extract (NLEE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, neem leaf hexane extract (NLHE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, positive control, and negative control groups. Fungal growth was detected on Sabouroud dextrose agar. Statistical analysis used Chi square and Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS NLHE had a higher, but statistically non-significant, inhibitory effect on A. flavus than NLEE (p=0.996. At higher concentrations, the antifungal effect of NLHE is better than that of NLEE. CONCLUSION There is no significant difference in in-vitro inhibitory effectivity on A. flavus of neem leaves between extracts in polar and nonpolar solvents.

  20. ORIC Beam Energy Increase

    CERN Document Server

    Mallory, Merrit L; Dowling, Darryl; Hudson, Ed; Lord, Dick; Tatum, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The detection of and solution to a beam interference problem in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) extraction system has yielded a 20% increase in the proton beam energy. The beam from ORIC was designed to be extracted before the nu r equal one resonance. Most cyclotrons extract after the nu r equal one resonance, thus getting more usage of the magnetic field for energy acceleration. We have now determined that the electrostatic deflector septum interferes with the last accelerated orbit in ORIC, with the highest extraction efficiency obtained near the maximum nu r value. This nu r provides a rotation in the betatron oscillation amplitude that is about the same length as the electrostatic septum thus allowing the beam to jump over the interference problem with the septum. With a thinned septum we were able to tune the beam through the nu r equal one resonance and achieve a 20% increase in beam energy. This nu r greater than one extraction method may be desirable for very high field cyclotrons since it...

  1. Protective effects of Punica granatum seeds extract against aging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Punica granatum extract also significantly lowered lipid peroxidation level and increased antioxidant glutathione level in brain tissues. Punica granatum preparations could be protective in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Key words: Punica granatum, Cognitive deficits, Vitamin ...

  2. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some neuropharmacological effects of the crude venom extract of Conus musicus (family Conidae) in mice using various experimental models. The crude venom was found to significantly increase tail flick reaction time in mice. The effects of the venom on the central nervous system were studied by ...

  3. Estimating the impact of seawater on the production of soil water-extractable organic carbon during coastal erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fugen; Ping, Chien-Lu; Guo, Laodong; Jorgenson, Torre

    2008-01-01

    The production of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) during arctic coastal erosion and permafrost degradation may contribute significantly to C fluxes under warming conditions, but it remains difficult to quantify. A tundra soil collected near Barrow, AK, was selected to evaluate the effects of soil pretreatments (oven drying vs. freeze drying) as well as extraction solutions (pure water vs. seawater) on WEOC yields. Both oven drying and freeze drying significantly increased WEOC release compared with the original moist soil samples; dried samples released, on average, 18% more WEOC than did original moist samples. Similar results were observed for the production of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic C. However, extractable OC released from different soil horizons exhibited differences in specific UV absorption, suggesting differences in WEOC quality. Furthermore, extractable OC yields were significantly less in samples extracted with seawater compared with those extracted with pure water, likely due to the effects of major ions on extractable OC flocculation. Compared with samples from the active horizons, upper permafrost samples released more WEOC, suggesting that continuously frozen samples were more sensitive than samples that had experienced more drying-wetting cycles in nature. Specific UV absorption of seawater-extracted OC was significantly lower than that of OC extracted using pure water, suggesting more aromatic or humic substances were flocculated during seawater extraction. Our results suggest that overestimation of total terrestrial WEOC input to the Arctic Ocean during coastal erosion could occur if estimations were based on WEOC extracted from dried soil samples using pure water.

  4. Accelerated Solvent Extraction: An Innovative Sample Extraction Technique for Natural Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Azfar Hanif Abd Aziz; Rosniza Razali

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is one of the novel techniques that have been developed for the extraction of phytochemicals from plants in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yield and enhance the quality of extracts. This technique combines elevated temperatures and pressure with liquid solvents. This paper gives a brief overview of accelerated solvent extraction technique for sample preparation and its application to the extraction of natural products. Through practical examples, the effects of operational parameters such as temperature, volume of solvent used, extraction time and extraction yields on the performance of ASE are discussed. It is demonstrated that ASE technique allows reduced solvent consumption and shorter extraction time, while the extraction yields are even higher than those obtained with conventional methods. (author)

  5. Extraction of gold(I) cyanide by the methyl tri-n-alkyl ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianxi; Yan Wenfei; Wu Jinguang

    2000-01-01

    The solvent extraction of KAu(CN) 2 from alkaline solution by the tri-n-alkyl ammonium chloride (N263) using 198 Au tracer has been investigated. The effects of various parameters, such as gold (I) concentration in aqueous phase, cosolvent, phase ratio on the extraction of gold (I) are studied. The results demonstrate that almost all of gold (I) in aqueous phase can be extracted into the organic phase. Water concentration decreases significantly with the increase of gold (I) concentration in the organic phase. No water molecule could be involved in the extraction of gold (I)

  6. Extraction of carbon 14-labeled compounds from plant tissue during processing for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, J.; van der Merwe, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Loss of 14 C-labeled compounds from bean leaf tissue was monitored during all the stages of routine specimen preparation. No significant differences in extraction were associated with the use of acetone, ethanol, or dioxane as dehydration fluids. Fixation at low temperature increased the loss of label. Prolonged fixation in glutaraldehyde increased the loss, but fixation in osmium solutions for periods as long as 4 hr had no influence on extraction. Buffer rinses and dehydration fluids caused appreciable amounts of label to be extracted. The use of propylene oxide as transition fluid resulted in low extraction. Some embedding media caused the loss of small amounts of labeled compounds, but one of the media tested (LR-white) extracted significant amounts of label

  7. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  8. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  9. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  10. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Chemical Profiling of Acalypha Indica Obtained from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Surangkana Chaichoowong; Jan Bernd Bol; Pornprapa Bol; Thomas Gamse; Malinee Sriariyanun

    2017-01-01

    Acalypha indica is a weed that grows in South-East Asia. It contains several valuable compounds that can be used for curing various diseases such as rheumatism, skin infection and blood dysentery. Here, the extraction of A. indica using Soxhlet extraction with two different solvents and supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE) with two different temperatures (40 and 60°C) was performed. In Soxhlet extraction, ethanol solvent provided the highest extraction yield of 34.36%. For SCE, the increased te...

  12. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  13. Pharmacological evaluation of anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, stress induced hyperthermia (SIH, elevated plus maze (EPM and open field experimental models were employed. Results: In SIH model, the extract caused a significant (P 0.05 effect. In open field model, 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg extract doses significantly (P < 0.05 increased locomotion of the mice more than the standard, while rearing and defecation were less in the extract groups. Conclusion: In different experimental models used significant anxiolytic effect was observed of the aqueous extract at different dose levels in comparison to reference standard and normal saline group. This clearly justified its folkloric application in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  14. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jungmo; Choi, Seemin; Choi, Jaehwi; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2013-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed. The relaxation effects and mechanism of action of the T. terrestris extract on rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated after oral administration of the extract for 1 month to evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in the organ bath occurred in vivo. Additionally, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in the CC by immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percentage decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. The ICP was also assessed in rats after oral administration of the extract for 1 month, and changes in concentrations of cGMP and cAMP were monitored. Concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the extract on the CC were detected in the organ bath study. Relaxation of the CC by the T. terrestris extract was inhibited in both an endothelium-removed group and an L-arginen methyl ester pretreatment group. The ICP measured after oral administration of the T. terrestris extract for 1 month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the T. terrestris extract group. The T. terrestris extract induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the CC in an organ bath. The mechanism included a reaction involving the nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase pathway and endothelium of the CC. Moreover, in an in vivo study, the T. terrestris extract showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in ICP. Accordingly, the T. terrestris extract may improve erectile function.

  15. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  16. Insecticidal Activities of Tunisian Halophytic Plant Extracts against Larvae and Adults of Tribolium confusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mighri, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh plants were tested for their insecticidal activities against adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sixteen aerial part extracts of Frankenia laevis, Statice echioides, Suaeda fructicosa and Tamarix boveana were obtained using organic solvents of increasing polarity and tested for their insect growth, antifeedant and toxicity effects. Responses varied with plant material, extract type, insect stage and exposition time. Larval growth inhibition was significantly induced by chloroformic, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis. On the other hand, all extracts of S. fructicosa and the methanolic ones of the four plants tested didn't show any significant activity. In addition, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis presented antifeedant property. S. fructicosa seemed to be, however, slightly attractive to the flour beetle. For all extracts, mortality was higher for larvae than adults. By using ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis, mortality reached respectively 97, 87, 97 and 80%, when applied at a dose of 1%, mixed with the insect diet.

  17. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction conditions for preparing lignan-rich extract from Saraca asoca bark using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu

    2016-07-01

    Lyoniside is the major constituent of Saraca asoca Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) bark. There is an immediate need to develop an efficient method to isolate its chemical constituents, since it is a therapeutically important plant. A rapid extraction method for lyoniside based on microwave-assisted extraction of S. asoca bark was developed and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Lyoniside was analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent ratio (%), material solvent ratio (g/ml) and extraction time (min) were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of 1:30 material solvent ratio with 70:30 mixture of methanol:water for 10 min duration. The optimized microwave-assisted extraction yielded 9.4 mg/g of lyoniside content in comparison to reflux extraction under identical conditions which yielded 4.2 mg/g of lyoniside content. Under optimum conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a high goodness-of-fit model and the success of the RSM method for optimizing lyoniside extraction from the bark of S. asoca. All the three variables significantly affected the lyoniside content. Increased polarity of solvent medium enhances the lyoniside yield. The present study shows the applicability of microwave-assisted extraction in extraction of lyoniside from S. asoca bark.

  19. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  20. Effect of pulsed electric field treatments on permeabilization and extraction of pigments from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, Elisa; Condón-Abanto, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2014-12-01

    The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments of different intensities on the electroporation of the cytoplasmatic membrane of Chlorella vulgaris, and on the extraction of carotenoids and chlorophylls were investigated. Staining the cells with propidium iodide before and after the PEF treatment revealed the existence of reversible and irreversible electroporation. Application of PEF treatments in the range of 20-25 kV cm(-1) caused most of the population of C. vulgaris to be irreversibly electroporated even at short treatment times (5 pulses of 3 µs). However, at lower electric field strengths (10 kV cm(-1)), cells that were reversibly electroporated were observed even after 50 pulses of 3 µs. The electroporation of C. vulgaris cells by PEF higher than 15 kV cm(-1) and duration is higher than 15 µs increased significantly the extraction yield of intracellular components of C. vulgaris. The application of a 20 kV cm(-1) for 75 μs increased the extraction yield just after the PEF treatment of the carotenoids, and chlorophylls a and b 0.5, 0.7, and 0.8 times, respectively. However, further increments in electric field strength and treatment time did not cause significant increments in the extraction yield. The extraction of carotenoids from PEF-treated C. vulgaris cells after 1 h of the application of the treatment significantly increased the extraction yield in comparison to the yield obtained from the cells extracted just after the PEF treatment. After PEF treatment at 20 kV cm(-1) for 75 µs, extraction yield for carotenoids, and chlorophylls a and b increased 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 times, respectively. A high correlation was observed between irreversible electroporation and percentage of yield increase when the extraction was conducted after 1 h of the application of PEF treatment (R: 0.93), but not when the extraction was conducted just after PEF treatment (R: 0.67).

  1. Logistic curves, extraction costs and effective peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the use of logistic curves for cumulative production are supplemented with data on projected extraction costs and historical rates of capacity increase. While not denying the presence of large quantities of oil in the ground, even with foresight, rates of production of new nonconventional resources are unlikely to be sufficient to make up for declines in availability of conventional oil. Furthermore we show how the logistic-curve approach helps to naturally explain high oil prices even when there are significant quantities of low-cost oil yet to be extracted. - Highlights: ► Extraction cost information together with logistic curves to model oil extraction. ► Two models of extraction sequence for different oil resources. ► Importance of time-delay and extraction rate limits for new resources. ► Model results qualitatively reproduce observed extraction cost dynamics. ► Confirmation of “effective” peak oil, even though resources are in ground.

  2. Model-based Bayesian signal extraction algorithm for peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Thomas E.; Dweiri, Yazan M.; McCallum, Grant A.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Multi-channel cuff electrodes have recently been investigated for extracting fascicular-level motor commands from mixed neural recordings. Such signals could provide volitional, intuitive control over a robotic prosthesis for amputee patients. Recent work has demonstrated success in extracting these signals in acute and chronic preparations using spatial filtering techniques. These extracted signals, however, had low signal-to-noise ratios and thus limited their utility to binary classification. In this work a new algorithm is proposed which combines previous source localization approaches to create a model based method which operates in real time. Approach. To validate this algorithm, a saline benchtop setup was created to allow the precise placement of artificial sources within a cuff and interference sources outside the cuff. The artificial source was taken from five seconds of chronic neural activity to replicate realistic recordings. The proposed algorithm, hybrid Bayesian signal extraction (HBSE), is then compared to previous algorithms, beamforming and a Bayesian spatial filtering method, on this test data. An example chronic neural recording is also analyzed with all three algorithms. Main results. The proposed algorithm improved the signal to noise and signal to interference ratio of extracted test signals two to three fold, as well as increased the correlation coefficient between the original and recovered signals by 10-20%. These improvements translated to the chronic recording example and increased the calculated bit rate between the recovered signals and the recorded motor activity. Significance. HBSE significantly outperforms previous algorithms in extracting realistic neural signals, even in the presence of external noise sources. These results demonstrate the feasibility of extracting dynamic motor signals from a multi-fascicled intact nerve trunk, which in turn could extract motor command signals from an amputee for the end goal of

  3. Antiulcer activity of the chloroform extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Elly Ezlinda Abdul; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohtaruddin, Norhafizah; Rofiee, Mohd Salleh; Hamid, Hasiah Ab; Othman, Fezah

    2012-12-01

    Bauhinia purpurea L. (Fabaceae) is a native plant species of many Asian countries, including Malaysia and India. In India, the root, stem, bark, and leaf of B. purpurea are used to treat various ailments, including ulcers and stomach cancer. In an attempt to establish its pharmacological potential, we studied the antiulcer activity of lipid-soluble extract of B. purpurea obtained via extraction of air-dried leaves using chloroform. The rats were administered the chloroform extract (dose range of 100-1000 mg/kg) orally after 24 h fasting. They were subjected to the absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer, and pyloric ligation assays after 30 min. The acute toxicity study was conducted using a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg extract and the rats were observed for the period of 14 days. omeprazole (30 mg/kg) was used as the standard control. At 5000 mg/kg, the extract produced no sign of toxicity in rats. The extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antiulcer activity for the ethanol-induced model. The extract also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric wall mucus production and pH of gastric content, while significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the total volume and total acidity of the gastric content in the pylorus ligation assay. The extract possesses antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective activities, which could be attributed to its flavonoid and tannin content. These findings provide new information regarding the potential of lipid-soluble compounds of B. purpurea for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers.

  4. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  5. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  6. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  7. Investigation of the Effects of Rosemary Extract on Barrier and Colorimetric Properties of Mungbean Starch Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Safari Maznabi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Barrier properties are one of the most important factors in the edible film. In this study, edible mungbean films were prepared containing (0%, 15%, 30%, 45% concentrations of rosemary aqueous extract. Then the effect of rosemary was investigated on colorimetric and barrier properties (water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability. Rosemary extract increased the absorption of color in the visible region, which in turn led to increase of the parameters a (index color tends toward green and b (index color tends towards yellow. The results showed that increasing concentrations of rosemary extract have a significant effect( p <0.05 to reduce the amount of oxygen and water vapor permeability.  Also turbidity of mungbean starch was increased with increasing concentrations of rosemary in the film. Improving barrier properties and the colorimetric properties were showed by rosemary extract compounds that these materials can use as the safety of food and pharmaceutical packaging industry.

  8. Acceleration of Extractability from Seaweed, Kombu, by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yoshie, Y.; Shirai, T.; Hirano, T.

    1993-01-01

    The stock of brown alga, kombu, is used for Japanese dishes. Makombu Laminaria japonica cut into 1×1cm squares was irradiated at dose levels of 1, 10, and 100kGy under moisture contents of 10 or 40%, and then boiled up to 30min. Nitrogen, glutamic acid, and sugars in the kombu extracts were determined. When kombu was irradiated with a dose of 10 and 100kGy at 10% moisture, the amounts of extractive nitrogen boiled for 2 and 5min were about 1.4 times as many as those of non-irradiated control. Glutamic acid, one of the main constituents of delicious taste in kombu, was also highly extracted during 2 and 5min boiling in comparison with that of non-irradiated kombu. However, there were no significant differences in the amounts of either extractive nitrogen or glutamic acid after 30min boiling in any of samples. Sugars which deteriorated the quality of the kombu stock due to viscosity were dissolved in high amounts at a dose level of 100kGy. The amount of solubilized sugars from irradiated samples of 40% moisture was higher than that of 10% moisture, but no significant change was observed in other extracted substances during heating. From these results, the irradiation dose level of 10kGy was appropriate to obtain good kombu stock as a result of increased extractability

  9. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values (psausages (pSausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values (psausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d. PMID:28316478

  10. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rhodiola rosea Extract in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Zhou; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Im; Choi, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant which grows in the alpine regions of Europe and Asia. Although the protective effects of R. rosea extract from fatigue due to exercise stress have been reported, studies on fermented R. rosea extract remain insufficient to date. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the protective effects of fermented R. rosea extract against fatigue and exercise stress. As a result, fermented R. rosea extract was found to significantly increase swimming time, hepatic superoxide dismutase content, and serum lactate dehydrogenase in mice, while decreasing serum blood urea nitrogen content compared to R. rosea extract. Given the above results, it is considered that fermented R. rosea extract effectively protects against fatigue caused by strenuous exercise. PMID:25866748

  11. GARDEN CRESS GERMINABILITY AND SEEDLING VIGOUR AFTER TREATMENT WITH PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Lisjak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of biologically active and environmentally friendly compounds has increasingly important role in the primary food production. This study was conducted in order to examine the impact of five commercial plant extracts on the seed vigour of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.. The applied plant extracts significantly increased the germination. The highest fresh weight of seedlings, and also the lowest dry matter accumulation were observed in the treatment KE-plantasalva® without the sea salt addition. Equisetum extract inhibited the root elongation and resulted in the highest percentage of dry matter accumulated in seedlings, but also the lowest fresh weight.

  12. Study the possibility of use of extracts of the mushroom Boletus edulis in the production of functional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are rich in proteins. The most rich in proteins is Boletus edulis (white mushroom, and total protein contains all the essential amino acids. The low bioavailability of proteins Boletus edulis stimulates the search for ways to improve. One way to improve the bioavailability of nutrients of Boletus edulis is an extraction. This article presents the results of studies of extracts of white mushroom (Boletus edulis, obtained using different methods of processing the chopped dry fruiting body. The effect of physical and biotechnological parameters on the efficiency of the extraction of proteins was studied. The spectral characteristics and protein content of the obtained extracts were determined. It is shown that the ultrasonic extraction activation leads to the most efficient protein extraction(an increase of 9.5%. It is also significantly affected by the duration of extraction. The use of the enzyme preparation in the investigated ratios do not have a positive impact, however, enzymatic treatment in conjunction with ultrasound treatment increased the efficiency of 13.5%, showing the complex diffusion processes in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms. Increasing the length of the extraction, despite the high content of protein in the extract, is impractical because of the risk of bacterial contamination of high-nutritive extract. Increasing the temperature of the process has no significant effect on the protein content, but it reduces the value of the extract, due to the destruction of heat-labile components, which include vitamins and secondary metabolites. The extract application rate for curd product was determined. For the test samples organoleptic characteristics and titratable acidity were determined. The most appropriate dose of the extract in the manufacture of making curd product is 15% by weight of the finished product.

  13. How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  14. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Andersson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Extractable dietary fiber (DF plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3(1→4-β-D-glucan (β-glucan and arabinoxylan (AX in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016 and AX (P = 0.002 due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  15. Extraction of Tetravalent Uranium by Certain Acidic Organophosphorus Extractants from Phosphate Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, J.A.; Zeid, M.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction of U(IV) by octylphenyl acid phosphate (OPAP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in kerosene from phosphoric acid was carried out. The effect of extractant, phosphoric acid, uranium, Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentration on the extraction process was separately investigated. The effect of different reagents and temperature on the stripping of U(IV) was also investigated. The results obtained for the extraction of U(IV) by HDEHP showed that the extraction with the increase in HDEHP and Fe(III) concentration while it decreases with the increase in phosphoric acid, uranium and Fe(II) concentration. In case of extraction with OPAP, the extraction of U(IV) was found to decrease with the phosphoric acid, Fe(II) and initial uranium concentration while the increase in OPAP concentration slightly affected the extraction. The use of high phosphoric acid concentration as stripper at low temperature was found to give the best stripping results

  16. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayelom, K; Mekbeb, A; Eyasu, M; Wondwossen, E; Kelbesa, U

    2012-12-01

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes. However, there was a general reduction of activity in mice treated with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract and LD50 treated mice showed hypoactivity, grooming, prostration, piloroerection and irritation during administration towards the last days of the treatment period. The body weight gain difference in the 100mg/kg bw/day methanol extract treated group was not significant, while those of the others were significant as compared with the controls. Hematological results for the RBC count, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC in methanol extract treated mice showed no significant changes at both doses of treatments as compared with the controls. However, the value of lymphocytes was found significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Similarly, HGB was significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract treated groups. On the other hand, WBC and platelets count were significantly decreased after treatment with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. ALT, ALP, AST and urea values were significantly increased respectively at 100mg/kg bw/day and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Several histopathological changes of liver and kidney were observed in the extract treated mice as compared to the controls. Such histopathological changes observed in both liver and kidneys were inflammations and hydropic degenerations of hepatocytes at both doses of methanol. In addition, in the LD50 treated mice of the extracts there were also hemorrhages and signs in congestion of glomeruli of the kidney. chronic treatment with Clerodendrum myricoides extracts in mice causes reduction in body weight gain, damage to liver & kidney and changes in some

  17. Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rojhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca starch films were prepared by castingmethod with addition of eucalyptus extract and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1 asplasticizers. Eucalyptus extract incorporated to the tapioca starch films were dried at different concentrations(0, 15, 25, and 35 of total solid under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as waterabsorption capacity (WAC, water vapor permeability (WVP and mechanical properties of the films wereevaluated. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of eucalyptus extract, tensile strength wasincreased from 20.60 to 15.68 (MPa, also elongation was increased from 19.31 to 23.57 (% at break andYoung’s modulus was decreased from 800.31 to 500.32 (MPa. Also incorporation of eucalyptus extract in thestructure of biopolymer increased permeability of water vapor of starch films. Tapioca starch filmsincorporated with eucalyptus extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. Coli. In summary,eucalyptus extract improves functional properties of tapioca starch films and this types of films can be used infood packaging.

  18. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  19. Turbo-extraction of glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using a fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, leaf extract has recently called the attention of food industry as a proposal for natural sweetener. The sweet flavor is attributed to the glycosides, in especial stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are the plant main chemical markers. The aim of the work reported here was to optimize the turbo-extraction of stevia leaves using water, ethanol 70% and 90% (w/w as green solvents. A 25-2 factorial design was applied to study the linear effects of the drug size, solvent to drug ratio, temperature, time and also the turbolysis speed on the extraction of glycosides. The glycosides exhaustive extraction showed that ethanol 70% gave better results and was used for turbo-extraction. The stevioside and rebaudioside A contents were quantified by a validated method by high performance liquid chromatographic with photodiode array detector. The contents of stevioside and rebaudioside A in fluid extract increased with the drug size, but decreased at high shearing speeds and solvent to drug ratio, while their yields decreased at higher temperature and were not affected by turbo speed. An increase in solvent to drug ratio reduced significantly the glycosides percent in dried extract. Optimal solution for S. rebaudiana leaves turbo-extraction was determined by desirability functions. The optimal extraction condition corresponded to drug size of 780 µm, solvent to drug ratio of 10, extraction time of 18 min; temperature of 23 ºC and turbo speed of 20,000 rpm, resulting in yields of 4.98% and 2.70%, for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. These yields are comparable to the ones recently published for dynamic maceration, but with the advantage of shorter extraction times. This work demonstrates that turbolysis is promising for S. rebaudiana glycosides extraction and stimulate new research on the purification of these extracts, which may become an interesting source of income for developing

  20. Extraction of uranium with emulsion membrane process use tributylphosphate extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuki, K.T.; Sudibyo, R.; Bambang EHB; Muhadi, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    To increase the effectiveness of extraction process with so for to occur, it was tried the extraction with a couple of extraction and stripping process. This couple process was called liquid membrane emulsion. As membrane was used mix surfactant (Span-80), tributylphosphate in kerosene, natrium carbonate, while as a feeder was uranium solution with 500 concentration ppm in 0.5 - 3 M nitrate acid. In this experiment the variable investigated were % surfactant (1 - 5 %), rotary speed for membrane making (2,500 - 10.000 rpm). The optimal condition result of experiment were 5 % surfactant, 3 M nitrate acid, rotary speed 10.000 rpm and (Kd eksU ) 57 %, and (Kd strippU ) 87 %, Kd eksU at liquid-liquid extraction is 44 %. (author)

  1. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  2. Study on the Effect of Asparagus Extracts on Promoting Metabolism of the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaohong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effective ingredients of asparagus extracts and the changes of vitamins content in mice body after the intake of asparagus extracts, thus to conclude the effect of asparagus extracts on body metabolism during exercises. Extracts were made into different concentrations of solution and given to the mice by intragastric administration. The content of micro-elements and vitamin groups in the mice body before and after the drug administration were detected respectively and biochemical index parameter values before and after swimming were measured respectively. Results showed that, 20 min after the drug administration, the content of blood lactic acid of the mice in the swimming experiment group decreased significantly. Besides, the content of muscle glycogen decreased and correspondingly the content of hepatic glycogen increased significantly (experiment group one and two: p < 0.01; experiment group 3: p < 0.05. Thus the ethanol extract solution of asparagus can effectively improve body metabolism.

  3. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  4. Noninvasive extraction of fetal electrocardiogram based on Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yumei; Xiang, Shihan; Chen, Tianyi; Zhou, Ping; Huang, Weiyan

    2015-10-01

    The fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) signal has important clinical value for diagnosing the fetal heart diseases and choosing suitable therapeutics schemes to doctors. So, the noninvasive extraction of FECG from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals becomes a hot research point. A new method, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized for the extraction of FECG with limited size of data. Firstly, the theory of the SVM and the principle of the extraction based on the SVM are studied. Secondly, the transformation of maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) component in abdominal composite signal is verified to be nonlinear and fitted with the SVM. Then, the SVM is trained, and the training results are compared with the real data to ensure the effect of the training. Meanwhile, the parameters of the SVM are optimized to achieve the best performance so that the learning machine can be utilized to fit the unknown samples. Finally, the FECG is extracted by removing the optimal estimation of MECG component from the abdominal composite signal. In order to evaluate the performance of FECG extraction based on the SVM, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the visual test are used. The experimental results show that the FECG with good quality can be extracted, its SNR ratio is significantly increased as high as 9.2349 dB and the time cost is significantly decreased as short as 0.802 seconds. Compared with the traditional method, the noninvasive extraction method based on the SVM has a simple realization, the shorter treatment time and the better extraction quality under the same conditions.

  5. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  6. Effect of pressurized liquids on extraction of antioxidants from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kwang Hyun; Kang, Suk Woo; Kim, Chul Young; Um, Byung Hun; Na, Ye Rim; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2010-04-28

    Chlorella vulgaris is a green microalga that contains various antioxidants, such as carotenoids and chlorophylls. In this study, antioxidants from C. vulgaris were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), which has been recently used for bioactive compound extraction. The antioxidant capacity of individual compounds in chlorella was determined by online HPLC ABTS(*+) analysis. According to the antioxidant analysis of total extracts, the extraction yield, radical scavenging activity, and phenolic compounds using PLE were relatively high compared to those obtained using maceration or ultrasound-assisted extraction. On the basis of online HPLC ABTS(*+) analysis, the 15 major antioxidants from chlorella extracts were identified as hydrophilic compounds, lutein and its isomers, chlorophylls, and chlorophyll derivatives. Using PLE at high temperature (85-160 degrees C) significantly increased antioxidant extraction from chlorella, improving the formation of hydrophilic compounds and yielding more antioxidative chlorophyll derivatives. Online HPLC ABTS(*+) analysis was a useful tool for the separation of main antioxidants from PLE extracts and allowed the simultaneous measurement of their antioxidant capacity, which clearly showed that PLE is an excellent method for extracting antioxidants from C. vulgaris.

  7. A magical biological insecticide extracted from seeds of Millettia pachyarpa to kill cabbage aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tianxing; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan

    2018-04-01

    Millettia pachycarpa Benth is a perennial climbing shrub belonging to the genus Millettia, as it is widely used in traditional practices like agricultural pesticides, blood tonics, fish poison, and treatments for cancer and infertility. The crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa had insecticidal activity on cabbage aphids. The conventional extract approach with three kinds of organic solvents: methanol, ethanol, and acetone was used for extracting of crude extract of seeds of M. pachycarpa. The leaf immersion method in a petri dish was used to measure contact activity on cabbage aphids. The field measurement method in a cabbage field was used to measure the control effect. The result indicated that the average mortality rate of cabbage aphids reached 91.3 percent under the action of crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa, indicating that contacting activity against cabbage aphid was strong. After the crude extract was sprayed for 2 days, the proofread control effect of 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract against cabbage aphid was 85.0 percent. After 7 days of spraying, this number increased to 92.2 percent. The study concluded that crude extract of the seeds of M. pachyarpa extracted with methanol, ethanol, acetone had demonstrable contact activity against cabbage aphid and 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract had significant control effect against the larvae of cabbage aphid.

  8. Charge carrier dynamics investigation of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots films using injected charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (i-CELIV): the role of ZnS Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Ke; Sui, Ning; Zhang, Liquan; Wang, Yinghui, E-mail: yinghui-wang@outlook.com; Liu, Qinghui, E-mail: liuqinghui@jlu.edu.cn; Tan, Mingrui [Jilin University, Femtosecond Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics (China); Zhou, Qiang [Jilin University, Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics (China); Zhang, Hanzhuang, E-mail: zhanghz@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, Femtosecond Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics (China)

    2016-12-15

    The role of ZnS shell on the photo-physical properties within CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) is carefully studied in optoelectronic devices. Linearly increasing voltage technique has been employed to investigate the charge carrier dynamics of both CuInS{sub 2} and CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS QDs films. This study shows that charge carriers follow a similar behavior of monomolecular recombination in this film, with their charge transfer rate correlates to the increase of applied voltage. It turns out that the ZnS shell could affect the carrier diffusion process through depressing the trapping states and would build up a potential barrier.

  9. Topical Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich Extracts from Marine Macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Helen Fitton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two concentrated and well-characterized fucoidan-rich extracts were investigated to determine their benefits in topical applications. An Undaria pinnatifida extract, containing 85% fucoidan, and a Fucus vesiculosus co-extract, containing 60% fucoidan and 30% polyphenol, were assessed in a number of in vitro assays to measure the effect of the extracts on enzyme inhibition, glycation, antioxidant activity and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 protein expression. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were also conducted to measure soothing, protection, wrinkle depth, brightness and skin spot intensity. Both extracts demonstrated marked inhibitory effects on processes linked to skin aging, including the increased expression of SIRT1 in vitro. Clinical testing established the efficacy of the extracts in a range of the tested applications, relative to placebo. The Fucus vesiculosus extract with high polyphenol content demonstrated additional in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as improved efficacy in skin brightening applications, relative to placebo. The major effects of the Undaria pinnatifida extract aided skin immunity, soothing and protection, while the Fucus vesiculosus extract most significantly affected age spot reduction and increased brightness, soothing and protection.

  10. Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, N.; Silvan, K.; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)], e-mail: niko.silvan@metla.fi; Vaisanen, S.; Soukka, R. [Lappeenranta Univ.of Techology (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Climatic impacts of energy-peat extraction are of increasing concern due to EU emissions trading requirements. A new excavation-drier peat extraction method has been developed to reduce the climatic impact and increase the efficiency of peat extraction. To quantify and compare the soil GHG fluxes of the excavation drier and the traditional milling methods, as well as the areas from which the energy peat is planned to be extracted in the future (extraction reserve area types), soil CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured during 2006-2007 at three sites in Finland. Within each site, fluxes were measured from drained extraction reserve areas, extraction fields and stockpiles of both methods and additionally from the biomass driers of the excavation-drier method. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), described at a principal level in ISO Standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006, was used to assess the long-term (100 years) climatic impact from peatland utilisation with respect to land use and energy production chains where utilisation of coal was replaced with peat. Coal was used as a reference since in many cases peat and coal can replace each other in same power plants. According to this study, the peat extraction method used was of lesser significance than the extraction reserve area type in regards to the climatic impact. However, the excavation-drier method seems to cause a slightly reduced climatic impact as compared with the prevailing milling method. (orig.)

  11. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadiyanto,, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH-Tembalang, Semarang 50239 INDONESIA (Indonesia); Sutanto, Heri [Physic Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Suzery, Meiny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  12. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi, Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  13. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadiyanto,; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur; Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae

  14. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  15. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panprivech, Siriwan; Lerno, Larry A; Brenneman, Charles A; Block, David E; Oberholster, Anita

    2015-05-04

    The impact of increasing cold soak (CS) duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C) on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months' bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  16. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Panprivech

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of increasing cold soak (CS duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months’ bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  17. Off-flavors removal and storage improvement of mackerel viscera by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Uddin, M Salim; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-07-01

    The oil in mackerel viscera was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and the fatty acids composition in the oil was identified. Also the off-flavors removal in mackerel viscera and the storage improvement of the oils were carried out. As results obtained, by increasing pressure and temperature, quantity was increased. The maximum yield of oils obtained from mackerel viscera by SCO, extraction was 118 mgg(-1) (base on dry weight of freeze-dried raw anchovy) at 50 degrees C, 350 bar And the extracted oil contained high concentration of EPA and DHA. Also it was found that the autoxidation of the oils using SCO2 extraction occurred very slowly compared to the oils by organic solvent extraction. The off-flavors in the powder after SCO2 extraction were significantly removed. Especially complete removal of the trimethylamine which influences a negative compound to the products showed. Also other significant off-flavors such as aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, ketones, acids or alcohols were removed by the extraction.

  18. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    at room temperature, 4 °C and - 20 °C for up to 4 years. Acidic THC degrades exponentially via decarboxylation with concentration halve-lives of approximately 330 and 462 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. The degradation of neutral THC seems to occur somewhat slower. When cannabinoids were...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  19. Separation of Asphaltenes by Polarity using Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the nature of petroleum asphaltenes in terms of polarity a process was developed using initial liquid-liquid extraction of the oil phase followed by precipitation of the asphaltenes using n-heptane. The liquid-liquid extraction was performed using toluene-methanol mixtures...... phase. The asphaltenes were analysed using FTir, Elemental analysis, and HPLC-SEC with a diode array detector. With increasing content of toluene in the methanol the molecular weight distribution of the asphaltenes significantly move to higher molecular weights. The content of nitrogen and sulfur...

  20. Knickzone Extraction Tool (KET – A new ArcGIS toolset for automatic extraction of knickzones from a DEM based on multi-scale stream gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tuba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of knickpoints or knickzones from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM has gained immense significance owing to the increasing implications of knickzones on landform development. However, existing methods for knickzone extraction tend to be subjective or require time-intensive data processing. This paper describes the proposed Knickzone Extraction Tool (KET, a new raster-based Python script deployed in the form of an ArcGIS toolset that automates the process of knickzone extraction and is both fast and more user-friendly. The KET is based on multi-scale analysis of slope gradients along a river course, where any locally steep segment (knickzone can be extracted as an anomalously high local gradient. We also conducted a comparative analysis of the KET and other contemporary knickzone identification techniques. The relationship between knickzone distribution and its morphometric characteristics are also examined through a case study of a mountainous watershed in Japan.

  1. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  2. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  3. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  4. Solid-phase extraction clean-up of ciguatoxin-contaminated coral fish extracts for use in the mouse bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Kellie L H; Kam, Kai Man

    2009-02-01

    Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were used for purifying ciguatoxin (CTX)-contaminated coral fish extracts, with the aim of removing extracted lipid but retaining optimal level of CTXs in the purified fractions. The CTX-containing fraction (target fraction) in fish ether extract was isolated and purified by eluting through a commercially available Florisil cartridge with hexane-acetone-methanol solvent mixtures of increasing polarity (hexane-acetone (4:1, v/v) < acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) < 100% methanol). Application of Florisil SPE using acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) condition facilitated the separation of 4.2 +/- 0.4 mg (mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM)) of purified target fraction from 20 mg ether extract with good retention of CTXs. The mouse bioassay was used to demonstrate that the average CTX recovery of the target fraction from CTX-spiked samples was 75.8% +/- 3.3%, which was significantly increased by 96.7% +/- 15% when compared with CTX recovery from ether extracts (44.8% +/- 5.2%) without performing SPE purification. Over 70% of non-target lipids were removed in which no CTX toxicity was found. Moreover, the target fractions of both CTX-spiked and naturally CTX-contaminated samples gave more prominent toxic responses of hypothermia and/or induced more rapid death of the mice. The use of acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) condition in the elution could significantly improve overall recovery of CTXs, while minimizing the possible interferences of lipid matrix from co-extractants on mice.

  5. Effect of Partial Pre-Extraction of Hemicelluloses on the Properties of Pinus radiata Chemimechanical Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reyes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of hemicelluloses prior to pulping and conversion of the extracted hemicelluloses to other bioproducts could provide additional revenue to traditional pulp and paper industries. The effect of hemicelluloses pre-extraction with a hydrothermal (HT process on Pinus radiata chemimechanical pulp (CMP properties was investigated in this study. The HT extraction resulted in a release of 7% to 58% of the initial amount of hemicelluloses from the wood. The extraction yield increased with temperature and extraction time. This hemicellulosic fraction was in the form of low molar mass oligomers with molecular weights varying from 1.5 to 100 kDa. Compared with the control (unextracted CMP pulp, the HT pre-extraction significantly reduced the refining energy to obtain a given fibrillation degree (freeness. The pulp yield with the HT/CMP process was in the range of 56% to 75%. Fiber properties of the pulps from pre-extracted wood, such as fiber length, were reduced, while increases in fiber width, fines content, fiber coarseness, and kink index were observed in comparison with the control pulps. The strength properties of CMP pulps decreased with increasing amounts of hemicellulose removal during the stage prior to pulping.

  6. Acetone Extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa: A Potent Natural Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodla Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae has been employed in traditional Thai medicine to treat colic diarrhoea, dysentery, abscesses, haemorrhage, and gynaecopathy. In addition, it has been used to formulate skin-whitening, anti-aging and skin beautifying agents. Ethnomedical activities of this plant may be due its antioxidant property. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of R. tomentosa leaf extract. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and metal chelating activity. R. tomentosa extract demonstrated its free radical scavenging effects in concentration dependent manner. In vivo antioxidant activity of the extract was conducted in Swiss Albino mice. Levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione (GSH, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in blood, liver, and kidney were analyzed using microtitre plate photometer. Administration of CCl4 caused significant increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx levels. In contrast, R. tomentosa extract (0.8 g/kg effectively prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The results suggest that R. tomentosa extract can serve as a potent antioxidant.

  7. Bactericidal activites of selected macrofungi extracts against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolovska-Nedelkoska Daniela A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of the antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microorganisms has resulted in research directed toward evaluation of novel sources of antimicrobial compounds. Previous studies have indicated that macrofungi, as a specific response to the natural hostile environment, produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. In this study, antimicrobial activities of the extracts from six wild mushrooms: Amanita echinocephala, Russula medulata, Cerena unicolor, Hericium erinaceus, Ishnoderma benzoinum and Laetiporus sulphureus were evaluated against Grampositive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial potential of the methanolic mushroom extracts was investigated by the microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity was observed in all species included in the study. All the extracts that demonstrated inhibitory activities were further tested for bactericidal activity and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values were determined. The tested microorganism was most sensitive to the examined extracts from the polypore fungi C. unicolor and H. erinaceus. The highest bactericidal activity was obtained in the extracts from the species C. unicolor (MBC=1.563 mg/mL. The experimental results revealed that the methanolic extract of C. unicolor possessed significant bactericidal activity. The findings suggest the potential use of this wild mushroom as antimicrobial agent.

  8. Patent Keyword Extraction for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainable growth and development has become an important issue for governments and corporations. However, maintaining sustainable development is very difficult. These difficulties can be attributed to sociocultural and political backgrounds that change over time [1]. Because of these changes, the technologies for sustainability also change, so governments and companies attempt to predict and manage technology using patent analyses, but it is very difficult to predict the rapidly changing technology markets. The best way to achieve insight into technology management in this rapidly changing market is to build a technology management direction and strategy that is flexible and adaptable to the volatile market environment through continuous monitoring and analysis. Quantitative patent analysis using text mining is an effective method for sustainable technology management. There have been many studies that have used text mining and word-based patent analyses to extract keywords and remove noise words. Because the extracted keywords are considered to have a significant effect on the further analysis, researchers need to carefully check out whether they are valid or not. However, most prior studies assume that the extracted keywords are appropriate, without evaluating their validity. Therefore, the criteria used to extract keywords needs to change. Until now, these criteria have focused on how well a patent can be classified according to its technical characteristics in the collected patent data set, typically using term frequency–inverse document frequency weights that are calculated by comparing the words in patents. However, this is not suitable when analyzing a single patent. Therefore, we need keyword selection criteria and an extraction method capable of representing the technical characteristics of a single patent without comparing them with other patents. In this study, we proposed a methodology to extract valid keywords from

  9. Antinociceptive activity of fruits extracts and "arrope" of Geoffroea decorticans (chañar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, M A; Vera, N; Aristimuño, M E; Daud, A; Sánchez Riera, A

    2013-01-09

    Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) fruits and their derivate product (arrope) have been traditionally used as food and a folk medicine for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases including bronchopulmonary disorders and to relieve dolorous process. In order to evaluate the pharmacology action of this plant, studies were performed of antinociceptive and antioxidant activities. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts and arrope of chañar were evaluated in various established pain models, including chemical nociception induced by subplantar formalin and intraperitoneal acetic acid and thermal nociception method, such as tail immersion test in rats. To examine the possible connection of the opioid receptor to the antinociceptive activity of extracts and arrope it was performed a combination test with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. The aqueous extract and arrope (1000 mg/kg) caused an inhibition of the pain in formalin test in the first phase, similar to morphine and decrease in the second phase. In a combination test using naloxone, diminished analgesic activity of aqueous extract and arrope were observed, indicating that antinociceptive activity is connected with the opioid receptor. The aqueous extract and arrope, caused an inhibition of the writhing response induced by acetic acid. Central involvement in analgesic profile was confirmed by the tail immersion test, in which the aqueous extract and arrope showed a significant analgesic activity by increasing latency time. The aqueous extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the arrope, it may be due to the cooking process. This study has shown that the aqueous extract and arrope of Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) fruits, does possess significant antinociceptive effects. It is further concluded that aqueous extract with maximum inhibition of free radical is the most potent extract amount tested extracts. At the oral doses tested the aqueous extract and arrope were non-toxic. The present

  10. Thermal Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Prepared from Hemicellulose-extracted Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose of Southern Yellow Pine wood spices was extracted by pressurized hot water at three different temperatures: 140°C, 155°C and 170°C. Compounding with PP (polypropylene was performed by extrusion after preparing wood flour and sieving to determine its mesh size. The ratio of wood to polymer was 50:50 based on oven-dry weight of wood flour. All extraction treatments and control samples were compounded under two sets of conditions, without and with 2% MAPP as coupling agent. Injection molding was used to make tensile test samples (dogbone from the pellets made by extrusion. Thermal properties of wood-plastic composites were studied by TGA and DSC while the thermal stability of pretreated wood flours, PP and MAPP were studied by TGA as well. The greater weight loss of wood materials was an indication that higher treatment temperature increases the extractability of hemicellulose. The removal of hemicellulose by extraction improves thermal stability of wood flour, especially for extraction at 170°C. Wood-plastic composites made from extracted fibers at 170°C showed the highest thermal stability. Coupling agent did not have a significant effect on thermal stability but it improved the degree of crystallinity of the composites.Surface roughness of wood fiber increased after treatment. Extraction of hemicellulose increased the degree of crystallinity but it was not significant except for samples from treated wood flour at 170°C and with MAPP.

  11. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

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